WorldWideScience

Sample records for candidate advanced space

  1. Advanced vaccine candidates for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  2. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered. PMID:23202493

  3. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  4. Advanced space recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  5. Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The main task for this project was the development of a prototype for the Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio (SSAER). The SSAER is an updated version of the Space to Space EMU Radio (SSER), which is the current radio used by EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) for communication between suits and with the ISS. The SSER was developed in 1999, and it was desired to update the design used in the system. Importantly, besides replacing out-of-production parts it was necessary to decrease the size of the radio due to increased volume constraints with the updated Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.5, which will be attached on future space suits. In particular, it was desired to fabricate a PCB for the front-end of the prototype SSAER system. Once this board was manufactured and all parts assembled, it could then be tested for quality of operation as well as compliancy with the SSER required specifications. Upon arrival, a small outline of the target system was provided, and it was my responsibility to take that outline to a finished, testable board. This board would include several stages, including frequency mixing, amplification, modulation, demodulation, and handled both the transmit and receive lines of the radio. I developed a new design based on the old SSER system and the outline provided to me, and found parts to fit the tasks in my design. It was also important to consider the specifications of the SSER, which included the system noise figure, gain, and power consumption. Further, all parts needed to be impedance matched, and spurious signals needed to be avoided. In order to fulfill these two requirements, it was necessary to perform some calculations using a Smith Chart and excel analysis. Once all parts were selected, I drew the schematics for the system in Altium Designer. This included developing schematic symbols, as well as layout. Once the schematic was finished, it was then necessary to lay the parts out onto a PCB using Altium. Similar to the schematic

  6. Vitamin D Status in Monkey Candidates for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Wronski, T. J.; Koslovskeya, I.; Dotsenko, R.; Navidi, M.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In preparation for the Cosmos 2229 Biosatellite space flight experiments in Rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the status of vitamin D in animals of different origins: candidates for space flight raised in Moscow (IMBP) and animals housed at Ames Research Ctr. (ARC) for pilot studies. Diets at IMBP were natural foods found by analysis to contain 1.4% Ca, 2.8% P andng/ml,p<.001) in IMBP than ARC animals. 1,25D (174156 vs. 212+77 pg/ml), Pi and AP were similar. In bone, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces averaged 38114% and 33+15% in all, with %vol. of osteoid higher in IMBP than ARC monkeys of the same BW (p<.05) Indices of bone formation were inversely related to 25D, not 1,25D. Of interest are similar 1,25D levels associated with a wide range of substrate and extensive osteoid in bone of D replete animals.

  7. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  8. Material Properties of Three Candidate Elastomers for Space Seals Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Oswald, Jay J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    A next-generation docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support Constellation Space Exploration Missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the Moon, and to Mars. A number of investigations were carried out to quantify the properties of candidate elastomer materials for use in the main interface seal of the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). This seal forms the gas pressure seal between two mating spacecraft. Three candidate silicone elastomer compounds were examined: Esterline ELA-SA-401, Parker Hannifin S0383-70, and Parker Hannifin S0899-50. All three materials were characterized as low-outgassing compounds, per ASTM E595, so as to minimize the contamination of optical and solar array systems. Important seal properties such as outgas levels, durometer, tensile strength, elongation to failure, glass transition temperature, permeability, compression set, Yeoh strain energy coefficients, coefficients of friction, coefficients of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and are reported herein.

  9. Candidate functions for advanced technology implementation in the Columbus mission planning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Audrey; Kellner, Albrecht

    1988-01-01

    The Columbus Project is the European Space Agency's contribution to the International Space Station program. Columbus is planned to consist of three elements (a laboratory module attached to the Space Station base, a man-tended freeflyer orbiting with the Space Station base, and a platform in polar orbit). System definition and requirements analysis for Columbus are underway, scheduled for completion in mid-1990. An overview of the Columbus mission planning environment and operations concept as currently defined is given, and some of the challenges presented to software maintainers and ground segment personnel during mission operators are identified. The use of advanced technologies in system implementation is being explored. Both advantages of such solutions and potential problems they present are discussed, and the next steps to be taken by Columbus before targeting any functions for advanced technology implementation are summarized. Several functions in the mission planning process were identified as candidates for advanced technology implementation. These range from expert interaction with Columbus' data bases through activity scheduling and near-real-time response to departures from the planned timeline. Each function is described, and its potential for advanced technology implementation briefly assessed.

  10. Vitamin D Status in Monkey Candidates for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Wronski, T. J.; Koslovskeya, I.; Dotsenko, R.; Navidi, M.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In preparation for the Cosmos 2229 Biosatellite space flight experiments in Rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the status of vitamin D in animals of different origins: candidates for space flight raised in Moscow (IMBP) and animals housed at Ames Research Ctr. (ARC) for pilot studies. Diets at IMBP were natural foods found by analysis to contain 1.4% Ca, 2.8% P andalkaline phosphatase (AP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) in 16 IMBP and 15 ARC male animals and indices of bone formation in cancellous bone obtained from iliac crest biopsy of 6 IMBP and 13 ARC animals. BW were the same in juveniles at IMBP as ARC although ARC monkeys were born a year later. Mean(1SD) TCa and TP were higher and 25D lower (1819 vs. 93+18 ng/ml,p<.001) in IMBP than ARC animals. 1,25D (174156 vs. 212+77 pg/ml), Pi and AP were similar. In bone, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces averaged 38114% and 33+15% in all, with %vol. of osteoid higher in IMBP than ARC monkeys of the same BW (p<.05) Indices of bone formation were inversely related to 25D, not 1,25D. Of interest are similar 1,25D levels associated with a wide range of substrate and extensive osteoid in bone of D replete animals.

  11. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Advanced Energy Storage Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of high specific energy devices will enable NASA’s future robotic and human-exploration missions.  The need for advances in energy...

  12. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  13. A new chapter in doctoral candidate training: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of space life sciences, the demand of an interdisciplinary and specific training of young researchers is high due to the complex interaction of medical, biological, physical, technical and other questions. The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) offers an excellent interdisciplinary training for doctoral students from different fields (biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, psychology, nutrition or sports sciences and related fields) and any country. SpaceLife is coordinated by the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne. The German Universities in Kiel, Bonn, Aachen, Regensburg, Magdeburg and Berlin, and the German Sports University (DSHS) in Cologne are members of SpaceLife. The Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Hohenheim, and the Beihang University in Beijing are associated partners. In each generation, up to 25 students can participate in the three-year program. Students learn to develop integrated concepts to solve health issues in human spaceflight and in related disease patterns on Earth, and to further explore the requirements for life in extreme environments, enabling a better understanding of the ecosystem Earth and the search for life on other planets in unmanned and manned missions. The doctoral candidates are coached by two specialist supervisors from DLR and the partner university, and a mentor. All students attend lectures in different subfields of space life sciences to attain an overview of the field: radiation and gravitational biology, astrobiology and space physiology, including psychological aspects of short and long term space missions. Seminars, advanced lectures, laboratory courses and stays at labs at the partner institutions or abroad are offered as elective course and will provide in-depth knowledge of the chosen subfield or allow to appropriate innovative methods. In Journal Clubs of the participating working groups, doctoral students learn

  14. Stress analysis for the candidate of lower end fitting of advanced LWR fuel using FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. S.; Moon, Y. C. [Korea University of Technology and Education, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. K. [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The geometric modeling has been conducted for the candidate of advanced LWR fuel using the three-dimensional solid modeler. Then the three-dimensional stress analysis using MSC/NASTRAN has been performed. The evaluation for the mechanical integrity of the candidate has been performed based on the stress distribution obtained from the finite elements analysis.

  15. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  16. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  17. Medical technology advances from space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  18. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  19. Space exploration initiative candidate nuclear propulsion test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darrell; Clark, John S.

    1993-01-01

    One-page descriptions for approximately 200 existing government, university, and industry facilities which may be available in the future to support SEI nuclear propulsion technology development and test program requirements are provided. To facilitate use of the information, the candidate facilities are listed both by location (Index L) and by Facility Type (Index FT). The included one-page descriptions provide a brief narrative description of facility capability, suggest potential uses for each facility, and designate a point of contact for additional information that may be needed in the future. The Nuclear Propulsion Office at NASA Lewis presently plans to maintain, expand, and update this information periodically for use by NASA, DOE, and DOD personnel involved in planning various phases of the SEI Nuclear Propulsion Project.

  20. Structural evaluation of candidate space shuttle thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and development of a lightweight reusable thermal protection system for the space shuttle are discussed. The test articles consisted of metallic substrates with upper surfaces covered with all-silica, reusable, surface insulation material. The material is processed in the form of tiles. The external surfaces of the tiles are provided with a coating system which consists of a borosilicate coating with a silicon carbide emittance agent and impregnation with a hydrophobic agent. The finished tiles are attached to the metal substrate by adhesive bonding. Charts and graphs of the properties of the material are provided.

  1. Recent advances in celestial and space mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chyba, Monique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in space and celestial mechanics, with a focus on the N-body problem and astrodynamics, and explores the development and application of computational techniques in both areas. It highlights the design of space transfers with various modes of propulsion, like solar sailing and low-thrust transfers between libration point orbits, as well as a broad range of targets and applications, like rendezvous with near Earth objects. Additionally, it includes contributions on the non-integrability properties of the collinear three- and four-body problem, and on general conditions for the existence of stable, minimum energy configurations in the full N-body problem. A valuable resource for physicists and mathematicians with research interests in celestial mechanics, astrodynamics and optimal control as applied to space transfers, as well as for professionals and companies in the industry.

  2. Generation of crystallographic packing candidates with fixed helical symmetry and axial advance: Application to PI-2 polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A normal coordinate approach was used to generate crystallographic packing candidates of a multitorsional polyimide synthesized from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDA) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-(4-aminophenoxy) propane (DMDA) (PI-2). Candidates were obtained under conditions of fixed axial advance of 24.6 Angstrom per monomer, and imposed 2/1 helical or 1/0 translational symmetry, consistent with the observed WAXD meridional layer line spacing. The ability of combinatorially generated torsional states to adopt the desired geometry was examined. Necessary corrections to the conformational parameter equations have been made. The procedure described allowed crystallographic conformations satisfying explicit geometric and MM3 intramolecular energy criteria to be generated for a linear multitorsional polyimide prior to the application of crystallographic screening or refinement procedures. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

  4. Space Testing of the Advanced Instrument Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Goforth, Todd; Cannon, Scott; Lyke, James

    1999-01-01

    An extremely compact, low-power instrument controller and data processor system has been developed for space-based applications. Known as the Advanced Instrument Controller (AIC), this hybrid device contains both digital and analog components in a package less than 5 grams in weight and 2 x 3 em in size. Based on the Intel 8031151 microprocessor and implementing a superset of the 8051 instruction set, the AIC supports l28k of SRAM, 128k of EEPROM, four 8-bit parallel ports, six serial communi...

  5. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  6. RUBIN Microsatellites for Advanced Space Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    The first new space technology demonstration payload BIRD-RUBIN was developed by OHB- System in co-operation with students from the University of Applied Sciences, Bremen, and was successfully launched July 15th, 2000 together with the scientific satellites CHAMP and MITA onboard a COSMOS 3M launcher. The BIRD-RUBIN mission has tested the telematics technology in space via ORBCOMM network. Small data packages were sent by the hatbox sized system to the ORBCOMM satellite net, then transmitted further on to the ground stations and from that point entered into the internet. The payload user could retrieve the data direct via email account and was able to send commands back to payload in orbit. The next micro satellite RUBIN-2 for advanced space technology demonstration will be launched at the end of 2002 as "secondary" payload on the Russian launcher DNEPR. The RUBIN-2 micro satellite platform will use again the inter-satellite communication mode via Orbcomm network and offers an orbital testbed with low cost, bi-directional and near real-time Internet access. In parallel to the further inter satellite link experiments using Orbcomm, several additional leading edge technology experiments will be done onboard Rubin-2 (electrical propulsion, two loop miniaturized thermal control system, GPS navigation, LI-Ion Battery, etc.). This paper provides an overview of RUBIN micro satellites for advanced space technology demonstrations. The main results of the first BIRD-RUBIN experiment and the goals of the second Rubin-2 mission are described. The potential of low cost technology demonstration missions using Internet and inter satellite communication technology via commercial satellite systems and the piggyback flight opportunities on Russian launchers are discussed.

  7. Site candidates for ground-based telescope devoted to space debris searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hu; Hu, Haiying; Shen, Xue-min

    2015-12-01

    The demands for space debris scanning have been increasingly urgent in recent decade. The more space activities, the more urgent demands for space debris information. China has laid out space debris scanning from ground-based observation facilities. According to the latitudinal boundaries of China, north latitudes of 20deg, 30deg, 40deg, 50deg, 60deg are considered to be candidates for telescope sites. Space debris distribution is simulated under the assumption that telescopes are stationed in north latitudes of 20deg, 30deg, 40deg, 50deg, 60deg respectively. According to space debris simulations, it is recommended that the telescope dedicated to space debris scanning should be deployed in lower latitudes in order to achieve a better performance in detecting space debrises for China observing users.

  8. Cermet-fueled reactors for advanced space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermet-fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high-performance advanced space power systems. The cermet consists of a hexagonal matrix of a refractory metal and a ceramic fuel, with multiple tubular flow channels. The high performance characteristics of the fuel matrix come from its high strength at elevated temperatures and its high thermal conductivity. The cermet fuel concept evolved in the 1960s with the objective of developing a reactor design that could be used for a wide range of mobile power generating sytems, including both Brayton and Rankine power conversion cycles. High temperature thermal cycling tests for the cermet fuel were carried out by General Electric as part of the 710 Project (General Electric 1966), and by Argonne National Laboratory in the Direct Nuclear Rocket Program (1965). Development programs for cermet fuel are currently under way at Argonne National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The high temperature qualification tests from the 1960s have provided a base for the incorporation of cermet fuel in advanced space applications. The status of the cermet fuel development activities and descriptions of the key features of the cermet-fueled reactor design are summarized in this paper

  9. Selecting Gravitational Wave Candidates for Electromagnetic Follow-up: Advanced LIGO/Virgo's Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-A.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Some of the most violent events in the universe are bright in both their gravitational wave (GW) emission and electromagnetic (EM). This means that prospects for multi-messenger astronomy increase as more and more detectors join the search for gravitational waves. Here I present the protocol created by members of Advanced LIGO/Virgo's EM Follow-up Program which ultimately results in alerting its astronomy partners or not. I discuss the series of checks and questions performed by humans (follow-up advocates and control room personnel) and automated online software (Approval Processor). This talk will follow the fate of the gravitational wave candidate event after it first enters Advanced LIGO/Virgo's online candidate event database. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grant PHY-1404121.

  10. Liverpool Telescope follow-up of candidate electromagnetic counterparts during the first run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Piascik, A. S.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Levan, A. J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Mundell, C. G.; Pian, E.; Pollacco, D.; Steeghs, D.; Tanvir, N. R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2016-11-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves was made in 2015 September with the Advanced LIGO detectors. By prior arrangement, a worldwide collaboration of electromagnetic follow-up observers were notified of candidate gravitational wave events during the first science run, and many facilities were engaged in the search for counterparts. Three alerts were issued to the electromagnetic collaboration over the course of the first science run, which lasted from 2015 September to 2016 January. Two of these alerts were associated with the gravitational wave events since named GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we provide an overview of the Liverpool Telescope contribution to the follow-up campaign over this period. Given the hundreds of square degree uncertainty in the sky position of any gravitational wave event, efficient searching for candidate counterparts required survey telescopes with large (˜degrees) fields of view. The role of the Liverpool Telescope was to provide follow-up classification spectroscopy of any candidates. We followed candidates associated with all three alerts, observing 1, 9 and 17 candidates respectively. We classify the majority of the transients we observed as supernovae. No counterparts were identified, which is in line with expectations given that the events were classified as black hole-black hole mergers. However these searches laid the foundation for similar follow-up campaigns in future gravitational wave detector science runs, in which the detection of neutron star merger events with observable electromagnetic counterparts is much more likely.

  11. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  12. SPACE WARPS- II. New gravitational lens candidates from the CFHTLS discovered through citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Anupreeta; Verma, Aprajita; Marshall, Philip J.; More, Surhud; Baeten, Elisabeth; Wilcox, Julianne; Macmillan, Christine; Cornen, Claude; Kapadia, Amit; Parrish, Michael; Snyder, Chris; Davis, Christopher P.; Gavazzi, Raphael; Lintott, Chris J.; Simpson, Robert; Miller, David; Smith, Arfon M.; Paget, Edward; Saha, Prasenjit; Küng, Rafael; Collett, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 29 promising (and 59 total) new lens candidates from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) based on about 11 million classifications performed by citizen scientists as part of the first SPACE WARPS lens search. The goal of the blind lens search was to identify lens candidates missed by robots (the RINGFINDER on galaxy scales and ARCFINDER on group/cluster scales) which had been previously used to mine the CFHTLS for lenses. We compare some properties of the samples detected by these algorithms to the SPACE WARPS sample and find them to be broadly similar. The image separation distribution calculated from the SPACE WARPS sample shows that previous constraints on the average density profile of lens galaxies are robust. SPACE WARPS recovers about 65 per cent of known lenses, while the new candidates show a richer variety compared to those found by the two robots. This detection rate could be increased to 80 per cent by only using classifications performed by expert volunteers (albeit at the cost of a lower purity), indicating that the training and performance calibration of the citizen scientists is very important for the success of SPACE WARPS. In this work we present the SIMCT pipeline, used for generating in situ a sample of realistic simulated lensed images. This training sample, along with the false positives identified during the search, has a legacy value for testing future lens-finding algorithms. We make the pipeline and the training set publicly available.

  13. Japanese flowering cherry tree as a woody plant candidate grown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Nyunoya, H.; Funada, R.; Katayama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Honma, T.; Nagatomo, M.; Nakamura, T.

    We are proposing to raise woody plant in space for several applications Japanese flowering cherry tree is a candidate to do wood science in space Mechanism of sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively Cherry mutants associated with gravity are telling responsible plant hormones and molecular machinery for plant adaptation against action of gravity Space experiment using our wood model contribute to understand molecular and cellular process of gravitropism in plant Tree is considered to be an important member in space agriculture to produce excess oxygen wooden materials for constructing living environment and provide biomass for cultivating mushrooms and insects Furthermore trees and their flowers improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space

  14. Graphene Nanocomposite Cathode for Advanced Space Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High efficiency power systems are needed for NASA's future human exploration of space and such power systems must have advanced safety feature and provide high...

  15. Phase I Advanced Battery Materials for Rechargeable Advanced Space-Rated Li-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy (up to 200...

  16. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New sensor technology is required to face the challenging tasks associated with future space exploration involving missions to the Moon and Mars. The safety and...

  17. Space Warps II. New Gravitational Lens Candidates from the CFHTLS Discovered through Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Phil; More, Surhud; Baeten, Elisabeth; Wilcox, Julianne; Macmillan, Christine; Cornen, Claude; Kapadia, Amit; Parrish, Michael; Snyder, Chris; Davis, Chris; Gavazzi, Raphael; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Miller, David; Smith, Arfon M; Paget, Edward; Saha, Prasenjit; Kueng, Rafael; Collett, Tom; Tecza, Matthias; Baumer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 28 promising and a total of 58 new lens candidates from the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) based on about 11 million classifications performed by citizen scientists as part of the first Space Warps lens search. The goal of the blind lens search was to identify lenses missed by lens finding robots (the RingFinder on galaxy scales and ArcFinder on group/cluster scales), which have been previously used to mine the CFHTLS for lenses. We compare some properties of lens samples detected by these algorithms to the SpaceWarps sample and found that they are broadly similar. The image separation distribution calculated from the SpaceWarps discovered sample shows that our previous constraints on the average density profile of the lens population are robust. Space Warps recovers about 60% of the known sample and the new candidates show a richer variety compared to the lenses found by the two robots. We find that analyzing only those classifications which are performed by the high power volunteers,...

  18. Space Experiments to Advance Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2010-05-01

    High power microwave sources are now available and usable, with modification, or beamed energy propulsion experiments in space. As output windows and vacuum seals are not needed space is a natural environment for high power vacuum tubes. Application to space therefore improves reliability and performance but complicates testing and qualification. Low power communications satellite devices (TWT, etc) have already been through the adapt-to-space design cycle and this history is a useful pathway for high power devices such as gyrotrons. In this paper, space experiments are described for low earth orbit (LEO) and lunar environment. These experiments are precursors to space application for beamed energy propulsion using high power microwaves. Power generation and storage using cryogenic systems are important elements of BEP systems and also have an important role as part of BEP experiments in the space environment.

  19. The process of advance care planning in HCT candidates and proxies: self-efficacy, locus of control, and anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Katharine E; Forti, Allison M; Russell, Gregory B; Naik, Seema; Hurd, David; McQuellon, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hematopoietic cell transplant candidate and proxy advance care planning (ACP) behavior and attitudes. A total of 49 candidates and 44 proxies completed the Advance Directive Attitudes Survey, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Family Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In all, 45% of candidates reported completing an advance directive (AD), while only 26% had ADs on file; 80% of candidates discussed ACP wishes with their loved ones and 15% discussed ACP wishes with their medical team. The AD completers were significantly (1) older, (2) more positive about ADs, and (3) were less likely to believe that health events happen by chance. Discrepancies between reported ACP behavior and communication with health care practitioners have implications for end-of-life care.

  20. Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

  1. Advanced Optical Technologies for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of photonic devices and systems for space exploration missions. Photonic technologies of particular interest are those that can be utilized for in-space communication, remote sensing, guidance navigation and control, lunar descent and landing, and rendezvous and docking. NASA Langley has recently established a class-100 clean-room which serves as a Photonics Fabrication Facility for development of prototype optoelectronic devices for aerospace applications. In this paper we discuss our design, fabrication, and testing of novel active pixels, deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal spatial light modulators. Successful implementation of these intelligent optical devices and systems in space, requires careful consideration of temperature and space radiation effects in inorganic and electronic materials. Applications including high bandwidth inertial reference units, lightweight, high precision star trackers for guidance, navigation, and control, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensing, and beam steering technologies are discussed. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize their performance in space exploration systems.

  2. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable and efficient fire detection is a precondition for safe spaceflight. The threat of onboard fire is constant and requires early, fast and unfailing...

  3. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  4. Liverpool Telescope follow-up of candidate electromagnetic counterparts during the first run of Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Copperwheat, C M; Piascik, A S; Bersier, D; Bode, M F; Collins, C A; Darnley, M J; Galloway, D K; Gomboc, A; Kobayashi, S; Lamb, G P; Levan, A J; Mazzali, P A; Mundell, C G; Pian, E; Pollacco, D; Steeghs, D; Tanvir, N R; Ulaczyk, K; Wiersema, K

    2016-01-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves was made in late 2015 with the Advanced LIGO detectors. By prior arrangement, a worldwide collaboration of electromagnetic follow-up observers were notified of candidate gravitational wave events during the first science run, and many facilities were engaged in the search for counterparts. No counterparts were identified, which is in line with expectations given that the events were classified as black hole - black hole mergers. However these searches laid the foundation for similar follow-up campaigns in future gravitational wave detector science runs, in which the detection of neutron star merger events with observable electromagnetic counterparts is much more likely. Three alerts were issued to the electromagnetic collaboration over the course of the first science run, which lasted from September 2015 to January 2016. Two of these alerts were associated with the gravitational wave events since named GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we provide an overvie...

  5. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, F.; Carmack, J.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Pelletier, M.; Somers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  6. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to

  7. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

  8. Advanced space solar dynamic power systems beyond IOC Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Dustin, Miles O.

    1987-01-01

    Three different solar dynamic power cycle systems were evaluated for application to missions projected beyond the IOC Space Station. All three systems were found to be superior to two photovoltaic systems (a planar silicon array and a GaAs concentrator array), with both lower weight and area. The alkali-metal Rankine cycle was eliminated from consideration due to low performance, and the Stirling cycle was found to be superior to the closed Brayton cycle in both weight and area. LiF salt, which establishes peak cycle temperatures for both of the considered cycles at about 1090 K, was shown to be the most suitable material for Thermal Energy Storage.

  9. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  10. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  11. Use of advanced commercial ICs (COTS) for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product line of space-qualified radiation-tolerant ICs based on a high-volume commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon has been developed. The basic results from over 300 lots of COTS silicon, assembled and screened to Class B and Class S requirements will be presented. Intelligent use of commercial ICs engineered to improve radiation performance, is effective in introducing advanced technology to new satellite systems. Space Electronics has introduced over 125 space-qualified microelectronics standard products, that are used on over 90 space projects. (authors)

  12. Advanced Metal Foam Structures for Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Jay; Johnson, William; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to use advanced materials especially bulk metallic glass (BMG) foams in structural components of spacecraft, lunar habitats, and the like. BMG foams, which are already used on Earth in some consumer products, are superior to conventional metal foams: BMG foams have exceptionally low mass densities and high strength-to-weight ratios and are more readily processable into strong, lightweight objects of various sizes and shapes. These and other attractive properties of BMG foams would be exploited, according to the proposal, to enable in situ processing of BMG foams for erecting and repairing panels, shells, containers, and other objects. The in situ processing could include (1) generation of BMG foams inside prefabricated deployable skins that would define the sizes and shapes of the objects thus formed and (2) thermoplastic deformation of BMG foams. Typically, the generation of BMG foams would involve mixtures of precursor chemicals that would be subjected to suitable pressure and temperature schedules. In addition to serving as structural components, objects containing or consisting of BMG foams could perform such functions as thermal management, shielding against radiation, and shielding against hypervelocity impacts of micrometeors and small debris particles.

  13. Advancing differential atom interferometry for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Williams, Jason; Yu, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometer (AI) based sensors exhibit precision and accuracy unattainable with classical sensors, thanks to the inherent stability of atomic properties. Dual atomic sensors operating in a differential mode further extend AI applicability beyond environmental disturbances. Extraction of the phase difference between dual AIs, however, typically introduces uncertainty and systematic in excess of that warranted by each AI's intrinsic noise characteristics, especially in practical applications and real time measurements. In this presentation, we report our efforts in developing practical schemes for reducing noises and enhancing sensitivities in the differential AI measurement implementations. We will describe an active phase extraction method that eliminates the noise overhead and demonstrates a performance boost of a gravity gradiometer by a factor of 3. We will also describe a new long-baseline approach for differential AI measurements in a laser ranging assisted AI configuration. The approach uses well-developed AIs for local measurements but leverage the mature schemes of space laser interferometry for LISA and GRACE. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a Contract with NASA.

  14. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  15. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  16. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  17. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  18. Advanced technology for space communications, tracking, and robotic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Technological advancements in tracking, communications, and robotic vision sensors are reviewed. The development of communications systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operation is discussed. Consideration is given to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite systems, GPS, and communications and tracking systems for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station. The use of television, laser, and microwave sensors for robotics and technology for autonomous rendezvous and docking operations are examined.

  19. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  20. The Economics of Advanced In-Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Manju; Dankanich, John

    2016-01-01

    The cost of access to space is the single biggest driver is commercial space sector. NASA continues to invest in both launch technology and in-space propulsion. Low-cost launch systems combined with advanced in-space propulsion offer the greatest potential market capture. Launch market capture is critical to national security and has a significant impact on domestic space sector revenue. NASA typically focuses on pushing the limits on performance. However, the commercial market is driven by maximum net revenue (profits). In order to maximum the infusion of NASA investments, the impact on net revenue must be known. As demonstrated by Boeing's dual launch, the Falcon 9 combined with all Electric Propulsion (EP) can dramatically shift the launch market from foreign to domestic providers.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Globular Cluster Candidates in Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, M E; Makarov, D I; Sharina, Margarita E.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-seven nearby low surface brightness dwarf galaxies were searched for globular cluster candidates (GCCs) using Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 imaging in V and I. The sample consists of 18 dwarf spheroidal (dSph), 36 irregular (dIrr), and 3 "transition" type (dIrr/dSph) galaxies with angular sizes less than 3.7 kpc situated at distances 2-6 Mpc in the field and in the nearby groups: M81, Centaurus A, Sculptor, Canes Venatici I cloud. We find that ~50% of dSph, dIrr/dSph, and dIrr galaxies contain GCCs. The fraction of GCCs located near the center of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is >2 times higher than that for dIrrs. The mean integral color of GCCs in dSphs, V-I = 1.04+/-0.16 mag, coincides with the corresponding value for Galactic globular clusters and is similar to the blue globular cluster sub-populations in massive early-type galaxies. The color distribution for GCCs in dIrrs shows a clear bimodality with peaks near V-I = 0.5 and 1.0 mag. Blue GCCs are presumably young with ages t -6.5 mag in both dSph an...

  2. Multiple Identities, Negotiations, and Agency across Time and Space: A Narrative Inquiry of a Foreign Language Teacher Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the post-structural views and the literature on teacher identity and agency, and using narrative inquiry, this paper describes how one teacher candidate majoring in Spanish negotiated her identities across time and space and how her identity negotiations interacted with her agency. The recursive analysis of qualitative data sources…

  3. Pick and Eat Crop Testing: Dwarf Tomato and Pepper as Candidate Space Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Massa, G. D.; Stutte, G. W.; Spencer, L. E.; Hummerick, M. E.; Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several dwarf tomato and pepper varieties were evaluated under International Space Station (ISS)-simulated growth conditions (22 degrees Centigrade, 50 percent relative humidity, 1500 parts per million CO2, and 300 micromoles per square meter per second of light for 16 hours per day) with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic potential for use in a pick and eat salad crop system on ISS and future exploration flights. Testing included six cultivars of tomato (Red Robin, Scarlet Sweet 'N' Neat, Tiny Tim, Mohamed, Patio Princess, and Tumbler) and six cultivars of pepper (Red Skin, Fruit Basket, Cajun Belle, Chablis, Sweet Pickle, and Pompeii). Plants were grown to an age sufficient to produce fruit (up to 106 days for tomato and 109 days for pepper) using Turface (arcillite) potting media with 18-6-8 control-release fertilizer and supplemental nutrient solution beginning around 60-days-age. Tomato fruits were harvested when they showed full red color, beginning around 70-days age and then at weekly intervals thereafter, while peppers were grown until fruits showed color and were harvested twice (first test) and just once at the end of the second test, with the final harvests including colored and green fruit. Plant sizes, yields, and nutritional attributes were measured and used to down-select to three cultivars for each species. In particular, we were interested in cultivars that were short (dwarf) but still produced high yields. Nutritional data included elemental (Ca, Mg, Fe, and K) content, vitamin K, phenolics, lycopene (for tomato), anthocyanin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The three down-selected cultivars for each species were grown again and the harvested fruit sent to NASA's Johnson Space Center for sensory evaluation, which included overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, aroma, flavor and texture. The combined data were compared and given weighting factors to rank the cultivars as candidates for testing in

  4. Advanced Space Propulsion Based on Vacuum (Spacetime Metric) Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Puthoff, Harold E

    2012-01-01

    A theme that has come to the fore in advanced planning for long-range space exploration is the concept that empty space itself (the quantum vacuum, or spacetime metric) might be engineered so as to provide energy/thrust for future space vehicles. Although far-reaching, such a proposal is solidly grounded in modern physical theory, and therefore the possibility that matter/vacuum interactions might be engineered for space-flight applications is not a priori ruled out. As examples, the current development of theoretical physics addresses such topics as warp drives, traversable wormholes and time machines that provide for such vacuum engineering possibilities. We provide here from a broad perspective the physics and correlates/consequences of the engineering of the spacetime metric.

  5. Vision in space, based on the advanced stellar compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.;

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of Space-missions could benefit from advanced onboard image-analysis. With missions to other planets or asteroids as good examples (genotypes). With reference to the Oersted Advanced Stellar Compass, this paper describes possible onboard imageanalysis tasks. As the instrument tracks...... by open loop, or by man-in-loop systems. By implementing these methods or function in the onboard autonomy, a superior system performance could be acheived by means of the minimal loop delay. But also reduced operations cost should be expected. Examples of actual performance data are given....

  6. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  7. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  8. Advanced Fuels Can Reduce the Cost of Getting Into Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1998-01-01

    Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs, and advanced propellant technologies can make space vehicles safer and easier to operate, and can improve their performance. Five major areas have been identified for fruitful research: monopropellants, alternative hydrocarbons, gelled hydrogen, metallized gelled propellants, and high-energy-density propellants. During the development of the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Plan, these technologies were identified as those most likely to be effective for new NASA vehicles. Several NASA research programs had fostered work in fuels under the topic Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles in 1996 to 1997. One component of this topic was to promote the development and commercialization of monopropellant rocket fuels, hypersonic fuels, and high-energy-density propellants. This research resulted in the teaming of small business with large industries, universities, and Government laboratories. This work is ongoing with seven contractors. The commercial products from these contracts will bolster advanced propellant research. Work also is continuing under other programs, which were recently realigned under the "Three Pillars" of NASA: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. One of the five areas is described below, and its applications and effect on future missions is discussed. This work is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the assistance of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The regenerative cooling of spacecraft engines and other components can improve overall vehicle performance. Endothermic fuels can absorb energy from an engine nozzle and chamber and help to vaporize high-density fuel before it enters the combustion chamber. For supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, endothermic fuels can absorb the high heat fluxes created on the wing leading edges and

  9. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  10. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    ) Complex Object surface tracking (e.g. space docking, planetary terrain tracking). All the above topics, has been realized in the past. Either by open loop, or by man-in-loop systems. By implementing these methods or function in the onboard autonomy, a superior system performance could be acheived by means......The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error...... of the advanced applications are vast, as depicted by the topics adressed, namely: 1) Detection and Tracking of distant non-stellar objects (e.g. meteors). 2) Delta-V correction, for encounter phases. 3) Tracking of selected Objects (e.g. guidance for other instruments). 4) Mass Estimation via pellet ejection. 5...

  11. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO2) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications

  12. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelo, J.P. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications.

  13. AFFECTS - Advanced Forecast For Ensuring Communications Through Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker

    2013-04-01

    Through the AFFECTS project funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programme, European and US scientists develop an advanced proto-type space weather warning system to safeguard the operation of telecommunication and navigation systems on Earth to the threat of solar storms. The project is led by the University of Göttingen's Institute for Astrophysics and comprises worldwide leading research and academic institutions and industrial enterprises from Germany, Belgium, Ukraine, Norway and the United States. The key objectives of the AFFECTS project are: State-of-the-art analysis and modelling of the Sun-Earth chain of effects on the Earth's ionosphere and their subsequent impacts on communication systems based on multipoint space observations and complementary ground-based data. Development of a prototype space weather early warning system and reliable space weather forecasts, with specific emphasis on ionospheric applications. Dissemination of new space weather products and services to end users, the scientific community and general public. The presentation summarizes the project highlights, with special emphasis on the developed space weather forecast tools.

  14. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions

  15. Advancing Space Weather Modeling Capabilities at the CCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria; Boblitt, Justin; Chulaki, Anna; MacNeice, Peter; Mendoza, Michelle; Mullinix, Richard; Pembroke, Asher; Pulkkinen, Antti; Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Wiegand, Chiu; Zheng, Yihua

    2016-04-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC, http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) serves as a community access point to an expanding collection of state-of-the-art space environment models and as a hub for collaborative development on next generation of space weather forecasting systems. In partnership with model developers and the international research and operational communities, the CCMC integrates new data streams and models from diverse sources into end-to-end space weather predictive systems, identifies weak links in data-model & model-model coupling and leads community efforts to fill those gaps. The presentation will focus on the latest model installations at the CCMC and advances in CCMC-led community-wide model validation projects.

  16. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Charles, H. K. Jr; Pisacane, V. L.

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI.

  17. Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based optical imaging instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teillet, P.M.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based instruments. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.

  18. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced on-board processing to meet the requirements of the Decadal Survey missions: advanced instruments (hyper-spectral, SAR, etc) require advanced...

  19. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  20. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  1. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  2. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  3. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  4. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  5. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  6. Nano-Engineered Materials for Rapid Rechargeable Space Rated Advanced Li-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy, energy density...

  7. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  8. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  9. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  10. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  11. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  12. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  13. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11-01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  14. Advanced Technologies for Space Life Science Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, high-performance work group organized to provide advanced engineering and technology support for NASA's Life Sciences spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. In support of these objectives, S2K! manages NASA's Advanced Technology Development Program for Biosensor and Biotelemetry Systems (ATD-B), with particular emphasis on technologies suitable for Gravitational Biology, Human Health and Performance, and Information Technology and Systems Management. A concurrent objective is to apply and transition ATD-B developed technologies to external, non-NASA humanitarian (medical, clinical, surgical, and emergency) situations and to stimulate partnering and leveraging with other government agencies, academia, and the commercial/industrial sectors. A phased long-term program has been implemented to support science disciplines and programs requiring specific biosensor (i.e., biopotential, biophysical, biochemical, and biological) measurements from humans, animals (mainly primates and rodents), and cells under controlled laboratory and simulated microgravity situations. In addition to the technology programs described above, NASA's Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Office has initiated a Technology Infusion process to identify and coordinate the utilization and integration of advanced technologies into its International Space Station Facilities. This project has recently identified a series of technologies, tasks, and products which, if implemented, would significantly increase the science return, decrease costs, and provide improved technological capability. This presentation will review the programs described above and discuss opportunities for collaboration, leveraging, and partnering with NASA.

  15. Advances in Research and Service of Space Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Liqin; GONG Jiancun; LIU Siqing; HU Xiong; LIU Jing; HUANG Wengeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recent progress of space environment research and service in China.During the past two years,many models of space environment forecast and analysis methods of space environment effects have been developed for tailored space environment service for Chinese space mission.A new Re-locatable Atmospheric Observatory(RAO)for monitoring atmospheric wind,temperature,density and pressure of the near space from 20 km up to 120 km altitudes is being constructed.In space environment service space environment safety was provided to ensure the safety of CE-1 for its launch and operation in 2007.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Spectral Library Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) is a Hubble Large Treasury Project, whose aim is to collect high-quality ultraviolet (1150-3100 Å) spectra of bright stars, utilizing the echelle modes of powerful Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; with resolution and signal-to-noise rivaling the best that can be achieved at ground-based observatories in the visible. During HST Cycle 18 (2010-2011), ASTRAL was allocated 146 orbits to record eight representative late-type ("cool") stars, including well-known cosmic denizens like Procyon and Betelgeuse. In Cycle 21 (2013-2014), ASTRAL was awarded an additional 230 orbits to extend the project to the hot side of the H-R diagram: 21 targets covering the O-A spectral types, including household favorites Vega and Sirius. The second part of the program was completed in January 2015. I describe the scientific motivations for observing hot and cool stars in the UV; the unique instrumental characteristics of STIS that enabled a broad survey like ASTRAL; progress in the program to date; and prospects for the future.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  18. Haynes 230 Mini-Can Welding to Support Planned irradiation Testing of Candidate Space Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Space MICE-3B irradiation testing was to test uranium dioxide (UO2) and uranium nitride (UN) fuel pellets under conditions anticipated in a prototypic space reactor application. One goal of the test program was to optimize the accuracy of UN and UO2 fuel sample temperature measurement during testing. The fuel samples were required to be canned to (1) prevent sample dissociation, (2) prevent release of fission products in excess of test reactor emission thresholds, and (3) prevent chemical interaction with impurities in the helium-neon gas stream [A]. Haynes 230, a nickel-chromium-tungsten (Ni-Cr-W) high creep strength structural alloy was selected as the encapsulation material that could be easily hermetically sealed and meet material property requirements at 1550 F (1116 K), the maximum design temperature of the mini-can. Laser welding was pursued to minimize weld distortion and meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code weld qualification standards [2]. The mini-can design contained a 0.050 inch (1.3 mm) thick can lid that was to be welded to a 0.050 inch thick lip on the base can such that the lid overlapped the base lip as a lap joint (Figure la). The circumferential flat lap joint weld required a minimum depth of penetration of 0.050 inches (1.3 mm). Initially, a maximum diametrical distortion of 0.002-0.003 inches (50-75 microns) of the outside diameter of the can after welding was specified to allow for close proximity of a thermocouple near the external wall of the mini-can containing UN samples and result in improved fuel sample temperature measurement accuracy during testing. For the encapsulation of UO2 specimens a 0.01 0 inch (250 micron) diametrical distortion was allowed due to lower heat generation expected within the capsule and greater flexibility on thermocouple location. Manual gas tungsten arc welding was then developed with a V-groove weld lap joint design (Figures 1b). All welding was done in a high purity helium cover gas

  19. Thermal emittance measurements on candidate refractory materials for application in nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a highly efficient General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) space power system requires that all of the available thermal energy from the GPHS modules be utilized in the most thermally efficient manner. This includes defining the heat transfer/thermal gradient profile between the surface of the GPHS's and the surface of the energy converter's hot end whose geometry is dependent on the converter technology selected. Control of the radiant heat transfer between these two surfaces is done by regulating how efficiently the selected converter's hot end surface can reject heat compared to a perfect blackbody, i.e. its infrared emittance. Several refractory materials of interest including niobium-1% zirconium, molybdenum-44.5% rhenium and L-605 (a cobalt-based alloy) were subjected to various surface treatments (grit blasting with either SiC or WC particulates) and heat treatments (up to 1198 K for up to 3000 hours). Room temperature infrared emittance values were then obtained using two different infrared reflectometers. Grit blasting with either SiC or WC tended to increase the emittance of flat or curved L-605 coupons by ∼0.2-0.3 independent of heat treatment. Heat treating L-605 coupons under 773 K for up to 2000 hours had only a slight effect on their emittance, while heat treating L-605 coupons at 973 K for over 150 hours appeared to significantly increase their emittance. For the temperatures and times studied here, the emittance values obtained on niobium-1% zirconium and molybdenum-44.5% rhenium coupons were independent of heat treat times and temperatures (except for the niobium-1% zirconium coupon that was heat treated at 1198 K for 150 hours)

  20. An Advanced Light Weight Recuperator for Space Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system is one of the most efficient energy conversion technologies for nuclear and solar electric propulsion. The recuperator...

  1. An Advanced Light Weight Recuperator for Space Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology holds great promise for power and propulsion demands of NASA current and future deep space explorations. Closed Brayton...

  2. Advanced Thermal Interface Material Systems for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate aim of proposed efforts are to develop innovative material and process (M&P) engineering technology to reduce thermal resistance between space...

  3. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  4. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Technical Report, Volume 2, provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics; applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to U.S. industry and for space commercialization.

  5. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn;

    2006-01-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks...... and the costs of the deep space missions. Navigation is the Achilles' heel of deep space. Being performed on ground, it imposes considerable constraints on the system and the operations, it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, above all, it is not failure tolerant...

  6. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and the US economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and rebotics for use in the space station. The Executive Overview, Volume 1 presents the major findings of the study and recommends to NASA principles for advancing automation and robotics technologies for the benefit of the space station and of the U.S. economy in general. As a result of its study, the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee believes that a key element of technology for the space station is extensive use of advanced general-purpose automation and robotics. These systems could provide the United States with important new methods of generating and exploiting space knowledge in commercial enterprises and thereby help preserve U.S. leadership in space.

  7. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.lapointe@nasa.gov; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  8. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  9. Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

  10. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): Iodine Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Iodine propellant offers many enabling capabilities for both SmallSat application and for high power system level implementation.  Some of the highest risk...

  11. Advances in the studies of anomalous diffusion in velocity space

    OpenAIRE

    Dubinova, A. A.; Trigger, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    A generalized Fokker-Planck equation is derived to describe particle kinetics in specific situations when the probability transition function (PTF) has a long tail in momentum space. The equation is valid for an arbitrary value of the transferred in a collision act momentum and for the arbitrary mass ratio of the interacting particles. On the basis of the generalized Fokker-Planck equation anomalous diffusion in velocity space is considered for hard sphere model of particle interactions, Coul...

  12. White space communication advances, developments and engineering challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a collection of major developments leading toward the implementation of white space technology - an emerging wireless standard for using wireless spectrum in locations where it is unused by licensed users. Some of the key research areas in the field are covered. These include emerging standards, technical insights from early pilots and simulations, software defined radio platforms, geo-location spectrum databases and current white space spectrum usage in India and South Africa.

  13. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  14. Space activities in Glasgow; advanced microspacecraft from Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, C; McInnes, C.; Radice, G; ,

    2008-01-01

    The City of Glasgow is renowned for its engineering and technological innovation; famous Glaswegian inventors and academics include James Watt (Steam Engine) and John Logie Baird (television), amongst many others. Contemporary Glasgow continues to pioneer and invent in a multitude of areas of science and technology and has become a centre of excellence in many fields of engineering; including spacecraft engineering. This paper will discuss how Clyde Space Ltd and the space grou...

  15. Graphite/Polyimide Composites. [conference on Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B. (Editor); Davis, J. G., Jr. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed under the Composites for Advanced Space Transportation System Project is reported. Specific topics covered include fabrication, adhesives, test methods, structural integrity, design and analysis, advanced technology developments, high temperature polymer research, and the state of the art of graphite/polyimide composites.

  16. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  17. STAR-C Space Thermionic Advanced Reactor - Compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAR-C is a small, compact nuclear space power system that can be configured to provide 5 to 25 kW of electrical power for long duration space applications. A 10 kWe baseline design concept has been defined that has a 550 kg mass and is one meter long and 2/3 meter in diameter. The reactor configuration is based on the Soviet ''ROMASHKA'' reactor that was built and operated in the early 1960's. The thermionic power conversion as based on the U.S. Solar Energy Thermionic (SET) program. The reactor fuel is derived from the NERVA nuclear rocket program. A number of military spacecraft are under development for deployment in the 1990's. Power requirements for many of these systems range from 5 to 25 kWe. Typically, these platforms require low levels of power for continuous housekeeping functions and higher levels for alert and battle engagement conditions. It is highly desirable that the selected space power system have a substantial growth capability that can be utilized as the spacecraft concept matures. There is also an increased emphasis on requirements for system survivability to hostile weapons threats and the capability for spacecraft maneuverability for evasive action. This requires that the space power system must be compact and that it must be closely integrated into the spacecraft structure to avoid inertial and dynamic effects associated with the use of extendable structures and booms

  18. Space-Data Routers: Advanced data routing protocols for enhancing data exploitation for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Balasis, George; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Tsaoussidis, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-05-01

    Data sharing and access are major issues in space sciences, as they influence the degree of data exploitation. The availability of multi-spacecraft distributed observation methods and adaptive mission architectures require computationally intensive analysis methods. Moreover, accurate space weather forecasting and future space exploration far from Earth will be in need of real-time data distribution and assimilation technologies. The FP7-Space collaborative research project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) relies on space internetworking and in particular on Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications. SDR unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The main goal is to allow space agencies, academic institutes and research centers to share space-data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. Here we are presenting the architecture and basic functionality of a DTN-based application specifically designed in the framework of the SDR project, for data query, retrieval and administration that will enable addressing outstanding science questions related to space weather, through the provision of simultaneous real-time data sampling at multiple points in space. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  19. Exhibition design: hybrid space of advanced design innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini, L; Borsotti, M

    2014-01-01

    The exhibition design has always been – among other design disciplines – one of the most innovative field of experimentation both for languages and projects improvement. Moreover in the recent years the use of digital technologies, on one hand, and the further more active participation of the public – or, better to say, of the user – on the other hand, are making exhibition design a promising and rising laboratory of advanced innovation. This evolution is shaping itself around the co-particip...

  20. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  1. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  2. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-10-31

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated. (FS)

  3. Space dusty plasmas: recent developments, advances, and unsolved problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev

    2016-07-01

    The area of space dusty plasma research is a vibrant subfield of plasma physics that belongs to frontier research in physical sciences. This area is intrinsically interdisciplinary and encompasses astrophysics, planetary science, and atmospheric science. Dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in the universe; examples are proto-planetary and solar nebulae, molecular clouds, supernovae explosions, interplanetary medium, circumsolar rings, and asteroids. Within the solar system, we have planetary rings (e.g., Saturn and Jupiter), Martian atmosphere, cometary tails and comae, dust at the Moon, etc. Dust and dusty plasmas are also found in the vicinity of artificial satellites and space stations. The present review covers the main aspects of the area of space dusty plasma research. Emphasis is given to the description of dusty plasmas at the Moon which is important from the viewpoint of the future lunar missions and lunar observatory. This work was supported in part by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (under Fundamental Research Program No. 7, "Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Solar System Objects and Stellar Planet Systems. Transient Explosion Processes in Astrophysics" and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 15-02-05627-a).

  4. Advanced rocket propulsion technology assessment for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Single-stage and two-stage launch vehicles were evaluated for various levels of propulsion technology and payloads. The evaluation included tradeoffs between ascent flight performance and vehicle sizing that were driven by engine mass, specific impulse, and propellant requirements. Numerous mission, flight, and vehicle-related requirements and constraints were satisfied in the design process. The results showed that advanced technology had a large effect on reducing both single- and two-stage vehicle size. High-pressure hydrocarbon-fueled engines that were burned in parallel with two-position nozzle hydrogen-fueled engines reduced dry mass by 23% for the two-stage vehicle and 28% for the single-stage vehicle as compared to an all-hydrogen-fueled system. The dual-expander engine reduced single-stage vehicle dry mass by 41%. Using advanced technology, the single-stage vehicle became comparable in size and sensitivity to that of the two-stage vehicle for small payloads.

  5. Finite Element Modeling of a Semi-Rigid Hybrid Mirror and a Highly Actuated Membrane Mirror as Candidates for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Larry; Jacobson, Dave; Mosier, Gary; Nein, Max; Page, Timothy; Redding, Dave; Sutherlin, Steve; Wilkerson, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Advanced space telescopes, which will eventually replace the Hubble Space Telescope (HTS), will have apertures of 8 - 20 n. Primary mirrors of these dimensions will have to be foldable to fit into the space launcher. By necessity these mirrors will be extremely light weight and flexible and the historical approaches to mirror designs, where the mirror is made as rigid as possible to maintain figure and to serve as the anchor for the entire telescope, cannot be applied any longer. New design concepts and verifications will depend entirely on analytical methods to predict optical performance. Finite element modeling of the structural and thermal behavior of such mirrors is becoming the tool for advanced space mirror designs. This paper discusses some of the preliminary tasks and study results, which are currently the basis for the design studies of the Next Generation Space Telescope.

  6. Advancing cell biology through proteomics in space and time (PROSPECTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamond, A.I.; Uhlen, M.; Horning, S.;

    2012-01-01

    a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU...... the proteomics field is moving beyond simply identifying proteins with high sensitivity toward providing a powerful and versatile set of assay systems for characterizing proteome dynamics and thereby creating a new "third generation" proteomics strategy that offers an indispensible tool for cell biology...

  7. Solid rocket technology advancements for space tug and IUS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

    1975-01-01

    In order for the shuttle tug or interim upper stage (IUS) to capture all the missions in the current mission model for the tug and the IUS, an auxiliary or kick stage, using a solid propellant rocket motor, is required. Two solid propellant rocket motor technology concepts are described. One concept, called the 'advanced propulsion module' motor, is an 1800-kg, high-mass-fraction motor, which is single-burn and contains Class 2 propellent. The other concept, called the high energy upper stage restartable solid, is a two-burn (stop-restartable on command) motor which at present contains 1400 kg of Class 7 propellant. The details and status of the motor design and component and motor test results to date are presented, along with the schedule for future work.

  8. Advanced Space Nuclear Reactors from Fiction to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    The advanced nuclear power sources are used in a large variety of science fiction movies and novels, but their practical development is, still, in its early conceptual stages, some of the ideas being confirmed by collateral experiments. The novel reactor concept uses the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity, has electronic control of reactivity, being surrounded by a transmutation blanket and very thin shielding being small and light that at its very limit may be suitable to power an autonomously flying car. It also provides an improved fuel cycle producing minimal negative impact to environment. The key elements started to lose the fiction attributes, becoming viable actual concepts and goals for the developments to come, and on the possibility to achieve these objectives started to become more real because the theory shows that using the novel nano-technologies this novel reactor might be achievable in less than a century.

  9. Advances in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Bruce R.; Armstrong, Joseph H.; Misra, Mohan S.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline, thin-film photovoltaics represent one of the few (if not the only) renewable power sources which has the potential to satisfy the demanding technical requirements for future space applications. The demand in space is for deployable, flexible arrays with high power-to-weight ratios and long-term stability (15-20 years). In addition, there is also the demand that these arrays be produced by scalable, low-cost, high yield, processes. An approach to significantly reduce costs and increase reliability is to interconnect individual cells series via monolithic integration. Both CIS and CdTe semiconductor films are optimum absorber materials for thin-film n-p heterojunction solar cells, having band gaps between 0.9-1.5 ev and demonstrated small area efficiencies, with cadmium sulfide window layers, above 16.5 percent. Both CIS and CdTe polycrystalline thin-film cells have been produced on a laboratory scale by a variety of physical and chemical deposition methods, including evaporation, sputtering, and electrodeposition. Translating laboratory processes which yield these high efficiency, small area cells into the design of a manufacturing process capable of producing 1-sq ft modules, however, requires a quantitative understanding of each individual step in the process and its (each step) effect on overall module performance. With a proper quantification and understanding of material transport and reactivity for each individual step, manufacturing process can be designed that is not 'reactor-specific' and can be controlled intelligently with the design parameters of the process. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the current efforts at MMC to develop large-scale manufacturing processes for both CIS and CdTe thin-film polycrystalline modules. CIS cells/modules are fabricated in a 'substrate configuration' by physical vapor deposition techniques and CdTe cells/modules are fabricated in a 'superstrate configuration' by wet chemical

  10. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Advanced Microelectromechanical (MEMs) Photovoltaic Systems (AMPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop new cell and blanket technologies and manufacturing processes that reduce overall array costs•Cells: develop new cell technology comparable to SOA with...

  11. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis were conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  12. Development of Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. D.; Dumbacher, P.; Cole, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    This was a small-scale, hot-fire test series to make initial measurements of performance differences of five new liquid fuels relative to rocket propellant-1 (RP-1). The program was part of a high-energy-density materials development at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the fuels tested were quadricyclane, 1-7 octodiyne, AFRL-1, biclopropylidene, and competitive impulse noncarcinogenic hypergol (CINCH) (di-methyl-aminoethyl-azide). All tests were conducted at MSFC. The first four fuels were provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The U.S. Army, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL, provided the CINCH. The data recorded in all hot-fire tests were used to calculate specific impulse and characteristic exhaust velocity for each fuel, then compared to RP-1 at the same conditions. This was not an exhaustive study, comparing each fuel to RP-1 at an array of mixture ratios, nor did it include important fuel parameters, such as fuel handling or long-term storage. The test hardware was designed for liquid oxygen (lox)/RP-1, then modified for gaseous oxygen/RP-1 to avoid two-phase lox at very small flow rates. All fuels were tested using the same thruster/injector combination designed for RP-1. The results of this test will be used to determine which fuels will be tested in future test programs.

  13. Advances in the Kepler Transit Search Engine and Automated Approaches to Identifying Likely Planet Candidates in Transit Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-08-01

    Twenty years ago, no planets were known outside our own solar system. Since then, the discoveries of ~1500 exoplanets have radically altered our views of planets and planetary systems. This revolution is due in no small part to the Kepler Mission, which has discovered >1000 of these planets and >4000 planet candidates. While Kepler has shown that small rocky planets and planetary systems are quite common, the quest to find Earth’s closest cousins and characterize their atmospheres presses forward with missions such as NASA Explorer Program’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) slated for launch in 2017 and ESA’s PLATO mission scheduled for launch in 2024.These future missions pose daunting data processing challenges in terms of the number of stars, the amount of data, and the difficulties in detecting weak signatures of transiting small planets against a roaring background. These complications include instrument noise and systematic effects as well as the intrinsic stellar variability of the subjects under scrutiny. In this paper we review recent developments in the Kepler transit search pipeline improving both the yield and reliability of detected transit signatures.Many of the phenomena in light curves that represent noise can also trigger transit detection algorithms. The Kepler Mission has expended great effort in suppressing false positives from its planetary candidate catalogs. While over 18,000 transit-like signatures can be identified for a search across 4 years of data, most of these signatures are artifacts, not planets. Vetting all such signatures historically takes several months’ effort by many individuals. We describe the application of machine learning approaches for the automated vetting and production of planet candidate catalogs. These algorithms can improve the efficiency of the human vetting effort as well as quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is truly a planet. This information is crucial for obtaining valid planet

  14. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  15. Advancing cell biology through proteomics in space and time (PROSPECTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamond, Angus I; Uhlen, Mathias; Horning, Stevan; Makarov, Alexander; Robinson, Carol V; Serrano, Luis; Hartl, F Ulrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Werenskiold, Anne Katrin; Andersen, Jens S; Vorm, Ole; Linial, Michal; Aebersold, Ruedi; Mann, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The term "proteomics" encompasses the large-scale detection and analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Driven by major improvements in mass spectrometric instrumentation, methodology, and data analysis, the proteomics field has burgeoned in recent years. It now provides a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU-funded project that brings together leading European research groups, spanning from instrumentation to biomedicine, in a collaborative five year initiative to develop new methods and applications for the functional analysis of cellular proteins. This special issue of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics presents 16 research papers reporting major recent progress by the PROSPECTS groups, including improvements to the resolution and sensitivity of the Orbitrap family of mass spectrometers, systematic detection of proteins using highly characterized antibody collections, and new methods for absolute as well as relative quantification of protein levels. Manuscripts in this issue exemplify approaches for performing quantitative measurements of cell proteomes and for studying their dynamic responses to perturbation, both during normal cellular responses and in disease mechanisms. Here we present a perspective on how the proteomics field is moving beyond simply identifying proteins with high sensitivity toward providing a powerful and versatile set of assay systems for characterizing proteome dynamics and thereby creating a new "third generation" proteomics strategy that offers an indispensible tool for cell biology and molecular medicine.

  16. Advanced Proportional Servo Valve Control with Customized Control Code using White Space

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    An industrial control valve has been designed by Eaton (AxisPro® valve). The servo performance valve has onboard electronics that features external and internal sensor interfaces, advanced control modes and network capability. Advanced control modes are implement in the valves firmware. With the help of the white space it is possilbe to execute custom code directly on the valve that interact with these controls. Small OEM applications, like rubber moulding machines, benefit from the cominatio...

  17. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the US economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Robert

    1988-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on the Space Station. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memo 87566). A further requirement of the law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. This report is the sixth in a series of progress updates and covers the period between October 1, 1987 and March 1, 1988. NASA has accepted the basic recommendations of ATAC for its Space Station efforts. ATAC and NASA agree that the thrust of Congress is to build an advanced automation and robotics technology base that will support an evolutionary Space Station program and serve as a highly visible stimulator affecting the U.S. long-term economy. The progress report identifies the work of NASA and the Space Station study contractors, research in progress, and issues connected with the advancement of automation and robotics technology on the Space Station.

  18. JPL space station telerobotic engineering prototype development: Advanced telerobotics system technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Telerobotics System Technology Task is to develop/prototype advanced telerobotics supervisory and shared control to enhance Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) teleoperation in the Space Station. The technology provides enhanced telerobotics capabilities while operating within the expected constraints of computation limitations, time delay, and bus bandwidth. A local site operator interface has also been developed for specifying teleoperation and shared control modes as well as supervised autonomous macros for execution at the remote site. The primary objective of the task is to transfer the advanced technology to appropriate flight centers to enhance the baseline Station capabilities.

  19. a Roadmap to Advance Understanding of the Science of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, K.; Kauristie, K.; Aylward, A.; De Nardin, C. M.; Gibson, S. E.; Glover, A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Grande, M.; Hapgood, M. A.; Heynderickx, D.; Jakowski, N.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Lapenta, G.; Linker, J.; Liu, S.; Mandrini, C. H.; Mann, I. R.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nandy, D.; Obara, T.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Onsager, T. G.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Valladares, C. E.; Vilmer, N.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that comes the need to better shield society against space weather by improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and infrastructure design. A COSPAR/ILWS team recently completed a roadmap that identifies the scientific focus areas and research infrastructure that are needed to significantly advance our understanding of space weather of all intensities and of its implications and costs for society. This presentation provides a summary of the highest-priority recommendations from that roadmap.

  20. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  1. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  2. Recent advances and challenges for diode-pumped solid-state lasers as an inertial fusion energy driver candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss how solid-state laser technology can serve in the interests of fusion energy beyond the goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is now being constructed to ignite a deuterium-tritium target to fusion conditions in the laboratory for the first time. We think that advanced solid-state laser technology can offer the repetition-rate and efficiency needed to drive a fusion power plant, in contrast to the single-shot character of NIF. As discuss below, we propose that a gas-cooled, diode-pumped Yb:S-FAP laser can provide a new paradigm for fusion laser technology leading into the next century

  3. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  4. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  5. Recent Advances on Surface Ground Deformation Measurement by means of Repeated Space-borne SAR Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Prati, C.; Ferretti, A.; Perissin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) is a well known widely used remote sensing technique to get precise (sub centimetric) surface deformation measurements on large areas (thousands of km2) and high spatial density of measurement points (hundreds per km2). In this work the recent technological advances of this technique are presented. First, a short review of the INSAR basics is dedicated to readers who are not INSAR specialists. Then, an analysis of...

  6. Mechanistic approaches to understanding and predicting mammalian space use: Recent advances, future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The coming of age of global positioning system telemetry, in conjunction with recent theoretical innovations for formulating quantitative descriptions of how different ecological forces and behavioral mechanisms shape patterns of animal space use, has led to renewed interest and insight into animal home-range patterns. This renaissance is likely to continue as a result of ongoing synergies between these empirical and theoretical advances. In this article I review key developments that have oc...

  7. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology program overview: Impact of civil space technology initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Propulsion Technology Program is dedicated to advancing rocket engine technologies for the development of fully reusable engine systems that will enable space transportation systems to achieve low cost, routine access to space. The program addresses technology advancements in the areas of engine life extension/prediction, performance enhancements, reduced ground operations costs, and in-flight fault tolerant engine operations. The primary objective is to acquire increased knowledge and understanding of rocket engine chemical and physical processes in order to evolve more realistic analytical simulations of engine internal environments, to derive more accurate predictions of steady and unsteady loads, and using improved structural analyses, to more accurately predict component life and performance, and finally to identify and verify more durable advanced design concepts. In addition, efforts were focused on engine diagnostic needs and advances that would allow integrated health monitoring systems to be developed for enhanced maintainability, automated servicing, inspection, and checkout, and ultimately, in-flight fault tolerant engine operations.

  8. Towards Disentangling Natural and Anthropogenic GHG Fluxes from Space - The CarbonSat Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2015-04-01

    CarbonSat was selected by ESA as one of two candidates for the Earth Explorer Opportunity mission (EE8). Understanding and quantifying climate feedback and forcing mechanisms involving the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, requires the discrimination of natural and anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 fluxes globally, with regional to local spatial scale resolution. The objective of the CarbonSat mission is therefore to quantify natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4. The unique feature of the CarbonSat mission concept is its 'GHG imaging capability', which is achieved by combining high spatial resolution (6 km2) and good spatial coverage (breakthrough: 240 km swath, contiguous ground sampling). This capability enables global imaging of localized strong emission source areas such as cities, power plants, methane seeps, landfills and volcanoes and better separation of natural and anthropogenic GHG sources and sinks. The latter will be further supported by CarbonSat's ability to constrain the fluxes of CO2 exchanged to and from the land biosphere by simultaneously measuring CO2 and sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), a process strongly associated with Gross Primary Production (GPP). Source/sink information will be derived from the retrieved atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 via inverse modelling. CarbonSat aims to deliver spatially-resolved time varying global estimates of dry column mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 with high precision (~1 to 2 ppm and ~12 ppb, respectively) and rel. accuracy (~0.5 ppm and 5 ppb, respectively). Benefiting from its imaging capabilities along and across track, CarbonSat will provide at least an order of magnitude larger number of cloud-free CO2 soundings than GOSAT and OCO-2. Recent results from the scientific studies and supporting campaigns documenting the expected data quality and potential application areas will be summarised.

  9. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  10. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy. Volume 1: Executive overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Executive Overview, Volume 1 presents the major findings of the study and recommends to NASA principles for advancing automation and robotics technologies for the benefit of the Space Station and of the U.S. economy in general. As a result of its study, the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee believes that a key element of technology for the Space Station is extensive use of advanced general-purpose automation and robotics. These systems could provide the United States with important new methods of generating and exploiting space knowledge in commercial enterprises and thereby help preserve U.S. leadership in space.

  11. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  12. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  13. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for

  14. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) for Advanced Space Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Bowman, Cheryl; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    High temperature polymer matrix composites (PMC) reinforced with high thermal conductivity (approx. 1000 W/mK) pitch-based carbon fibers are evaluated for a facesheet/fin structure of large space radiator systems. Significant weight reductions along with improved thermal performance, structural integrity and space durability toward its metallic counterparts were envisioned. Candidate commercial resin systems including Cyanate Esters, BMIs, and polyimide were selected based on thermal capabilities and processability. PMC laminates were designed to match the thermal expansion coefficient of various metal heat pipes or tubes. Large, but thin composite panels were successfully fabricated after optimizing cure conditions. Space durability of PMC with potential degradation mechanisms was assessed by simulated thermal aging tests in high vacuum, 1-3 x 10(exp -6) torr, at three temperatures, 227 C, 277 C, and 316 C for up to one year. Nanocomposites with vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers and exfoliated graphite flakes were attempted to improve thermal conductivity (TC) and microcracking resistance. Good quality nanocomposites were fabricated and evaluated for TC and durability including radiation resistance. TC was measured in both in-plan and thru-the-thickness directions, and the effects of microcracks on TC are also being evaluated. This paper will discuss the systematic experimental approaches, various performance-durability evaluations, and current subcomponent design and fabrication/manufacturing efforts.

  15. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    space weather monitoring and alarm system--SPE exposure analysis system, an advanced space weather data distribution and display system, and a high-fidelity space weather simulation system. In addition, significant new real-time space weather data sets, which will enhance the forecasting and now-casting of near-Earth space environment conditions, are being made available through unique NASA-NOAA-USAF collaborations. These new data sets include coronal mass ejection monitoring by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and in-situ plasma and particle monitoring at the L1 libration point by the Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM) and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Advanced real-time radiation monitoring data from charged particle telescopes and tissue equivalent proportional counters will also be available to assist crew and flight controllers in monitoring the external and intravehicular radiation environment.

  16. Pathology of advanced buccal mucosa cancer involving masticator space (T4b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buccal mucosa cancer involving masticator space is classified as very advanced local disease (T4b. The local recurrence rate is very high due to poor understanding of the extent of tumor spread in masticator space and technically difficult surgical clearance. The objective of this study is to understand the extent of tumor spread in masticator space to form basis for appropriate surgical resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with T4b-buccal cancer underwent compartment resection, with complete anatomical removal of involved soft-tissue structures. Specimens were systematically studied to understand the extent of invasion of various structures. The findings of clinical history, imaging and pathologic evaluation were compared and the results were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with advanced buccal cancer (T4b were included in this study. The skin, mandible and lymph nodes were involved in 30, 24 and 17 cases respectively. The pterygoid muscles were involved in 34 cases (medial-pterygoid in 12 and both pterygoids in 22 cases and masseter-muscle in 32 cases. Average distance for soft-tissue margins after compartment surgery was 2 cm and the margins were positive in 3 cases. The group with involvement of medial pterygoid muscle had safest margin with compartment surgery while it was also possible to achieve negative margins for group involving lateral pterygoid muscle and plates.The involvement of pterygomaxillary fissure was area of concern and margin was positive in 2 cases with one patient developing local recurrence with intracranial extension. At 21 months median follow-up (13-35 months, 38 patients were alive without disease while two developed local recurrence at the skull base.CONCLUSIONS: T4b buccal cancers have significant soft-tissue involvement in the masticator space. En bloc removal of all soft-tissues in masticator space is advocated to remove tumor contained within space. The compartment

  17. Advancing brain-machine interfaces: Moving beyond linear state space models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Rouse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in recent years have dramatically improved output control by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs. Such devices nevertheless remain robotic and limited in their movements compared to normal human motor performance. Most current BMIs rely on transforming recorded neural activity to a linear state space composed of a set number of fixed degrees of freedom. Here we consider a variety of ways in which BMI design might be advanced further by applying non-linear dynamics observed in normal motor behavior. We consider i the dynamic range and precision of natural movements, ii differences between cortical activity and actual body movement, iii kinematic and muscular synergies, and iv the implications of large neuronal populations. We advance the hypothesis that a given population of recorded neurons may transmit more useful information than can be captured by a single, linear model across all movement phases and contexts. We argue that incorporating these various non-linear characteristics will be an important next step in advancing BMIs to more closely match natural motor performance.

  18. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  19. Technology advancements for the U.S. manned Space Station - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and methodology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) advanced development program is described. An overview of the program is given, and the technology transfer process to other disciplines is described. The test bed and flight experiment programs are described, as is the technology assessment which was performed at the end of the Phase B program. The technology program within each discipline is summarized, and the coordination and integration of the JSC program with the activities of other NASA centers and with work package contractors are discussed.

  20. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  1. Advances and Challenges in Space-time Modelling of Natural Events

    CERN Document Server

    Porcu, Emilio; Schlather, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book arises as the natural continuation of the International Spring School "Advances and Challenges in Space-Time modelling of Natural Events," which took place in Toledo (Spain) in March 2010. This Spring School above all focused on young researchers (Master students, PhD students and post-doctoral researchers) in academics, extra-university research and the industry who are interested in learning about recent developments, new methods and applications in spatial statistics and related areas, and in exchanging ideas and findings with colleagues.

  2. Probing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the resonance models for high-frequency QPOs and comparison with the continuum-fitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black hole predicted by General Relativity. However, in order to confirm the Kerr-nature of these objects, we need to probe the geometry of the space-time around them and check that observations are consistent with the predictions of the Kerr metric. That can be achieved, for instance, by studying the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the accretion disk. The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some stellar-mass black hole candidates might do the job. As the frequencies of these oscillations depend only very weakly on the observed X-ray flux, it is thought they are mainly determined by the metric of the space-time. In this paper, I consider the resonance models proposed by Abramowicz and Kluzniak and I extend previous results to the case of non-Kerr space-times. The emerging picture is more complicated than the one around a Kerr black hole and there is a larger number of possible combinations between different modes. I then compare the bounds inferred from the twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in three micro-quasars (GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and GRS 1915+105) with the measurements from the continuum-fitting method of the same objects. For Kerr black holes, the two approaches do not provide consistent results. In a non-Kerr geometry, this conflict may be solved if the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are produced by the resonance νθ:νr = 3:1, where νθ and νr are the two epicyclic frequencies. It is at least worth mentioning that the deformation from the Kerr solution required by observations would be consistent with the one suggested in another recent work discussing the possibility that steady jets are powered by the spin of these compact objects

  3. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  4. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): A Technology Roadmap for the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation of UVOIR space observatory with a primary aperture diameter in the 8-m to 16-m range that will allow us to perform some of the most challenging observations to answer some of our most compelling questions, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We have identified two different telescope architectures, but with similar optical designs, that span the range in viable technologies. The architectures are a telescope with a monolithic primary mirror and two variations of a telescope with a large segmented primary mirror. This approach provides us with several pathways to realizing the mission, which will be narrowed to one as our technology development progresses. The concepts invoke heritage from HST and JWST design, but also take significant departures from these designs to minimize complexity, mass, or both. Our report provides details on the mission concepts, shows the extraordinary s...

  5. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, M; Krist, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Brown, R; Oegerle, W; Lo, A; Clampin, M; Soummer, R; Wiseman, J; Mountain, M

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation UV-Optical-Near Infrared space telescope with an aperture size of 8 to 16 meters. ATLAST, using an internal coronagraph or an external occulter, can characterize the atmosphere and surface of an Earth-sized exoplanet in the Habitable Zone of long-lived stars at distances up to ~45 pc, including its rotation rate, climate, and habitability. ATLAST will also allow us to glean information on the nature of the dominant surface features, changes in cloud cover and climate, and, potentially, seasonal variations in surface vegetation. ATLAST will be able to visit up to 200 stars in 5 years, at least three times each, depending on the technique used for starlight suppression and the telescope aperture. More frequent visits can be made for interesting systems.

  6. Evaluation of Advanced Models for PAFS Condensation Heat Transfer in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Byong-Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) is operated by the natural circulation to remove the core decay heat through the PCHX (Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger) which is composed of the nearly horizontal tubes. For validation of the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) facility was constructed and the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS was experimentally investigated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). From the PASCAL experimental result, it was found that conventional system analysis code underestimated the condensation heat transfer. In this study, advanced condensation heat transfer models which can treat the heat transfer mechanisms with the different flow regimes in the nearly horizontal heat exchanger tube were analyzed. The models were implemented in a thermal hydraulic safety analysis code, SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plant), and it was evaluated with the PASCAL experimental data. With an aim of enhancing the prediction capability for the condensation phenomenon inside the PCHX tube of the PAFS, advanced models for the condensation heat transfer were implemented into the wall condensation model of the SPACE code, so that the PASCAL experimental result was utilized to validate the condensation models. Calculation results showed that the improved model for the condensation heat transfer coefficient enhanced the prediction capability of the SPACE code. This result confirms that the mechanistic modeling for the film condensation in the steam phase and the convection in the condensate liquid contributed to enhance the prediction capability of the wall condensation model of the SPACE code and reduce conservatism in prediction of condensation heat transfer.

  7. Production of a High-Mach-Number Plasma Flow for an Advanced Plasma Space Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Inutake; K. Yoshino; S. Fujimura; H. Tobari; T. Yagai; Y. Hosokawa; R. Sato; K. Hattori; A. Ando

    2004-01-01

    A higher specific impulse and a larger thrust are required for a manned interplanetary space thruster. Prior to a realization of a fusion-plasma thruster, a magneto-plasma-dynamic arcjet (MPDA) powered by a fission reactor is one of the promising candidates for a manned Mars space thruster. The MPDA plasma is accelerated axially by a self-induced j × B force. Thrust performance of the MPDA is expected to increase by applying a magnetic nozzle instead of a solid nozzle. In order to get a much higher thruster performance, two methods have been investigated in the HITOP device, Tohoku University. One is to use a magnetic Laval nozzle in the vicinity of the MPDA muzzle for converting the high ion thermal energy to the axial flow energy. The other is to heat ions by use of an ICRF antenna in the divergent magnetic nozzle. It is found that by use of a small-sized Laval-type magnetic nozzle, the subsonic flow near the muzzle is converted to be supersonic through the magnetic Laval nozzle. A fast-flowing plasma is successfully heated by use of an ICRF antenna in the magnetic beach configuration.

  8. Korean development of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes for water reactors and HTGRS: space and gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea has been developing SPACE(Safety and Performance Analysis CodE) and GAMMA(GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis) codes for safety analysis of PWRs and HTGRs, respectively. SPACE is being developed by the Korea nuclear industry, which is a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for safety analysis of a PWR. It will replace outdated vendor supplied codes and will be used for the safety analysis of operating PWR and the design of an advanced PWR. It consists of the up-to-date physical models of two-phase flow dealing with multi-dimensional two-fluid, three-field flow. The GAMMA code consists of the multi-dimensional governing equations consisting of the basic equations for continuity, momentum conservation, energy conservation of the gas mixture, and mass conservation of n species. GAMMA is based on a porous media model so that we can deal with the thermo-fluid and chemical reaction behaviors in a multicomponent mixture system as well as heat transfer within the solid components, free and forced convection between a solid and a fluid, and radiative heat transfer between the solid surfaces. GAMMA has a model for helium turbines for HTGRs based on the throughflow calculation. We performed extensive code assessment for the V&V of SPACE and GAMMA. (author)

  9. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  10. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H2) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H2 propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (Isp) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H2 temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the Isp can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived NTR engines have continued as

  11. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  12. Advanced interface heat exchangers for the Space Station main thermal bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.

    1990-01-01

    Future evolution and growth of the Space Station will place increasing demands on the thermal management system by the addition of new payloads and from increased activity in the habitat modules. To meet this need, Creare is developing advanced evaporators, condensors, and single-phase heat exchangers for operation in microgravity. The objective is to achieve a several-fold increase in the heat flux capability of these components, while operating at the same temperature difference as specified for the present interface heat exchangers. Two prototype interface heat exchangers are presently being developed: one to interface the main thermal bus to a payload two-phase ammonia bus, and the other, to interface with the crew module single-phase water loop. The results achieved to date in the development of these heat exchangers are reviewed.

  13. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom and for the U.S. economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on Space Station Freedom. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 87566). A further requirement of the law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. This report is the sixteenth in a series of progress updates and covers the period between 15 Sep. 1992 - 16 Mar. 1993. The report describes the progress made by Levels 1, 2, and 3 of the Space Station Freedom in developing and applying advanced automation and robotics technology. Emphasis was placed upon the Space Station Freedom Program responses to specific recommendations made in ATAC Progress Report 15; and includes a status review of Space Station Freedom Launch Processing facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Assessments are presented for these and other areas as they apply to the advancement of automation and robotics technology for Space Station Freedom.

  14. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The present stature and current research directions of photovoltaic arrays as primary power systems for space are reviewed. There have recently been great advances in the technology of thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. In a thin-film solar cell the thickness of the active element is only a few microns; transfer of this technology to space arrays could result in ultralow-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper-indium selenide (CuInSe2) and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon:hydrogen and alloys. The best experimental efficiency on thin-film solar cells to date is 12 percent AMO for CuIn Se2. This efficiency is likely to be increased in the next few years. The radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single-crystal materials. CuIn Se2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1 MeV electrons. Experimental evidence also suggests that most of all of the radiation damage on thin-films can be removed by a low temperature anneal. The possibility of thin-film multibandgap cascade solar cells is discussed, including the tradeoffs between monolithic and mechanically stacked cells. The best current efficiency for a cascade is 12.5 percent AMO for an amorphous silicon on CuInSe2 multibandgap combination. Higher efficiencies are expected in the future. For several missions, including solar-electric propulsion, a manned Mars mission, and lunar exploration and manufacturing, thin-film photovolatic arrays may be a mission-enabling technology.

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Guang Wang; Li-Hui Wei; Ling-Hui Huang; Jian-Liu Wang; Shi-Jun Wang; Xiao-Ping Li

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT),which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors,has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer.NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer.To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervicat cancer,we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or without NACT at the People's Hospital of Peking University between January 2006 and December 2010.Of 110 patients,68 underwent platinum-based NACT prior to surgery (NACT group) and 42 underwent pdmary surgery treatment (PST group).Our results showed 48 of 68 (70.6%) patients achieved a complete response or partial response to NACT.Estimated blood loss,operation time,and number of removed lymph nodes during surgery,as well as complication rates during and after surgery were not significantly different between the NACT group and the PST group.The rates of deep stromal invasion,positive parametria,positive surgical vaginal margins,and lymph node metastasis were not significantly different between the two groups.However,the rate of lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI) was significantly lower in the NACT group than in the PST group (P = 0.021).In addition,the response rate of NACT was significantly higher in the patients with chemotherapeutic drugs administrated via artery than via vein.Our results suggest that NACT is a safe and effective treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer and significantly decreases the rate of LVSI.

  16. Advanced Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Device Optimization For High Temperature Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Almost all solar cells available today for space or terrestrial applications are optimized for low temperature or "room temperature" operations, where cell performances demonstrate favourable efficiency figures. The fact is in many space applications, as well as when using solar concentrators, operating cell temperature are typically highly elevated, where cells outputs are severely depreciated. In this paper, a novel approach for the optimization of multi-junction photovoltaic devices at such high expected operating temperature is presented. The device optimization is carried out on the novel cell physical model previously developed at the Naval Postgraduate School using the SILVACO software tools [1]. Taking into account the high cost of research and experimentation involved with the development of advanced cells, this successful modelling technique was introduced and detailed results were previously presented by the author [2]. The flexibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated and example results are shown throughout the whole process. The research demonstrated the capability of developing a realistic model of any type of solar cell, as well as thermo-photovoltaic devices. Details of an example model of an InGaP/GaAs/Ge multi-junction cell was prepared and fully simulated. The major stages of the process are explained and the simulation results are compared to published experimental data. An example of cell parameters optimization for high operating temperature is also presented. Individual junction layer optimization was accomplished through the use of a genetic search algorithm implemented in Matlab.

  17. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  18. Investigations on fracture curves in strain and stress space for advanced high strength steel forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panich, S.; Drotleff, K.; Liewald, M.; Uthaisangsuk, V.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional forming limit curves (FLCs) are inappropriate for describing formability for advanced high strength (AHS) steel sheets, since such steel grades experience fracture without localized necking occurrence. The aim of this work was to develop a fracture curve (FC) for the AHS steel grade DP980. The FC was determined by means of the Nakajima stretch forming test and tensile tests of various sample geometries, by which shear fracture governed. An optical strain measurement system was used to capture strain histories of deformed samples up to failure. From these results, fracture strains were gathered and plotted in a strain space. Subsequently, the strain based curve was transformed to space between stress triaxiality and plastic strain. Hereby, effects of anisotropic yield function, namely, the Hill’48 model on obtained stress fracture loci were investigated. In order to verify applicability of the determined limit curves, a Mini-tunnel part was pressed and simulated. It was found that the stress based FC do predict failure of the DP980 steel sheet more accurately than the strain based F C.

  19. Statement of Aaron Cohen, Director, Research and Engineering, Johnson Space Center and Chairman, Space Station Advanced Technology Advisory Committee, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The activities of NASA's Space Station Advanced Technology Advisory Committee is discussed. Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) activities over the last year are reviewed in preparation of the report to Congress on the potential for advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the U.S. economy.

  20. An advanced complex analysis problem book topological vector spaces, functional analysis, and Hilbert spaces of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This is an exercises book at the beginning graduate level, whose aim is to illustrate some of the connections between functional analysis and the theory of functions of one variable. A key role is played by the notions of positive definite kernel and of reproducing kernel Hilbert space. A number of facts from functional analysis and topological vector spaces are surveyed. Then, various Hilbert spaces of analytic functions are studied.

  1. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  2. The TXESS Revolution: A Partnership to Advance Earth and Space Science in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K. K.; Olson, H. C.; Willis, M.

    2007-12-01

    professional development program developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with National Science Foundation (NSF) funding; and an online learning forum designed to keep teachers and teacher mentors in contact with facilitators and fellow project-participants between and after training, as well as share best practices and new information. The new capstone course promises to be a rigorous and dynamic change to the way Earth and Space Science has been presented previously anywhere in the U.S. and will provide many opportunities for professional development and the dissemination of suitable Earth and Space Science curriculum. The TXESS Revolution project welcomes opportunities to collaborate with geoscience consortia, programs, organizations and geoscience educators to advance Earth and Space Science in Texas. NSF's Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program, the Shell Oil Company and the Jackson School of Geosciences are together funding the TXESS Revolution project.

  3. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  4. Recent advances in stimulated radiation studies during radiowave heating the near earth space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, high-frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980s. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE which exists in a frequency band of ±100 kHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Recent upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities in Alaska and Norway have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  5. Voxel Advanced Digital-Manufacturing for Earth and Regolith in Space Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    A voxel is a discrete three-dimensional (3D) element of material that is used to construct a larger 3D object. It is the 3D equivalent of a pixel. This project will conceptualize and study various approaches in order to develop a proof of concept 3D printing device that utilizes regolith as the material of the voxels. The goal is to develop a digital printer head capable of placing discrete self-aligning voxels in additive layers in order to fabricate small parts that can be given structural integrity through a post-printing sintering or other binding process. The quicker speeds possible with the voxel 3D printing approach along with the utilization of regolith material as the substrate will advance the use of this technology to applications for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), which is key to reducing logistics from Earth to Space, thus making long-duration human exploration missions to other celestial bodies more possible.

  6. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  7. Advanced Space Suit PLSS 2.0 Cooling Loop Evaluation and PLSS 2.5 Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Quinn, Greg; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice; Watts, Carly; Westheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    From 2012 to 2015 The NASA/JSC AdvSS (Advanced Space Suit) PLSS (Portable Life Support Subsystem) team, with support from UTC Aerospace Systems, performed the build-up, packaging and testing of PLSS 2.0. One aspect of that testing was the evaluation of the long-term health of the water cooling circuit and the interfacing components. Periodic and end-of-test water, residue and hardware analyses provided valuable information on the status of the water cooling circuit, and the approaches that would be necessary to enhance water cooling circuit health in the future. The evaluated data has been consolidated, interpreted and woven into an action plan for the maintenance of water cooling circuit health for the planned FY (fiscal year) 2016 through FY 2018 PLSS 2.5 testing. This paper provides an overview of the PLSS 2.0 water cooling circuit findings and the associated steps to be taken in that regard for the PLSS 2.5.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys Confirmation of the Dark Substructure in A520

    CERN Document Server

    Jee, M James; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Babul, Arif

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a weak gravitational lensing study of the merging cluster A520 based on the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The excellent data quality allows us to reach a mean number density of source galaxies of ~109 per sq. arcmin, which improves both resolution and significance of the mass reconstruction compared to a previous study based on Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images. We take care in removing instrumental effects such as the trailing of charge due to radiation damage of the ACS detector and the position-dependent point spread function (PSF). This new ACS analysis confirms the previous claims that a substantial amount of dark mass is present between two luminous subclusters. We examine the distribution of cluster galaxies and observe very little light at this location. We find that the centroid of the dark peak in the current ACS analysis is offset to the southwest by ~1 arcmin with respect to the centroid from the WFPC2 analysis. In...

  9. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  10. Optimal Use of Space-Borne Advanced Infrared and Microwave Soundings for Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can either be assimilated as radiances or as retrieved physical parameters to reduce error in the initial conditions used by the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. Assimilation of radiances requires a radiative transfer model to convert atmospheric state in model space to that in radiance space, thus requiring a lot of computational resources especially for hyperspectral instruments with thousands of channels. On the other hand, assimilating the retrieved physical parameters is computationally more efficient as they are already in thermodynamic states, which can be compared with NWP model outputs through the objective analysis scheme. A microwave (MW sounder and an infrared (IR sounder have their respective observational limitation due to the characteristics of adopted spectra. The MW sounder observes at much larger field-of-view (FOV compared to an IR sounder. On the other hand, MW has the capability to reveal the atmospheric sounding when the clouds are presented, but IR observations are highly sensitive to clouds, The advanced IR sounder is able to reduce uncertainties in the retrieved atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles due to its higher spectral-resolution than the MW sounder which has much broader spectra bands. This study tries to quantify the optimal use of soundings retrieved from the microwave sounder AMSU and infrared sounder AIRS onboard the AQUA satellite in the regional Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF model through three-dimensional variational (3D-var data assimilation scheme. Four experiments are conducted by assimilating soundings from: (1 clear AIRS single field-of-view (SFOV; (2 retrieved from using clear AMSU and AIRS observations at AMSU field-of-view (SUP; (3 all SFOV soundings within AMSU FOVs must be clear; and (4 SUP soundings which must have all clear SFOV soundings within the AMSU FOV. A baseline experiment assimilating only conventional data is generated for comparison

  11. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  12. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  13. Thermal analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8-meter primary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The objective is to maintain the primary mirror at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop®1. A detailed model of the primary mirror was required in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew and a 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the solar environment that influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model is used to predict gradients across and through the primary mirror using an idealized boundary temperature on the back and sides of the mirror of 280 K.

  14. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  15. Use of advanced particle methods in modeling space propulsion and its supersonic expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Arnaud

    This research discusses the use of advanced kinetic particle methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to model space propulsion systems such as electrospray thrusters and their supersonic expansions. MD simulations are performed to model an electrospray thruster for the ionic liquid (IL) EMIM--BF4 using coarse-grained (CG) potentials. The model is initially featuring a constant electric field applied in the longitudinal direction. Two coarse-grained potentials are compared, and the effective-force CG (EFCG) potential is found to predict the formation of the Taylor cone, the cone-jet, and other extrusion modes for similar electric fields and mass flow rates observed in experiments of a IL fed capillary-tip-extractor system better than the simple CG potential. Later, one-dimensional and fully transient three-dimensional electric fields, the latter solving Poisson's equation to take into account the electric field due to space charge at each timestep, are computed by coupling the MD model to a Poisson solver. It is found that the inhomogeneous electric field as well as that of the IL space-charge improve agreement between modeling and experiment. The boundary conditions (BCs) are found to have a substantial impact on the potential and electric field, and the tip BC is introduced and compared to the two previous BCs, named plate and needle, showing good improvement by reducing unrealistically high radial electric fields generated in the vicinity of the capillary tip. The influence of the different boundary condition models on charged species currents as a function of the mass flow rate is studied, and it is found that a constant electric field model gives similar agreement to the more rigorous and computationally expensive tip boundary condition at lower flow rates. However, at higher mass flow rates the MD simulations with the constant electric field produces extruded particles with higher Coulomb energy per ion, consistent with

  16. The Application of Advanced Cultivation Techniques in the Long Term Maintenance of Space Flight Plant Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the International Space Station (ISS) presents extensive opportunities for the implementation of long duration space life sciences studies. Continued attention has been placed in the development of plant growth chamber facilities capable of supporting the cultivation of plants in space flight microgravity conditions. The success of these facilities is largely dependent on their capacity to support the various growth requirements of test plant species. The cultivation requirements for higher plant species are generally complex, requiring specific levels of illumination, temperature, humidity, water, nutrients, and gas composition in order to achieve normal physiological growth and development. The supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen to the plant root system is a factor, which has proven to be particularly challenging in a microgravity space flight environment. The resolution of this issue is particularly important for the more intensive crop cultivation of plants envisaged in Nasa's advanced life support initiative. BioServe Space Technologies is a NASA, Research Partnership Center (RPC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. BioServe has designed and operated various space flight plant habitat systems, and placed specific emphasis on the development and enhanced performance of subsystem components such as water and nutrient delivery, illumination, gas exchange and atmosphere control, temperature and humidity control. The further development and application of these subsystems to next generation habitats is of significant benefit and contribution towards the development of both the Space Plant biology and the Advanced Life Support Programs. The cooperative agreement between NASA Ames Research center and BioServe was established to support the further implementation of advanced cultivation techniques and protocols to plant habitat systems being coordinated at NASA Ames Research Center. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of passive

  17. Advanced Numerical Tools for Design and Analysis of In-Space, Valve and Feed Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-space valves for the main fuel and oxidizer feed systems are required to provide precise control, wide throttling range and handle rapid on-off control. These...

  18. Advanced Numerical Tools for Design and Analysis of In-Space, Valve and Feed Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-space valves are required to provide precise mass flow control, wide throttling range and handle rapid on-off control. These requirements can result in...

  19. Advanced Materials for Safe, High Performance Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration vehicles are trending to higher pulse power, energy capacity levels and cycle life in order to meet exponentially increasing performance and...

  20. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): Micro Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion technology is often critical for space missions. High-value missions could be done with very small spacecraft, even CubeSats, but these...

  1. Momentum-space spectroscopy for advanced analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton coupled and bent waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, K; Bernardin, T; Colas-des-Francs, G; Weeber, Jean-Claude; de Lamestre, R Espiau; Dereux, Alain

    2013-01-01

    We perform advanced radiation leakage microscopy of routing dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguiding structures. By direct plane imaging and momentum-space spectroscopy, we analyze the energy transfer between coupled waveguides as a function of gap distance and reveal the momentum distribution of curved geometries. Specifically, we observed a clear degeneracy lift of the effective indices for strongly interacting waveguides in agreement with coupled-mode theory. We use momentum-space representations to discuss the effect of curvature on dielectric-loaded waveguides. The experimental images are successfully reproduced by a numerical and an analytical model of the mode propagating in a curved plasmonic waveguide.

  2. Advanced Optical Technologies in NASA's Space Communication Program: Status, Challenges, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John

    2004-01-01

    A goal of the NASA Space Communications Project is to enable broad coverage for high-data-rate delivery to the users by means of ground, air, and space-based assets. The NASA Enterprise need will be reviewed. A number of optical space communications technologies being developed by NASA will be described, and the prospective applications will be discussed.

  3. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  4. Numerical Investigation of a Cascaded Longitudinal Space-Charge Amplifier at the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    In a cascaded longitudinal space-charge amplifier (LSCA), initial density noise in a relativistic e-beam is amplified via the interplay of longitudinal space charge forces and properly located dispersive sections. This type of amplification process was shown to potentially result in large final density modulations [1] compatible with the production of broadband electromagnetic radiation. The technique was recently demonstrated in the optical domain [2]. In this paper we investigate, via numerical simulations, the performances of a cascaded LSCA beamline at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). We especially explore the properties of the produced broadband radiation. Our studies have been conducted with a grid-less three-dimensional space-charge algorithm.

  5. Advanced Unsteady Turbulent Combustion Simulation Capability for Space Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a high performance, high fidelity simulation capability to enable accurate, fast and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent,...

  6. Dedicated Slosh Dynamics Experiment on ISS using SPHERES (Advanced Space Operations in CR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Synchronized Position, Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites – VERTIGO (SPHERES-VERTIGO) developed by the Massachusetts Institute of...

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Guang; Wei, Li-Hui; Huang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Dan-Hua; Bao, Dong-Mei; Gao, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors, has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer. To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervical cancer, we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or w...

  8. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  9. Preface: Advances in asteroid and space debris science and technology - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Asteroids and space debris represent a significant hazard for space and terrestrial assets; at the same time asteroids represent also an opportunity. In recent years it has become clear that the increasing population of space debris could lead to catastrophic consequences in the near term. The Kessler syndrome (where the density of objects in orbit is high enough that collisions could set off a cascade) is more realistic than when it was first proposed in 1978. Although statistically less likely to occur, an asteroid impact would have devastating consequences for our planet. Although an impact with a large (∼10 km) to medium (∼300 m) sized, or diameter, asteroid is unlikely, still it is not negligible as the recent case of the asteroid Apophis has demonstrated. Furthermore impacts with smaller size objects, between 10 m and 100 m diameter, are expected to occur more frequently and hence are, proportionally, equally dangerous for humans and assets on Earth and in space.

  10. Advanced Data Mining and Deployment for Integrated Vehicle Health Management and the Space Vehicle Lifecycle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a successful Phase 1 project for NASA SBIR topic A1.05, "Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management," Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) demonstrated...

  11. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM, an emerging manufacturing technique) to manufacture a subscale...

  12. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP): High Temperature Boost Power Processing Unit (PPU) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task is to investigate the technology path to develop a 10kW modular Silicon Carbide (SiC) based power processing unit (PPU). The PPU utilizes the high...

  13. Advances in the archiving and distribution facilities at the Space Telescope Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Postman, Marc; Pollizzi, Joseph; Richon, J.

    1998-07-01

    The Hubble Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute contains over 4.3 TB of data, primarily for the Hubble Space Telescope, but also from complementary space- based and ground-based facilities. We are in the process of upgrading and generalizing many of the HDA's component system, developing tools to provide more integrated access to the HDA holdings, and working with other major data providing organizations to implement global data location services for astronomy and other space science disciplines. This paper describes the key elements of our archiving and data distribution systems, including a planned transition to DVD media, data compression, data segregation, on-the-fly calibration, an engineering data warehouse, and distributed search and retrieval facilities.

  14. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the High Specific Energy Battery project element is to develop high specific energy battery technologies that enable new capabilities for future...

  15. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future UV/Optical telescopes will require increasingly large apertures to answer the questions raised by HST, JWST, Planck and Hershel, and to complement the = 30-m...

  16. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Topics include an overview of On-board science data processing, software upset mitigation, on-board data reduction, on-board products, HyspIRI demonstration testbed, SpaceCube 2.0 block diagram, and processor comparison.

  17. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to use selective laser melting (SLM, an additive manufacturing technique) to manufacture a hot fire-capable, water-cooled spool...

  18. Advanced Simulation Framework for Design and Analysis of Space Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a computational framework for high performance, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to enable accurate, fast and robust...

  19. Advanced Simulation Framework for Design and Analysis of Space Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a high-performance, high-fidelity framework in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code called Loci-STREAM to enable accurate,...

  20. Mutlifunctional Energy Storage-Structure Modules for Advanced Space Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN Energy Systems, Inc., in collaboration with the Center for Composite Materials (CCM) at the University of Delaware, proposes to design and develop...

  1. Uses of Advanced Ceramic Composites in the Thermal Protection Systems of Future Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasky, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Current ceramic composites being developed and characterized for use in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future space vehicles are reviewed. The composites discussed include new tough, low density ceramic insulation's, both rigid and flexible; ultra-high temperature ceramic composites; nano-ceramics; as well as new hybrid ceramic/metallic and ceramic/organic systems. Application and advantage of these new composites to the thermal protection systems of future reusable access to space vehicles and small spacecraft is reviewed.

  2. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom and for the U.S. economy. Submitted to the Congress of the U.S. May 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on Space Station Freedom. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 87566). A further requirement of the law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. The report describes the progress made by Levels 1, 2 and 3 of the Office Space Station in developing and applying advanced automation and robotics technology. Emphasis has been placed upon the Space Station Freedom Program responses to specific recommendations made in ATAC Progress Report 11, the status of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer, and the status of the Advanced Development Program. In addition, an assessment is provided of the automation and robotics status of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  3. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  4. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  5. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  6. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  7. Absorbing Charged Rotating Metric in de Sitter Space in Advanced Time Coordinates and the Related Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dian-Yah

    2000-01-01

    Absorbing charged rotating (ACR) metric in de Sitter space and related energy-momentum tensor are derived.The ACR metric is very simple in advanced time coordinates. The ACR metric involves 8 independent parameters which are divided into two classes: (1) the mass M, charge Q, angular momentum per unit mass a, and cosmological constant A; (2) M/ v, 2M/ v2, Q/ v, and 2Q/ v2. The non-stationary part of the energy-momentum tensor is positive definite everywhere.

  8. 囊虫病免疫诊断候选抗原研究进展%Advances in research on candidate antigens for immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2011-01-01

    猪囊尾蚴免疫诊断抗原的研究是囊虫病免疫诊断的基础.猪囊尾蚴抗原成分复杂,特别是虫体粗抗原,与多种寄生虫存在明显的交叉抗原成分,影响检测的特异性.近年来随着分子生物学的发展,重组抗原制备简单,检测效果良好,已成为囊虫病免疫诊断研究的热点.本文对近年来囊虫病免疫诊断抗原的分子生物学研究进展进行了综述.%Study of the antigens of Taenia solium is the basis for immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis. Taenia solium antigens have a number of components, which is particularly true of the parasite's crude antigens. Cross-reactivity with other helminth infections occurs with whole worm antigen and affects the specificity of the parasitr's detection. Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis has garnered attention because of recent advances in molecular biology, ready preparation of recombinant antigens, and the increased effectiveness of the disease's detection. This review describes recent advances in molecular biology research on antigens for use in immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis.

  9. Perspectives &advanced projects for small satellite missions at Carlo Gavazzi Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morea, G.; Sabatini, P.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents the Planned and on-going programs in Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) for the next five years. Thanks to the success of the first MITA platform mission, CGS has acquired a consolidated experience in Satellite System Design and of Prime Contractor in Satellite programmes. After four years from launch of first MITA platform from Plesetsk (CSI) several mission concept and satellite program have started and are under developing. The common elements to these program is the low mission cost and short development plan. The first ASI Scientific Small Mission using the MITA platform, AGILE is a Gamma Ray detector aimed to identify Gamma Ray Bursts. The Payload has been developed with the contribution of a large group of Italian Research Centres and Institutes, Carlo Gavazzi Space is also responsible for the overall mission as leader of an Italian Consortium. In the frame of ASI's Earth Observation Programmes, Carlo Gavazzi Space has also successfully concluded the Phase B/C of the HypSEO (HyperSpectral Earth Observer) mission. The Desertsat satellite, devoted to the study of the sand dunes movements and to the assessment of the desertification process, is a joint collaboration with ASI and Egypt. Desertsat is equipped with an Multispectral imager. PALAMEDE, whose peculiar characteristics are two: the first is to use components and technologies not space qualified and therefore by far cheaper than those normally used for space systems, the second is that it is entirely realised by the students of Politecnico.

  10. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  11. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1 explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2 examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3 recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  12. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  13. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-05

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  14. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  15. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  16. The General Discussion on Thermal Technologies in Advanced Space Transfer Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Wang, Guo-hui

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the boundary of space exploration has been wider and wider. So the demand of new-generation spacecrafts, carriers and transfer vehicles becomes urged. In this article, thermal questions and first-stage counter-measure technical methods and the relative important recent improvements in these methods are discussed about two important types of new conceptive Space Transfer Vehicles (STVs), the nuclear-thermal propelling STV and laser propelled STV, especially on the heat generation, heat collection, heat transfer and heat control. At the end of this article, pieces of advice and several predictions are put forward, generally and principally.

  17. Advanced Magnetic-Nuclear Power Systems for Reliability Demanding Applications Including Deep Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Guy, Troy

    2010-01-01

    The MAGNUS concept, which is based on the FFMCR approach, offers space power and propulsion technology with a number of unique characteristics such as: ï‚· Direct FF energy conversion is uniquely suitable for space operation; ï‚· High efficiency DEC promises reduced thermal control and radiators; ï‚· High specific impulse allows short trip times and extends exploration to the outer reaches of the solar system and beyond; ï‚· Achievability of long-term operation assures power for missions with...

  18. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, N; Connolly, B; Kim, A G; Pain, R; Roe, N A; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Dawson, K; Doi, M; Fadeev, V; Fruchter, A S; Gibbons, R; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Gude, A; Knop, R A; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Morokuma, T; Meyers, J; Perlmutter, S; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanishev, V; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Wang, L; Yasuda, N

    2007-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of pos...

  19. Advanced manned space flight simulation and training: An investigation of simulation host computer system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Bruce C.; Bishop, Alfred M.; Redfield, Joe B.

    1989-01-01

    The findings of a preliminary investigation by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in simulation host computer concepts is presented. It is designed to aid NASA in evaluating simulation technologies for use in spaceflight training. The focus of the investigation is on the next generation of space simulation systems that will be utilized in training personnel for Space Station Freedom operations. SwRI concludes that NASA should pursue a distributed simulation host computer system architecture for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) rather than a centralized mainframe based arrangement. A distributed system offers many advantages and is seen by SwRI as the only architecture that will allow NASA to achieve established functional goals and operational objectives over the life of the Space Station Freedom program. Several distributed, parallel computing systems are available today that offer real-time capabilities for time critical, man-in-the-loop simulation. These systems are flexible in terms of connectivity and configurability, and are easily scaled to meet increasing demands for more computing power.

  20. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 2: Communications terminal breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of the communications terminal breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) history of communications terminal breadboard, (2) requirements analysis, (3) technology goals in terminal design, and (4) communications terminal board integration tests.

  1. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  2. MEMS in Space – A New Technology Advancing from Flight Experiment to Proven COTS Product

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Andrew; Alderton, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, SSTL has shown that Small Satellites are an effective alternative to larger missions. To remain competitive, however, these spacecraft need to fit more and better functionality into the same low mass, low volume envelopes that allow them to be launched at low cost. Micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an advanced technology that addresses this need and an area that is presently developing rapidly. Atlantic Inertial Systems’ RRS01 MEMS rate sensor was developed...

  3. The Space Weather Observation Network (SWON) Concept - Inauguration of the DLR Advanced Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald, Volker; Weiß, André; Quantius, Dominik; Schubert, Daniel; Jansen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The DLR Advanced Study Group (ASG) is a team of engineers and scientists that investigates visionary or unusual aerospace concepts regarding their feasibility and applicability to scientific problems, in an attempt to erase the “fiction” from the “science fiction” of scientifically valid ideas and make them rigorous science. To achieve this, the ASG uses established processes and new approaches for concept analysis, like so called Concurrent Evaluation sessions. One of the first ideas investi...

  4. Design space exploration and performance modelling of advanced turbofan and open-rotor engines

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the current civil engine design practice of increasing overall pressure ratio, turbine entry temperature and bypass ratio, and on the technologies required in order to sustain it. In this context, this thesis contributes towards clarifying the following gray aspects of future civil engine development: the connection between an aircraft application, the engine thermodynamic cycle and the advanced technologies of variable area fan nozzle and fan drive gearb...

  5. Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

  6. Advancing Innovation Through Collaboration: Implementation of the NASA Space Life Sciences Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    On October 18, 2010, the NASA Human Health and Performance center (NHHPC) was opened to enable collaboration among government, academic and industry members. Membership rapidly grew to 90 members (http://nhhpc.nasa.gov ) and members began identifying collaborative projects as detailed in this article. In addition, a first workshop in open collaboration and innovation was conducted on January 19, 2011 by the NHHPC resulting in additional challenges and projects for further development. This first workshop was a result of the SLSD successes in running open innovation challenges over the past two years. In 2008, the NASA Johnson Space Center, Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) began pilot projects in open innovation (crowd sourcing) to determine if these new internet-based platforms could indeed find solutions to difficult technical problems. From 2008 to 2010, the SLSD issued 34 challenges, 14 externally and 20 internally. The 14 external challenges were conducted through three different vendors: InnoCentive, Yet2.com and TopCoder. The 20 internal challenges were conducted using the InnoCentive platform, customized to NASA use, and promoted as NASA@Work. The results from the 34 challenges involved not only technical solutions that were reported previously at the 61st IAC, but also the formation of new collaborative relationships. For example, the TopCoder pilot was expanded by the NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate to the NASA Tournament Lab in collaboration with Harvard Business School and TopCoder. Building on these initial successes, the NHHPC workshop in January of 2011, and ongoing NHHPC member discussions, several important collaborations have been developed: (1) Space Act Agreement between NASA and GE for collaborative projects (2) NASA and academia for a Visual Impairment / Intracranial Hypertension summit (February 2011) (3) NASA and the DoD through the Defense Venture Catalyst Initiative (DeVenCI) for a technical needs workshop (June 2011) (4

  7. Advances in space target space-based optical imaging simulation%空间目标天基光学成像仿真研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩意; 孙华燕

    2012-01-01

    Space target optical imaging simulation has play an important role in the demonstration, design and performance evaluation of space-based optical observation system. The visible light and laser imaging simulation of space object were taken as research subjects, the general simulation research contents, key technologies and methods were discussed, the advances of foreign and domestic typical researches from three respects including laser imaging simulation, visible imaging simulation and hybrid imaging and detecting simulation were introduced. At last the development orientation were put forward, which can provide references for the next research thought and methods.%空间目标光学成像仿真在天基光学观测系统研制开发过程中具有重要的价值和意义.以天基空间目标的可见光和激光成像仿真为研究对象,分析了空间目标成像仿真的研究内容、关键技术和方法,重点介绍了天基空间目标激光成像仿真、可见光成像仿真与复合成像探测仿真研究方面的国内外典型研究单位的研究成果以及下一步的研究发展方向,可为空间目标成像仿真研究思路与方法提供借鉴.

  8. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  9. Developing an Advanced Life Support System for the Flexible Path into Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit, such as a permanent lunar base, an asteroid rendezvous, or exploring Mars, will use recycling life support systems to preclude supplying large amounts of metabolic consumables. The International Space Station (ISS) life support design provides a historic guiding basis for future systems, but both its system architecture and the subsystem technologies should be reconsidered. Different technologies for the functional subsystems have been investigated and some past alternates appear better for flexible path destinations beyond low Earth orbit. There is a need to develop more capable technologies that provide lower mass, increased closure, and higher reliability. A major objective of redesigning the life support system for the flexible path is achieving the maintainability and ultra-reliability necessary for deep space operations.

  10. Fabrication and nondestructive examination development for advanced components and materials for the SP-100 space reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Peter J.; Dobrzynski, Walter J.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress has now been made in the development of fabrication and Nondestructive Examination techniques for the SP-100 Space Reactor. All major fabrication challenges have been faced and overcome. Methods are in place for the fabrication and inspection of composite fuel cladding, the reactor honeycomb core, cold forging of the core support nozzle course, and electron beam welding of the auxiliary cooling loop system. Specifications and procedures have been developed and proven on actual hardware for electron beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, heat treatment, solvent cleaning, chemical cleaning, ultrasonic inspection, helium leak testing, dye penetrant and microfocus rod anode radiography. Signicant work remains to be done but no problems have been identified which would prevent fabrication of the high temperature SP-100 Space Reactor.

  11. The European SILEX project and other advanced concepts for optical space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenhaeuser, G.; Wittig, M.; Popescu, A.

    1991-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is developing an optical inter-orbit communication system enabling a link between a low earth orbiting (LEO) and a geostationary (GEO) spacecraft. The link allows the transmission of 50 Mbps between LEO and GEO in an experimental and pre-operational mode. The system uses laser diodes of typically 100 mW optical power at a wavelength of 830 nanometer. Direct intensity modulation is applied. Telescopes of 25 cm diameter are used on both terminals. The breadboard phase has been completed and the launch of both terminals is scheduled for 1994. Other concepts for optical space communication links using Nd:YAG lasers and heterodyne receive systems are outlined.

  12. Advanced techniques for free-space optical quantum cryptography over water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alexander D.; Christensen, Bradley; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2016-03-01

    Free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) over water (e.g., ship to ship) may be limited by ship motion and atmospheric effects, such as mode distortion and beam wander due to turbulence. We report on a technique which reduces noise by excluding spatial modes which are less likely to contain QKD signal photons and experimentally demonstrate an improvement in QKD key generation rates in various noise and turbulence regimes.

  13. Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Gary D.; Assink, Roger Alan; Dargaville, Tim Richard; Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail; Clough, Roger Lee; Elliott, Julie M.; Martin, Jeffrey W.; Mowery, Daniel Michael; Celina, Mathew Christopher

    2005-11-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest for large aperture space-based telescopes as adaptive or smart materials. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive polymer films depend on controlled charge deposition. Predicting their long-term performance requires a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric material features, expected to suffer due to space environmental degradation. Hence, the degradation and performance of PVDF and its copolymers under various stress environments expected in low Earth orbit has been reviewed and investigated. Various experiments were conducted to expose these polymers to elevated temperature, vacuum UV, {gamma}-radiation and atomic oxygen. The resulting degradative processes were evaluated. The overall materials performance is governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes. Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and atomic oxygen exposure is evident as depoling, loss of orientation and surface erosion. The effects of combined vacuum UV radiation and atomic oxygen resulted in expected surface erosion and pitting rates that determine the lifetime of thin films. Interestingly, the piezo responsiveness in the underlying bulk material remained largely unchanged. This study has delivered a comprehensive framework for material properties and degradation sensitivities with variations in individual polymer performances clearly apparent. The results provide guidance for material selection, qualification, optimization strategies, feedback for manufacturing and processing, or alternative materials. Further material qualification should be conducted via experiments under actual space conditions.

  14. Advances in solving the two-fermion homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    de Paula, W; Salmè, G; Viviani, M

    2016-01-01

    Actual solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a two-fermion bound system are becoming available directly in Minkowski space, by virtue of a novel technique, based on the so-called Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and improved by expressing the relevant momenta through light-front components, i.e. $k^\\pm=k^0 \\pm k^3$. We solve a crucial problem that widens the applicability of the method to real situations by providing an analytically exact treatment of the singularities plaguing the two-fermion problem in Minkowski space, irrespective of the complexity of the irreducible Bethe-Salpeter kernel. This paves the way for feasible numerical investigations of relativistic composite systems, with any spin degrees of freedom. We present a thorough comparison with existing numerical results, evaluated in both Minkowski and Euclidean space, fully corroborating our analytical treatment, as well as fresh light-front amplitudes illustrating the potentiality of non perturbative calcula...

  15. SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael; Flatley, Thomas; Godfrey, John; Geist, Alessandro; Espinosa, Daniel; Petrick, David

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceCube 2.0 is a compact, high performance, low-power onboard processing system that takes advantage of cutting-edge hybrid (CPU/FPGA/DSP) processing elements. The SpaceCube 2.0 design concept includes two commercial Virtex-5 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) parts protected by gradiation hardened by software" technology, and possesses exceptional size, weight, and power characteristics [5x5x7 in., 3.5 lb (approximately equal to 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm, 1.6 kg) 5-25 W, depending on the application fs required clock rate]. The two Virtex-5 FPGA parts are implemented in a unique back-toback configuration to maximize data transfer and computing performance. Draft computing power specifications for the SpaceCube 2.0 unit include four PowerPC 440s (1100 DMIPS each), 500+ DSP48Es (2x580 GMACS), 100+ LVDS high-speed serial I/Os (1.25 Gbps each), and 2x190 GFLOPS single-precision (65 GFLOPS double-precision) floating point performance. The SpaceCube 2.0 includes PROM memory for CPU boot, health and safety, and basic command and telemetry functionality; RAM memory for program execution; and FLASH/EEPROM memory to store algorithms and application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements. Program execution can be reconfigured in real time and algorithms can be updated, modified, and/or replaced at any point during the mission. Gigabit Ethernet, Spacewire, SATA and highspeed LVDS serial/parallel I/O channels are available for instrument/sensor data ingest, and mission-unique instrument interfaces can be accommodated using a compact PCI (cPCI) expansion card interface. The SpaceCube 2.0 can be utilized in NASA Earth Science, Helio/Astrophysics and Exploration missions, and Department of Defense satellites for onboard data processing. It can also be used in commercial communication and mapping satellites.

  16. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) Low Cost Telemetry - Access from Space Advanced Technologies or Down the Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, presently qualified satellite transponder applications were developed during the early 1960's space program. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR, NASA-MSFC SDR) technology revolutionizes satellite transponder technology by increasing data through-put capability by, at least, an order of magnitude. PULSAR leverages existing Marshall Space Flight Center SDR designs and commercially enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations will (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) a commensurate volume reduction. Also, PULSAR increases flexibility to implement multiple transponder types by utilizing the same hardware with altered logic - no analog hardware change is required - all of which can be accomplished in orbit. This provides high capability, low cost, transponders to programs of all sizes. The final project outcome would be the introduction of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost CubeSat to SmallSat telemetry system into the NASA Portfolio.

  17. Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase: a candidate biomarker to discriminate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Delay in the treatment of pleural infection may contribute to its high mortality. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural adenosine deaminase in discrimination between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space prior to selecting antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled and grouped into subgroups according to Gram staining: 1 patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections, aged 53.2±18.6 years old, of whom 44.7% had empyemas and 2 patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections, aged 53.5±21.5 years old, of whom 63.1% had empyemas. The pleural effusion was sampled by thoracocentesis and then sent for adenosine deaminase testing, biochemical testing and microbiological culture. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences in adenosine deaminase levels between the groups. Correlations between adenosine deaminase and specified variables were also quantified using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion adenosine deaminase. RESULTS: Mean pleural adenosine deaminase levels differed significantly between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space (191.8±32.1 U/L vs 81.0±16.9 U/L, p<0.01. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.570, 0.792, p<0.01 at the cutoff value of 86 U/L. Additionally, pleural adenosine deaminase had a sensitivity of 63.2% (46.0-78.2%; a specificity of 73.7% (56.9-86.6%; positive and negative likelihood ratios of 2.18 and 0.50, respectively; and positive and negative predictive values of 70.6% and 66.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase is a helpful alternative biomarker for early and quick discrimination of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacterial infections of the

  18. 航天人因工程研究进展%Advancement in Space Human Factors Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善广; 姜国华; 王春慧

    2015-01-01

    Space Human Factors Engineering ( SHFE ) is the application of Human Factors Engi-neering ( HFE) in the manned space field , which adheres to the philosophy of astronaut-centered de-sign, focuses on the best match and systematic integration of human , machine and environment in manned space missions in order to ensure the safety , comfortability and performance of astronauts . In this paper , the concept and role of SHFE was introduced and the research features and trends of SHFE was analyzed by reviewing its progress in China and abroad .The technical system of SHFE was proposed according to the requirements of future manned space missions in China on the study of SHFE .The contents and roadmap of SHFE researches in China were also proposed in terms of man-agement and technology .%航天人因工程是人因工程学在载人航天领域中的应用,秉承“为航天员使用而设计”的理念,系统研究解决航天员、航天器、航天环境之间的关系问题,确保航天员在轨安全、舒适、高效工作。从航天人因工程概念和作用出发,通过系统梳理国际国内航天人因工程研究的发展现状,重点分析了其研究特点及未来发展趋势。结合我国载人航天后续发展对航天人因工程的迫切实际需求,系统梳理了航天人因工程研究技术体系,并从管理与技术研究两个方面,系统论述了我国航天人因工程的研究应迫切开展的工作及后续发展的思路。

  19. Recent advances in numerical simulation of space-plasma-physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations have become an increasingly popular, important and insightful tool for studying space plasmas. This review describes MHD and particle simulations, both of which treat the plasma and the electromagnetic field in which it moves in a self consistent fashion but on drastically different spatial and temporal scales. The complementary roles of simulation, observations and theory are stressed. Several examples of simulations being carried out in the area of magnetospheric plasma physics are described to illustrate the power, potential and limitations of the approach.

  20. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  1. Two new advanced forms of spectrometry for space and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Reagentless ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UVAS) and Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES) represent new forms of spectrometry with extensive potential in both space and commercial applications. Originally developed under KSC sponsorship for monitoring nutrient solutions for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), both UVAS and LAES have extensive analytical capabilities for both organic and inorganic chemical compounds. Both forms of instrumentation involve the use of remote fiber optic probes and real-time measurements for on-line process monitoring. Commercial applications exist primarily in environmental analysis and for process control in the chemical, pulp and paper, food processing, metal plating, and water/wastewater treatment industries.

  2. Design of propellant acquisition systems for advanced cryogenic space propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.; Castle, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents results of work conducted to expand the technology base and evolve practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for future cryogenic space vehicles. Surface tension screen device channel flow analysis and supporting tests showed that reasonable mesh sizes could provide the required retention performance. Integrated subsystem studies and development showed that practical and effective screen surface tension acquisition devices could be designed for typical applications, but that other interfacing feed subsystems are often constrained by the design of the particular acquisition device. These constraints may dominate the total feed system performance.

  3. Advanced micro-reactor for space and deep sea exploration: a scientific Brazilian vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humankind is at the point to initiate a new adventure in its evolutionary journey, the colonization of other planets of our solar system and space travels. Also, there is still another frontier where the human presence is scarce, the oceans and the Earth seabed. To have success in the exploration of these new frontiers a fundamental requirement must be satisfied: secure availability of energy for life support and others processes. This work deals with the establishment of a basis for a Brazilian nuclear research and development (R and D) program to develop micro-reactor (MR) technologies that may be used in the seabed, the space or another hostile environment on Earth. The work presents a set of basic requirements that is used to define the best reactor type to be used in these environments. Also, the limits and dimensions that define the class of micro-reactors are discussed. The fast neutron spectrum was chosen as the best for the MR and the limits for the active core volume and thermal power are 30 liters and 5 MW. (author)

  4. Technology demonstration of a free-piston stirling advanced radioisotope space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Olan, Ronald W.; Erbeznik, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling convertors (Stirling engine with integral linear alternator) are a mature technology with demonstrated long-life, maintenance-free, degradation-free operation exceeding 46,000 hours (5+ years) on one unit. Tens of thousands of hours have been accumulated on numerous systems in beta trials, plus more than 8 million flexure-hours (900 flexure-years) on the most critical component (flexure bearings), all with no failures when operated within specifications. Vibration is a key concern for Stirling convertors in space. Recent tests have demonstrated a factor of 50 reduction in vibration, relative to a single convertor, by coupling two convertors mechanically and electrically. Even though the measured vibration level is below Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specified vibration objectives, demonstration of an additional factor of 10 vibration reduction is pending with an active vibration reduction system. Stirling cycle efficiency is well established. A four-convertor 150-W(e) end of mission (EOM) power system for deep space missions is projected to require only three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules with conservative Inconel 718 heater heads, leaving significant efficiency improvement potential when used with higher temperature materials. Even in the unlikely scenario of one inoperative convertor, the other three convertors ramp up to provide full output. A two-convertor demonstration system, representative of one-half of a 150-W(e) power system, is described in this paper and scheduled to become operational in December 1998.

  5. Recent advance on design and manufacturing of composite anisogrid structures for space launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, G.; De Nicola, F.

    2012-12-01

    Anisogrid composite shells have been developed and applied since the eighties by the Russian technology aiming at critical weight structures for space launchers, as interstages and cone adapters. The manufacturing process commonly applied is based on the wet filament winding. The paper concerns with some developments of design and manufacturing recently performed at the Italian Aerospace Research Center on a cylindrical structural model representative of this kind of structures. The framework of preliminary design is improved by introducing the concept of suboptimal configuration in order to match the stiffness requirement of the shell and minimise the mass, in conjunction with the typical strength constraints. The undertaken manufacturing process is based on dry robotic winding for the lattice structure and for the outer skin, with the aid of usual rubber tooling and new devices for the automated deposition strategy. Resin infusion under vacuum bag and co-cure of the system of ribs and skin is finally applied out-of-autoclave, with the aid of a heated mandrel. With such approach an interstage structural model (scale factor 1:1.5) has been designed, manufactured and tested. Design requirements and loads refer to a typical space launcher whose baseline configuration is made in aluminium. The global mechanical test of the manufactured structure has confirmed the expected high structural performance. The possibility to reach substantial weight savings in comparison with the aluminium benchmark has been fully demonstrated.

  6. Effect of Profiles and Space on Ideal Stability of Advanced Tokamak Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, M A; Casper, T A; Ferron, J R; Taylor, T S; Turnbull, A D

    2003-07-07

    The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/{l_angle}P{r_brace} {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (>2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  7. Cost benefits of advanced software: A review of methodology used at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1993-01-01

    To assist rational investments in advanced software, a formal, explicit, and multi-perspective cost-benefit analysis methodology is proposed. The methodology can be implemented through a six-stage process which is described and explained. The current practice of cost-benefit analysis at KSC is reviewed in the light of this methodology. The review finds that there is a vicious circle operating. Unsound methods lead to unreliable cost-benefit estimates. Unreliable estimates convince management that cost-benefit studies should not be taken seriously. Then, given external demands for cost-benefit estimates, management encourages software enginees to somehow come up with the numbers for their projects. Lacking the expertise needed to do a proper study, courageous software engineers with vested interests use ad hoc and unsound methods to generate some estimates. In turn, these estimates are unreliable, and the cycle continues. The proposed methodology should help KSC to break out of this cycle.

  8. New space technology advances knowledge of the remote polar regions. [Arctic and Antarctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery is rapidly increasing man's knowledge of polar regions. Products compiled from this imagery at scales of 1:250,000, 1:500,000 and 1:1,000,000 are already providing valuable information to earth scientists working in Antarctica. Significant finds detected by these bench mark products were glaciological changes, advancement in ice fronts, discovery of new geographic features, and the repositioning of nunataks, islands, and ice tongues. Tests conducted in Antarctica have proven the feasibility of tracking Navy navigation satellites to establish ground control for positioning ERTS-1 imagery in remote areas. ERTS imagery coupled with satellite geodesy shows great promise and may prove to be the most practical and cost effective way to meet the small-scale cartographic requirements of the polar science community.

  9. Advances in space-borne SAR interferometry and its application to ground deformation monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-guo; BIAN Zheng-fu

    2011-01-01

    The development of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR), in terms of its evolution from classic to advanced forms, such as Least-Squares approach, Permanent Scatterer Interferometry, Small Baseline Subset, and Coherent Pixel Technique, is reviewed, describing concisely the main principles of each method and highlighting the difference and relationship between them. Applications of InSAR technology in China were then introduced, together with the obstacles to overcome and feasible strategies, such as integrating MERIS/MODIS data to compensate for the atmospheric effect and GPS, and multi-platform SAR data to make InSAR technique practical and operational under various conditions. The latest developments were then analyzed along with high-quality SAR data, available thanks to the newly launched high-tech satellites, TerraSAR-X, and Cosmo Sky-med, and conclusions were drawn about the main limitations of the technique.

  10. Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) configuration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) study is to identify candidate engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) to identify and evaluate candidate LOX/HC engine configurations for the Advanced Space Transportation System for an early 1995 IOC and a late 2000 IOC; (2) to select one optimum engine for each time period; 3) to prepare a conceptual design for each configuration; (4) to develop a technology plan for the 2000 IOC engine; and, (5) to prepare preliminary programmatic planning and analysis for the 1995 IOC engine.

  11. NASA/USRA advanced space design program: The laser powered interorbital vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary design is presented for a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an earth space station and a lunar base. The LPIV receives its power from two iodide laser stations, one orbiting the earth and the other located on the surface of the moon. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring 8 days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional 9 days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box beam truss, a payload module, and fuel tanks. The total mass of the vehicle fully loaded is 63300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables which allow the vehicle to thrust tangentially to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of the 23 m diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18000 kg of cargo. The module is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks which allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing and tracking system which can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. Additionally an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

  12. Use of advanced commercial ICs (COTS) for space application; Utilisation de circuits integres commerciaux en technologie avancee (COTS) dans les applications spatiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, D.J.; Czajkowski, D.R.; Layton, P.; Shanken, S. [Space Electronics Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A product line of space-qualified radiation-tolerant ICs based on a high-volume commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon has been developed. The basic results from over 300 lots of COTS silicon, assembled and screened to Class B and Class S requirements will be presented. Intelligent use of commercial ICs engineered to improve radiation performance, is effective in introducing advanced technology to new satellite systems. Space Electronics has introduced over 125 space-qualified microelectronics standard products, that are used on over 90 space projects. (authors)

  13. Fourteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys : Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; HST Advanced CameraSurveys Instrument Team

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over fourteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating considerably longer (>7yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 repair than it had originally operated (ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector. Conspicuous recent examples include the HST Multi-cycle Treasury programs, and the ongoing HST Frontier Fields (HFF) program.We review recent developments in ACS calibration that enable the continued high performance of this instrument, including both the Wide Field Channel (WFC) and the Solar Blind Channel (WFC). Highlights include: 1) redefined WFC subarray modes to allow for more consistent high-fidelity calibration; 2) LED post-flashing the WFC darks to compensate for worsening WFC charge-transfer efficiency (CTE); 3) long term hot- and warm-pixel WFC stability analyses; and 4) refined characterization of the extended SBC point spread function and long-term SBC flatfield stability.

  14. Advanced Photon Counting Imaging Detectors with 100ps Timing for Astronomical and Space Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Welsh, B.; Rabin, M.; Bloch, J.

    In recent years EAG has implemented a variety of high-resolution, large format, photon-counting MCP detectors in space instrumentation for satellite FUSE, GALEX, IMAGE, SOHO, HST-COS, rocket, and shuttle payloads. Our scheme of choice has been delay line readouts encoding photon event position centroids, by determination of the difference in arrival time of the event charge at the two ends of a distributed resistive-capacitive (RC) delay line. Our most commonly used delay line configuration is the cross delay line (XDL). In its simplest form the delay-line encoding electronics consists of a fast amplifier for each end of the delay line, followed by time-to-digital converters (TDC's). We have achieved resolutions of advantages over "frame driven" recording devices for some important applications. For example we have built open face and sealed tube cross delay line detectors used for biological fluorescence lifetime imaging, observation of flare stars, orbital satellites and space debris with the GALEX satellite, and time resolved imaging of the Crab Pulsar with a telescope as small as 1m. Although microchannel plate delay line detectors meet many of the imaging and timing demands of various applications, they have limitations. The relatively high gain (107) reduces lifetime and local counting rate, and the fixed delay (10's of ns) makes multiple simultaneous event recording problematic. To overcome these limitations we have begun development of cross strip readout anodes for microchannel plate detectors. The cross strip (XS) anode is a coarse (~0.5 mm) multi-layer metal and ceramic pattern of crossed fingers on an alumina substrate. The charge cloud is matched to the anode period so that it is collected on several neighboring fingers to ensure an accurate event charge centroid can be determined. Each finger of the anode is connected to a low noise charge sensitive amplifier and followed by subsequent A/D conversion of individual strip charge values and a hardware

  15. New approach for measuring 3D space by using Advanced SURF Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Minkyo; Min, Byungil; Suh, Kyungsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Backgeun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The nuclear disasters compared to natural disaster create a more extreme condition for analyzing and evaluating. In this paper, measuring 3D space and modeling was studied by simple pictures in case of small sand dune. The suggested method can be used for the acquisition of spatial information by robot at the disaster area. As a result, these data are helpful for identify the damaged part, degree of damage and determination of recovery sequences. In this study we are improving computer vision algorithm for 3-D geo spatial information measurement. And confirm by test. First, we can get noticeable improvement of 3-D geo spatial information result by SURF algorithm and photogrammetry surveying. Second, we can confirm not only decrease algorithm running time, but also increase matching points through epi polar line filtering. From the study, we are extracting 3-D model by open source algorithm and delete miss match point by filtering method. However on characteristic of SURF algorithm, it can't find match point if structure don't have strong feature. So we will need more study about find feature point if structure don't have strong feature.

  16. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the US economy: Submitted to the United States Congress October 1, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on the space station. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 87566). A further requirement of the Law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. This report is the fifth in a series of progress updates and covers the period between 16 May 1987 and 30 September 1987. NASA has accepted the basic recommendations of ATAC for its space station efforts. ATAC and NASA agree that the mandate of Congress is that an advanced automation and robotics technology be built to support an evolutionary space station program and serve as a highly visible stimulator affecting the long-term U.S. economy.

  17. The Joint Space Operations Center Mission System and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment Status Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Howard, Samantha; Sabol, Chris; Kim, Richard; Echeverry, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is a service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) performed at the US-led JSpOC. The Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE) is a test-bed maintained and operated by the Air Force to (1) serve as a centralized test-bed for all research and development activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support JMS Program Office-led market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. In this paper we will share with the international remote sensing community some of the recent JMS and ARCADE developments that may contribute to greater SSA at the JSpOC in the future, and share technical areas still in great need.

  18. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  19. Preliminary Thermo-hydraulic Core Design Analysis of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nclear rockets improve the propellant efficiency more than twice compared to CRs and thus significantly reduce the propellant requirement. The superior efficiency of nuclear rockets is due to the combination of the huge energy density and a single low molecular weight propellant utilization. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTRs) are particularly suitable for manned missions to Mars because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high propellant efficiency. NTRs use thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat a single low molecular weight propellant, i. e., Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and then exhausted the extremely heated propellant through a thermodynamic nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub sp}) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the rate of propellant consumption. The difference of I{sub sp} makes over three times propellant savings of NTRs for a manned Mars mission compared to CRs. NTRs can also be configured to operate bimodally by converting the surplus nuclear energy to auxiliary electric power required for the operation of a spacecraft. Moreover, the concept and technology of NTRs are very simple, already proven, and safe. Thus, NTRs can be applied to various space missions such as solar system exploration, International Space Station (ISS) transport support, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) interception, etc. Nuclear propulsion is the most promising and viable option to achieve challenging deep space missions. Particularly, the attractions of a NTR include excellent thrust and propellant efficiency, bimodal capability, proven technology, and safe and reliable performance. The ROK has also begun the research for space nuclear systems as a volunteer of the international space race and a major world nuclear energy country. KANUTER is one of the advanced NTR engines currently under development at KAIST. This bimodal engine is operated in two modes of propulsion with 100 MW

  20. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  1. An FP7 "Space" project: Aphorism "Advanced PRocedures for volcanic and Seismic Monitoring"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, A., Sr.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.

    2014-12-01

    APHORISM project proposes the development and testing of two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data. The aim is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved GMES products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. The first method, APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping, concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. We can find a wide literature and projects concerning such issue, but usually the approach is only based on change detection techniques and classifications algorithms. The novelty of APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by InSAR time series to measure surface movements, shake maps obtained from seismological data, and vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms. The second method deals with volcanic crisis management. The method, MACE - Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation, concerns the exploitation of GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) sensor platform, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite sensors and ground measures to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to characterize the volcanic ash clouds. The basic idea of MACE consists of an improvement of volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale by using both the LEO and GEO estimations and in-situ data. Indeed the standard ash thermal infrared retrieval is integrated with data coming from a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. The ash detection is also extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. APE and MACE methods have been defined in order to provide products oriented toward the next ESA Sentinels satellite missions.The project is funded under the European Union FP7

  2. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  3. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the US economy: Submitted to the United States Congress May 15, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on the space station. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 87566). A further requirement of the Law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. This report is the fourth in a series of progress updates and covers the period October 1, 1986 to May 15, 1987. NASA has accepted the basic recommendations of ATAC for its space station efforts. ATAC and NASA agree that the will of Congress is to build an advanced automation and robotics technology base that will support an evolutionary space station program and serve as a highly visible stimulator affecting the long-term U.S. economy. The progress report identifies the work of NASA and the space station study contractors, research in progress, and issues connected with the advancement of automation and robotics technology on the space station.

  4. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the US economy: Submitted to the United States Congress October 1, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committer (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on the space station. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 87566). A further requirement of the Law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. This report is the third in a series of progress updates and covers the period between April 1, 1986 and September 30, 1986. NASA has accepted the basic recommendations of ATAC for its space station efforts. ATAC and NASA agree that the will of Congress is to build an advanced automation and robotics technology base that will support an evolutionary space station program and serve as a highly visible stimulater affecting the long-term U.S. economy. The progress report identifies the work of NASA and the space station study contractors, research in progress, and issues connected with the advancement of automation and robotics technology on the space station.

  5. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF). LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever) with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in no...

  6. Processing of solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for advanced space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis Warren

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and space nuclear power are two enabling technologies for the manned exploration of space and the development of research outposts in space and on other planets such as Mars. Advanced carbide nuclear fuels have been proposed for application in space nuclear power and propulsion systems. This study examined the processing technologies and optimal parameters necessary to fabricate samples of single phase, solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides. In particular, the pseudo-ternary carbide, UC-ZrC-NbC, system was examined with uranium metal mole fractions of 5% and 10% and corresponding uranium densities of 0.8 to 1.8 gU/cc. Efforts were directed to those methods that could produce simple geometry fuel elements or wafers such as those used to fabricate a Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel element and reactor core. Methods of cold uniaxial pressing, sintering by induction heating, and hot pressing by self-resistance heating were investigated. Solid solution, high density (low porosity) samples greater than 95% TD were processed by cold pressing at 150 MPa and sintering above 2600 K for times longer than 90 min. Some impurity oxide phases were noted in some samples attributed to residual gases in the furnace during processing. Also, some samples noted secondary phases of carbon and UC2 due to some hyperstoichiometric powder mixtures having carbon-to-metal ratios greater than one. In all, 33 mixed carbide samples were processed and analyzed with half bearing uranium as ternary carbides of UC-ZrC-NbC. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and density measurements were used to characterize samples. Samples were processed from powders of the refractory mono-carbides and UC/UC 2 or from powders of uranium hydride (UH3), graphite, and refractory metal carbides to produce hypostoichiometric mixed carbides. Samples processed from the constituent carbide powders and sintered at temperatures above the melting point of UC

  7. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom and for the US economy: Submitted to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In April 1985, as required by Public Law 98-371, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) reported to Congress the results of its studies on advanced automation and robotics technology for use on the Space Station Freedom. This material was documented in the initial report (NASA Technical Memorandum 87566). A further requirement of the law was that ATAC follow NASA's progress in this area and report to Congress semiannually. This report is the ninth in a series of progress updates and covers the period between February 24, 1989, and July 12, 1989. NASA has accepted the basic recommendation of ATAC for its Space Station Freedom efforts. ATAC and NASA agree that the thrust of Congress is to build an advanced automation and robotics technology base that will support an evolutionary Space Station program and serve as a highly visible stimulator, affecting the U.S. long-term economy. The work of NASA and the Freedom contractors, e.g., Work Packages, as well as the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is identified. Research in progress is also described and assessments of the advancement of automation and robotics technology on the Space Station Freedom are given.

  8. Near minimum-time maneuvers of the advanced space structures technology research experiment (ASTREX) test article: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadali, Srinivas R.; Carter, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory at the Edwards Air Force Base has developed the Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiment (ASTREX) facility to serve as a testbed for demonstrating the applicability of proven theories to the challenges of spacecraft maneuvers and structural control. This report describes the work performed on the ASTREX test article by Texas A&M University under contract NAS119373 as a part of the Control-Structure Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator Program. The focus of this work is on maneuvering the ASTREX test article with compressed air thrusters that can be throttled, while attenuating structural excitation. The theoretical foundation for designing the near minimum-time thrust commands is based on the generation of smooth, parameterized optimal open-loop control profiles, and the determination of control laws for final position regulation and tracking using Lyapunov stability theory. Details of the theory, mathematical modeling, model updating, and compensation for the presence of 'real world' effects are described and the experimental results are presented. The results show an excellent match between theory and experiments.

  9. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  10. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and...

  11. Teaching "Candide": A Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Theodore E. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches to teaching Voltaire's "Candide", one deriving meaning from the textual fabric or "inside" of the story and the other focusing on the author's "external" intent in writing the story, are presented and compared. (MSE)

  12. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-15

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health.

  13. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health

  14. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  15. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  16. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS proposes to systematically mature, mitigate risk for; and perform hardware-based ground validations / demonstrations of a low-cost, high technology payoff,...

  17. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effort proposed is for detailed planning, configuration and hardware definition of a low-cost, but high technology payoff, ISS-based flight experiment that will...

  18. Design and fabrication of a large vertical travel silicon inchworm microactuator for advanced segmented silicon space telescope (ASSIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E.; Dekany, R.; Padin, S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop inchworm motor systems capable of simultaneously providing nanometer resolution, high stiffness, large output force, long travel range, and compactness for ultraprecision positioning applications in space.

  19. Computing and monitoring potential of public spaces by shading analysis using 3d lidar data and advanced image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, A.; Jarzemski, M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper regards specific context of public spaces in "shadow" of tall buildings located in European cities. Majority of tall buildings in European cities were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings appear mainly in city centres, directly at important public spaces being viable environment for inhabitants with variety of public functions (open spaces, green areas, recreation places, shops, services etc.). All these amenities and services are under direct impact of extensive shading coming from the tall buildings. The paper focuses on analyses and representation of impact of shading from tall buildings on various public spaces in cities using 3D city models. Computer environment of 3D city models in cityGML standard uses 3D LiDAR data as one of data types for definition of 3D cities. The structure of cityGML allows analytic applications using existing computer tools, as well as developing new techniques to estimate extent of shading coming from high-risers, affecting life in public spaces. These measurable shading parameters in specific time are crucial for proper functioning, viability and attractiveness of public spaces - finally it is extremely important for location of tall buildings at main public spaces in cities. The paper explores impact of shading from tall buildings in different spatial contexts on the background of using cityGML models based on core LIDAR data to support controlled urban development in sense of viable public spaces. The article is prepared within research project 2TaLL: Application of 3D Virtual City Models in Urban Analyses of Tall Buildings, realized as a part of Polish-Norway Grants.

  20. Space Suit Survivability Enhancement NASA Research Announcement 96-OLMSA-01B: Advanced Life Support and Environmental Technologies for Human Exploration and Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Conducted two meetings to review the project scope and develop concepts for self-sealing material compositions, Focus has been on developing concepts that would seal a penetration enough to allow the astronauts to re-enter the spacecraft within the window provided by the emergency air supply. Concepts discussed include: quilted fabrics containing a viscous flow material in the quilted cells which would seal the bladder breach when forced to flow by the internal suit pressure; a sealant impregnated felt liner which acts similar to above; and a "blousy" fibrous layer which would mechanically plug a rupture under pressure. Illustrations of the above concepts are included in the attached viewgraphs, which were used in a presentation. The most promising of these concepts will be made into prototypes for testing. ILC has developed a test fixture to test the scaling characteristics of various material layups by measuring real-time changes in pressure and make-up flow in a pressurized cylinder. Candidate viscous sealing compounds such as silicones and urethanes have been identified. These compounds will be coated on existing bladder cloth for initial tests. The most promising compounds will be integrated into the above material structures for final testing. Design and analysis of fabric weaves to improve cut and puncture resistance of the suit TMG layers is underway. Philadelphia Textile is developing a mathematical model to correlate yarn type and weave structure to cut and tear resistance. The computer mathematical modeling of the fabric failure mechanisms by Cornell University, as originally proposed, will be replaced with the above model and empirical testing methods, due to the loss of key Cornell personnel.

  1. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The ARCADE formalizes capability development processes that hitherto have been ad hoc, slow to address the evolving space threat environment, and not easily repeatable. Therefore, the purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) facilitate collaboration among developers who otherwise would not collaborate due to organizational, policy, or geographical barriers, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. Over the last several years Scitor Corporation has provided systems engineering support to the JMS Increment 3 Program Office, and has worked with AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD to create a high performance computing environment and SOA at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications in an environment similar to the version of JMS currently in use by the JSpOC operators. Currently the ARCADE is operational in an unclassified environment via the High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Portal on DREN. The ARCADE also exists on SECRET and TOP SECRET environments on multiple networks. This presentation will cover the following topics: (1) Scitors role in shaping the ARCADE into its current form, (2) ARCADEs value proposition for potential technology developers, and (3) ARCADEs value proposition for the Government. These topics will be discussed by way of several case studies: a JMS

  2. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  3. Introduction of laser initiation for the 48-inch Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) test motors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Chris J.; Litzinger, Gerald E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is a new design for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The new design will provide more thrust and more payload capability, as well as incorporating many design improvements in all facets of the design and manufacturing process. A 48-inch (diameter) test motor program is part of the ASRM development program. This program has multiple purposes for testing of propellent, insulation, nozzle characteristics, etc. An overview of the evolution of the 48-inch ASRM test motor ignition system which culminated with the implementation of a laser ignition system is presented. The laser system requirements, development, and operation configuration are reviewed in detail.

  4. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  5. Advances in phase space analysis of partial differential equations in honor of Ferruccio Colombini's 60th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Bove, Antonio; Murthy, MK Venkatesha

    2009-01-01

    This collection of original articles and surveys addresses the recent advances in linear and nonlinear aspects of the theory of partial differential equations. The key topics include operators as "sums of squares" of real and complex vector fields, nonlinear evolution equations, local solvability, and hyperbolic questions.

  6. The Space Optical Clocks Project: Development of high-performance transportable and breadboard optical clocks and advanced subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Schiller, S; Nevsky, A; Alighanbari, S; Vasilyev, S; Abou-Jaoudeh, C; Mura, G; Franzen, T; Sterr, U; Falke, S; Lisdat, Ch; Rasel, E; Kulosa, A; Bize, S; Lodewyck, J; Tino, G M; Poli, N; Schioppo, M; Bongs, K; Singh, Y; Gill, P; Barwood, G; Ovchinnikov, Y; Stuhler, J; Kaenders, W; Braxmaier, C; Holzwarth, R; Donati, A; Lecomte, S; Calonico, D; Levi, F

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultra-precise optical clocks in space ("master clocks") will allow for a range of new applications in the fields of fundamental physics (tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, time and frequency metrology by means of the comparison of distant terrestrial clocks), geophysics (mapping of the gravitational potential of Earth), and astronomy (providing local oscillators for radio ranging and interferometry in space). Within the ELIPS-3 program of ESA, the "Space Optical Clocks" (SOC) project aims to install and to operate an optical lattice clock on the ISS towards the end of this decade, as a natural follow-on to the ACES mission, improving its performance by at least one order of magnitude. The payload is planned to include an optical lattice clock, as well as a frequency comb, a microwave link, and an optical link for comparisons of the ISS clock with ground clocks located in several countries and continents. Undertaking a necessary step towards optical clocks in space, the EU-FP7-SPACE-2...

  7. ViewSpace: A model for advancing public understanding of astronomical research through museum-based multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoke, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    The Office of Public Outreach (OPO) of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has developed a unique multimedia presentation product that orchestrates images, digital video animations, music and interpretive text to provide a frequently-updated astronomy display suitable for mini-theater environments in museum-based exhibit galleries and planetarium lobbies (that may be, otherwise, seldom updated). "ViewSpace" utilizes the scientific expertise of STScI astronomers and puts Hubble discoveries into publically-accessible contexts. The program, which is offered at no charge to the museum and planetarium community in the United States, has been received with strong enthusiasm by the informal science education community. Future aspirations include higher-definition and immersive presentation formats, multi-lingual text display, an audible description track for the visually impaired, an associated interactive kiosk, and correlated education guides. Astronomers with interesting science stories to tell are invited to participate in the development of a ViewSpace segment.

  8. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  9. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF ALLOSENSITIZED CARDIAC TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Mauricio; Johnson, Maryl R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation remains the best treatment in advanced heart failure patients with a high risk of death. However, an inadequate supply of donor hearts decreases the likelihood of transplantation for many patients. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are being increasingly used as a bridge to transplant in patients who may not survive long enough to receive a heart. This expansion in VAD use has been associated with increasing rates of allosensitization in cardiac transplant candidates. A...

  11. Improved Ionic Liquids as Space Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionic liquids are candidate lubricant materials. However for application in low temperature space mechanisms their lubrication performance needs to be enhanced. UES...

  12. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  13. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...

  14. Dovish Candidate Withdraws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Former Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuo Fukuda formally announced on July 21 his withdrawal from the upcoming Liberal Democratic Party's (LDP) presidential election in September, citing his opposition to officials' visits to the war-related Yasukuni Shrine and his advanced age.

  15. Advanced microbolometer detectors for a next-generation uncooled FPA for space-based thermal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fraser; Marchese, Linda; Baldenberger, Georges; Châteauneuf, François; Provencal, Francis; Caron, Jean-Sol; Dupont, Fabien; Osouf, Jocelyne; Couture, Patrick; Ngo Phong, Linh; Pope, Tim

    2009-02-01

    INO has established a VOx-based uncooled microbolometer detector technology and an expertise in the development of custom detectors and focal plane arrays. Thanks to their low power consumption and broadband sensitivity, uncooled microbolometer detectors are finding an increased number of applications in the field of space-based thermal remote sensing. A mission requirement study has identified at least seven applications with a need for data in the MWIR (3-8 μm), LWIR (8-15 μm) and or FIR (15-100 μm) wavelength bands. The requirement study points to the need for two main classes of uncooled thermal detectors, the first requiring small and fast detectors for MWIR and LWIR imaging with small ground sampling distance, and the second requiring larger detectors with sensitivity out to the FIR. In this paper, the simulation, design, microfabrication and radiometric testing of detectors for these two classes of requirements will be presented. The performance of the experimental detectors closely approach the mission requirements and show the potential of microbolometer technology to fulfill the requirements of future space based thermal imaging missions.

  16. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  17. Advanced Methods for Air Distribution in Occupied Spaces for Reduced Risk from Air-Borne Diseases and Improved Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    and by protecting medical staff, patients and visitors from cross-infection in hospital wards. The first part of the thesis focuses on improvement of inhaled air quality and thus reduction in the risk from cross-infection by advanced ventilation, providing clean air close to the occupants with personalized...... ventilation (PV) by applying control over the airflow interaction at the breathing zone. Two new control methods, namely control over the free convection layer around the human body and control over the personalized flow are studied when applied for different PV designs. The first method aims to reduce......, airplanes, etc. The second part of the thesis focuses on a novel ventilation strategy for reduction the risk of cross-infection for medical staff, visitors, and patients in hospital wards. The novel ventilation strategy is implemented by a specially developed device, named Hospital Bed Integrated...

  18. An Update on Oceanic Precipitation Rate and its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Ali; Stephens, Graeme; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Lebstock, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the estimation of the global mean and zonal distribution of oceanic precipitation rate using complementary information from advanced precipitation measuring sensors and provides an independent reference to assess current precipitation products. Precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) and CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) were merged, as the two complementary sensors yield an unprecedented range of sensitivity to quantify rainfall from drizzle through the most intense rates. At higher latitudes, where TRMM PR does not exist, precipitation estimates from Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) complemented CloudSat CPR to capture intense precipitation rates. The high sensitivity of CPR allows estimation of snow rate, an important type of precipitation at high latitudes, not directly observed in current merged precipitation products. Using the merged precipitation estimate from the CloudSat, TRMM, and Aqua platforms (this estimate is abbreviated to MCTA), the authors' estimate for 3-yr (2007-09) nearglobal (80degS-80degN) oceanic mean precipitation rate is approx. 2.94mm/day. This new estimate of mean global ocean precipitation is about 9% higher than that of the corresponding Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) value (2.68mm/day) and about 4% higher than that of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; 2.82mm/day). Furthermore, MCTA suggests distinct differences in the zonal distribution of precipitation rate from that depicted in GPCPand CMAP, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. 14 CFR 1214.1104 - Evaluation and ranking of highly qualified candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1104 Evaluation and... Center for an interview, orientation, and detailed medical evaluation. (d) Background investigations...

  20. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  1. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  2. Computer architecture for efficient algorithmic executions in real-time systems: New technology for avionics systems and advanced space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Youngblood, John N.; Saha, Aindam

    1987-01-01

    Improvements and advances in the development of computer architecture now provide innovative technology for the recasting of traditional sequential solutions into high-performance, low-cost, parallel system to increase system performance. Research conducted in development of specialized computer architecture for the algorithmic execution of an avionics system, guidance and control problem in real time is described. A comprehensive treatment of both the hardware and software structures of a customized computer which performs real-time computation of guidance commands with updated estimates of target motion and time-to-go is presented. An optimal, real-time allocation algorithm was developed which maps the algorithmic tasks onto the processing elements. This allocation is based on the critical path analysis. The final stage is the design and development of the hardware structures suitable for the efficient execution of the allocated task graph. The processing element is designed for rapid execution of the allocated tasks. Fault tolerance is a key feature of the overall architecture. Parallel numerical integration techniques, tasks definitions, and allocation algorithms are discussed. The parallel implementation is analytically verified and the experimental results are presented. The design of the data-driven computer architecture, customized for the execution of the particular algorithm, is discussed.

  3. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments.

    An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving.

    The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  4. Two decades of tuberculosis in a city in Northeastern Brazil: advances and challenges in time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Priscila de Santana Cabral Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study presents two decades of epidemiological data on tuberculosis (TB, in order to understanding the disease profile and its spatiotemporal dynamics. METHODS This descriptive study was performed in the City of Olinda/Pernambuco, Brazil, from 1991-2010, and it analyzed new patients with TB living in the city. We used the χ²-test with a p-value <0.05 to identify differences in trends. Incidence and cluster distribution were identified using spatial scan statistics. RESULTS In total, 6202 new cases were recorded during the two decades. The highest incidence occurred in 1995 (110 cases/100,000 inhabitants, and the lowest occurred in 2009 (65 cases/100,000 inhabitants (β=-1.44; R²=0.43; p=0.0018. The highest mortality occurred in 1998 (16 deaths/100,000 inhabitants, and the lowest occurred in 2008 (5 deaths/100,000 inhabitants (β=-0.19; R²=0.17; p=0.07. There was a male predominance (65%, and ages ranged from 20-49 years (65%. There was a substantial increase in the number of patients that were cured after treatment (60% to 67%; p<0.001 as well as those tested for HIV (1.9% to 58.5%; p<0.001. During the first decade, clusters with p-values <0.05 included 29% of the total notified cases, and in the second decade, that percentage was 12%. CONCLUSIONS We observed a decreasing trend in incidence, which was significant, and mortality rates, which was not significant. The increased number of laboratory tests performed reflects advances in surveillance, and a reduction in the proportion of cases in primary clusters suggests, among other things, that the disease is spreading across the region.

  5. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  6. The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

  7. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, A.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2014-09-01

    The JSpOC Mission System is a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The JMS program has already delivered Increment 1 in April 2013 as initial capability to operations. The programs current focus, Increment 2, will be completed by 2016 and replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. Post 2016, JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources with more agility. In 2012, the JMS Program Office entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD have created development environments at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources. The unclassified ARCADE utilizes the Maui high performance computing (HPC) Portal, and can be accessed using a CAC or Kerberos using Yubikey. This environment gives developers a sandbox

  8. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, D. A.; Nakamura, T.; Sadler, P.; Cuello, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  9. NASA's Advancements in Space-Based Spectrometry Lead to Improvements in Weather Prediction and Understanding of Climate Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS (Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder), was launched, in conjunction with AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) on the NASA polar orbiting research satellite EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite in May 2002 as a next generation atmospheric sounding system. Atmospheric sounders provide information primarily about the vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature and water vapor distribution. This is achieved by measuring outgoing radiation in discrete channels (spectral intervals) which are sensitive primarily to variations of these geophysical parameters. The primary objectives of AIRS/AMSU were to utilize such information in order to improve the skill of numerical weather prediction as well as to measure climate variability and trends. AIRS is a multi-detector array grating spectrometer with 2378 channels covering the spectral range 650/cm (15 microns) to 2660/cm (3.6 microns) with a resolving power (i/a i) of roughly 1200 where a i is the spectral channel bandpass. Atmospheric temperature profile can be determined from channel observations taken within the 15 micron (the long-wave CO2 absorption band) and within the 4.2 micron (the short-wave CO2 absorption band). Radiances in these (and all other) spectral intervals in the infrared are also sensitive to the presence of clouds in the instrument?s field of view (FOV), which are present about 95% of the time. AIRS was designed so as to allow for the ability to produce accurate Quality Controlled atmospheric soundings under most cloud conditions. This was achieved by having 1) extremely low channel noise values in the shortwave portion of the spectrum and 2) a very flat spatial response function within a channel?s FOV. IASI, the high spectral resolution IR interferometer flying on the European METOP satellite, does not contain either of these important characteristics. The AIRS instrument was also designed to be extremely stabile with regard to its spectral radiometric characteristics, which is

  10. 奶牛乳腺炎抗性候选基因多态性研究进展%Research Advance on Polymorphism of Candidate Genes Resistance to Dairy Cattle Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏伟; 苗永旺

    2011-01-01

    奶牛的乳腺炎是一种极其复杂的疾病,是影响奶牛产业发展的一个重要因素。对奶牛乳腺炎抗性的研究有助于选育出有高抗性的奶牛群体,提高奶产品的数量和质量,并且可以减少抗生素的使用。近年来,随着生物信息学、分子育种技术和基因组学的发展,为奶牛的乳腺炎抗病育种提供的新的前景。本文主要介绍了牛锌指蛋白313基因、前脑锌指蛋白基因、TLR4基因、TLR2基因、乳铁蛋白基因、趋化因子受体基因、热休克蛋白70的研究现状。%Mastitis is a very complicate disease and an important factor of affecting the development of dairy cattle industry.Research on resistance to dairy mastitis is useful to select breeding dairy herd with mastitis resistance,improve the quantity and quality of dairy products and decrease the use of antibiotics.In recent years,as the development of bioinformatics,molecular breeding technology and genomics,the research of candidate gene for mastitis resistance breeding will offer a new prospect.This paper introduces some research information of Znf313 gene,FEZL gene,TLR4 gene,lactoferrin gene,chemokine receptor gene and heat shock protein 70.

  11. THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: BRIGHT, HIGHLY MAGNIFIED GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx} 7 BEHIND A1703

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L. D.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Smit, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zitrin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ford, H. C.; Zheng, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Illingworth, G. D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Benitez, N. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of seven strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx} 7 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of A1703. The brightest candidate, called A1703-zD1, has an observed (lensed) magnitude of 24.0 AB (26{sigma}) in the WFC3/IR F160W band, making it 0.2 mag brighter than the z{sub 850}-dropout candidate recently reported behind the Bullet Cluster and 0.7 mag brighter than the previously brightest known z {approx} 7.6 galaxy, A1689-zD1. With a cluster magnification of {approx}9, this source has an intrinsic magnitude of H{sub 160} = 26.4 AB, a strong z{sub 850} - J{sub 125} break of 1.7 mag, and a photometric redshift of z {approx} 6.7. Additionally, we find six other bright LBG candidates with H{sub 160}-band magnitudes of 24.9-26.4, photometric redshifts z {approx} 6.4 - 8.8, and magnifications {mu} {approx} 3-40. Stellar population fits to the Advanced Camera for Surveys, WFC3/IR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera data for A1703-zD1 and A1703-zD4 yield stellar masses (0.7 - 3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, stellar ages 5-180 Myr, and star formation rates {approx}7.8 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and low reddening with A{sub V} {<=} 0.7. The source-plane reconstruction of the exceptionally bright candidate A1703-zD1 exhibits an extended structure, spanning {approx}4 kpc in the z {approx} 6.7 source plane, and shows three resolved star-forming knots of radius r {approx} 0.4 kpc.

  12. Preventing Space Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The international community should join forces to avoid possible conflicts in space Military competition and conflict in outer space can be divided into three stages:militarization,wea- ponization and the space battle- field. Space militarization has become a thing of the past.Now,many countries are re- searching more advanced space weaponry technology,which means space weapon- ization is becoming a growing reality.The process of space competition is astonishingly

  13. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  14. Electoral Systems and Candidate Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazan, Reuven Y.; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Electoral systems at the national level and candidate selection methods at the party level are connected, maybe not causally but they do influence each other. More precisely, the electoral system constrains and conditions the parties' menu of choices concerning candidate selection. Moreover, in ligh

  15. Halo Stream candidates in the LAMOST DR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingkun

    2015-08-01

    We have detected eight stellar halo stream candidates in the solar neighborhood using a sample including 64,819 FGK metal-poor ([Fe/H] match among the LAMOST DR2, WISE, 2MASS and PPMXL catalogues. With the strategy of halo stream detection in Klement et al, several significant ‘phase-space overdensi- ties” of stars on very similar orbits are identified. Three structures are known previously. Five new halo stream candidates are also found. The kinematics and metallicity of these stream candidates are then analyzed. Detailed element abundance are needed to better know the ori-gin of these streams.

  16. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  17. Evaluation of an international doctoral educational program in space life sciences: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Spitta, L. F.; Kopp, K.; Schmitz, C.; Reitz, G.; Gerzer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Training young researchers in the field of space life sciences is essential to vitalize the future of spaceflight. In 2009, the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine established the Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) in cooperation with several universities, starting with 22 doctoral candidates. SpaceLife offered an intensive three-year training program for early-stage researchers from different fields (biology, biomedicine, biomedical engineering, physics, sports, nutrition, plant and space sciences). The candidates passed a multistep selection procedure with a written application, a self-presentation to a selection committee, and an interview with the prospective supervisors. The selected candidates from Germany as well as from abroad attended a curriculum taught in English. An overview of space life sciences was given in a workshop with introductory lectures on space radiation biology and dosimetry, space physiology, gravitational biology and astrobiology. The yearly Doctoral Students' Workshops were also interdisciplinary. During the first Doctoral Students' Workshop, every candidate presented his/her research topic including hypothesis and methods to be applied. The progress report was due after ∼1.5 years and a final report after ∼3 years. The candidates specialized in their subfield in advanced lectures, Journal Clubs, practical trainings, lab exchanges and elective courses. The students attended at least one transferable skills course per year, starting with a Research Skills Development course in the first year, a presentation and writing skills course in the second year, and a career and leadership course in the third year. The whole program encompassed 303 h and was complemented by active conference participation. In this paper, the six years' experience with this program is summarized in order to guide other institutions in establishment of structured Ph.D. programs in this field. The curriculum including elective courses is

  18. Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

    2000-03-24

    Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

  19. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  20. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  1. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick;

    2015-01-01

    by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...

  2. Characterization of Wheat Cultivars Intended for Growth During Long-term Space Missions and Comparison to Select Common Terrestrial Cultivars--EAC Presentation 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ilan; Hayes, K. D.; Mauer, Lisa J; Perchonok, Michele; Bugbee, B.

    2004-01-01

    Cereal grains and their products will be included in long-term space missions beyond low earth orbit. Wheat is a candidate crop for the Advanced Life Support system and will likely be grown with other crops to provide food, oxygen, and water purification during extended planetary research missions. Apogee and Perigee are hard red spring wheat cultivars with dwarf and super-dwarf heights, respectively. These wheat varieties were developed at Utah State University for growth in space. Unique ch...

  3. Finding and characterizing candidate targets for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodas, P.

    2014-07-01

    NASA's proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) leverages key on-going activities in Human Exploration and Space Technology to advance NASA's goals in these areas. One primary objective of ARM would be to develop and demonstrate a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle which would have the capability of moving significant amounts of mass around the solar system. SEP would be a key technology for robust future missions to deep space destinations, possibly including human missions to asteroids or to Mars. ARM would use the SEP vehicle to redirect up to hundreds of tons of material from a near-Earth asteroid into a stable lunar orbit, where a crew flying in an Orion vehicle would rendezvous and dock with it. The crew would perform an extra-vehicular activity (EVA), sample the material, and bring it back to the Earth; follow-on visits would also be possible. Two ARM mission concepts are being studied: one is to go to a small 4-10-meter-diameter asteroid, capture the entire asteroid and guide it into lunar orbit; the other is to go to a large 100-500 meter asteroid, remove a 1-10 meter boulder, and bring the boulder back into lunar orbit. A planetary defense demonstration could be included under either concept. Although some candidate targets are already known for both mission concepts, an observation campaign has been organized to identify more mission candidates. This campaign naturally leverages off of NASA's NEO Observations Program. Enhancements to asteroid search capabilities which will come online soon should increase the discovery rates for ARM candidates and hazardous asteroids alike. For the small-asteroid ARM concept, candidate targets must be smaller than about 12 meters, must follow Earth-like orbits and must naturally approach the Earth closely in the early 2020s, providing the opportunity for a low-velocity capture into the Earth/Moon system. About a dozen candidates are known with absolute magnitudes in the right range and with orbits

  4. Cassava; African perspective on space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture. Cassava root tuber can be left in soil until its consumption. Cassava might be an African contribution to space agriculture.

  5. Empathy Development in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory research design, the author examined 180 reflective essays of teacher candidates who participated in a "Learning Process Project," in which they were asked to synthesize and document their discoveries about the learning process over the course of a completely new learning experience as naive learners. This study explored…

  6. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/. PMID:27131783

  7. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines the...

  8. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  9. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  10. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  11. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  12. Kepler Mission Discovers Trove of Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Kepler discovery mission is collecting more than just pennies from heaven. Results from the first 4 months of science operations of the Kepler space telescope, announced on 2 February, include the discovery of 1235 candidate planets orbiting 997 stars in a small portion of the Milky Way galaxy examined by the telescope. Follow-up observations likely could confirm about 80% of the candidates as actual planets rather than false positives, according to researchers. This new trove of possible exoplanets could greatly expand the number of known planets outside of our solar system.

  13. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  14. IAEA Director General candidates announced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA today confirms receipt of the nomination of five candidates for Director General of the IAEA. Nominations of the following individuals have been received by the Chairperson of the IAEA Board of Governors, Ms. Taous Feroukhi: Mr. Jean-Pol Poncelet of Belgium; Mr. Yukiya Amano of Japan; Mr. Ernest Petric of Slovenia; Mr. Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa; and Mr. Luis Echavarri of Spain. The five candidates were nominated in line with a process approved by the Board in October 2008. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei's term of office expires on 30 November 2009. He has served as Director General since 1997 and has stated that he is not available for a fourth term of office. (IAEA)

  15. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2016-11-15

    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening.

  16. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  17. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also...

  18. Investigating mathematics teacher candidates opinions about using information & communication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Arsan; Tamer Kutluca; İlknur Özpınar

    2011-01-01

    As it has changed all fields in our lives, technological advancements have also improved education in such a large extent that integrating technology into education is inevitable. For this reason, teachers and teacher candidates are supposed to get acquainted with technology related information and skills. This study was conducted to determine the pre-service mathematics teachers’ opinions about information and communication technologies. A questionnaire was applied to 104 mathematics teacher...

  19. An LED-Based, Laboratory-Scale Solar Simulator for Advanced 3, 4, 5 & 6 Junction Space Photovoltaic Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As a result of significant technical effort, the Phase I was successful in delivering a solar simulator prototype that not only proved the initial concept but will...

  20. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not expenditures. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section...

  1. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in accordance with the provisions of 11 CFR 110.13 and 114.4(f) are not contributions. ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section...

  2. Space buzz heads east

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While the Olympics kick off in London, a new international sporting arena is taking shape beyond Earth's orbit. Recent advances in space exploration by China and Japan remind us that curiosity about our universe is a truly universal trait.

  3. Managing the space-time-load continuum in TMDL planning: A case study for understanding groundwater loads through advanced mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lag time between groundwater recharge and discharge in a watershed and the potential groundwater load to streams is an important factor in forecasting responses to future land use practices. We call this concept managing the “space-time-load continuum”. It’s understood that i...

  4. 牙弓间隙分析相关影响因素的研究进展%Advance research on space analysis related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先跃; 姜欢(综述); 胡敏(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontics is the procedure of managing the space .Space analysis is a comprehensive quantitative analysis that can analyze the factors that influence the arch space .It also helps to judge if the treatment goals can be reached , thus helping the treat-ment plan making and guiding clinical orthodontics .And space analysis related factors include crowding , curve of Spee, arch width, arch growth, arch protrusion, mesiodistal angulation, an so on.In this review, we summarizes the above-mentioned factors.%间隙分析是对影响牙弓间隙的诸多因素进行综合定量分析,判断矫治目标能否达成,从而制订矫治计划,指导正畸临床。影响牙弓间隙的因素主要包括拥挤度、Spee曲线深度、牙弓宽度、颌骨生长发育、牙弓突度、前后牙轴倾角等。国内外相关研究对于这些因素与牙弓间隙的定量分析结果不一。文中从以上6个方面对间隙分析的新进展作一综述。

  5. USSR space life sciences digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.S.; Donnelly, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  6. Comparison of Adhesion and Retention Forces for Two Candidate Docking Seal Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Brad D.; Panickar, Marta B.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    To successfully mate two pressurized vehicles or structures in space, advanced seals are required at the interface to prevent the loss of breathable air to the vacuum of space. A critical part of the development testing of candidate seal designs was a verification of the integrity of the retaining mechanism that holds the silicone seal component to the structure. Failure to retain the elastomer seal during flight could liberate seal material in the event of high adhesive loads during undocking. This work presents an investigation of the force required to separate the elastomer from its metal counter-face surface during simulated undocking as well as a comparison to that force which was necessary to destructively remove the elastomer from its retaining device. Two silicone elastomers, Wacker 007-49524 and Esterline ELASA-401, were evaluated. During the course of the investigation, modifications were made to the retaining devices to determine if the modifications improved the force needed to destructively remove the seal. The tests were completed at the expected operating temperatures of -50, +23, and +75 C. Under the conditions investigated, the comparison indicated that the adhesion between the elastomer and the metal counter-face was significantly less than the force needed to forcibly remove the elastomer seal from its retainer, and no failure would be expected.

  7. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... at the same time. Examples are given of how the first steps of the method may be carried out and a number of candidate worldviews are outlined and briefly discussed. In its own way, each worldview answers certain fundamental questions about the nature of design. These include the ontological question of what...

  8. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, G.; Aguilar, J. C.; Dueñas, S.; Hermida, L.; Iglesias, E.; Penton, E.; Lobaina, Y.; Lopez, M.; Mussachio, A.; Falcon, V.; Alvarez, L.; Martinez, G.; Gil, L.; Valdes, I.; Izquierdo, A.; Lazo, L.; Marcos, E.; Guzman, G.; Muzio, V.; Herrera, L.

    2013-03-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October - 2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  9. DMF - A New Biofuel Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guohong; Daniel, Ritchie; Xu, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts...

  10. ADVANCED PROCEDURE FOR THE MONITORING OF SETTLEMENT AND OPEN SPACE DEVELOPMENT ON BASIS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL GEODATA SETS IN THE IOER-MONITOR

    OpenAIRE

    G. Meinel

    2012-01-01

    Concept, Procedures and Results of the Monitor of settlement and open space development are presented. The monitoring system will describe the state and the development of land use especially in regard to its sustainability for the entire Federal Republic of Germany. To this end, for the first time ever it makes use of topographical geobasis data (digital landscape model of the Authoritative Topographic-Cartographic Information System, short ATKIS). These data allow for a more precis...

  11. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rameez Asif

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effec...

  12. Candidate genes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current evidence and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou W

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhou,1,2 Yaping Wang1,2 1Department of Medical Genetics, 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a group of common and lethal forms of idiopathic interstitial pulmonary disease. IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function with a median survival of 2–3 years after diagnosis. Although the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, genetic predisposition could play a causal role in IPF. A set of genes have been identified as candidate genes of IPF in the past 20 years. However, the recent technological advances that allow for the analysis of millions of polymorphisms in different subjects have deepened the understanding of the genetic complexity of IPF susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing continue to reveal the genetic loci associated with IPF risk. In this review, we describe candidate genes on the basis of their functions and aim to gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of IPF. The discovered candidate genes may help to clarify pivotal aspects in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapies of IPF. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, candidate genes, susceptibility 

  13. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  14. Securing Data for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision of data exchange between space and ground nodes would involve the space network accessing public infrastructure such as the internet. Hence, advanced...

  15. NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Aeronautics, Space Sciences and Technology, Earth Systems Sciences, Global Hydrology, and Education. Volumes 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Tommy L. (Editor); White, Bettie (Editor); Goodman, Steven (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor); Randolph, Lynwood (Editor); Rickman, Doug (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume chronicles the proceedings of the 1998 NASA University Research Centers Technical Conference (URC-TC '98), held on February 22-25, 1998, in Huntsville, Alabama. The University Research Centers (URCS) are multidisciplinary research units established by NASA at 11 Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCU's) and 3 Other Minority Universities (OMU's) to conduct research work in areas of interest to NASA. The URC Technical Conferences bring together the faculty members and students from the URC's with representatives from other universities, NASA, and the aerospace industry to discuss recent advances in their fields.

  16. An evaluation of candidate oxidation resistant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon; Banks, Bruce; Mirtich, Michael; Difilippo, Frank; Hotes, Deborah; Labed, Richard; Dever, Terese; Kussmaul, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ground based testing of materials considered for Kapton solar array blanket protection, graphite epoxy structural member protection, and high temperature radiators was performed in an RF plasma asher. Ashing rates for Kapton were correlated with rates measured on STS-8 to determine the exposure time equivalent to one year in low Earth orbit (LEO) at a constant density space station orbital flux. Protective coatings on Kapton from Tekmat, Andus Corporation, and LeRC were evaluated in the plasma asher and mass loss rates per unit area were measured for each sample. All samples evaluated provided some protection to the underlying surface but ion beam sputter deposited samples of SiO2 and SiO2 with 8% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) showed no evidence of degradation after 47 hours of exposure. Mica paint was evaluated as a protective coating for graphite epoxy structural members. Mica appears to be resistant to attack by atomic oxygen but only offers some limited protection as a paint because the paint vehicles evaluated to date were not resistant to atomic oxygen. Four materials were selected for evaluation as candidate radiator materials: stainless steel, copper, niobium-1% zirconium, and titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium. These materials were surface textured by various means to improve their emittance. Emittances as high as 0.93 at 2.5 microns for stainless steel and 0.89 at 2.5 microns for Nb-1 Zr were obtained from surface texturing. There were no significant changes in emittance after asher exposure.

  17. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and external collaborations.

  18. Analysis of swing voter in the Indonesian election of 2014 presidential candidates using Twitter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarisy, Muhammad Salman; Putra, Rizki M.; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    2015-09-01

    Ahead of the 2014 elections would be interesting to predict which candidate will hold the highest authority in the Republic of Indonesia. Entering the 2014 presidential election there is no infidelity tendency of voters who initially settled on a party or a candidate then choose another party or candidate in the next election. Changes in the tendency to make the condition of society in a state that has not been to given the choice of a candidate is commonly called swing voters. On this occasion, an examination of the swing voters who use social media twitter. By utilizing the advanced search facility to collect data from the response of tweeps (twitter users) on the twitter to Indonesian presidential candidate. The data will be used to describe how much the popularity of a candidate among tweeps, knowing the candidates who have the largest positive response and negative response, as well as the growing popularity of the candidate. The data is expected to predict the RI presidential candidate in 2014.

  19. Office building wall and space HVAC systems: Retrofitting with advanced systems. Applicazione di criteri avanzati nel progetto di ristrutturazione degli impianti di un edificio del terziario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaneo, P. (Intertecno, Milan (Italy)); Gasparini, R.; Paoletti Gualandi, M. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy)); Del Bufalo, L. (LDB, Rome (Italy))

    1992-08-01

    The office building housing the headquarters of the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) in Rome is being restructured with a new energy efficient exterior wall system. Built during the early 1960's, this office building's space heating ventilation and air conditioning system is also being replaced by an energy efficient system of innovative design. This paper outlines the national utility's planned energy conservation program, which includes the computerization of all building systems so as to allow integrated building services/energy management, and indicates the logic behind design choices that were made.

  20. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN BRC 27 AND BRC 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M.; Laher, R.; Legassie, M. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johnson, C. H.; Carlson, S.; Clark, M.; Killingstad, N.; Koop, S. [Breck School, 123 Ottawa Avenue N., Golden Valley, MN 55422 (United States); Gibbs, J. C.; Aryal, S.; Canakapalli, T. S. [Glencoe High School, 2700 NW Glencoe Rd., Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Linahan, M.; Ezyk, N.; Fagan, J. [Carmel Catholic High School, One Carmel Parkway, Mundelein, IL 60060 (United States); Sartore, D.; Badura, K. S. [Pine Ridge High School, 926 Howland Blvd., Deltona, FL 32738 (United States); Armstrong, J. D. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McGehee, P. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), M/S 220-6, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, D. L., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We used archival Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the immediate vicinity of two bright-rimmed clouds, BRC 27 (part of CMa R1) and BRC 34 (part of the IC 1396 complex). These regions both appear to be actively forming young stars, perhaps triggered by the proximate OB stars. In BRC 27, we find clear infrared excesses around 22 of the 26 YSOs or YSO candidates identified in the literature, and identify 16 new YSO candidates that appear to have IR excesses. In BRC 34, the one literature-identified YSO has an IR excess, and we suggest 13 new YSO candidates in this region, including a new Class I object. Considering the entire ensemble, both BRCs are likely of comparable ages, within the uncertainties of small number statistics and without spectroscopy to confirm or refute the YSO candidates. Similarly, no clear conclusions can yet be drawn about any possible age gradients that may be present across the BRCs.

  1. Fuel, Structural Material and Coolant for an Advanced Fast Micro-Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, J. A.; Duimarães, L. N. F.; Ono, S.

    The use of nuclear reactors in space, seabed or other Earth hostile environment in the future is a vision that some Brazilian nuclear researchers share. Currently, the USA, a leader in space exploration, has as long-term objectives the establishment of a permanent Moon base and to launch a manned mission to Mars. A nuclear micro-reactor is the power source chosen to provide energy for life support, electricity for systems, in these missions. A strategy to develop an advanced micro-reactor technologies may consider the current fast reactor technologies as back-up and the development of advanced fuel, structural and coolant materials. The next generation reactors (GEN-IV) for terrestrial applications will operate with high output temperature to allow advanced conversion cycle, such as Brayton, and hydrogen production, among others. The development of an advanced fast micro-reactor may create a synergy between the GEN-IV and space reactor technologies. Considering a set of basic requirements and materials properties this paper discusses the choice of advanced fuel, structural and coolant materials for a fast micro-reactor. The chosen candidate materials are: nitride, oxide as back-up, for fuel, lead, tin and gallium for coolant, ferritic MA-ODS and Mo alloys for core structures. The next step will be the neutronic and burnup evaluation of core concepts with this set of materials.

  2. Technology Advancement for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space Using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obland, Michael D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Plant, James; Yang, Melissa; Antill, Charles; Campbell, Joel; Ismail, Syed; Browell, Edward V.; Meadows, Byron; Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Moore, Berrien; Crowell, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is a newly developed lidar developed at NASA Langley Research Center and funded by NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) that seeks to advance technologies critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The technology advancements targeted include: (1) increasing the power-aperture product to approach ASCENDS mission requirements by implementing multi-aperture telescopes and multiple co-aligned laser transmitters; (2) incorporating high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) developing and incorporating a high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration autonomous operation on Global Hawk aircraft, and (4) advancing algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument architecture is being developed for operation on high-altitude aircraft and will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. These technologies are critical towards developing not only spaceborne instruments but also their airborne simulators, with lower platform requirements for size, mass, and power, and with improved instrument performance for the ASCENDS mission. ACES transmits five laser beams: three from commercial EDFAs operating near 1.57 microns, and two from the Exelis oxygen (O2) Raman fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1.26 microns. The three EDFAs are capable of transmitting up to 10 watts average optical output power each and are seeded by compact, low noise, stable, narrow-linewidth laser sources stabilized with respect to a CO2 absorption line using a multi-pass gas absorption cell. The Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach is used at both wavelengths to independently measure the CO2 and O2 column number

  3. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Mercedes Susan; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Zimmerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Ca...

  4. Newly identified YSO candidates towards LDN 1188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton , G.; Verebélyi, E.; Kiss, Cs.; Smidla, J.

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of young stellar object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat, and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

  5. Current advances in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Melissa Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary surgery has taken a big step forward in recent decades especially in the minimally invasive approach for hepatectomy. From being sceptical at the beginning of the 1990s when laparoscopic surgery had become prevalent, to now, where laparoscopic hepatectomy has been well-established, especially in minor hepatectomies; this new technique has evolved rapidly over the past 20-years demonstrating better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncological outcomes in selected patients and in expert hands. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is indeed, more difficult to master than the open procedure with restrictions in working space, difficulty in haemostasis and the potential risk of gas embolism. However, with better visibility of the operative field around the liver, especially beneath the costal margin, the magnified view and theoretical advantage of pneumoperitoneum acting as haemostatic pressure have made laparoscopic hepatectomy increasingly popular. Another important advancement is the new surgical technique of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS. This procedure induces more rapid liver hypertrophy within a median period of 9-days, allowing resection to be performed in candidates with borderline functional liver remnant and at an earlier date. However, studies have shown that ALPPS is associated with a relatively higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it remains a highly controversial treatment option and more studies have to be performed to establish its usefulness and define its role in liver surgery.

  6. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    events by monitoring the brightness of a very large number of stars over extended time intervals. During the past years, it has also included a search for periodic, very shallow "dips" in the brightness of stars, caused by the regular transit of small orbiting objects (small stars, brown dwarfs [2] or Jupiter-size planets). The OGLE team has since announced 177 "planetary transit candidates" from their survey of several hundred thousand stars in three southern sky fields, one in the direction of the Galactic Centre, another within the Carina constellation and the third within the Centaurus/Musca constellations. The nature of the transiting object can however only be established by subsequent radial-velocity observations of the parent star. The size of the velocity variations (the amplitude) is directly related to the mass of the companion object and therefore allows discrimination between stars and planets as the cause of the observed brightness "dip". A Bonanza of Low-Mass Stars An international team of astronomers [3] has made use of the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope for this work. Profiting from the multiplex capacity of the FLAMES/UVES facility that permits to obtain high-resolution spectra of up to 8 objects simultaneously, they have looked at 60 OGLE transit candidate stars, measuring their radial velocities with an accuracy of about 50 m/s [4]. This ambitious programme has so far resulted in the discovery of five new transiting exoplanets (see, e.g., ESO PR 11/04 for the announcement of two of those). Most of the other transit candidates identified by OGLE have turned out to be eclipsing binaries, that is, in most cases common, small and low-mass stars passing in front of a solar-like star. This additional wealth of data on small and light stars is a real bonanza for the astronomers. Constraining the Relation Between Mass and Radius Low-mass stars are exceptionally interesting objects, also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with

  7. Using Advanced Space-borne Radar Technology for Detection and Measurement of Land Subsidence and Interseismic Slip Rates, the Case Study: NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Karimzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR to measure land subsidence in Tabriz Plain (TP and strain accumulation along North Tabriz Fault (NTF. Thermal power plant of Tabriz city locats in the area called Tabriz Plain which supplies electric energy for NW Iran. Its facilities need to be constantly cool, so there are more than twenty water pumping stations in some parts of TP. Moreover, the power plant, petrochemical, refinery and Vanyar dam are located near at a hazardous tectonic structure called North Tabriz Fault. InSAR is one of satellite radar observation methods which is used in space geodesy. In this paper, we have applied twenty ASAR SLC images of Envisat satellite from descending orbits during May 2003 to July 2010. InSAR analysis shows about 20mm/yr land subsidence and about 7mm/yr slip rate for NTF.

  8. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.;

    2010-01-01

    ); EOST, France (team E); IPGP, France (team F); GFZ, Germany (team G) and NASA-GSFC, U.S.A. (team H). Here, we report the evaluations of candidate models carried out by the IGRF-11 task force during October/November 2009 and describe the weightings used to derive the new IGRF-11 model. The evaluations......-2005) and 2010.0 (IGRF-2010), and predictive linear secular variation for the interval 2010.0–2015.0 (SV-2010-2015) were derived from weighted averages of candidate models submitted by teams led by DTU Space, Denmark (team A); NOAA/NGDC, U.S.A. (team B); BGS, U.K. (team C); IZMIRAN, Russia (team D...

  9. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Mullally, F; Thompson, Susan E; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D; Haas, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long period planets in the \\kepler\\ planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler's sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events, and use a Bayesian Information Criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the \\kepler\\ Q1-17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of \\citet{Coughlin15}.

  10. Planetary transit candidates in COROT-IRa01 field

    CERN Document Server

    Carpano, S; Alonso, R; Barge, P; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J -M; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Carone, L; Deeg, H J; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fressin, F; Fridlund, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Magain, P; Moutou, C; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Pacheco, E J; Pátzold, M; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Régulo, C; Renner, S; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Wuchterl, G

    2009-01-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and the photometric detection of extrasolar planets. Aims: We present the list of planetary transit candidates detected in the first field observed by CoRoT, IRa01, the initial run toward the Galactic anticenter, which lasted for 60 days. Methods: We analysed 3898 sources in the coloured bands and 5974 in the monochromatic band. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were taken into account using detrending tools before applying various transit search algorithms. Results: Fifty sources were classified as planetary transit candidates and the most reliable 40 detections were declared targets for follow-up ground-based observations. Two of these targets have so far been confirmed as planets, COROT-1b and COROT-4b, for which a complete characterization and specific studies were performed.

  11. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, F.; Coughlin, Jeffery L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D.; Haas, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long-period planets in the Kepler planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler’s sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events and use a Bayesian information criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the Kepler Q1–Q17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of Coughlin et al.

  12. Space of Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Wheeler emphasized the study of Superspace - the space of 3-geometries on a spatial manifold of fixed topology. This is a configuration space for GR; knowledge of configuration spaces is useful as regards dynamics and QM.In this Article I consider furthmore generalized configuration spaces to all levels within the conventional `equipped sets' paradigm of mathematical structure used in fundamental Theoretical Physics. This covers A) the more familiar issue of topology change in the sense of topological manifolds (tied to cobordisms), including via pinched manifolds. B) The less familiar issue of not regarding as fixed the yet deeper levels of structure: topological spaces themselves (and their metric space subcase), collections of subsets and sets. Isham has previously presented quantization schemes for a number of these. I consider some classical preliminaries for this program, aside from the most obvious (classical dynamics for each). Rather, I provide I) to all levels Relational and Background Independence ...

  13. Passive Thermal Design Approach for the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed Experiment on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamidis, John; Yuko, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program Office at NASA Headquarters oversees all of NASAs space communications activities. SCaN manages and directs the ground-based facilities and services provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN), and the Space Network (SN). Through the SCaN Program Office, NASA GRC developed a Software Defined Radio (SDR) testbed experiment (SCaN testbed experiment) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). It is comprised of three different SDR radios, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radio, Harris Corporation radio, and the General Dynamics Corporation radio. The SCaN testbed experiment provides an on-orbit, adaptable, SDR Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) - based facility to conduct a suite of experiments to advance the Software Defined Radio, Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) standards, reduce risk (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement) for candidate Constellation future space flight hardware software, and demonstrate space communication links critical to future NASA exploration missions. The SCaN testbed project provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop and field communications, navigation, and networking technologies in the laboratory and space environment based on reconfigurable, software defined radio platforms and the STRS Architecture.The SCaN testbed is resident on the P3 Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN testbed payload launched on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and was installed on the ISS P3 ELC located on the inboard RAM P3 site. The daily operations and testing are managed out of NASA GRC in the Telescience Support Center (TSC).

  14. Advanced Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  15. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Physiological responses to wearing the space shuttle launch and entry suit and the prototype advanced crew escape suit compared to the unsuited condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Mcbrine, John J.; Hayes, Judith C.; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Greenisen, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The launch and entry suit (LES) is a life support suit worn during Orbiter ascent and descent. The impact of suit weight and restricted mobility on egress from the Orbiter during an emergency is unknown. An alternate suit - the advanced crew escape suite (ACES) - is being evaluated. The physiological responses to ambulatory exercise of six subjects wearing the LES and ACES were measured and compared to those measurements taken while unsuited. Dependent variables included heart rate and metabolic response to treadmill walking at 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph), and also bilateral concentric muscle strength about the knee, shoulder, and elbow. No significant (p greater than 0.06) differences in heart rate or metabolic variables were measured in either suit while walking at 5.6 km/h. Significant (p less than 0.05) decreases in all metabolic variables were remarked when both suits were compared to the unsuited condition. There were no significant (p greater than 0.05) differences among the three suit conditions at 30 or 180 deg/s for muscles about the elbow and knee; however, about the shoulder, a significant (p = 0.0215) difference between the ACES and the unsuited condition was noted. Therefore, wearing a life support suit while performing Orbiter egress imposes a significant metabolic demand on crewmembers. Selective upper body strength movements may be compromised.

  17. Special Education Teacher Candidate Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Zach; McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Shealey, Monika Williams

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been under intense scrutiny in recent years. In order for preparation of special education teacher candidates to remain viable, candidate assessment practices must apply practices identified in the extant literature base, while special education teacher education researchers must extend this base with rigorous efforts to…

  18. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2... also cover or carry candidate debates in accordance with 11 CFR part 100, subparts B and C and part 100... CFR 114.4(f), provided that they are not owned or controlled by a political party, political...

  19. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  20. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to -11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC). PMID:27270381

  1. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-06-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to ‑11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC).

  2. Space-Qualified 1064 nm Seed and Metrology Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several instruments that are potential candidates for future space-based NASA missions require a highly stable, single frequency laser oscillator that is wavelength...

  3. Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, B.; Eberle, B.; Woodcock, G.; Negast, B.

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with a readily accessible reference volume and history for the Integrated In-Space Transportation Plan (IISTP) phase I effort. This report was prepared by Gray Research, Inc. as a partial fulfillment of the Integrated Technology Assessment Center subcontract No. 4400037135 in support of the IISTP phase I effort within the In-Space Investment Area of the Advanced Space Transportation Program managed at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Much of the data used in the preparation of this report was taken from analyses, briefings, and reports prepared by the vast number of dedicated engineers and scientists who participated in the IISTP phase I effort. The opinions and ideas expressed in this report are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of NASA in whole or in part. Reaching the outer solar system is a struggle against time and distance. The most distant planets are 4.5 to 6 billion kilometers from the Sun and to reach them in any reasonable time requires much higher values of specific impulse than can be achieved with conventional chemical rockets. In addition, the few spacecraft that have reached beyond Jupiter have used gravity assist, mainly by Jupiter, that is only available for a few months' period every 13 or so years. This permits only very infrequent missions and mission planners are very reluctant to accept travel times greater than about ten years since this is about the maximum for which one can have a realistic program plan. Advanced In-Space Propulsion (ISP) technologies will enable much more effective exploration of our Solar System and will permit mission designers to plan missions to "fly anytime, anywhere and complete a host of science objectives at the destinations' with greater reliability and safety. With a wide range of possible missions and candidate propulsion technologies with very diverse characteristics, the question of which technologies are

  4. Miniature Flexible Humidity Sensitive Patches for Space Suits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suit technologies demand improved, simplified, long-life regenerative sensing technologies, including humidity sensors, that exceed the performance...

  5. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet...

  6. Advanced Wastewater Photo-oxidation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes an advanced photocatalytic oxidation reactor for enhancing the reliability and performance of Water Recovery Post Processing systems...

  7. Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (AMET) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) propose to develop the Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster...

  8. Advanced Green Micropropulsion System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systima in collaboration with the University of Washington will develop a high performance, advanced green monopropellant microthruster (0.1 – 1.0 N) for...

  9. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  10. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  11. Advanced Green Micropropulsion System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systima in collaboration with University of Washington is developing a high performance injection system for advanced green monopropellant AF-M315E micropropulsion...

  12. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  13. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, I; Ribas, Á; Bouy, H; Prusti, T; Pilbratt, G L; André, Ph

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful to identify transitional disk candidates. The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 $\\mu$m of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using the criteria defined in Ribas et al. (2013) we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 $\\mu$m fluxes are systematically higher than thos...

  14. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  15. THE ADVANCED STELLAR COMPASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  16. Advances in satellite communications

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Discussing advances in modulation techniques and HTS spotbeam technologiesSurveying emerging high speed aeronautical mobility services and maritime and other terrestrial mobility servicesAssessing M2M (machine-to-machine) applications, emerging Ultra HD video technologies and new space technology

  17. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design...

  18. Dark Matter candidates in a baryogenesis inspired scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been shown that the electroweak baryogenesis mechanism is feasible in Standard Model extensions containing extra fermions with large Yukawa couplings. We show that the lightest of these fermionic fields can naturally be a good candidate for cold dark matter. We find regions in the parameter space where the thermal relic abundance of this particle is compatible with the dark matter density of the Universe as determined by the WMAP experiment. We study direct and indirect dark matter detection for this model and compare with current experimental limits and prospects for upcoming experiments. We find, contrary to the standard lore, that indirect detection searches are more promising than direct ones, and they already exclude part of the parameter space

  19. Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, M.A. van; Brunner, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information i

  20. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  1. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24...... of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published...... on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  2. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-05-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates’ development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the achievement of their chemistry pedagogical aspirations. Two theoretical frameworks, both having their origins in the pioneering work of Kurt Lewin, are used to conceptualize how a complex amalgam of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay among these factors influence teacher candidate developmental trajectories. The tenets of both Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model and Learning Environment research provide insights into how the factors influencing teacher candidate development can be understood and systematically documented to provide a template for reflective consideration of the practicum experience for both teacher candidates and those involved in fostering the development of chemistry teacher candidates.

  3. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates....... We therefore suggest that the political implications of social media are generally better understood in terms of facilitating indirect communication and institutional change than in terms of direct communication....

  4. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    OpenAIRE

    Shiril Paskalis; Anandina Irmagita

    2013-01-01

    Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture pla...

  5. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  6. The ground testing of a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 25 years Space Solar Dynamic component development has advanced to the point where it is considered a leading candidate power source technology for the evolutionary phases of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Selection of SD power was based on studies and analyses which indicated significant savings in life cycle costs, launch mass and EVA requirements were possible when the system is compared to more conventional photovoltaic/battery power systems. Issues associated with micro-gravity operation such as the behavior of the thermal energy storage materials are being addressed in other programs. This paper reports that a ground test of a 2 kWe solar dynamic system is being planned by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to address the integration issues. The test will be scalable up to 25 kWe, will be flight configured and will incorporate relevant features of the SSF Solar Dynamic Power Module design

  7. 航天失重环境中机体的氧化应激损伤与防护措施研究进展%Advances on space weightlessness induced oxidative stress injury and the protective measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹皓

    2015-01-01

    目的 综述有关地面模拟失重条件下以及航天飞行微重力环境中机体的氧化应激损伤及其防护措施的研究进展. 资料来源与选择 国内外该领域的相关文献资料. 资料引用 引用公开发表的文献资料90篇. 资料综合 回顾了有关地面模拟失重条件下以及航天飞行微重力环境中机体的氧化应激损伤及其防护措施的研究进展.大量研究表明,地面模拟失重条件下以及航天飞行微重力环境中会出现机体多个系统、组织以及细胞的结构、功能与代谢异常,例如,出现心功能下降、立位耐力不良、骨骼肌萎缩、骨矿物质丢失或骨质疏松等;而氧化应激损伤与地面模拟失重条件下以及航天飞行微重力环境中的机体功能异常密切相关.航天飞行微重力环境中采取的综合卫生防护措施有助于降低机体的氧化应激损伤,主要包括装备防护、航天生理心理训练、科学营养膳食和合理用药. 结论 地面模拟失重条件下以及航天飞行微重力环境中诱发的氧化应激损伤与机体功能异常密切相关,应当采用综合卫生保障措施进行防护以更好地维护航天员的健康水平和作业能力.%Objective To review the research advances related to oxidative stress injury under simulated weightlessness on the ground and space microgravity environment and the protective measures.Literature resource and selection Relevant articles published in China and abroad.Literature quotation Ninety published references were cited.Literature synthesis The research advances related to oxidative stress injury under simulated weightlessness on the ground and space microgravity environment and the protective measures were reviewed.Many studies have shown that there were significant structural,functional and metabolic abnormal changes in multi-systems,tissues and cells under simulated weightlessness on the ground or space microgravity environment,such as reduced

  8. Cellular spaces, null spaces and homotopy localization

    CERN Document Server

    Farjoun, Emmanuel Dror

    1996-01-01

    In this monograph we give an exposition of some recent development in homotopy theory. It relates to advances in periodicity in homotopy localization and in cellular spaces. The notion of homotopy localization is treated quite generally and encompasses all the known idempotent homotopy functors. It is applied to K-theory localizations, to Morava-theories, to Hopkins-Smith theory of types. The method of homotopy colimits is used heavily. It is written with an advanced graduate student in topology and research homotopy theorist in mind.

  9. In-Space Propulsion (346620) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technologies include, but are not limited to, electric and advanced chemical propulsion, propellantless propulsion such as aerocapture and solar sails, sample...

  10. Selection of a Data Acquisition and Controls System Communications and Software Architecture for Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory Thermal and Vacuum Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Upgrade of data acquisition and controls systems software at Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) involved the definition, evaluation and selection of a system communication architecture and software components. A brief discussion of the background of the SESL and its data acquisition and controls systems provides a context for discussion of the requirements for each selection. Further framework is provided as upgrades to these systems accomplished in the 1990s and in 2003 are compared to demonstrate the role that technological advances have had in their improvement. Both of the selections were similar in their three phases; 1) definition of requirements, 2) identification of candidate products and their evaluation and testing and 3) selection by comparison of requirement fulfillment. The candidates for the communication architecture selection embraced several different methodologies which are explained and contrasted. Requirements for this selection are presented and the selection process is described. Several candidates for the software component of the data acquisition and controls system are identified, requirements for evaluation and selection are presented, and the evaluation process is described.

  11. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  12. Advanced optical delay line demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kamphues, F.G.; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    TNO TPD, in cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has designed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in future ground based and space interferometry missions. The work is performed under NIVR contract in preparation for GENIE and DARWIN. Using the ESO PRIMA DDL requirements as

  13. Dark Matter Detection in Space

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jonathan L.

    2004-01-01

    I review prospects for detecting dark matter in space-based experiments, with an emphasis on recent developments. I propose the ``Martha Stewart criterion'' for identifying dark matter candidates that are particularly worth investigation and focus on three that satisfy it: neutralino dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and superWIMP gravitino dark matter.

  14. High Performance Bipropellant Space Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced bipropellant engines are needed for ARES/ORION vehicle maneuvering and future deep space science missions. Currently, an iridium-lined rhenium combustion...

  15. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  16. High Performance Thrusters for Advanced Green Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of an advanced green monopropellant propulsion system could have significant benefits to a wide range of NASA space missions, from deep space...

  17. Improved orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communications through advanced coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Jeffrey; Patti, John

    2005-08-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a communications technique that transmits a signal over multiple, evenly spaced, discrete frequency bands. OFDM offers some advantages over traditional, single-carrier modulation techniques, such as increased immunity to inter-symbol interference. For this reason OFDM is an attractive candidate for sensor network application; it has already been included in several standards, including Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB); digital television standards in Europe, Japan and Australia; asymmetric digital subscriber line (ASDL); and wireless local area networks (WLAN), specifically IEEE 802.11a. Many of these applications currently make use of a standard convolutional code with Viterbi decoding to perform forward error correction (FEC). Replacing such convolutional codes with advanced coding techniques using iterative decoding, such as Turbo codes, can substantially improve the performance of the OFDM communications link. This paper demonstrates such improvements using the 802.11a wireless LAN standard.

  18. Planetary transit candidates in the CoRoT-SRc01 field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikson, A.; Santerne, A.; Renner, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Context. CoRoT is a pioneering space mission whose primary goals are stellar seismology and extrasolar planets search. Its surveys of large stellar fields generate numerous planetary candidates whose lightcurves have transit-like features. An extensive analytical and observational follow-up effor...

  19. "It's Just Too Sad!": Teacher Candidates' Emotional Resistance to Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papola-Ellis, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    The use of critical literacy with children's books that focus on social issues and disrupt the status quo can be a powerful way to create spaces for conversations with students about social justice and empowerment. Teacher candidates in a semester long children's literature course were asked to respond to a range of children's texts that dealt…

  20. Advanced Fire Detector for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses an optical carbon monoxide sensor for early fire detection. During the sensor development, a concept was implemented to allow reliable carbon monoxide detection in the presence of interfering absorption signals. Methane interference is present in the operating wavelength range of the developed prototype sensor for carbon monoxide detection. The operating parameters of the prototype sensor have been optimized so that interference with methane is minimized. In addition, simultaneous measurement of methane is implemented, and the instrument automatically corrects the carbon monoxide signal at high methane concentrations. This is possible because VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers) with extended current tuning capabilities are implemented in the optical device. The tuning capabilities of these new laser sources are sufficient to cover the wavelength range of several absorption lines. The delivered carbon monoxide sensor (COMA 1) reliably measures low carbon monoxide levels even in the presence of high methane signals. The signal bleed-over is determined during system calibration and is then accounted for in the system parameters. The sensor reports carbon monoxide concentrations reliably for (interfering) methane concentrations up to several thousand parts per million.

  1. Evaluation of GPM candidate algorithms on hurricane observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M.; Chandrasekar, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of precipitation on a global scale by the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) and has enabled a large scale study of precipitation over ocean, especially tropical storms. The three-dimensional downward-looking observation characteristic of the TRMM-PR makes it possible to study the vertical structure of tropical storms. The global precipitation measuring mission (GPM) will be the second mission following the success of TRMM. The GPM Mission extends tropical storm tracking and forecasting capabilities into the middle and high latitudes, covering the area from 65° S to 65°N. This orbit will provide new insight into how and why some tropical storm intensify and others weaken as they move from tropical to mid-latitude systems. The GPM core satellite will be equipped with a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) operating at K_u (13.6 GHz) and K_a (35.5 GHz) band. DPR on aboard the GPM core satellite is expected to improve our knowledge of precipitation processes relative to the single-frequency (K_u band) radar used in TRMM by providing greater dynamic range, more detailed information on microphysics, and better accuracies in rainfall retrievals. New K_a band channel observation of DPR will help to improve the detection thresholds for light rain and snow relative to TRMM PR [1]. The dual-frequency signals will allow us to better distinguish regions of liquid, frozen, and mixed-phase precipitation. In the GPM era, storms could be better tracked and characterized. In support the NASA GPM mission, NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Lab) developed the 2nd generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) as a prototype of advanced dual-frequency space radar which emulates DPR on board the GPM core satellite before it is launched. GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) is the most recent campaign of APR-2 conducted in the year 2010 located in Golf of Mexico and Caribbean sea with the major goal to better understand tropical

  2. NHI economic analysis of candidate nuclear hydrogen processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is investigating candidate technologies for large scale hydrogen production using high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) in concert with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programme. The candidate processes include high temperature thermochemical and high temperature electrolytic processes which are being investigated in a sequence of experimental and analytic studies to establish the most promising and cost effective means of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. Although these advanced processes are in an early development stage, it is important that the projected economic potential of these processes be evaluated to assist in the prioritisation of research activities, and ultimately in the selection of the most promising processes for demonstration and deployment. The projected cost of hydrogen produced is the most comprehensive metric in comparing candidate processes. Since these advanced processes are in the early stages of development and much of the technology is still unproven, the estimated production costs are also significantly uncertain. The programme approach has been to estimate the cost of hydrogen production from each process periodically, based on the best available data at that time, with the intent of increasing fidelity and reducing uncertainty as the research programme and system definition studies progress. These updated cost estimates establish comparative costs at that stage of development but are also used as inputs to the evaluation of research priorities, and identify the key cost and risk (uncertainty) drivers for each process. The economic methodology used to assess the candidate processes are based on the H2A ground rules and modelling tool (discounted cash flow) developed by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The figure of merit output from the calculation is the necessary selling price for hydrogen in dollars per kilogram that satisfies the cost

  3. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  4. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Linear Algebra, Second Edition takes a gentle approach that starts with familiar concepts and then gradually builds to deeper results. Each section begins with an outline of previously introduced concepts and results necessary for mastering the new material. By reviewing what students need to know before moving forward, the text builds a solid foundation upon which to progress. The new edition of this successful text focuses on vector spaces and the maps between them that preserve their structure (linear transformations). Designed for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate stud

  5. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  6. Issue-Advocacy versus Candidate Advertising: Effects on Candidate Preferences and Democratic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Holbert, R. Lance; Szabo, Erin Alison; Kaminski, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of soft-money-sponsored issue-advocacy advertising in U.S. House and Senate campaigns, comparing its effects against candidate-sponsored positive advertising and contrast advertising on viewers' candidate preferences and on their attitude that reflect democratic values. Reveals no main effects for advertising approach on…

  7. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  8. ASTROD I - Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Ni, Wei-Tou; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    In 2011 ASTROD I has been selected as one of the final 14 candidates for the Cosmic Vision M3 mission. ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test general relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system; and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is an international project, and is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTROD I goals. Finally the mission was not selected for the final 4 candidates for CV M3 in 2011. Nevertheless, ASTROD is a very promising concept for a fundamental physics space mission and shares some key technologies with other popular space missions like LISA and Jason 2 (T2L2). We have also considered possibilities (i) to add an ASTROD I laser ranging package to other fundamental missions for testing the dynamics of relativistic gravity; (ii) to fully combine ASTROD I with another fundamental mission using basic technology of the LISA Pathfiner (this could also be good for a LISA-type mission scheduled to launch 20 years later). In this paper, we present various possibilities of our study.

  9. NASA Programs in Space Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Highlighted here are some of the current programs in advanced space solar cell and array development conducted by NASA in support of its future mission requirements. Recent developments are presented for a variety of solar cell types, including both single crystal and thin film cells. A brief description of an advanced concentrator array capable of AM0 efficiencies approaching 25 percent is also provided.

  10. On the occurrence of glitches in pulsar free precession candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D I; Prix, R

    2016-01-01

    The timing properties of radio pulsars provide a unique probe of neutron star interiors. Recent observations have uncovered quasi-periodicities in the timing and pulse properties of some pulsars, a phenomenon that has often been attributed to free precession of the neutron star, with profound implications for the distribution of superfluidity and superconductivity in the star. We advance this programme by developing consistency relations between free precession and pulsars glitches, and show that there are difficulties in reconciling the two phenomena in some precession candidates. This indicates that either the precession model used here needs to be modified, or some other phenomenon is at work in producing the quasi-periodicities, or even that there is something missing in terms of our understanding of glitches.

  11. Cathelicidin peptides as candidates for a novel class of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Tomasinsig, Linda; Circo, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Cathelicidin peptides are a numerous group of mammalian cationic antimicrobial peptides. Despite a common evolutionary origin of their genes, peptides display a remarkable variety of sizes, sequences and structures. Their spectra of antimicrobial activity are varied and cover a range of organisms that includes bacteria, fungi and enveloped viruses. In addition, they bind to and neutralize the effects of endotoxin. These features make this family of peptides good candidates in view of a therapeutic use. The most promising ones are currently under evaluation as leads for the development of novel anti-infectives, and synthetic variants are in an advanced stage of development for specific clinical applications. This review focuses on recent studies on the structure and in vitro and in vivo biological activities of these peptides. PMID:11945171

  12. Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

  13. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  14. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  15. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

  16. Start of space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Makoto

    1993-03-01

    Space tourism means commercialization of manned space flight. From the early stage of space development, space commercialization is a profound theme in multidisciplinary fields, on the basis of a principle that the outcomes of advanced technique developed by tax should be returned to citizens. In these days, space satellite system in which users pay a fee for utilization has succeeded commercially in business such as communication network or broadcasting, and an attempt has been made to observe the earth from outer space to resolve global problems, such as environmental destruction. There is also an increasing interest in space tourism, however, many obstacles should be overcome for the realization, especially the medical problems such as effect of acceleration, cosmic ray, noise or weightless condition. In addition, the space flight business should be managed on the commercial base so that reasonable cost and large number of passengers are essential. It is necessary to design rockets suitable for tourism. For attractive design, the policy of space tourism should be clarified.

  17. Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Among 2011's many accomplishments, we safely retired the Space Shuttle Program after 30 incredible years; completed the International Space Station and are taking steps to enable it to reach its full potential as a multi-purpose laboratory; and helped to expand scientific knowledge with missions like Aquarius, GRAIL, and the Mars Science Laboratory. Responding to national budget challenges, we are prioritizing critical capabilities and divesting ourselves of assets no longer needed for NASA's future exploration programs. Since these facilities do not have to be maintained or demolished, the government saves money. At the same time, our commercial partners save money because they do not have to build new facilities. It is a win-win for everyone. Moving forward, 2012 will be even more historically significant as we celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Kennedy Space Center. In the coming year, KSC will facilitate commercial transportation to low-Earth orbit and support the evolution of the Space Launch System and Orion crew vehicle as they ready for exploration missions, which will shape how human beings view the universe. While NASA's Vision is to lead scientific and technological advances in aeronautics and space for a Nation on the frontier of discovery KSC's vision is to be the world's preeminent launch complex for government and commercial space access, enabling the world to explore and work in space. KSC's Mission is to safely manage, develop, integrate, and sustain space systems through partnerships that enable innovative, diverse access to space and inspires the Nation's future explorers.

  18. ATLAS Physicist in Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Bengt Lund-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    On December 9, the former ATLAS physicist Christer Fuglesang was launched into space onboard the STS-116 Space Shuttle flight from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Christer worked on the development of the accordion-type liquid argon calorimeter and SUSY simulations in what eventually became ATLAS until summer 1992 when he became one out of six astronaut trainees with the European Space Agency (ESA). His selection out of a very large number of applicants from all over the ESA member states involved a number of tests in order to choose the most suitable candidates. As ESA astronaut Christer trained with the Russian Soyuz programme in Star City outside of Moscow from 1993 until 1996, when he moved to Houston to train for space shuttle missions with NASA. Christer belonged to the backup crew for the Euromir95 mission. After additional training in Russia, Christer qualified as ‘Soyuz return commander’ in 1998. Christer rerouting cables during his second space walk. (Photo: courtesy NASA) During...

  19. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  20. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  1. Spectroscopy of Hyades L dwarf candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic follow-up of L dwarf candidates identified in the Hyades cluster by Hogan et al. (2008). We obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio de Canarias for all 12 L dwarf candidates as well as new J-band imaging for a subsample of eight to confirm their proper motion. We also present mid-infrared photometry from the Wise Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the Hyades L and T dwarf candidates and estimate their spectroscopic distances, effective temperatures, and masses. We confirm the cool nature of several L dwarf candidates and confirm astrometrically their membership, bridging the gap between the coolest M dwarfs and the two T dwarfs previously reported in the Hyades cluster. These members represent valuable spectral templates at an age of 625 Myr and slightly super solar metallicity (Fe/H=+0.13). We update the Hyades mass function across the hydrogen-burning limit and in the substel...

  2. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Request for... Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board) with the requested materials in response to...

  3. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excess of the aggregate payments to which they will be entitled under 11 CFR part 9004. (2) That no... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures in excess of the limitations of 11 CFR 110.8(a), the Commission may seek civil penalties under...

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Beginning Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Madeline; Espinoza, Sue

    2007-01-01

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas will need over 82,000 new teachers by 2008. Many teachers are leaving the profession within 5 years of being employed. Closing a revolving door, teacher preparation programs are discussing this phenomenon. One hundred sixty beginning teacher candidates were surveyed using the Emotional Skills…

  5. Fuzzy Treatment of Candidate Outliers in Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo E. D'Errico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robustness against the possible occurrence of outlying observations is critical to the performance of a measurement process. Open questions relevant to statistical testing for candidate outliers are reviewed. A novel fuzzy logic approach is developed and exemplified in a metrology context. A simulation procedure is presented and discussed by comparing fuzzy versus probabilistic models.

  6. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  7. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  8. The Responsibility Education of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toremen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to take the views and suggestions of academicians working at the faculty of education on what can be done about teacher candidates' responsibility education. This study was designed on the basis of qualitative research approach and purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected by unstructured interview method…

  9. Candidal Leukoplakia on Patient with Removable Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiril Paskalis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida infection is a common problem in patients using removable dentures, with the most frequent type is denture stomatitis. But other type of candidal infection could also happen in these patients, such as candidal leukoplakia. We reported a 61 years old female patient who complained a painful lesion under her lower removable denture. Oral examination revealed white plaque that could not be rubbed over an ulcer on the lingual part of alveolar processes under the lower removable denture plate, and also an erythematous area on palatum durum above the upper full denture. The patient was suspected to have candidal leukoplakia on the lingual part of the mandible and denture stomatitis on the palate area. The treatment consisted of nystatin oral suspension, chlorhexidine solution, multivitamins, along with denture replacement and oral health education. The entire lesion resolved within 2 months therapy. Candidal infection treatment on denture patient needs not only medication or denture replacement, but also patient compliance to achieve maximal result.

  10. FAME's Search for Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.

    FAME is a five year survey mission to observe the positions, proper motions, and parallaxes of 40,000,000 stars down to 15th magnitude with accuracies of 50 microarcseconds at 9th magnitude. In addition to producing an astrometric and photometric catalog unparalleled for its accuracy and size, the survey will provide significant astrophysics results and search for extrasolar planet candidates.

  11. Secondary Teacher Candidates' Lesson Planning Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Christina; Zhang, Shaoan

    2016-01-01

    Teacher candidates (TCs) use clinical experiences to enact concepts taught in their university courses; therefore field experiences may be the most important component of teacher preparation (Hammerness et al., 2005). TCs require support and guidance as they learn to adapt curriculum materials for effective use in the classroom (Davis, 2006). They…

  12. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Rietman; J.-P. Sommeijer; C.N. Levelt; J.A. Heimel; A.B. Brussaard; J.G.G. Borst; Y. Elgersma; N. Galjart; G.T. van der Horst; C.M. Pennartz; A.B. Smit; B.M. Spruijt; M. Verhage; C.I. de Zeeuw

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  13. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  14. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  15. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  16. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  17. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liset Rietman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify new candidate genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity. To this aim, we combined previously obtained data from recombinant inbred BXD strains on ocular dominance (OD plasticity and gene expression levels in the neocortex. We validated our approach using a list of genes which alter OD plasticity when inactivated. The expression levels of one fifth of these genes correlated with the amount of OD plasticity. Moreover, the two genes with the highest relative inter-strain differences were among the correlated genes. This suggests that correlation between gene expression levels and OD plasticity is indeed likely to point to genes with a causal role in modulating or generating plasticity in the visual cortex. After this validation on known plasticity genes, we identified new candidate genes by a multi-step approach. First, a list was compiled of all genes of which the expression level in BXD strains correlate with the amount of OD plasticity. To narrow this list to the more promising candidates, we took its cross-section with a list of genes co-regulated with the sensitive period for OD plasticity and a list of genes associated with pathways implicated in OD plasticity. This analysis resulted in a list of 32 candidate genes. The list contained unproven, but not surprising, candidates, such as the genes for IGF-1, NCAM1, NOGO-A, the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A receptor, acetylcholine esterase and the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This was indicative of the viability of our approach, but more interesting were the novel candidate genes: Akap7, Akt1, Camk2d, Cckbr, Cd44, Crim1, Ctdsp2, Dnajc5, Gnai1, Itpka, Mapk8, Nbea, Nfatc3, Nlk, Npy5r, Phf21a, Phip, Ppm1l, Ppp1r1b, Rbbp4, Slc1a3, Slit2, Socs2, Spock3, St8sia1, Zfp207. The possible role of some of these candidates is discussed in the article.

  18. Corresponding mitochondrial DNA and niche divergence for crested newt candidate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wielstra

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA does not necessarily correspond to reproductive isolation. However, if mitochondrial DNA lineages occupy separate segments of environmental space, this supports the notion of their evolutionary independence. We explore niche differentiation among three candidate species of crested newt (characterized by distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages and interpret the results in the light of differences observed for recognized crested newt species. We quantify niche differences among all crested newt (candidate species and test hypotheses regarding niche evolution, employing two ordination techniques (PCA-env and ENFA. Niche equivalency is rejected: all (candidate species are found to occupy significantly different segments of environmental space. Furthermore, niche overlap values for the three candidate species are not significantly higher than those for the recognized species. As the three candidate crested newt species are, not only in terms of mitochondrial DNA genetic divergence, but also ecologically speaking, as diverged as the recognized crested newt species, our findings are in line with the hypothesis that they represent cryptic species. We address potential pitfalls of our methodology.

  19. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  20. A Catalog of Candidate High-redshift Blazars for GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Tersi M.; /SLAC /San Francisco State U.

    2006-09-27

    High-redshift blazars are promising candidates for detection by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST, expected to be launched in the Fall of 2007, is a high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 10 MeV to more than 200 GeV. It is estimated that GLAST will find several thousand blazars. The motivations for measuring the gamma-ray emission from distant blazars include the study of the high-energy emission processes occurring in these sources and an indirect measurement of the extragalactic background light. In anticipation of the launch of GLAST we have compiled a catalog of candidate high-redshift blazars. The criteria for sources chosen for the catalog were: high radio emission, high redshift, and a flat radio spectrum. A preliminary list of 307 radio sources brighter than 70mJy with a redshift z {ge} 2.5 was acquired using data from the NASA Extragalactic Database. Flux measurements of each source were obtained at two or more radio frequencies from surveys and catalogs to calculate their radio spectral indices {alpha}. The sources with a flat-radio spectrum ({alpha} {le} 0.5) were selected for the catalog, and the final catalog includes about 200 sources.

  1. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  2. Advanced coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coated particle fuel (cpf) has been developed for use in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, but it may find applications in other types of reactors. In JAERI, besides the development of cpf for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, conceptual studies of the cpf applications in actinide burner reactors and space reactors have been made. The conceptual design studies as well as the research and development of advanced coatings, ZrC and TiN, are reviewed. (author)

  3. Planetary transit candidates in the CoRoT LRa01 field

    CERN Document Server

    Carone, L; Cabrera, J; Hatzes, A P; Deeg, H J; Csizmadia, Sz; Paetzold, M; Weingrill, J; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Alapini, A; Almenara, J -M; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Carpano, S; Cochran, W D; Deleuil, M; Díaz, R F; Dreizler, S; Dvorak, R; Eisloeffel, J; Eigmueller, P; Endl, M; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Fridlund, M; Gazzano, J -C; Gibson, N; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Grziwa, S; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Hartmann, M; Havel, M; Hébrard, G; Jorda, L; Kabath, P; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; Lovis, C; MacQueen, P J; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Nortmann, L; Ofir, A; Ollivier, M; Parviainen, H; Pepe, F; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rabus, M; Rauer, H; Régulo, C; Renner, S; de la Reza, R; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Shporer, A; Stecklum, B; Tal-Or, L; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G

    2011-01-01

    Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission whose primary goals are stellar seismology and extrasolar planets search. Its surveys of large stellar fields generate numerous planetary candidates whose lightcurves have transit-like features. An extensive analytical and observational follow-up effort is undertaken to classify these candidates. Aims: The list of planetary transit candidates from the CoRoT LRa01 star field in the Monoceros constellation towards the Galactic anti-center is presented. The CoRoT observations of LRa01 lasted from 24 October 2007 to 3 March 2008. Methods: 7470 chromatic and 3938 monochromatic lightcurves were acquired and analysed. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were treated with several filtering tools by different teams from the CoRoT community. Different transit search algorithms were applied to the lightcurves. Results: Fifty-one stars were classified as planetary transit candidates in LRa01. Thirty-seven (i.e., 73 % of all candidates) are "good" planetary candidates ba...

  4. Herschel Reveals Massive Cold Clump Candidates in NGC 7538

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallscheer, Cassandra; Reid, Mike; Di Francesco, James; Martin, Peter; Hill, Tracey

    2013-07-01

    Observations of the high-mass star formation region NGC 7538 taken with the Herschel Space Observatory were made at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron as part of the Herschel imaging study of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. Within the one square degree field, we identify 780 dense sources and classify 224 of those. With the intention of investigating the existence of cold massive starless or class 0-like clumps that would have the potential to form intermediate- to high-mass stars, we further isolate 13 clumps as the most likely candidates for follow-up studies. A peculiar feature in the observations is a large, nearly complete ring of material. The evacuated ring is of unknown origin and hosts a number of the detected sources.

  5. Noncommutativity inspired Black Holes as Dark Matter Candidate

    CERN Document Server

    Kováčik, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    We study black holes with a source that is almost point-like (blurred), rather than exactly point-like, which could be caused by the noncommutativity of 3-space. Depending on its mass, such object has either none, one or two event horizons. It possesses new properties, which become important on microscopic scale, in particular the temperature of its Hawking radiation does not increase infinitely as its mass goes to zero, but vanishes instead. Such frozen, extremely dense pieces of matter are good dark matter candidate. In addition, we introduce an object oscillating between frozen black hole and naked (softened) singularity, such objects can serve as constituents of dark matter too. We call it gravimond.

  6. 22 CFR 11.8 - Travel expenses of candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of candidates. 11.8 Section 11... Travel expenses of candidates. The travel and other personal expenses of candidates incurred in... Department may issue round-trip invitational travel orders to bring candidates to Washington at...

  7. 32 CFR 901.6 - Candidate fitness test requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candidate fitness test requirement. 901.6... Requirements § 901.6 Candidate fitness test requirement. Before being offered an appointment, candidates must take a Candidate Fitness Test (CFT) which consists of exercises designed to measure muscular...

  8. Exobiology experiments for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Griffiths, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits the Space Station could provide to the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life throughout the universe are described. Space Station experiments relevant to the cosmic evolution of biogenic elements and compounds, prebiotic chemical evolution, early evolution of life, and the evolution of advanced life forms are examined. The application of astronomical and astrometric observations to be obtained from the Space Station to the origin of life research is discussed.

  9. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations.

  10. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations. PMID:20672542

  11. Canister filling materials -- Design requirements and evaluation of candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has been evaluating a copper/steel canister for use in the disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Once the canister is breached by corrosion, it is possible that the void volume inside the canister might fill with water. Water inside the canister would moderate the energy of the neutrons emitted by spontaneous fission in the fuel. It the space in the canister between and around the fuel pins is occupied by canister filling materials, the potential for criticality is avoided. The authors have developed a set of design requirements for canister filling material for the case where it is to be used alone, with no credit for burnup of the fuel or other measures, such as the use of neutron absorbers. Requirements were divided into three classes: essential requirements, desirable features, and undesirable features. The essential requirements are that the material fill at least 60% of the original void space, that the solubility of the filling material be less than 100 mg/l in pure water or expected repository waters at 50 C, and that the material not compact under its own weight by more than 10%. In this paper they review the reasons for these requirements, the desirable and undesirable features, and evaluate 11 candidate materials with respect to the design requirements and features. The candidate materials are glass beads, lead shot, copper spheres, sand, olivine, hematite, magnetite, crushed rock, bentonite, other clays, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the determination of whether further work is needed to eliminate uncertainties in the evaluation of the ability of a particular filling material to be successfully used under actual conditions, and on the ability to predict the long-term performance of the material under the repository conditions

  12. Business Context of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2003-01-01

    Broadly speaking, two types of potential commercial activity in space can be defined. First, there are those activities that represent an expansion and improvement on services with broad existing commercial foundations such as telecommunications. The second type of potential commercial activity in space is one that may offer a type of service with few or any existing commercial foundations such as space-based remote sensing. Space tourism clearly belongs in the first category of potential commercial activity in space. Roles in cooperation with the private sector that might be considered for NASA include 1) acceleration of the ``Professional-in Space'' initiative, 2) research and technology developments related to a) a ``Tourist Destination Module'' for the Space Station, b) an ``Extra Passengers Module'' for the payload bay of the Space Shuttle, and c) a ``Passenger-rated Expendable Launch Vehicle,'' 3) definition of criteria for qualifying candidate space tourists, and 4) initiatives to protect space tourism from unreasonable tort litigation. As baseline information for establishing fees, the cost of a possible tourist flight should be fully and objectively delineated. If it is correct that the marginal cost of each Space Shuttle flight to Earth-orbit is about $100 million and the effective Shuttle payload is about 50,000 pounds, then the marginal cost would be roughly $2,000 per pound.

  13. Improving drug candidates by design: a focus on physicochemical properties as a means of improving compound disposition and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2011-09-19

    The development of small molecule drug candidates from the discovery phase to a marketed product continues to be a challenging enterprise with very low success rates that have fostered the perception of poor productivity by the pharmaceutical industry. Although there have been significant advances in preclinical profiling that have improved compound triaging and altered the underlying reasons for compound attrition, the failure rates have not appreciably changed. As part of an effort to more deeply understand the reasons for candidate failure, there has been considerable interest in analyzing the physicochemical properties of marketed drugs for the purpose of comparing with drugs in discovery and development as a means capturing recent trends in drug design. The scenario that has emerged is one in which contemporary drug discovery is thought to be focused too heavily on advancing candidates with profiles that are most easily satisfied by molecules with increased molecular weight and higher overall lipophilicity. The preponderance of molecules expressing these properties is frequently a function of increased aromatic ring count when compared with that of the drugs launched in the latter half of the 20th century and may reflect a preoccupation with maximizing target affinity rather than taking a more holistic approach to drug design. These attributes not only present challenges for formulation and absorption but also may influence the manifestation of toxicity during development. By providing some definition around the optimal physicochemical properties associated with marketed drugs, guidelines for drug design have been developed that are based largely on calculated parameters and which may readily be applied by medicinal chemists as an aid to understanding candidate quality. The physicochemical properties of a molecule that are consistent with the potential for good oral absorption were initially defined by Lipinski, with additional insights allowing further

  14. Default spacing is the optimal spacing for word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; Hakvoort, Britt E

    2015-01-01

    Increased interletter spacing is thought to reduce crowding effects and to enhance fluent reading. Several studies have shown beneficial effects of increased interletter spacing on reading speed and accuracy, especially in poor readers. Therefore, increased interletter spacing appears to be a relatively easy way to enhance reading performance. However, in adult readers reading speed was shown to be impeded with increased interletter spacing. Thus, findings on interletter spacing are still inconclusive. In the current study we examined the effect of a range of interletter spacings (-0.5, default, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) on naming fluency of monosyllabic and bisyllabic words in beginning (Grade 2) and more advanced (Grade 4) readers. Additionally we tested the effects of spacing in a subsample of poor readers. In contrast to previous findings, neither beginning nor advanced readers benefited from an increase in interletter spacing. However, they did show reduced reading fluency when letter spacing was smaller than the default spacing, which may be indicative of a crowding effect. Poor readers showed a similar pattern. We conclude that an increase in interletter spacing has no effect on word naming fluency.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of SMG lens candidates (Calanog+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanog, J. A.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A.; Wardlow, J.; Ma, B.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Bussmann, R. S.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; de Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Farrah, D.; Furlanetto, C.; Harris, A. I.; Ivison, R. J.; Kim, S.; Maddox, S. J.; Magdis, G.; Messias, H.; Michalowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Nightingale, J.; O'Bryan, J. M.; Oliver, S. J.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Simpson, J.; Smith, M.; Timmons, N.; Thacker, C.; Valiante, E.; Vieira, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We have obtained Keck/NIRC2 LGS-AO imaging for Herschel-candidate lensing systems (observing runs from 2011 to 2013). Herschel-lensing candidates in the HerMES fields have also been observed as part of the HST WFC3 Cycle 19 snapshot program (PI: M. Negrello). All are observed with the F110W filter (λc=1.15μm), using a four-point parallelogram dither pattern with point and line spacings of 0.57" and 0.36", respectively. (2 data files).

  16. Low False-Positive Rate of Kepler Candidates Estimated From A Combination Of Spitzer And Follow-Up Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Ballard, Sarah; Bryson, Stephen T; Knutson, Heather A; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Deming, Drake; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) NASA's Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates, yet only a small subset have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) amongst the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 microns. We use these observations to measures the candidate's transit depths and infrared magnitudes. A bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a f...

  17. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered

  18. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    is why there is an emphasis in NASA programs on propellant production on Mars - NASA plans missions to Mars, so could make use of those propellants. For other types of applications, however, it will be up to market forces to define the materials and products needed and develop the technologies for extracting them from space resources. Some leading candidates among the potential products from space resources are propellants for other space activities, water from the Moon for use in space, silicon for photovoltaic energy collection in space, and, eventually, He-3 from the Moon for fusion energy production. As the capabilities for manufacturing materials in space are opened up by research aboard the International Space Station, new opportunities for utilization of space resources may emerge. Whereas current research emphasizes increasing knowledge, one program objective should be the development of industrial production techniques for space. These will be based on the development of value-added processing in space, where materials are brought to the space facility, processed there, and returned to Earth. If enough such space processing is developed that the materials transportation requirements are measured in the hundreds of tons a year level, opportunities for substituting lunar materials may develop. The fundamental message is that it is not possible to develop space resources in a vacuum. One must have three things: a recoverable resource, technology to recover it, and a customer. Of these, the customer probably is the most important. All three must be integrated in a space resource program. That is what the Space Resource Roundtable, initiated with this meeting, will bring together.

  19. Attitudes of Teacher Candidates Towards Teaching Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Emre BOZDOĞAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of teacher candidates regarding teaching profession from the point of view of different variables. This study was taken place at Ahi Ervan University Teachers’ College in 2006-2007 year of education and 181 Applied science and Social science students participated it. In order to obtain the data of the research scanning method entitled “Determination of Attitude Towards Teaching Profession” was used which was developed by Aşkar and Erden (1987 . During the analysis of the research data SPSS 12.0 program and the necessary statistical methods were used to analize the data of the research. As a result of the research it is understood that the attitudes of teacher candidates change according to sex and factor that made them to choose the department they study.

  20. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...