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Sample records for candida utilis usando

  1. Decontamination of waters polluted by copper ions using streptomyces noursei and candida utilis biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prell, Aleš; Kujan, Petr; Sobotka, Miroslav; Páca, J.

    Santiago, 2004, s. 159. [International Biotechnology Symposium and Exhibition /12./. Santiago (CL), 17.10.2004-22.10.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : candida utilis * streptomyces noursei Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  3. Growth of Saccharomycopsis fibuliger and Candida utilis in mixed culture on apple processing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, P.J.; Worgan, J.T.

    1987-07-01

    Sequential cultures of the yeasts Saccharomycopsis fibuliger and Candida utilis were grown on selected wastes from the processing of apples. Effluent from cider manufacture supported the growth of 45.4 g cells/100 g substrate and C. utilis formed 96% of the viable cells in the harvested biomass. Whole, unripe apples yielded 44 g cells/100 g substrate with a reduction in the substrate viscosity of 84%. C. utilis formed 56% of the viable cells in the harvested biomass. Effluent from pectin manufacture contained a substantial proportion of reducing compounds and supported the growth of C. utilis without prehydrolysis by S. fibuliger, to yield 33 g cells/100 g substrate. (Refs. 26).

  4. Candida utilis and Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii: yeast relatives with expanding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerth, Christoph; Tielker, Denis; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Candida utilis is used as a food additive and as a host for heterologous gene expression to produce various metabolites and proteins. Reliable protocols for intracellular production of recombinant proteins are available for C. utilis and have now been expanded to secrete proteins into the growth medium or to achieve surface display by linkage to a cell wall protein. A recombinant C. utilis strain was recently shown to induce oral tolerance in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis suggesting future applications in autoimmune therapy. Whole genome sequencing of C. utilis and its presumed parent Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii demonstrated different ploidy but high sequence identity, consistent with identical recombinant technologies for both yeasts. C. jadinii was recently described as an antagonist to the important human fungal pathogen Candida albicans suggesting its use as a probiotic agent. The review summarizes the status of recombinant protein production in C. utilis, as well as current and future biotechnological and medical applications of C. utilis and C. jadinii. PMID:27357226

  5. Production of mutants of Candida utilis with increased resistence against furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By repeated γ-irradiation treatments and following selections a mutant of Candida utilis weissenbachii was isolated showing increased resistance against furfural as compared to its wild type. Growing and radiation survival behavior of these yeasts are compared. Analysis of furfural was done by gaschromatography on Porapak Q. (author)

  6. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the food-yeast Candida utilis.

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    Yasuyuki Tomita

    Full Text Available The industrially important food-yeast Candida utilis is a Crabtree effect-negative yeast used to produce valuable chemicals and recombinant proteins. In the present study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. utilis, which showed that this yeast diverged long before the formation of the CUG and Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clades. In addition, we performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing, which resulted in the identification of genes important for characteristic phenotypes of C. utilis such as those involved in nitrate assimilation, in addition to the gene encoding the functional hexose transporter. We also found that an antisense transcript of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, which in silico analysis did not predict to be a functional gene, was transcribed in the stationary-phase, suggesting a novel system of repression of ethanol production. These findings should facilitate the development of more sophisticated systems for the production of useful reagents using C. utilis.

  7. Production of Candida utilis Biomass and Intracellular Protein Content: Effect of Agitation Speed and Aeration Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Rosma, A.; Ooi, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of agitation speed and aeration rate on the Candida utilis biomass and the intracellular protein content were investigated in this study. C. utilis inoculum of 10^6 cells/mL (7.8 % v/v) was cultured in 1.5 L pineapple waste medium (3 % Brix) in a 2-L fermentor for 30 h at 30 °C. Agitation speed and aeration rate have significant effects on the dissolved oxygen concentration, which in turn affect the cell growth and the intracellular protein content. The agitation speed of 100, 300...

  8. The growth of irradiated candida utilis in molasses media with and without nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of irradiated candida utilis in molassea media with and without nitrogen. The experiment has been done to compare the growth of C.utilis on molasses media containing nitrogen and without nitrogen. The C.utilis irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co (Gamma Cell 220) with different exposure i.e. 0,21, 43, 64, 85 and 106 Gy and then inoculated on 2% molasses medium with and without N, and incubated at 280 +- 20C for 0 and 1 day. Parameters observed were the number of colony, the size of colony growth on 2% molasses medium with and without N. The results showed that the growth in media molasses with N was different from that without N. The incubation effect seemed to be a significant, while the effect of irradiation was not significant, which was probably due to the insufficient dose used for inducing stimulation. The interaction between the added Nand incubation was also significant. 13 refs

  9. Differential growth rates of Candida utilis mother and daughter cells under phased cultivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, K C; Dawson, P S; Gamborg, B L

    1980-01-01

    The yeast Candida utilis was continuously synchronized by the phased method of cultivation with the nitrogen source as the growth-limiting nutrient. The doubling time (phasing period) of cells was 6 h. Both cell number and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis showed a characteristic stepwise increase during the phased growth. The time of bud emergence coincided with the time of initiation of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. Size distribution studies combined with microscopic analysis showed that t...

  10. High-yield expression, purification, characterization, and structure determination of tag-free Candida utilis uricase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Wen, Mingjie; Li, Jing; Zhai, Fangli; Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Liqing; Li, Shentao

    2011-11-01

    We report the successful high-yield expression of Candida utilis uricase in Escherichia coli and the establishment of an efficient three-step protein purification protocol. The purity of the recombinant protein, which was confirmed to be C. utilis uricase by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer analysis, was >98% and the specific activity was 38.4 IU/mg. Crystals of C. utilis uricase were grown at 18°C using 25% polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. Diffraction by the crystals extends to 1.93 Å resolution, and the crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell parameters a = 69.16 Å, b = 139.31 Å, c = 256.33 Å, and α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal structure of C. utilis uricase shares a high similarity with other reported structures of the homologous uricases from other species in protein database, demonstrating that the three-dimensional structure of the protein defines critically to the catalytic activities. PMID:21573940

  11. Glutathione is involved in physiological response of Candida utilis to acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Li; Dong, Ying-Ying; Wei, Gong-Yuan; Qi, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Candida utilis often encounters an acid stress environment when hexose and pentose are metabolized to produce acidic bio-based materials. In order to reveal the physiological role of glutathione (GSH) in the response of cells of this industrial yeast to acid stress, an efficient GSH-producing strain of C. utilis CCTCC M 209298 and its mutants deficient in GSH biosynthesis, C. utilis Δgsh1 and Δgsh2, were used in this study. A long-term mild acid challenge (pH 3.5 for 6 h) and a short-term severe acid challenge (pH 1.5 for 2 h) were conducted at 18 h during batch culture of the yeast to generate acid stress conditions. Differences in the physiological performances among the three strains under acid stress were analyzed in terms of GSH biosynthesis and distribution; intracellular pH; activities of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase; intracellular ATP level; and ATP/ADP ratio. The intracellular GSH content of the yeast was found to be correlated with changes in physiological data, and a higher intracellular GSH content led to greater relief of cells to the acid stress, suggesting that GSH may be involved in protecting C. utilis against acid stress. Results presented in this manuscript not only increase our understanding of the impact of GSH on the physiology of C. utilis but also help us to comprehend the mechanism underlying the response to acid stress of eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:26346268

  12. Identification and characterization of Candida utilis multidrug efflux transporter CuCdr1p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanasrisin, Wittawan; Iwatani, Shun; Oura, Takahiro; Tomita, Yasuyuki; Ikushima, Shigehiro; Chindamporn, Ariya; Niimi, Masakazu; Niimi, Kyoko; Lamping, Erwin; Cannon, Richard D; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    The edible, nitrate assimilating, yeast Candida utilis is a commercial food additive, and it is a potentially useful host for heterologous protein expression. A number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are multidrug efflux pumps that can cause multidrug resistance in opportunistic pathogens. In order to develop optimal novel antimicrobial agents it is imperative to understand the structure, function and expression of these transporters. With the ultimate aim of developing an alternative yeast host for the heterologous expression of eukaryotic membrane transporters, and to identify ABC transporters potentially associated with C. utilis multidrug resistance, we classified the entire repertoire of 30 C. utilis ABC proteins. We named the open reading frame most similar to the archetype multidrug efflux pump gene C. albicans CDR1 as CuCDR1 Overexpression of CuCDR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADΔ caused multidrug resistance similar to that of cells overexpressing CaCDR1 Unlike CaCdr1p, however, the C-terminally green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged CuCdr1p-GFP was functionally impaired and did not properly localize to the plasma membrane. CuCdr1p function could be recovered however by adding a 15 amino acid linker -GAGGSAGGSGGAGAG- between CuCdr1p and the C-terminal GFP tag. PMID:27188883

  13. Production of microbial biomass protein by sequential culture fermentation of Arachniotus sp., and Candida utilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential culture fermentation by Arachniotus sp. at 35 deg. C for 72 h and followed by Candida utilis fermentation at 35 deg. C for 72 h more resulted in higher production of microbial biomass protein. 6% (w/v) corn stover, 0.0075% CaCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O, 0.005% MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, 0.01% KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, C:N ratio of 30:1 and 1% molasses gave higher microbial biomass protein production by the sequential culture fermentation of Arachniotus sp., and C. utilis. The mixed microbial biomass protein produced in the 75-L fermentor contained 16.41%, 23.51%, 10.9%, 12.11% and 0.12% true protein, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and RNA content, respectively. The amino acid profile of final mixed microbial biomass protein showed that it was enriched with essential amino acids. Thus, the potential utilization of corn stover can minimize the cost for growth of these microorganisms and enhance microbial biomass protein production by sequential culture fermentation. (author)

  14. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Esposito, E.; de Mendonca, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Apple production in the world has increased significantly over the last 10 years. A considerable fraction of these fruits, mainly those not approved for fresh consumption, is industrially processed to produce juices, flavours and concentrates. During this processing, a large amount of solid resid...... fermentation with P. ostreatus alone due to pectin and hemicellulose degradation. Considering the time required for fermentation, the C. utilis treatment was the most efficient treatment to convert apple pomace into a more nutritive substrate for ruminant feed.......Apple production in the world has increased significantly over the last 10 years. A considerable fraction of these fruits, mainly those not approved for fresh consumption, is industrially processed to produce juices, flavours and concentrates. During this processing, a large amount of solid...... residues is produced, comprised mainly of peels, seeds, and pulp, which are collectively known as 'apple pomace'. This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of apple pomace by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus, either individually or sequentially, into an...

  15. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C.; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, ...

  16. Utilization of Candida utilis Cells for the Production of Yeast Extract:Effects of Enzyme Types, Dosages and Treatment Time

    OpenAIRE

    Yuping Guan; Yan Zeng; Wei Bai; Yuanxia Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an enzymatic hydrolysis process to prepare yeast extract with the advantages of low-cost and high-content of flavor nucleotides. Yeast extract was produced from the broken cell suspension of Candida utilis, using papain, 5′-Phosphodiesterase (RP-1) and Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) -deaminase. The effects of types, dosages and treatment time of enzymes on the recovery of solid, protein and flavor nucleotides, as well as the extract composition were i...

  17. Uricase production by a recombinant Hansenula polymorpha strain harboring Candida utilis uricase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhaoyue; He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Borun

    2008-06-01

    Uricase is an important medical enzyme which can be used to determine urate in clinical analysis, to therapy gout, hyperuricemia, and tumor lysis syndrome. Uricase of Candida utilis was successfully expressed in Hansenula polymorpha under the control of methanol oxidase promoter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide as the secretory sequence. Recombinant H. polymorpha MU200 with the highest extracellular uricase production was characterized with three copies of expression cassette and selected for process optimization for the production of recombinant enzyme. Among the parameters investigated in shaking flask cultures, the pH value of medium and inoculum size had great influence on the recombinant uricase production. The maximum extracellular uricase yield of 2.6 U/ml was obtained in shaking flask culture. The yield of recombinant uricase was significantly improved by the combined use of a high cell-density cultivation technique and a pH control strategy of switching culture pH from 5.5 to 6.5 in the induction phase. After induction for 58 h, the production of recombinant uricase reached 52.3 U/ml (about 2.1 g/l of protein) extracellularly and 60.3 U/ml (about 2.4 g/l) intracellularly in fed-batch fermentation, which are much higher than those expressed in other expression systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the heterologous expression of uricase in H. polymorpha. PMID:18437374

  18. Conservación de cepas de Candida utilis en agua destilada estéril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidín Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos métodos han sido utilizados para el mantenimiento de la colección de levaduras. La elección de uno u otro tiene como objetivo garantizar la estabilidad de los cultivos; teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones y posibilidades económicas de la colección. En este trabajo se empleó la preservación de levaduras en agua destilada estéril por ser un método sencillo, económico, seguro y, capaz de garantizar la viabilidad de los cultivos por un período prolongado. Se conservaron 8 cepas de Candida utilis y se aseguró el 100% de supervivencia de las mismas en dicho sustrato durante tres años, a la vez que no se observaron cambios en las características fisiológicas y morfológicas de los cultivos. Palabras clave: preservación, levaduras, agua destilada.

  19. Candida utilis and Chlorella vulgaris counteract intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

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    Fabian Grammes

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE. In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM, a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU, Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV. Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.

  20. Improved biological properties and hypouricemic effects of uricase from Candida utilis loaded in novel alkaline enzymosomes

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    Tan QY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qun-You Tan,1,* Jing-Qing Zhang,2,* Na Wang,3,* Hong Yang,4 Xiaoling Li,5 Hua-Rong Xiong,2 Jian-Yong Wu,2 Chun-Jing Zhao,3 Hong Wang,2 Hua-Feng Yin2 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemical & Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 3School of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 4School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Soochow University, Soochow, People's Republic of China; 5TJ Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Previous studies on various enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating an enzyme have been mostly carried out in vitro and have focused on preserving catalytic activity and improving the stability of the enzyme. Until now, few studies have focused on their in vivo fate. Similarly, although we have previously reported the increased in vitro uricolytic activity (about 2.2 times higher than that of free uricase, or three times higher than that of PEGylated uricase, Puricase®, under physiological pH and temperature and improved stability of the novel alkaline enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating uricase from Candida utilis: uricase-containing lipid vesicles, UOXLVs, it is still necessary to study the biological properties and hypouricemic effects of UOXLVs in vivo.Methods: The enzyme kinetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and preliminary safety of UOXLVs were evaluated.Results: The Michaelis constant (Km value of the UOXLVs was slightly lower than that of the free enzyme. The enzyme release from the UOXLVs lasted over 12 hours and their circulation half-life was about sevenfold longer than that of the free uricase. Meanwhile, the UOXLVs had a 22-fold

  1. Oral Tolerance Induction in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Candida utilis Expressing the Immunogenic MOG35-55 Peptide.

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    Christoph Buerth

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Induction of oral tolerance is a potent mechanism to prevent autoimmunity. The food yeast Candida utilis was used to test the therapeutic potential of oral tolerance induction in an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS. We constructed a C. utilis strain, which displays a fusion peptide composed of the encephalitogenic MOG35-55 peptide and the C. utilis Gas1 cell wall protein on its surface.By immunizing mice with MOG35-55 peptide experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in a mouse model. Feeding of mice with C. utilis that expresses MOG35-55 peptide on its surface was started seven days prior to immunization and was continued for ten days. Control animals were treated with wild-type fungus or left untreated. Untreated mice developed first clinical symptoms ten days post immunization (p. i. with an ascending paralysis reaching maximal clinical disability at day 18 to 20 p. i.. Treatment with the wild-type strain demonstrated comparable clinical symptoms. In contrast, oral gavage of MOG35-55-presenting fungus ameliorated the development of EAE. In addition, incidence as well as maximal clinical disease severity were significantly reduced. Interestingly, reduction of disease severity also occurred in animals treated with heat-inactivated C. utilis cells indicating that tolerance induction was independent of fungal viability. Better disease outcome correlated with reduced demyelination and cellular inflammation in the spinal cord, lower T cell proliferation against rechallenge with MOG35-55 and more regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate successful that using the food approved fungus C. utilis presenting the immunogenic MOG35-55 peptide on its surface induced an oral tolerance against this epitope in EAE. Further studies will reveal the nature and extent of an anti-inflammatory environment

  2. Oral Tolerance Induction in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Candida utilis Expressing the Immunogenic MOG35-55 Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Maximilian K.; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Induction of oral tolerance is a potent mechanism to prevent autoimmunity. The food yeast Candida utilis was used to test the therapeutic potential of oral tolerance induction in an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We constructed a C. utilis strain, which displays a fusion peptide composed of the encephalitogenic MOG35-55 peptide and the C. utilis Gas1 cell wall protein on its surface.By immunizing mice with MOG35-55 peptide experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in a mouse model. Feeding of mice with C. utilis that expresses MOG35-55 peptide on its surface was started seven days prior to immunization and was continued for ten days. Control animals were treated with wild-type fungus or left untreated. Untreated mice developed first clinical symptoms ten days post immunization (p. i.) with an ascending paralysis reaching maximal clinical disability at day 18 to 20 p. i.. Treatment with the wild-type strain demonstrated comparable clinical symptoms. In contrast, oral gavage of MOG35-55-presenting fungus ameliorated the development of EAE. In addition, incidence as well as maximal clinical disease severity were significantly reduced. Interestingly, reduction of disease severity also occurred in animals treated with heat-inactivated C. utilis cells indicating that tolerance induction was independent of fungal viability. Better disease outcome correlated with reduced demyelination and cellular inflammation in the spinal cord, lower T cell proliferation against rechallenge with MOG35-55 and more regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate successful that using the food approved fungus C. utilis presenting the immunogenic MOG35-55 peptide on its surface induced an oral tolerance against this epitope in EAE. Further studies will reveal the nature and extent of an anti-inflammatory environment established by the

  3. Oral Tolerance Induction in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Candida utilis Expressing the Immunogenic MOG35-55 Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerth, Christoph; Mausberg, Anne K; Heininger, Maximilian K; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Induction of oral tolerance is a potent mechanism to prevent autoimmunity. The food yeast Candida utilis was used to test the therapeutic potential of oral tolerance induction in an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). We constructed a C. utilis strain, which displays a fusion peptide composed of the encephalitogenic MOG35-55 peptide and the C. utilis Gas1 cell wall protein on its surface.By immunizing mice with MOG35-55 peptide experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in a mouse model. Feeding of mice with C. utilis that expresses MOG35-55 peptide on its surface was started seven days prior to immunization and was continued for ten days. Control animals were treated with wild-type fungus or left untreated. Untreated mice developed first clinical symptoms ten days post immunization (p. i.) with an ascending paralysis reaching maximal clinical disability at day 18 to 20 p. i.. Treatment with the wild-type strain demonstrated comparable clinical symptoms. In contrast, oral gavage of MOG35-55-presenting fungus ameliorated the development of EAE. In addition, incidence as well as maximal clinical disease severity were significantly reduced. Interestingly, reduction of disease severity also occurred in animals treated with heat-inactivated C. utilis cells indicating that tolerance induction was independent of fungal viability. Better disease outcome correlated with reduced demyelination and cellular inflammation in the spinal cord, lower T cell proliferation against rechallenge with MOG35-55 and more regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate successful that using the food approved fungus C. utilis presenting the immunogenic MOG35-55 peptide on its surface induced an oral tolerance against this epitope in EAE. Further studies will reveal the nature and extent of an anti-inflammatory environment established by the

  4. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-07-15

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  5. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Esposito, E.; de Mendonca, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Apple production in the world has increased significantly over the last 10 years. A considerable fraction of these fruits, mainly those not approved for fresh consumption, is industrially processed to produce juices, flavours and concentrates. During this processing, a large amount of solid...... enriched substrate with increased digestibility for use as ruminant feed. After C. utilis fermentation, the protein level increased 100% and the mineral content 60%, accompanied by 8.2% of increase in the digestibility. The level of free sugars decreased 97% after substrate supplementation with ammonium...... sulphate (10 g l(-1)). After optimization, sequential fermentation with C. utilis and P. ostreatus achieved a high protein level with 500% of crude protein enrichment after 60 days of fermentation as well as a considerable increase in the mineral level. The level of free sugars increased after the...

  6. [Cell adhesion in a chemostat culture of Candida utilis under the influence of supraoptimal temperature and elevated acidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozmogova, I N; Andreeva, E A; Rabotnova, I L

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the supraoptimal temperature (38, 40 degrees C) on the chemostat culture of Candida utilis was studied. The above factor caused a part of the biomass to float as a thin layer of foam to the surface of the medium. After an hour, the concentration of the cells on the surface could be four times as high as that within the medium. The content of protein was the same in the cells taken from the surface and from the depth. Singular cells or their groups (2 or 4--8 cells) were found deep in the medium whereas cells on the surface were aggregated forming conglomerates of 20--100 and more cells. The simultaneous action of the elevated tmperature and the acid pH value made flotation of cells onto the surface more stable and protracted (it could be maintained in a chemostat for weeks). PMID:39227

  7. Candida utilis metabolism and morphology under increased air pressure up to 12 bar

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Rita; Lopes, Marlene; Belo, Isabel; Mota, M.

    2014-01-01

    Batch cultures of C. utilis CBS 621 were carried out in a pressurized reactor under increased air pressure up to 6 bar. The effect of total air pressure was also investigated in a high cell density fed-batch culture, raising the total air pressure from 1 bar to 12 bar. The results showed that the rise of air pressure, for both operation modes, led to a substantial enhancement of biomass production. Moreover, ethanol formation was significantly reduced at 6 bar and 12 bar air pressure, respect...

  8. The effective expression of xylanase gene in Candida utilis by 18S rDNA targeted homologous recombination in pGLR9K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Hong-Lan, Yang; HuiFang, Bao; Daoyuan, Zhang; Qi-mu-ge, Shan; Woof, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    In order to test whether 18S rDNA can influence positively xylanase gene effective expression in the yeast of Candida utilis, a targeting vector pGLR9K-XA was constructed by adding an interested gene xynA from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis into the vector pGLR9K which is constructed by ourselves. pGLR9K contains the 18S rDNA, GAP promoter and CYH resistance gene sequence, all of which is from C. utilis. Then the vector pGLR9K-XA was transformed into C. utilis. To test the vector and transformed system, PCR, Southern blot and DNS methods were used. The results showed that xylanase gene can be detected in the chromosome DNA of recombinant C. utilis and the enzyme activity of xylanase is up to 60 IU ml(-1) in the study. It is suggested that this system can be used to express exogenous genes in C. utilis as a bioreactors. This is the first report that xylanase gene was expressed in C. utilis. PMID:19731075

  9. Effect of inoculum and molasses concentration as supplement to vinasse of distillery for the production of biomass of native Candida utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Lady Cajo; Lizveth Nizama; Carmen Carreño

    2011-01-01

    Vinasse is a residue of alcohol distilleries, rich in mineral salts and organic matter, whose use is limited and finally it is poured to the sewage system, causing pollution, nevertheless, can constitute a substrate for the production of biomass yeasts, used in the animal feed. In the present investigation was determined the effect of the concentration of the inoculum and the molasses as supplement of the vinasse, for the production of biomass of native Candida utilis. Yeasts were...

  10. Utilization of Candida utilis Cells for the Production of Yeast Extract:Effects of Enzyme Types, Dosages and Treatment Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Guan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish an enzymatic hydrolysis process to prepare yeast extract with the advantages of low-cost and high-content of flavor nucleotides. Yeast extract was produced from the broken cell suspension of Candida utilis, using papain, 5′-Phosphodiesterase (RP-1 and Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP -deaminase. The effects of types, dosages and treatment time of enzymes on the recovery of solid, protein and flavor nucleotides, as well as the extract composition were investigated. Enzyme types remarkably affected the recovery of protein and solid and papain was found to be the most effective hydrolysis enzyme. The optimal dosage of papain and its treatment time were determined as 0.2% and 6 h, respectively. On this condition, the recovery of solid and protein of yeast cells was 69.26 and 60.87%, respectively. Further treatments with RP-1 (0.045%, 3 h and AMP-deaminase (0.045%, 2 h were employed to obtain a higher content of flavor 5′-nucleotides (GMP + IMP, 4.39%. This process had the advantages of a small amount of enzymes dosage, short enzymatic reaction time and high extraction yield.

  11. Effects of Nitrogen Supplementation on Yeast (Candida utilis Biomass Production by Using Pineapple (Ananas comosus Waste Extracted Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w/v. Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05 increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial yeast extract, peptone, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate was added into fermentation medium. Commercial yeast extract, Maxarome® which increased 55.2% of biomass production at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content, is the most suitable among the selected organic source. On the other hand, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content is comparable inorganic source which enhanced 53.7% of production. Total nitrogen content of each treatment at 0.05% (w/v showed that nitrogen supplied was not fully utilized as substrate limitation in the fermentation medium.

  12. Validación del uso de la levadura (Candida utilis NRRL Y-600, en la fabricación de los sustitutos lecheros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Amarilys Guevara-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, en la cría artificial de terneros, se utilizan reemplazantes lácteos de importación y el de producción nacional. Se tiene como objetivo evaluar la Levadura Torula de vinaza (Candida utilis NRRL Y-660 como componente proteico en el sustituto lácteo "Los Naranjos" que se suministra a partir de los 31días y hasta los 90 días de nacidos a los terneros. La muestra abarcó un total de 30 terneras de líneas de leche (Holstein puro y mestizo, distribuidas al azar en un diseño aleatorio en 3 tratamientos con 10 réplicas cada uno: T1 (control, T2 (50 % de Nuclimix y 50 % Levadura Torula de vinaza (Candida utilis NRRL Y-660 y el T3 (50 % de Nuclimix y 50 % Levadura Torula de miel (Candida utilis NRRL Y-660. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó mediante un método de comparación múltiple de Duncan. Se empleó el sistema de cómputo de datos STATGRAPHIC CENTURION XV. La ganancia media diaria no mostró diferencia significativa entre el tratamiento T2 con respecto al T3, y la ganancia con T2 y T3 fueron superiores al control. Los valores de T2 y T3 son significativamente mayores que los de T1, con un 95 % de confianza. El consumo en el T2 fue superior con relación a T3 y T1 en 0,17 y 25 kg, respectivamente. Se concluyó que con la inclusión en un 50 % de la Levadura Torula de vinaza se obtienen ganancias de peso vivo de 638 g/animal/día, con un potencial de entrega a la industria de 18 MM de litros de leche entera, y un beneficio para el país de 6,3 MM de USD/año.

  13. Study of batch fermentation of chemical prehydrolyzates from pith with the y-900 strian of Candida utilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C.; Lopez, R.; Llerena, L.

    1979-01-01

    C. utilis Y-900 was grown on pith from sugarcane bagasse that had been treated with 1% H/sub 2/S0/sub 4/ under elevated temperature and pressure. The hydrolyzate contained approximately 90% xylose + arabinose and approximately 10% glucose + galactose, and was supplemented with urea, H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/, and yeast extraction. The yeast consumed 75% of the sugar in 24 h, producing biomass containing 42.7% protein.

  14. Obtención de extracto de levadura a partir de residuo de extracción alcalina de ácido ribonucleico de Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Otero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El residuo de extracción de ácidos nucleicos de levadura Candida utilis comercial que compone 80% de la materia prima original, fue convertido en extracto de levadura por medio de las enzimas autolíticas (5% de levadura panadera fresca y la adición de enzima alcalasa exógena (5 mg/mL. El proceso se lleva a cabo a 55 ºC por 15 horas, en presencia de 3% de NaCl. La conversión del residuo fue de 60% en presencia de levadura fresca y NaCl solamente. Este resultado se elevó hasta 90% cuando se adicionó la enzima. El mismo tratamiento a la levadura de cerveza seca rindió resultados similares.

  15. Hranjiva vrijednost i fiziološki učinak hrane za štakore s dodatkom sirovih sjemenki lupine te sjemenki fermentiranih s pomoću kvasca Candida utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprowicz-Potocka, Małgorzata; Zaworska, Anita; Frankiewics, Andrzej; Nowak, Włodzimierz; Gulewicz, Piotr; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    U radu je ispitan utjecaj hranidbe štakora sjemenkama žute i plave lupine, sirovim ili fermentiranim s pomoću kvasca Candida utilis, na njihov rast i fiziološke promjene. Štakori su u grupama po osam jedinki hranjeni sojinom sačmom, te sirovim ili fermentiranim sjemenkama plave i žute lupine tijekom četiri tjedna. Sjemenke žute lupine znatno su povećale (p

  16. Vasorelaxant Effect of 5'-Methylthioadenosine Obtained from Candida utilis Yeast Extract through the Suppression of Intracellular Ca(2+) Concentration in Isolated Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Saiki, Tomomi; Omae, Masato; Hamasawa, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    Our study is the first to demonstrate the vasorelaxant effect of Candida utilis yeast extract on rat aorta (EC50 of 7.2 ± 3.2 mg/mL). Among five identified compounds, 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) exhibited comparable vasorelaxant effect (EC50 of 190 ± 40 μM) with adenosine, a known vasodilator, on 1 μM phenylephrine (PE)-contracted Sprague-Dawley rat aortic rings. MTA induced vasorelaxation in an endothelium-independent manner and independent of the adenosine receptors. MTA reduced a CaCl2-induced vasocontraction stimulated by 1 μM PE, whereas the effect was abolished in a 60 mM KCl-induced vasocontraction. This indicates that MTA was not involved in the suppression of extracellular Ca(2+) influx. MTA significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated the PE-induced activation of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK II) in aortic rings and inhibited the phosphorylation of L-type Ca(2+) channel (VDCC). In conclusion, the underlying mechanism(s) of MTA-induced vasorelaxation involves the inhibition of Ca(2+)/CaMK II/VDCC phosphorylation pathway, resulting in the suppression of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in aortic rings. PMID:27066696

  17. Activities of the enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway and formation of branched-chain alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis grown in continuous culture on valine or ammonium as sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, S; Large, P J

    1993-11-01

    Valine aminotransferase, a key enzyme in both biosynthesis and breakdown of branched-chain amino acids, showed consistently higher activity in Candida utilis grown in continuous culture than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, the other two enzymes of the Ehrlich pathway of branched-chain alcohol formation, were lower in activity. By spheroplast lysis, it was shown that valine aminotransferase followed the distribution of pyruvate decarboxylase in being located in the cytosol. Replacement of ammonium as nitrogen source by valine during conditions of carbon or nitrogen limitation caused increased specific activities of these three enzymes in S. cerevisiae, but (with one exception) decreased those of C. utilis. Of the metabolites accumulating in the culture medium, little or no ethanol or branched-chain alcohols were present during carbon-limited growth of either organism, but the change to nitrogen limitation resulted in increases in concentration of 20- to 100-fold in pyruvate, acetate and non-pyruvate keto acids as well as the accumulation of branched-chain alcohols in both organisms, and of ethanol, ethyl acetate and glycerol in S. cerevisiae. When valine was the limiting nitrogen source, there was an increase in non-pyruvate keto acids and a 10- to 16-fold increase in 2-methylpropanol. Total branched-chain alcohols formed under nitrogen limitation were 2-fold higher in S. cerevisiae than in C. utilis, irrespective of nitrogen source. Accumulation of branched-chain alcohols, ethanol, acetate and glycerol was also observed during carbon-limited growth of S. cerevisiae with valine as nitrogen source at dilution rates above the critical rate for transition to respirofermentative growth. Less than 70% of the valine carbon metabolized during growth of S. cerevisiae and only 15% of that used during growth of C. utilis was recovered in identified metabolic products. Even allowing for losses by volatilization during

  18. Reducción de la concentración de ion potasio en las vinazas de destilación de alcohol por medio de la propagación de Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Otero-Rambla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las levaduras son capaces de acumular cantidades apreciables de la mayoría de los minerales presentes en su medio de crecimiento. Una buena proporción de los contenidos de cenizas (7,5-8,1 % encontrados en la levadura panadera o en la recuperada de la fabricación de cerveza, está constituida por fosfato de potasio. Adicionalmente, la levadura posee la habilidad de acumular, en elevadas concentraciones, otros iones presentes en los sustratos en los que crecen, aun cuando no les sean necesarios. Las vinazasde destilación de alcohol contienen cerca de 70 % del potasio, proveniente de los fertilizantes químicos empleados en los campos de caña; así, la fertilización y el riego con estas aguas residuales debe ser calculada cuidadosamente para evitar la salinización del suelo. Cuando la levadura Candida utilis crece en un medio compuesto por vinazas de destilación, sales nutrientes (fosfato y sulfato de amonio y un estimulador de crecimiento microbiano, muestra una gran resistencia a la concentración de potasio en las condiciones de cultivo continuo. En los estudios experimentales realizados, las células de levadura fueron propagadas bajo las condiciones mencionadas en el párrafo anterior, en presencia de concentraciones crecientes de K2O en el medio de propagación, desde 2,5 gl-1 ( correspondientes a vinazas procedentes de la fermentación de melazas de caña hasta 25 gl-1. La tasa máxima de crecimiento (μmax varió desde 0,32 a 0,28 h-1 para los valores extremos señalados, en tanto que el rendimiento biomasa-sustrato se encontró en el rango de 0,23 a 0,18. Estos resultados sugieren que la levadura propagada sobre vinazas de destilación pueden reducir significativamente el contenido de potasio de estos residuales, haciéndolos más adecuados para propósitos de irrigación. De acuerdo con los informes de evaluación sobre la utilización de esta levadura en la alimentación animal, no se encontraron efectos negativos sobre la salud

  19. Cloning of mae1 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and its integrated expression in Candida utilis%粟酒裂殖酵母mae1基因的克隆及其在产朊假丝酵母中的整合表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹭强; 张丽萍; 雷秀清; 林志钦; 郑宝东

    2012-01-01

    Genome DNA from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was reverse transcribed as template to acquire cDNA, and mael was reproduced by PCR with cDNA template. PDM-T carrier was inserted and the full length of cDNA chain was detected as 1316 bp, which encoded 438 amino acid with the molecular mass of 49 ku. The sequence analysis result showed it had 99% similarity with the reported one. Mael was conjointed with integrated vector pSH47 and transformed into Candida utilis. The positive transformants were detected by PCR. The deacidification capacity of yeast recombinants was compared by shake flask selection, 48.6% of malic acid was degraded by CU-6 in 40 hours, which was 9.8% higher than control.%以粟酒裂殖酵母基因组DNA为模版,逆转录获得cDNA;以cDNA为模板,采用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)技术扩增,得到苹果酸通透酶(mae1)基因,将其与pMD-18T连接并测序.结果表明cDNA全长为1316 bp,编码438氨基酸,分子质量49ku,与已报道的mae1基因序列的同源性达到99%.mae1与整合型表达质粒pSH47连接后,用重组的表达质粒转化产朊假丝酵母,经PCR验证筛选阳性克隆子.通过对转化子的摇瓶筛选,发现重组子的降酸幅度均大于原始菌株,培养40h降解了48.6%的L-苹果酸,降解率比原始菌株提高了9.8%.

  20. Candida famata (Candida flareri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2012-11-01

    Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so-called 'flavinogenic yeasts', capable of riboflavin oversynthesis under condition of iron starvation. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known and were used for industrial production of riboflavin for a long time in the USA. C. famata is characterized by high salt tolerance, growing at NaCl concentrations of up to 2.5  M. Development of basic tools for the metabolic engineering of C. famata, such as a transformation system, selective markers, insertional mutagenesis, a reporter system and others, are described. The developed tools were used for cloning and identification of structural and regulatory genes of riboflavin synthesis. The construction of improved yeast strains producing riboflavin, FMN and FAD, based on the industrial riboflavin-producing strain dep8 and its non-reverting analogue AF4, is also described. PMID:23108915

  1. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  2. Mechanism of assembly of functional cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) in yeast Candida utilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper deficiency prevents the assembly of functional CCO; however it was found that both the apoprotein and porphyrin a are synthesized and integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. When copper-deficient cells are grown in copper-supplemented medium in the presence of [14C]δ-aminolevulinic acid, precursor of hemes (Hms) and porphyrins (Porphs), and either chloramphenicol (Cm, inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis) or cycloheximide (CHI, inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis), the amount of labeled Hms and Porphs is respectively 64% and 5.5% of the control value. When isolated mitochondria from cells grown in the presence of Cm or CHI are solubilized and incubated with antibodies against CCO, radioactivity is found to be associated with the immunoprecipitate. HCl fractionation of Hms and Porphs from the mitochondria and immunoprecipitate shows that a significant amount of radioactivity is extracted with 20% HCl which is the HCl number of porphyrin a. Data indicate that the formation of functional CCO depends on the assembly of holoenzyme, so that ferrochelatase incorporates iron into porphyrin a

  3. Antimycin-insensitive mutants of Candida utilis II. The effects of antimycin on Cytochrome b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Marres, C A; Slater, Conor

    1975-01-01

    . 5. The difference between the effect of antimycin on electron transport and cytochromes b reduction is also found in intact cells of the mutant. 6. A model is suggested for the wild-type respiratory chain in which (i) the cytochromes b lie, in an uncoupled system, out of the main electron......-transfer chain, (ii) antimycin induces a conformation change in QH-2-cytochrome c reductase resulting in effects on cytochrome b and inhibition of electron transport, (iii) a second antimycin-binding site with low affinity to the antibiotic is present, capable of inhibiting electron transport....... reoxidation is observed in the wild type in the present of low concentrations of antimycin. 2. In contrast to the wild type, inhibition of electron transport in the mutant has a much higher antimycin titre than effects on cytochromes b (viz., aerobic steady-state reduction; reduction in the presence of...

  4. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Joshi; Gyanendra Kumar Saxena; Vikas Singh; Ekta Arya; Rahul Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Mo...

  5. Virulence factors of non-Candida albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sónia Carina; Negri, M.; Monteiro, D. R.; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species (candidosis) have greatly increased over recent years, mainly due to the escalation of the AIDS epidemic, population ageing, increasing number of immunocompromised patients and the more widespread use of indwelling medical devices. Besides Candida albicans, non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis are now frequently identified as potential human pathogens. Candida species pathogenicit...

  6. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar;

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  7. Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Maria Magdalena Simatupang

    2009-01-01

    義歯性口内炎患者のデンチャープラーク中には、多数の真菌が認められることから、これら真菌が衰症の原因菌の一つとされている。このようなデンチャープラーク中の真菌には、Candida属が高頻度に検出され、中でもCandida albicansの検出率が著しく高いことが知られている。本真菌は、酵母(Y)型並びにフィラメント(F)型の二つの形態をとる二形性真菌であり、種々の因子によりその形態が変化することが、古くから知られている。しかし、その詳細な機構については未だ不明な点が多い。著者は、C.albicansが培地中のビオテン濃度により形態変化を受ける事実に着目し、本菌の二形性と脂質代謝との間に、なんらかの関連性があるのではないかとの作業仮設のもとに、以下の実験を行った。 本研究は、Candida albicans A IFO 1385株を用いて行った。使用培地は、サブローグルコース培地(2% グルコース、1% ペプトン、 0.5% イーストエキス)(medium A)並びにメチオニン含有合成培地(medium B)である。培養温度は、それぞれY型薗並びにF型菌を得るために、25℃...

  8. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...

  9. Insights into Candida world : the extracellular milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years fungi have emerged as a major cause of human disease. Candida albicans is the most common cause of opportunistic mycoses, albeit Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, namely Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis, are emerging as pathogens. Candida species factors that might influence the pathogenesis of infection include the ability to: undergo a reversible conversion between yeast and fil...

  10. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa; Patrícia Dotto

    2003-01-01

    O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular f...

  11. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  12. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of ... Where in my body can I get a Candida infection? Candida infection can happen in almost any part ...

  13. Genetics of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, S.; Magee, P T

    1990-01-01

    Candida albicans is among the most common fungal pathogens. Infections caused by C. albicans and other Candida species can be life threatening in individuals with impaired immune function. Genetic analysis of C. albicans pathogenesis is complicated by the diploid nature of the species and the absence of a known sexual cycle. Through a combination of parasexual techniques and molecular approaches, an effective genetic system has been developed. The close relationship of C. albicans to the more...

  14. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Joshi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Most of the constituents were found to be present in the ethanolic extract. Thus it was concluded that constituents of Betula utilis bark are more soluble in polar solvents. The ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and triterpenes. After identification of crude extract, the main work was to isolate the desired compound (betulin. So, fractionation of ethanolic extract was done by suspending it in water and then extracted it with n-hexane and dichloromethane. Betulin was isolated from dichloromethane fraction using column chromatography. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane in various ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:3; 1:2 was used as eluent for separation of desired compound from the dichloromethane fraction. After isolation of desired compound, it was subjected to characterization. For characterization studies; melting range, TLC and spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, Mass and NMR were utilized.

  15. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin; Hasmah Abdullah; Wan Nor Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida t...

  16. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  17. Performance of Candida ID, a New Chromogenic Medium for Presumptive Identification of Candida Species, in Comparison to CHROMagar Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Birgit; Hillowoth, Cornelia; Selitsch, Brigitte; Manafi, Mammad

    2001-01-01

    Candida ID agar allows identification of Candida albicans and differentiation of other Candida species. In comparison with CHROMagar Candida, we evaluated the performance of this medium directly from 596 clinical specimens. In particular, detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on Candida ID (sensitivity, 96.8%) than on CHROMagar (sensitivity, 49.6%).

  18. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee). PMID:10917850

  19. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D. K.; Rana, T. S.; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  20. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  1. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility

  2. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Francisco Tuon; Antonio Carlos Nicodemo

    2006-01-01

    Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatado...

  3. Pathogenesis of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of candida vulvovaginitis (CVV) has been estimated based on statistical data from Great Britain to be an increase to 200/100,000 over 10 years to 1984. CVV in the US is the 2nd commonest cause of vaginal infection, with bacterial vaginosis occurring twice as often. 85-90% of the yeasts isolated from the vagina are candida albicans, based on biotyping rather that the newer methods of DNA hybridization. The pathogenesis of CVV is discussed in terms of the microbiology (virulence factors, adherence, germ tube and mycelium formation, proteinase secretion, and switching colonies), asymptomatic vaginal colonization, transformation to symptomatic vaginitis, host predisposing factors (pregnancy, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobes, and other), vaginal defense mechanisms (humoral system, phagocytic system, cell mediated immunity, vaginal flora, other), and pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic CVV (internal reservoir, sexual transmission, vaginal relapse, and experimental models) The discussion of the development of virulent symptoms is capsuled in the following comments. Vaginal cell receptivity varies among individuals, but all strains of C. Albicans adhere to both exfoliated vaginal and buccal epithelial cells, or mucosal surfaces, through the yeast surface mannoprotein. It is suggested from in vitro studies that germ tube and mycelium formation facilitates vaginal mucosal invasion. Exogenous and endogenous factors may enhance germination and precipitate symptomatic vaginitis, or inhibit germination. Increased proteinase secretion may be a result of the transformation from the blastoconidium/colonization phase to the germinated invasive vaginitis stage or an independent virulence factor. It is reported that hereditable spontaneous switching may occur spontaneously in vivo also. Colonizing yeasts with a change in environment can transform to a more virulent phase. Colonization rates vary from 10-25%, and the critical issue is understanding

  4. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, S P; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the...

  5. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T). PMID:26410375

  6. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Apurva K Pathak; Sanjay Sharma; Pallavi Shrivastva

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral...

  7. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  8. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  9. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  10. Comparison of the extracellular polymeric substances of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; M.C. Fernandes; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis live as benign commensal organisms in the oral cavity of both healthy and unhealthy individuals behaving, under certain conditions, as opportunistic pathogens, causing candidiasis. These two Candida species have been mismatched for years, but recently Candida dubliniensis was recovered from the mouth of imunnosupressed patients and identified as a different species. Candidiasis is usually related with the Candida capacity of forming biofilms on inert ...

  11. Farnesol : beyond morphogenesis control in non-candida albicans candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade the incidence of candidiasis increased dramatically. Although Candida albicans remains the most frequent cause of infections, non-Candida albicans candida (NCAC) species are emerging as new pathogens. Candida infections are often associated with biofilms that can develop on natural surfaces and medical devices. In a similar manner to other microorganisms, signalling pathways may control the diversity and distribution of Candida species within biofilms. E,...

  12. Effect of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis planktonic/biofilm quorum sensing molecules on yeast morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Martins, M.; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of this work was to study the effect of farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule for Candida albicans, on morphologic inhibition of Candida dubliniensis. The second goal of this work was to confirm if Candida dubliniensis also excreted quorum sensing molecules, on both planktonic and biofilm forms. The results clearly demonstrate that Candida dubliniensis undergoes morphological alterations triggered by farnesol. It was also found that supernatants of Candida dubliniensis and Ca...

  13. Alternative food/feed perspectives of an underutilized legume Mucuna pruriens var. utilis--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugalenthi, M; Vadivel, V; Siddhuraju, P

    2005-12-01

    Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, an underutilized tropical legume has a nutritional quality comparable to soya beans and other conventional legumes as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals, and other nutrients. The beans have been traditionally used as a food in a number of countries, viz., India, Philippines, Nigeria, Ghana, Brazil, and Malawi. Recently, the velvet beans are exploited as a protein source in the diets of fish, poultry, pig, and cattle after subjected to appropriate processing methods. Although the velvet beans contain high levels of protein and carbohydrate, their utilization is limited due to the presence of a number of antinutritional/antiphysiological compounds, phenolics, tannins, L-Dopa, lectins, protease inhibitors, etc., which may reduce the nutrient utilization. Unfortunately, even though many researchers all over the world working on Mucuna, only scanty and conflicting information are available regarding its utilization as a food/feed and no scientific gathering to date has focused on the food/feed applications of Mucuna. Hence, the present review has been emphasized on the nutritional potential of this underutilized, nonconventional legume and current state of its utilization as food/feed for both human beings and livestock throughout the world. PMID:16395632

  14. Candida in mouth or on dummy?

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, D J; Coughlin, R P; Poskitt, E M

    1985-01-01

    Mouth and dummy swabs for Candida spp. were obtained from 100 children under 18 months old admitted with acute medical conditions. Forty four per cent of dummies were colonised by Candida spp. Children who sucked dummies had clinical thrush and positive mouth swabs for candida more frequently than those who did not.

  15. [An update on Candida dubliniensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, A; Baixench, M-T; Viguié, C

    2008-01-01

    Eleven years ago, Irish authors, using molecular biology, demonstrated the existence of Candida dubliniensis, a new species of Candida close to Candida albicans. Initially isolated from AIDS patients with oral candidiasis, this species was detected, even in immunocompetent patients. Recently, with new, easy to implement identification tests (latex, immunochromatography), numerous epidemiological studies were undertaken. In most studies, C. dubliniensis was most often identified in the oral cavity. In the absence of HIV infection, the proportion C. dubliniensis/C. albicans ranged from 1 to 5% but it increased to 15-20% in case of HIV infection. It should be stressed that, from an experimental point of view, the acquisition of a secondary resistance to fluconazole is more quickly obtained with C. dubliniensis that with C. albicans, this resistance remains exceptionally observed in clinical observations. PMID:18065177

  16. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  17. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  18. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  19. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  20. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5,6:6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 ± 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L-1 rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 μg mL-1) and 30 nmol L-1 rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 ± 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  1. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  2. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  3. Comando de um Servomecanismo usando Visão Computacional

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Carneiro Ferreira; João Manuel R. S. Tavares; Francisco Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Neste artigo é apresentada uma metodologia para controlar um servomecanismo usando visão computacional. As imagens de controlo,baseadas na linguagem gestual, são obtidas por intermédio de uma webcam genérica e processadas praticamente em tempo real. Aordem de comando em causa é reconhecida por diferença dos histogramas de orientação da imagem associada e das imagens deordens preestabelecidas. Estas imagens de ordens são guardadas durante o processo de aprendizagem do sistema de controlo. I...

  4. Control adaptable indirecto usando Redes Neuronales Dinámicas

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Moreno Armendariz; A. S. Poznyak; W. Yuliu

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone un nuevo tipo de control no-lineal por retroalimentación para una clase de sistemas continuos no-lineales de una entrada y una salida de la siguiente forma: Se supone que el sistema no-lineal es desconocido, así una red neuronal dinámica multicapa es usada para identificarlo. Usando un análisis tipo Lyapunov, una nueva ley de actualización estable es presentada, además la estabilidad global es probada. Finalmente, se presenta la aplicación de dicha técni...

  5. Occurrence and Diversity of Candida Genus in Marine Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; CHI Zhenming; YUE Lixi; CHI Zhe; ZHANG Dechao

    2008-01-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater,sediments,mud of salterns,guts of marine fishes and marine algae wereobtained.The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeastsbelonged to Candida genus as Candida interrnedia for YA01a,Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2,Candida quercitrusa for JHSb,Can-die rugosa for wl8,Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a,and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3.Isolates YA01a (Candida interme-die),wl8 (Candida rugosa),3eA2 (Candida parapsilosis),and JHSb (Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase,while isolate W14-3 (Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin.These marine yeast Candida spp.Seem to have wide potentialapplications in biotechnology.

  6. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Pereira-Cenci; D.M. Deng; E.A. Kraneveld; E.M.M. Manders; A.A. Del Bel Cury; J.M. ten Cate; W. Crielaard

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  7. Penetration of Candida Biofilms by Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fattani, Mohammed A.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2004-01-01

    A filter disk assay was used to investigate the penetration of antifungal agents through biofilms containing single and mixed-species biofilms containing Candida. Fluconazole permeated all single-species Candida biofilms more rapidly than flucytosine. The rates of diffusion of either drug through biofilms of three strains of Candida albicans were similar. However, the rates of drug diffusion through biofilms of C. glabrata or C. krusei were faster than those through biofilms of C. parapsilosi...

  8. Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Fries, Bettina C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: All humans are colonized with Candida species, mostly Candida albicans, yet some develop diseases due to Candida, among which genitourinary manifestations are extremely common. The forms of genitourinary candidiasis are distinct from each other and affect different populations. While vulvovaginal candidiasis affects mostly healthy women, candiduria occurs typically in elderly, hospitalized, or immunocompromised patients and in neonates. Despite its high incidence and clinical relevan...

  9. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, C. C.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oi...

  10. GAp permeases in Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraidlová, Lucie; Sychrová, Hana; Van Dijck, P.

    Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), 79P-79P ISSN 0862-8408. [PhD Student Workshop of Institute of Physiology. 02.06.2008-04.06.2008, Seč] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * Candida albicans * amino-acid uptake * GAP permease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Evaluation in vitro de l'activité antifongique de quinze extraits végétaux. Tests sur Candida albicans isolé au C.H.0 de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    MAROUF Mr. RAMDAOUI, Mourad Anwar

    2012-01-01

    En raison de leur incidence et de leur épidémiologie, les candidoses à Candida albicans sont un problème préoccupant de santé publique. Les limites des thérapeutiques existantes a conduit à la recherche de nouvelle source, notamment chez les plantes. Notre travail a porté sur l'évaluation de l'activité antifongique des extraits de quinze plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Les extraits ont été soumis à un criblage pour leur éventuelle activité antifongique in vitro, c...

  12. Control adaptable indirecto usando Redes Neuronales Dinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Moreno Armendariz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un nuevo tipo de control no-lineal por retroalimentación para una clase de sistemas continuos no-lineales de una entrada y una salida de la siguiente forma: Se supone que el sistema no-lineal es desconocido, así una red neuronal dinámica multicapa es usada para identificarlo. Usando un análisis tipo Lyapunov, una nueva ley de actualización estable es presentada, además la estabilidad global es probada. Finalmente, se presenta la aplicación de dicha técnica al sistema no-lineal TORA mediante simulaciones.

  13. Aplicación de Redes bayesianas usando Weka

    OpenAIRE

    Corso, Cynthia Lorena; Gibellini, Fabián

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de exponer la aplicación de una técnica de minería de datos como las Redes Bayesianas, aplicadas a la resolución de una problemática relacionada del campo de la ingeniería como lo es el mantenimiento correctivo. En él se expone cual es la problemática y el porqué de la elección de esta técnica para la clasificación de ocurrencias y cuales son los resultados obtenidos de aplicar esta técnica de minería de datos usando software Weka.

  14. Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Robert, Raymond; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2006-06-01

    We have evaluated the ability of the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze (Fumouze Diagnostics, Levallois-Perret, France) latex agglutination test to identify colonies of Candida dubliniensis grown on different media. The test was positive for 103 of 106 isolates of C. dubliniensis and negative for Candida albicans and other Candida species studied. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 97.1% and 100%, respectively. The test is very rapid, simple, and reliable giving the same results independently of whether the colonies are grown previously on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHROMagar Candida medium, Candida ID2 medium, or CHROMagar-Pal's medium. PMID:16529902

  15. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M. J.; Lewis, M. A.; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  16. Novel strategies to fight Candida species infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of human fungal infections. The increase in cases of infection caused by Candida species, and the consequent excessive use of antimicrobials, has favored the emergence of resistance to conventional antifungal agents over the past decades. Consequently, Candida infections morbidity and mortality are also increasing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients suffering from Candida infections, because it seems unlikely that the established standard treatments will drastically lower the morbidity of mucocutaneous Candida infections and the high mortality associated with invasive candidiasis. This review aims to present the last advances in the traditional antifungal therapy, and present an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of Candida infections, with a special focus on combined antifungal agents, antifungal therapies with alternative compounds (plant extracts and essential oils), adjuvant immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy and laser therapy. PMID:25383647

  17. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis.

  18. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  19. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  20. Quand des justifications similaires sont utilisées pour promouvoir le budget… et sa remise en cause

    OpenAIRE

    Berland, Nicolas; Joannides, Vassili; Levant, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cet article étudie les justifications développées pour promouvoir l’adoption du budget et sa remise en cause, le Beyond Budgeting. Nous nous intéressons à la manière dont deux justifications distinctes, l’une relative aux turbulences de l’environnement et l’autre au besoin d’émancipation des managers, ont été utilisées sur deux périodes, 1930-1950 pour la naissance du budget et les années 1990 à aujourd’hui pour sa remise en cause. Ce faisant, nous cherchons à comprendre l’homogénéité des dis...

  1. Commande hybride position/force robuste d’un robot manipulateur utilisé en usinageet/ou en soudage

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jinna

    2013-01-01

    La problématique traitée dans cette thèse concerne la commande de robots manipulateurs industriels légèrement flexibles utilisés pour la robotisation de procédés d'usinage et de soudage FSW. Le premier objectif est la modélisation des robots et des procédés. Les modèles développés concernant la cinématique et la dynamique de robots 6 axes à architecture série et à flexibilité localisées aux articulations. Les paramètres du modèle dynamique et les raideurs sont identifiés avec la méthode à err...

  2. Metal Ions May Suppress or Enhance Cellular Differentiation in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis Biofilms▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Joe J.; Ceri, Howard; Yerly, Jerome; Rabiei, Maryam; Hu, Yaoping; Martinuzzi, Robert; Turner, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are polymorphic fungi that develop antimicrobial-resistant biofilm communities that are characterized by multiple cell morphotypes. This study investigated cell type interconversion and drug and metal resistance as well as community organization in biofilms of these microorganisms that were exposed to metal ions. To study this, Candida biofilms were grown either in microtiter plates containing gradient arrays of metal ions or in the Calgary Biofilm Devi...

  3. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  4. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  5. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  6. Biotechnological production of xylitol with Candida yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a biotechnological production process for xylitol. The xylitol production characteristics of Candida millerii, Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis were compared. C. tropicalis was the best xylitol producer. A volumetric productivity of 5.7 g xylitol L-1 h-1 was achieved with 69 % yield from D-xylose on a mineral medium with a modified repeated fed batch production method. The xylitol production mechanism was confirmed by chemostat cultivation stu...

  7. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. PMID:27261732

  8. Candida glabrata among Candida spp. from environmental health practitioners of a Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Savastano; Elisa de Oliveira Silva; Lindyanne Lemos Gonçalves; Jéssica Maria Nery; Naiara Chaves Silva; Amanda Latercia Tranches Dias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of the species Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida was evaluated in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital from the environment and health practitioners. In a 12-month period we had a total positivity of 19.65% of Candida spp. The most recurring non-albicans Candida species was C. glabrata (37.62%), generally considered a species of low virulence, but with a higher mortality rate than C. albicans. Subsequently, C. parapsilosis (25.74%) and C. tropicalis (16.86%) were the s...

  9. AL AVOIDANCE AND AL TOLERANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS - EFFECTS OF A HETEROGENEOUS ROOT ENVIRONMENT AND THE NITROGEN FORM IN THE ROOT ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; STULEN, [No Value; VANNOORDWIJK, M; KUIPER, PJC

    1994-01-01

    In Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, grown with nitrate-N in a hydroponic split-root system, an Al avoidance reaction of root growth was observed, which was ascribed to local P stress in the Al containing compartment. The Al avoidance reaction was similar to the avoidance of Mucuna roots of acid subsoil

  10. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  11. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  12. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole. (orig.)

  13. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  14. Sequence resources at the Candida Genome Database

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Shah, Prachi; Binkley, Gail; Lane, Christopher; Miyasato, Stuart R.; SHERLOCK, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, ) contains a curated collection of genomic information and community resources for researchers who are interested in the molecular biology of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. With the recent release of a new assembly of the C.albicans genome, Assembly 20, C.albicans genomics has entered a new era. Although the C.albicans genome assembly continues to undergo refinement, multiple assemblies and gene nomenclatures will remain in widespread use by the...

  15. Candida Sepsis Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Potasman; Roni Gonen; Alona Paz

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of invasive devices and broad spectrum antibiotics has increased the rate of candidal superinfections.Candida sepsis associated with pregnancy is rare. Candida sepsis following chorionic villi sampling (CVS) has never been reported. Case: A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented with signs of sepsis one day after undergoing transcervical CVS. Blood culture and curettage material yielded C. albicans. She was treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 4 weeks and completely ...

  16. Oral Candida infections--a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake L; Nair R

    1995-01-01

    Candida species are the commonest agents of oral mycoses. They cause a variety of diseases including the new variant, erythematous candidosis, which is frequently described in HIV infection. Due to these and other reasons the classification of oral candidosis has been recently revised, and further more new therapeutic regimes have been described. Hence in this article an overview of oral Candida infections is presented with special emphasis on current concepts related to classification and tr...

  17. Characterization of Mucosal Candida albicans Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Kashleva, Helena; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Diaz, Patricia; Vasilakos, John

    2009-01-01

    C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the alimentary tract mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Although the ability of C. albicans to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces has been well documented in recent years, no information exists on biofilms that form directly on mucosal surfaces. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure and composition of Candida biofilms forming on the oral mucosa. We found that oral Candida biofilms consist of yeast, hyphae, and commens...

  18. Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Güven; Arslan, Seza; Ekener, Serpil

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The various culture specimens of patients were investigated in our research. Material and methods: 123 Candida strains were isolated. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, formation of membranes in sabouraud medium, and the tests of ascospore in the mediums with cycloheximide and the test of nitrate were...

  19. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...... number of invasive infections in Denmark....

  20. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  1. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  2. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  3. Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity Diferenças na produção de exoenzimas e habilidade de aderência entre isolados de espécies de Candida provenientes do cateter, sangue e cavidade bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1% and 55.9% of Candida albicans and 69.8% and 37.7% of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a c

  4. Nueva Metodología Para Clasificar Datos de Series Temporales usando el Algoritmo Biclustering

    OpenAIRE

    Cogollo F. M.; Palacios, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología de clasificación de series temporales usando la técnica de extracción de características y el algoritmo de clasificación Biclustering, la cual permite trabajar con series temporales de distintas longitudes y con datos faltantes. Los resultados obtenidos con esta metodología son mejores al ser comparados con los obtenidos por medio del método tradicional K-medias usando datos experimentales.

  5. Levels of (1→3-β-D-glucan, Candida mannan and Candida DNA in serum samples of pediatric cancer patients colonized with Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zia U

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance cultures may be helpful in identifying patients at increased risk of developing invasive candidiasis. However, only scant information exists on the effect of Candida colonization on serum levels of diagnostic biomarkers. This prospective surveillance study determined the extent of Candida colonization among pediatric cancer patients and its possible impact on serum levels of (1-3-β-D-glucan (BDG, Candida mannan and Candida DNA. Methods A total of 1075 swabs originating from oropharynx (n = 294, nostrils (n = 600, rectum (n = 28, groin (n = 50, ear (n = 54, and axilla (n = 49 of 63 pediatric cancer patients were cultured for the isolation of Candida spp. Patients yielding Candida spp. from any sites were considered as colonized. Serum samples were collected from patients at the time of first surveillance culture for detection of BDG by Fungitell kit and Candida mannan by Platelia Candida Ag. Candida DNA was detected by using panfungal primers and identification was carried out by using species-specific primers and DNA sequencing. Results Seventy-five (7.6% swab cultures from 35 (55.5% patients yielded Candida spp. These isolates included C. albicans (n = 62, C. dubliniensis (n = 8, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (n = 2 each and C. krusei (n = 1. Eleven patients were colonized at three or more sites. Eight of 36 serum samples from 6 colonized patients yielded BDG values higher than the currently recommended cut-off value of ≥80 pg/ml. However, none of the serum samples yielded Candida mannan levels ≥0.5 ng/ml and PCR test for Candida DNA was also negative in all the serum samples of colonized patients. During the study period, only two colonized patients subsequently developed candidemia due to C. tropicalis. Besides positive blood cultures, C. tropicalis DNA, BDG and Candida mannan were also detected in serum samples of both the patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that while mucosal

  6. Isolation and Identification of Candida from the Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Shashanka Rajappa; Smitha Byadarahally Raju

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques are available for the isolation of Candida within the oral cavity. Such methods play an important role in the diagnosis and management of oral candidosis. The growing importance of Candida is in part related to the emergence of HIV infection and the more widespread use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Along with the Candida albicans there has been a greater recognition of the importance of the nonalbicans Candida species in oral candidosis. Identification of infecting str...

  7. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Deorukhkar, Sachin C.; Santosh Saini; Stephen Mathew

    2014-01-01

    The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species d...

  8. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a bio...

  9. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Cosam C; Ngassapa Olipa D; Matee Mecky IN; Runyoro Deborah KB; Mbwambo Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay meth...

  10. Comparison Between Virulence Factors of Candida albicans and Non-Albicans Species of Candida Isolated from Genitourinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi,; Jacob, Shani; D’Souza, Diney

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida spp. is frequently isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and catheter associated UTI. C.albicans is the most frequently isolated species but non-albicans species of candida are gaining clinical significance.

  11. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  12. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  13. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  14. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  15. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...... resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  16. Severe-Use Polymers Les polymères utilisés dans des conditions extrêmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy P. E.

    2006-11-01

    mettre en forme des polymères stables. Ces types de polymères comprennent des aromatiques polyphénylènes, les polyesters, des polyamides, des polyimides, de nombreux matériaux de base hétérocycliques, à structure échelleet minérale. On discute dans cet article des synthèses et des propriétés de certains de ces polymères. Les applications géothermiques se font dans le domaine des joints en élastomère qui exigent une résistance à la réduction et à l'hydrolyse. Les formulations les plus réussies sont l'EPDM et les élastomères fluorés, le premier étant supérieur et étant utilisé maintenant dans ce domaine. Les utilisations sous-marines de longue durée des élastomères exigent une résistance à l'imprégnation et à l'absorption de l'eau, à l'hydrolyse et à la lixiviation des constituants du caoutchouc. La solubilité et le taux d'imprégnation augmentent fortement avec la température, ces effets pouvant être utilisés pour évaluer la longévité. Des laminés double couche d'élastomères différents ont une imprégnation qui dépend de la direction et qui ne correspond pas aux moyennes calculées et acceptées.

  17. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  18. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

  19. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  20. The Candida Genome Database (CGD), a community resource for Candida albicans gene and protein information

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Lane, Christopher; Miyasato, Stuart R.; SHERLOCK, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD) is a new database that contains genomic information about the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. CGD is a public resource for the research community that is interested in the molecular biology of this fungus. CGD curators are in the process of combing the scientific literature to collect all C.albicans gene names and aliases; to assign gene ontology terms that describe the molecular function, biological process, and subcellular localization of ea...

  1. Silver colloidal nanoparticles : antifungal effect against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, D. R.; Gorup, L. F.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Negri, M.; E. R. Camargo; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, D. B.; Henriques, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applie...

  2. Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Minagi, S; Miyake, Y; Inagaki, K; Tsuru, H; Suginaka, H

    1985-01-01

    The effects of hydrophobicities of substrate surfaces on microbial adherence were examined by using Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis and 21 denture base resin materials. With increasing surface free energy of resin plates, increasing adherence of C. albicans and decreasing adherence of C. tropicalis were observed. The surface free energy of C. albicans is higher than that of all resin material surfaces, and C. tropicalis has surface free energy lower than that of all materials used. In...

  3. Production of anti-Candida antibodies in mice with gut colonization of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuo Ono; Osamu Koshio; Nobuo Suegara; Tatsuo Ikeda; Kayoko Wada; Masayasu Mitsuya; Hiroko Ishibashi; Shigeru Abe; Shigeru Tansho; Hideyo Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Production of antibodies that are specific for allergens is an important pathological process in inflammatory allergic diseases. These contain the antibodies against antigens of Candida albicans, one of the normal microbial flora in an intestinal tract. We studied the effects of the prednisolone administration on the production of anti-Candida antibodies in the gastrointestinally C. albicans-colonized mice. METHODS AND MATERIALS: BALB/c mice, treated with antibacterial antibiotics...

  4. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C.; Sullivan, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisa...

  5. Perbedaan Efek Ekstrak Jintan Hitam terhadap Candida albicans Denture Stomatitis dan Candida albicans (ATCC® 10231™)

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Jintan hitam mempunyai efek fungistatis dan fungisidal. Hal ini disebabkan adanya senyawa berupa timokuinon, timol, dan karvakrol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui berapa konsentrasi Kadar Hambat Minimum (KHM) dan Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM) dari ekstrak jintan hitam terhadap Candida albicans denture stomatitis dan Candida albicans (ATCC® 10231™), serta untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat perbedaan efek ekstrak jintan hitam terhadap kedua jenis fungi tersebut. Jenis penelitian eksperiment...

  6. Comparison of the Hydrophobic Properties of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, Kevin C.; Wu, Jean G.; Masuoka, James

    2001-01-01

    Although Candida dubliniensis is a close genetic relative of Candida albicans, it colonizes and infects fewer sites. Nearly all instances of candidiasis caused by C. dubliniensis are restricted to the oral cavity. As cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) influences virulence of C. albicans, CSH properties of C. dubliniensis were investigated and compared to C. albicans. Growth temperature is one factor which affects the CSH status of stationary-phase C. albicans. However, C. dubliniensis, similar...

  7. Influence of growth conditions on cell surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; Plotkin, B. J.; Klimas, D M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cultural conditions on cell surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata was tested. C. albicans cells grown at room temperature were more hydrophobic than cells grown at 37 degrees C. No consistent pattern was observed with C. glabrata. Relative hydrophobicity was found to vary with the growth phase and growth medium for both species. The implications for pathogenesis studies are discussed.

  8. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Andrew P; Gamble, John A.; Yeomans, Tim; Moran, Gary P.; Saunders, David; Harris, David; Aslett, Martin; Barrell, Jamie F.; Butler, Geraldine; Citiulo, Francesco; Coleman, David C.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Goodwin, Tim J.; Quail, Michael A.; McQuillan, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the ...

  9. Structure-based specificity mapping of secreted aspartic proteases of Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis using peptidomimetic inhibitors and homology modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majer, F.; Pavlíčková, Libuše; Majer, P.; Hradilek, Martin; Dolejší, Elena; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 387, č. 9 (2006), s. 1247-1254. ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/04/0432; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida albicans * Candida parapsilosis * Candida inhibitors * secreted aspartic protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2006

  10. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Greenspoon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis.

  11. Intracellular aspartic protease of Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Václava; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    Mátraháza : -, 2007. s. 43. [Alexander Von Humboldt Workshop on Structure Based Approaches Towards Disease Control. 22.05.2007-27.05.2007, Mátraháza] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * intracellular * aspartic protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. Intracellular aspartic protease ACP of Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Václava; Dolejší, Elena; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    Patras : University of Patras, 2007. s. 306. [General Meeting of the International Proteolysis Society /5./. 20.10.2007-24.10.2007, Patras] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida albicans * ACP Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... citric acid produced conforms to the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), under... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  14. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilmin vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50of CAS and FLU against singleCandida spp.and mixedCandida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicansandC. glabratamixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages ofCandidabiofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (P< .05) but not different when CAS at 0.5 MIC combined with FLU at 0.25 or 0.5MIC, compared to CAS treatment alone. Structural analyses revealed that CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms showed less hyphae and blastospores with some aberrant cells compared to control group. Although it was evident that a greater CFU ofCandida glabratawere demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent. PMID:26768371

  15. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T). PMID:16627669

  16. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis. PMID:25480879

  17. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Cosam C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028. Results Twenty- seven (48% out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds.

  18. The effects of seeds irradiation with 60Co γ-ray on seed germination and shoot growth of Brassica campetris L. ssp. Chinensis var. utilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Brassica campetris L. ssp. Chinensis var. utilis pre-soaked with water for 1h were irradiated with 60Co γ-ray. Irradiation delayed the germination of seeds but did not affect the germination rate. The height, root length, fresh weight and survival rate of seedlings decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. There were significant negative correlation between death rate and the height, root length and fresh weight. The dose of 200 - 300 Gy were recommended as suitable irradiation doses for pre-soaked seeds

  19. Les plantes dans la fabrication de talismans utilisés en phytothérapie dans le Sud-Ouest malgache

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaosolo, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Les talismans (aoly) protégent les hommes contre l’adversité, contre les malheurs, contre la sorcellerie et contre toutes sortes d’agressions. Les plantes jouent un rôle essentiel dans la fabrication des talismans et, notamment, de ceux qui sont utilisés en phytothérapie. Les tradipraticiens choisissent les plantes qui leur seront utiles dans la confection des talismans en fonction des analogies, des associations d’idée, qu’évoque le nom vernaculaire. Ils ont souvent découvert empiriquement l...

  20. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Thomas J Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and...

  1. Crystal violet staining to quantity Candida adhesion to epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, M.; Gonçalves, Vera M.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of adhesion capability are essential to characterise the virulence of Candida species. However, the assessment of adhesion by traditional methods is timeconsuming. The aim of the present study is the development of a simple methodology using crystal violet staining to quantify in vitro adhesion of different Candida species to epithelial cells. The experiments are performed using Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), C. glabrata (ATCC 2001), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) and C. tropic...

  2. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho; Alice Becker Teixeira; Otávio Silveira Santos; Ricardo Flores Cazanova; Carlos Alexandre Sanchez Ferreira; Karen Cherubini; Sílvia Dias de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production,...

  3. Candida bracarensis Bloodstream Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Thomas A.; McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E.; Zhang, Sean X.

    2010-01-01

    Candida bracarensis is a recently described Candida species which is phenotypically similar to Candida glabrata. A case of C. bracarensis bloodstream infection in a bone marrow transplant patient is described and confirms this organism as an opportunistic human pathogen. The organism can be distinguished from C. glabrata by its white color on CHROMagar and by DNA sequence analysis using D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers.

  4. Activity of phenolic compounds from plant origin against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and other Candida species have been highly associated with several opportunistic fungal infections. Their ability to develop host infections is incited by different determinants, being virulence factors the most highlighted. Molecular targets of the antifungal drugs are crucial components for determination of yeast survival. Ergosterol, nucleic acids and glucan are the most studied molecular targets to destroy Candida species, being considered the basis of the development of ...

  5. Roles of Candida albicans Sfl1 in Hyphal Development▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yandong; Su, Chang; Mao, Xuming; Cao, Fang; Chen, Jiangye

    2007-01-01

    The ability to switch between different morphological forms is an important feature of Candida albicans and is relevant to its pathogenesis. Many conserved positive and negative transcription factors are involved in morphogenetic regulation of the two dimorphic fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In S. cerevisiae, the transcriptional repressor Sfl1 and the activator Flo8 function antagonistically in invasive and filamentous growth. We have previously reported that Candida alb...

  6. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is conside...

  7. Rat Indwelling Urinary Catheter Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Brooks, Erin G.; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-a...

  8. Absence of Amphotericin B-Tolerant Persister Cells in Biofilms of Some Candida Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhaheri, Rawya S.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms and planktonic cells of five Candida species were surveyed for the presence of persister (drug-tolerant) cell populations after exposure to amphotericin B. None of the planktonic cultures (exponential or stationary phase) contained persister cells. However, persisters were found in biofilms of one of two strains of Candida albicans tested and in biofilms of Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, but not in biofilms of Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis. These results suggest th...

  9. Investigative Methods for Studying the Adhesion and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Candida Species: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ellepola, Arjuna N. B.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2011-01-01

    Candidal infections are common opportunistic infections in the compromized and manifest both as super? cial and systemic diseases. The super?ficial infections are by far the commonest form of the disease. Although Candida albicans is the most common Candida species isolated from humans and is responsible for the majority of super? cial yeast infections, non-albicans species such as Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are regularly isolated but to a le...

  10. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  11. Proinflammatory Chemokines during Candida albicans Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Hua, Xia; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotactic cytokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes into infected tissues. This study investigated the profile of chemokines during experimental Candida albicans keratitis and determined the effects of chemokine inhibition on leukocyte infiltration and fungal growth during murine keratomycosis. Scarified corneas of BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with C. albicans and monitored daily over one week for fungal keratitis. After a gene microarray for murine chemokines compared infect...

  12. Tetracycline Effects on Candida Albicans Virulence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Logan McCool; Hanh Mai; Michael Essmann; Bryan Larsen

    2008-01-01

    Object. To determine if tetracycline, previously reported to increase the probability of developing symptomatic vaginal yeast infections, has a direct effect on Candida albicans growth or induction of virulent phenotypes. Method. In vitro, clinical isolates of yeast were cultivated with sublethal concentrations of tetracycline and yeast cell counts, hyphal formation, drug efflux pump activity, biofilm production, and hemolysin production were determined by previously reported methods. Resul...

  13. Pharmacotherapy of Candida Infections with Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Espinel-Ingroff; Emilia Canton; Estrella Martin-Mazuelos; Javier Pemán

    2009-01-01

    The classic recommended antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive Candida infections were amphotericin B, a lipid formulation of amphotericin B and fluconazole in both neutropenic or nonneutropenic patients as either primary or alternative therapies. Voriconazole has been recommended when additional coverage for filamentous fungi is needed (e.g. neutropenic patients). More recently and based on well designed comparative clinical trials, the three echinocandins, caspofungin, anidulafungi...

  14. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspoon, Jeffrey S.; Seth Kivnick

    1993-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis. Case: The immunocompetent primigravida developed progressive nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and a 4.1 kg weight loss during the second trimester...

  15. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    OpenAIRE

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile ...

  16. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ota Samek; Katarina Mlynariková; Silvie Bernatová; Jan Ježek; Vladislav Krzyžánek; Martin Šiler; Pavel Zemánek; Filip Růžička; Veronika Holá; Martina Mahelová

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to...

  17. Laminin receptors on Candida albicans germ tubes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchara, J P; Tronchin, G; Annaix, V; Robert, R; Senet, J M

    1990-01-01

    Recent evidence for the role of laminin in cell adhesion and in the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections has led us to investigate the existence of receptors for this extracellular matrix component in Candida albicans. At first, immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of laminin-binding sites at the surface of germ tubes. Electron microscopy confirmed this result and permitted precise localization of the binding sites on the outermost fibrillar layer of the germ tube cell wall. B...

  18. The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ted; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Chibana, Hiroji; Dungan, Jan; Kalman, Sue; Magee, B. B.; Newport, George; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.; Agabian, Nina; Magee, P T; Davis, Ronald W.; Scherer, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    We present the diploid genome sequence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Because C. albicans has no known haploid or homozygous form, sequencing was performed as a whole-genome shotgun of the heterozygous diploid genome in strain SC5314, a clinical isolate that is the parent of strains widely used for molecular analysis. We developed computational methods to assemble a diploid genome sequence in good agreement with available physical mapping data. We provide a whole-genome description ...

  19. Vacuolar trafficking and Candida albicans pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Glen E.

    2011-01-01

    The vacuole is likely to play a variety of roles in supporting host colonization and infection by pathogenic species of fungi. In the human pathogen Candida albicans, the vacuole undergoes dynamic morphological shifts during the production of the tissue invasive hyphal form, and this organelle is required for virulence. Recent efforts in my lab have focused on defining which vacuolar trafficking pathways are required for C. albicans hyphal growth and pathogenesis. Our results indicate that th...

  20. Milestones in Candida albicans Gene Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, Dhanushki P.; Hanes, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, candidemia is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections and is estimated to cause 10,000 deaths per year. The species Candida albicans is responsible for the majority of these cases. As C. albicans is capable of developing resistance against the currently available drugs, understanding the molecular basis of drug resistance, finding new cellular targets, and further understanding the overall mechanism of C. albicans pathogenesis are important goals. To study th...

  1. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  2. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total m...

  3. Triclosan Antagonizes Fluconazole Activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, J.; Pinjon, E.; Oltean, H.N.; White, T. C.; Kelly, S.L.; Martel, C.M.; Sullivan, D. J.; Coleman, D C; MORAN, G.P

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total ...

  4. Candida albicans Biofilm-Defective Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mathias L.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Bruno, Vincent M; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2005-01-01

    Biofilm formation plays a key role in the life cycles and subsistence of many microorganisms. For the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, biofilm development is arguably a virulence trait, because medical implants that serve as biofilm substrates are significant risk factors for infection. The development of C. albicans biofilms in vitro proceeds through an early phase, in which yeast cells populate a substrate, an intermediate phase, in which pseudohyphal and hyphal cell types are produc...

  5. Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Taff, Heather T.; Mitchell, Kaitlin F.; Edward, Jessica A; Andes, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involvin...

  6. White-opaque switching in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    The human commensal yeast Candida albicans undergoes an epigenetic switch between two distinct types of cells, referred to as white and opaque. These two cell types differ in many respects, including their cell and colony morphologies, their metabolic states, their mating behaviors, their preferred niches in the host, and their interactions with the host immune system. Each of the two cell types is heritable for many generations and switching between them appears stochastic; however, environm...

  7. DIARE YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH CANDIDA PADA ANAK DI UJUNG PANDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asaad Maidin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp were isolated from 18 out of 38 (47,4 % children under five years with acute diarrhoea and from 10 out of35 (28,6% children under five years without diarrhoea. Statistical tests showed no difference between the presence of Candida species and the occurence of diarrhoea of the two groups of children (p >0,05. Mycelia were isolated from one diarrhoeal patient (1/387 or 2,63%. From the diarrhoeal patients, the Candida species found, were Candida albicans 61,1% (11/18, Candida parapsilosis 5,6% (1/18, Candida pseudotropicalis 22,2%(4/18, and Candida tropicalis 11,1 %(2/18. While from the non diarrhoeal patients 30% (3/10 were Candida Albicans, 20% (2/10 were Can­dida pseudotropicalis, and 50%(5/10 were Candida tropicalis. Bacterial identification of rectal swabs from diarrhoeal patients showed that 2,63% (1/38 had Vibrio Cholera 2,63% had Shigella, 94,7% (36/38 had E. coli, 21,1% (8/38 had Proteus sp, 7,9% (3/38 had Providentia, and 2,6 % (1/38 had Arizona. The clinical symptoms of the diarrhoeal patients were 97,4% had watery diarrhoea, 63,2% de­fecated more than 10 times, and 78,9% had vomiting.

  8. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  9. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au3+ or Ag+, even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C0), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C0) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  10. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  11. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath Lynn L; Floyd Karon L; Beckius Miriam L; Hospenthal Duane R; Murray Clinton K

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC) species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glab...

  12. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Suhail; Khan Ziauddin; Asadzadeh Mohammad; Theyyathel Ajmal; Chandy Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. W...

  13. Comparison of cell wall proteins in putative Candida albicans & Candida dubliniensis by using modified staining method & SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Nezarati, Seyedeh Shahrzad Mahdavi; Heshmati, Fariba; Hamzehlou, Sepideh

    2012-01-01

    Background Candida species are among the most common causes of opportunistic fungal diseases. Among Candida species, Candida albicans is responsible for most infections. Having many strains, C. albicans is very polymorph. C. dubliniensis is very similar to albicans species both morphologically and physiologically. For an infection to occur, cell wall proteins play an important role as they enable yeast to adhere to host cells and begin pathogenesis. Therefore, we decided to extract these prot...

  14. Fibronectin-, vitronectin- and laminin-binding proteins at the cell walls of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis pathogenic yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Kozik, Andrzej; Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Zajac, Dorota; Bochenska, Oliwia; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Candida parapsilosis and C. tropicalis increasingly compete with C. albicans—the most common fungal pathogen in humans—as causative agents of severe candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to C. albicans, the pathogenic mechanisms of these two non-albicans Candida species are poorly understood. Adhesion of Candida yeast to host cells and the extracellular matrix is critical for fungal invasion of hosts. Methods The fungal proteins involved in interactions with extrac...

  15. Evaluation of Candida Colonization and Specific Humoral Responses against Candida albicans in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari Javad; Mehdi Taheri Sarvtin; Mohammad Taghi Hedayati; Zohreh Hajheydari; Jamshid Yazdani; Tahereh Shokohi 2

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the candidal colonization and specific humoral responses against Candida albicans in patients with atopic dermatitis. One hundred patients with atopic dermatitis and 50 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Skin and oral specimens from all participants were cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. Isolated yeasts were identified by using the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. ELISA was used for detection of IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodie...

  16. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  17. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, osteomyelitis was present in 30% of cases. Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion.  Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite antifungal therapy. PMID:26858961

  18. Preparation of Candida albicans Biofilms for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Taff, Heather T.; Andes, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy is a form of microscopy that allows for imaging of distinct portions of an individual cell. For Candida albicans biofilms, it is often used to visualize the cell walls of fixed samples of yeast and hyphae. This protocol describes how to grow, harvest, and fix Candida albicans biofilms in preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  19. Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Anke; Krüger, Monika; SCHMID, JAN

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection.

  20. A Rare Cause of Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: Candida Duodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ižntestinal bowel lesions caused by Candida species are uncommon. These lesions may be  plaques or ulcers form. In this article, We presented endoscopic images  Candida duodenitis as a cause of persistent nausea, vomiting in a lung cancer patient treated with chemotherapy.  

  1. A Rare Cause of Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: Candida Duodenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal bowel lesions caused by Candida species are uncommon. These lesions may be  plaques or ulcers form. In this article, We presented endoscopic images  Candida duodenitis as a cause of persistent nausea, vomiting in a lung cancer patient treated with chemotherapy.  

  2. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  3. Purification of actin from Candida albicans and comparison with the Candida 48,000-Mr protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiss, E.; Buckley, H R

    1987-01-01

    Actin was purified from Candida albicans cells by affinity chromatography by DNase-Sepharose and was recognized by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody directed against chick muscle actin. The C. albicans 48-kilodalton protein recognized by sera from patients with invasive candidiasis was shown by DEAE chromatography and immunoblotting not to be identical with the purified C. albicans actin.

  4. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  5. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  6. Ingestion volontaire et digestibilité apparente d'une ration à base de la farine de graines de Mucuna pruriens var. utilis complétée de fourrages chez les lapins

    OpenAIRE

    Aboh, AB.; Olaafa, M.; Dossou-Gbété, GSO.; Dossa, AD.; Djagoun, N.

    2002-01-01

    Volontary Ingestion and Apparent Digestibility of a Ration Based on Mucuna pruriens var. utilis Seeds Flour Completed with Forage on Rabbits. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (mucuna) detoxified seeds flour is used as a vegetable protein source, in a basal diet of fifteen growing rabbits divided in five groups of tree. Each rabbit received per day a fixed quantity of basal diet (130.5 g DM), but as only feed (RP) for control group; plus 40.5 g DM of Panicum maximum forage and, 60 g DM of one of th...

  7. Pharmacotherapy of Candida Infections with Echinocandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Espinel-Ingroff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic recommended antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive Candida infections were amphotericin B, a lipid formulation of amphotericin B and fluconazole in both neutropenic or nonneutropenic patients as either primary or alternative therapies. Voriconazole has been recommended when additional coverage for filamentous fungi is needed (e.g. neutropenic patients. More recently and based on well designed comparative clinical trials, the three echinocandins, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin have been added as primary or alternative therapies especially for critically ill or neutropenic patients. In general, the echinocandins are most useful when patients have previously been exposed to an azole or are unstable.

  8. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  9. A Candida albicans PeptideAtlas

    OpenAIRE

    Vialas, Vital; Sun, Zhi; Loureiro y Penha, Carla Verónica; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Monteoliva, Lucía; Deutsch, Eric W.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L.; Gil, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans public proteomic datasets, though growing steadily in the last few years, still have a very limited presence in online repositories. We report here the creation of a C. albicans PeptideAtlas comprising near 22,000 distinct peptides at a 0.24% False Discovery Rate (FDR) that account for over 2500 canonical proteins at a 1.2% FDR. Based on data from 16 experiments, we attained coverage of 41% of the C. albicans open reading frame sequences (ORFs) in the database used for the se...

  10. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  11. Identificación de hojas de plantas usando Vectores de Fisher

    OpenAIRE

    Redolfi, Javier A.; Sánchez, Jorge Adrián; Pucheta, Julián Antonio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone el uso de descriptores locales codificados con el método de Vectores de Fisher para resolver el problema de clasificación de hojas de plantas usando imágenes. Se demuestra que con este enfoque se obtienen resultados de estado del arte en conjuntos de datos públicos, sin la necesidad de recurrir a la creación de nuevos descriptores visuales específicos para el problema, ni la necesidad de realizar ningún preprocesamiento de las imágenes a analizar.

  12. Un estudio de la covariación con profesores universitarios usando tecnología

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, María del Socorro; Barba, Ma. Guadalupe; Ventura, María Paulina; Del Castillo, Alejandro; Torres, María José

    2010-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analizaron las producciones de 13 profesores universitarios relacionadas con 4 enunciados verbales referidos a la rapidez de variación, antes y después de que desarrollaran actividades de laboratorio usando tecnología de calculadoras graficadoras y sensores de parámetros físicos diversos para obtener y analizar, gráficas cartesianas generadas en tiempo real, durante un curso de 30 horas. El objetivo de esta experiencia fue dotar a los docentes universitarios de eleme...

  13. Comando de um Servomecanismo por Linguagem Gestual usando Visão Computacional

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira; João Manuel R. S. Tavares; Francisco Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Neste artigo é apresentada uma metodologia para controlar um servomecanismo, por linguagem gestual, usando visão computacional. As imagens de controlo são obtidas por intermédio de uma webcam genérica e processadas praticamente em tempo real. A ordem de comando em causa é reconhecida por diferença dos histogramas de orientação da imagem associada e das imagens de ordens preestabelecidas. Estas imagens de ordens são guardadas durante o processo de aprendizagem do sistema de controlo. In thi...

  14. Modelación de eventos extremos usando la distribución Dagum.

    OpenAIRE

    Sexto Monroy, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se implementa la modelación de valores extremos con la metodolog ía "block maxima", específicamente en niveles m áximos diarios de ozono de la estaci ón Pedregal de la Cd. de M éxico de los años 2001 a 2008, usando la distribución Dagum que es de cola pesada y es usada generalmente como distribuci ón de ingreso, pero tiene un antecedente en el campo meteorol ógico, donde fue usado para modelar la cantidad de precipitaci ón pluvial. Una visualizaci ón general ...

  15. Implementación de una memoria asociativa lineal usando el lenguaje r

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, J uan D.

    2011-01-01

    Como un aspecto fundamental en muchos cursos de redes neuronales artificiales, el desarrollo de destrezas de programación es un objetivo fundamental. Este artículo tiene dos objetivos: el primero es presentar el lenguaje R para el cómputo estadístico como una poderosa herramienta para ejemplificar algoritmos, para ejecutar cálculos numéricos, y para ilustrar conceptos usando gráficos complejos. El segundo objetivo es ilustrar la implementación práctica de un modelo de redes neuronales en el l...

  16. Hacia la validación de arquitecturas de software usando Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Novaira, Maria Marta; Permigiani, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo, presentamos algunas líneas de trabajo que seguimos actualmente, con el objetivo principal de utilizar el lenguaje relacional Alloy para la validación de propiedades estáticas y dinámicas de arquitecturas de software. Allor es un lenguaje de especificaciones con una semántica formal clara, basada principalmente en la noción de relación, y que ha ganado importancia en el último tiempo. Presentamos aquí de qué forma pueden especificarse usando Alloy algunos conceptos asociados a...

  17. Diseño de circuitos integrados analógicos usando la terminal de body en transistores MOS

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Erviti, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fin de master es el diseño analógico de circuitos integrados CMOS usando la terminal de body en los transistores MOS. Así, se realizará una revisión de las técnicas modernas de diseño, caracterización y análisis, así como la posterior aplicación a diversos sistemas usando estos dispositivos como elemento. Se propondrán nuevas celdas usando esta técnica, las cuales son validadas por resultados de simulación, análisis teóricos y resultados experimentales...

  18. Caractérisation physico-chimique de tourbe utilisée en épuration d'eau usée urbaine

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAL, Aline; GOSSET, THIERRY; Thévenot, Daniel R.

    1987-01-01

    Des lits de tourbe sont couramment utilisés en assainissement urbain bien que la nature des phénomènes d'épuration soient encore inconnus : filtration, échange d'ions, adsorption ou biodégradation par biomasse immobilisée. Ce travail tente de caractériser l'évolution de la tourbe au cours de son utilisation en station à l'aide de paramètres physico-chimiques. Il repose sur la comparaison des valeurs de 5 paramètres physiques et 4 paramètres physico-chimiques d'échantillons de tourbe provenant...

  19. Etude comparative de la résistance à l’abrasion de trois fixatifs utilisés comme consolidant de techniques graphiques

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Anne Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude a pour but de comparer la résistance à l’abrasion de trois fixatifs couramment utilisés en restauration d’œuvres graphiques en tant que consolidant de techniques graphiques. Deux éthers de cellulose ont été étudiés (l’hydroxypropylcellulose et la méthylcellulose) et un fixatif d’origine animale, la gélatine. Cette étude a nécessité la mise au point d’une machine abrasive et la détermination du niveau d’abrasion a été réalisée à l’aide d’un brillancemètre. Les résultats ont montré ...

  20. Comparative identification of Candida species isolated from animals using phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadăş George Cosmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify 58 Candida sp. strains isolated from animals using the Chromatic Candida test, the API 20 C AUX system, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The Chromatic Candida test was able to identify only C. albicans and C. krusei. The API 20 C AUX system and PCR-RFLP had similar specificity for the identification of Candida strains. In case of both methods, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species - 22 (37.93% strains, followed by Candida krusei - 17 (29.31% strains, Candida famata - 10 (17.24% strains, Candida parapsilosis - five (8.62% strains, and Candida kefyr - four (6.89% strains. PCR-RFLP represents a reliable, quick and relatively inexpensive genotyping method, recommended for rapid identification of Candida spp.

  1. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  2. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  3. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  4. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  5. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  6. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida. PMID:26214300

  7. CLARIFICACIÓN DE AGUAS USANDO COAGULANTES POLIMERIZADOS: CASO DEL HIDROXICLORURO DE ALUMINIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MIGUEL COGOLLO FLÓREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un estudio del proceso de clarificación en sistemas de tratamiento de aguas industriales usando un coagulante inorgánico polimerizado (hidroxicloruro de aluminio. Inicialmente, se establecen los elementos conceptuales más importantes de las etapas del proceso de clarificación (coagulación, floculación y sedimentación. Luego, se señalan los principales coagulantes convencionales utilizados en el tratamiento de aguas y se abordan los policloruros de aluminio (PAC´s como integrantes de una nueva generación de coagulantes alternativos cuyo uso se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas dado su mejor desempeño respecto a los coagulantes convencionales; se especifican los aspectos técnicos y operativos que se deben considerar al momento de implementar un proceso de clarificación de aguas usando un PAC como coagulante. Finalmente, se presentan datos comparativos de condiciones operacionales reales de un proceso de clarificación de aguas, producto de un trabajo previo, donde se remplazó un coagulante convencional (sulfato de aluminio por hidroxicloruro de aluminio, donde se corrobora el mejor desempeño del proceso luego del remplazo.

  8. Development of a membrane based detection of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Catarina Guerreiro Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica , apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Candida é uma família de fungos, normalmente, presente na flora gastrointestinal, nos orgãos genitais, no sistema respiratório e na pele de pessoas saudáveis e, até determinada quantidade, não trazem nenhum risco. Apenas 17 espécies de Candida podem ser consideradas como patogénicas para o ser humano e, dentro deste grupo, Candida albicans é a esp...

  9. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  10. Sunflower seed husk agar: A new medium for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A sunflower ( Helianthus annuus seed husk agar medium has been developed and evaluated for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on the basis of colony morphology and chlamydospore production. All C. dubliniensis isolates (n=40 produced rough colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores whereas 101 of 105 (96.2% C. albicans isolates produced smooth colonies with no evidence of chlamydospore production. Since this medium is free from oil droplets, chlamydospores can be examined with greater clarity by Dalmau plate technique. This medium provides a simple and cost-effective tool for the presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans and is particularly suited for clinical microbiology laboratories where biochemical or molecular methods for the differentiation of these two species are not available.

  11. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  12. Techniques utilisées pour l'étude du zooplancton sur les sites des centrales nucléaires des cotes françaises de manche et atlantique

    OpenAIRE

    Le Fevre-lehoerff, Geneviève

    1985-01-01

    Les techniques et méthodologies décrites ici ne concernent que celles utilisées dans les études de sites de centrales nucléaires (Gravelines, Penly, Paluel, Englesqueville, Flamanville et Plogoff) choisies en fonction des caractéristiques de la zone étudiée et des conditions de travail.

  13. Three novel species of the anamorphic yeast genus Candida in the Candida intermedia clade found in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Takashi; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Am-In, Somit; Lee, Ching-Fu; Imanishi, Yumi; Limtong, Savitree

    2011-01-01

    Four strains of yeasts isolated in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan were found to represent three novel species of the genus Candida. The three species are located in a clade including Candida tsuchiyae, Candida thailandica and Candida akabanensis in a tree based on the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit rRNA genes but clearly differentiated from these relative species. Three novel species are proposed for these strains, i. e., Candida berkhoutiae sp. nov., for strains ST-49(T) (=BCC 7749(T)=NBRC 106733(T)=CBS 11722(T)) isolated from insect frass in Thailand and SA13S01 (=NBRC 106053) isolated from soil in Taiwan, Candida ezoensis sp. nov., for strain Y07-1601-2(T) (=NBRC 105019(T)=CBS 11753(T)) isolated from forest soil in Japan, and Candida inulinophila sp. nov., for ST-369(T) (=BCC 15081(T)=NBRC 106735(T)=CBS 11725(T)) isolated from an unidentified wild mushroom from Thailand. PMID:21606608

  14. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrille, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHOROMagar Candida, and CandidaSelect, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93.1 to 100%. These parameters decreased, however, to 91.4% when the test was performed with yeast isolated

  15. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation betwee...

  16. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  17. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  18. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  19. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc;

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...... is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We...... revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On...

  20. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S; Ugena, L; Tornero-Lopéz, J; Martín, H; Molina, M; Camacho, J J; Cáceres, J O

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) for the discrimination of different strains of various species of Candida. This genus of yeast was selected due to its medical relevance as it is commonly found in cases of fungal infection in humans. Twenty one strains belonging to seven species of Candida were included in the study. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was employed as a complementary technique to provide information about elemental composition of Candida cells. The use of LIBS spectra in combination with optimized NN models provided reliable discrimination among the distinct Candida strains with a high spectral correlation index for the samples analyzed, without any false positive or false negative. Therefore, this study indicates that LIBS-NN based methodology has the potential to be used as fast fungal identification or even diagnostic method. PMID:27216662

  1. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Local Anesthetics Against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, three drugs with local anesthetic activity, against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and to clarify their mechanism of activity.

  3. Candida dubliniensis in children´s dental plaque

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, F.; Holá, V.; Kukletová, M.; Zacková, L.; Kuklová, J.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 58. [International Congress of Mycology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Keywords : Candida dubliniensis * dental plaque * CIEF Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  4. Activation of isoenzyme Sapp 1p from Candida parapsilosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jiří; Dlouhá, Helena; Maloň, Petr; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    Budapest : -, 2005. s. 15. [EMBO/HHMI. 07.02.2005-09.02.2005, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * aspartic proteases * processing and self-processing Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against candida species from oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida . Forty six (61.3% Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%, Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34% each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17% each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii .

  6. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  7. Using routine laboratory techniques for differentiation of pathogenic Candida strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykydalová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Kahle, Vladislav

    Toruń: Adam Marszałek, 2012 - (Węgłowska, J.). s. 380 ISBN 978-83-7780-440-7. [International Symposium on Chromatography /29./. 09.09.2012-13.02.2012, Toruń] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Candida parasilosis * Candida metapsilosis * biofilm * SDS-PAGE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Biofilm formation among Candida albicans isolated from vagina

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital with a purpose to demonstrate the biofilm forming abilities of C. albicans isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and asymptomatic carriers.Material and Methods: C. albicans was isolated and identified by standard laboratory techniques. Biofilm formation in vitro was tested using the 96 well microtitre plate method with crystal violet staining.Results: Overall rate of Candida isolation in study subjects was 40%. Candida i...

  9. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  10. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  11. Successful management of presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis with oral voriconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Biju, Raju; Sushil, Daniel; Georgy, Nainan K

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly caused by Candida species and usually occurs in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, attains therapeutically significant concentrations in the vitreous cavity after systemic administration. We report, the successful management of presumed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis in a patient with multiple diseases and unstable systemic status with...

  12. Candida glabrata infection following total hip arthroplasty: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yun; Yue, Chen; Huang, Zeyu; Pei, Fuxing

    2013-01-01

    Candida glabrata infection following total hip arthroplasty is rare and, due to the insufficiency of standardized clinical and evidence-based guidelines, there is no appropriate therapeutic schedule. The present study reports the case of a 44-year-old patient with Candida glabrata infection following a total hip arthroplasty. The patient was successfully treated by administration of intravenous and oral voriconazole without removal of the prosthesis. This case illustrates the significance of ...

  13. The Detection of Candida Species in Patients with Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of Candida on halitosis, the carrier state of Candida was examined in patients who made a visit with a chief complaint of halitosis. Methods. Subjects were 123 patients (42 males and 81 females) who visited our clinic, with a chief complaint of halitosis. Their average age was 45.8 years. To examine halitosis, an organoleptic test was conducted, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by gas chromatography. Tongue-coating samples collected at the initial visi...

  14. Candida glabrata : a review of its features and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal and vaginal tracts, and are responsible for several clinical manifestations, from mucocutaneous overgrowth to bloodstream infections. Once believed to be non-pathogenic, Candida glabrata was rapidly blamable for many human diseases. Year after year, these pathological circumstances are more recurrent and problematic to treat, especially when patients reveal any level of immunosuppression. These difficultie...

  15. Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Geraldine; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Lin, Michael F.; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Munro, Carol A; Rheinbay, Esther; Grabherr, Manfred; Forche, Anja; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Agrafioti, Ino; Arnaud, Martha B.; Bates, Steven; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Brunke, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. We report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and nonpathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted, and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key compo...

  16. Fermentation of fruit juices by the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Andreia Sofia Soares de

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of the fermentation conditions required to modulate the metabolic flux in the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae and evaluate its potential to produce low-alcoholic and low-caloric fermented beverages. For that purpose, two strains, PYCC 2903 and PYCC 3191, were used and fermentation conditions as oxygenation, sugar concentration and the ratio of glucose to fructose were studied using synthetic culture media. Candida magnoliae PYCC 2903 was subsequently ...

  17. Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases in Virulence and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Naglik, Julian R.; Challacombe, Stephen J; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Extracellular proteolytic activity plays a central role in Candida pathogenicity and is produced by a family of 10 secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap proteins). Although the consequences of proteinase secretion during human infections is not precisely known,...

  18. Three distinct secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    White, T C; Miyasaki, S H; Agabian, N

    1993-01-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans (products of the SAP genes) are thought to contribute to virulence through their effects on Candida adherence, invasion, and pathogenicity. From a single strain of C. albicans (WO-1) which expresses a phenotypic switching system, three secreted aspartyl proteinases have been identified as determined by molecular weight and N-terminal sequence. Each of the three identified proteins represents the mature form of one of three distinct protein...

  19. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    David W. Williams; Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Wei, Xiao-qing; Alves, Carlos T.; Wise, Matt P; Wilson, Melanie J.; Michael A. O. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exis...

  20. Characterization of Candida isolates from pediatric burn patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, A N; Odds, F.C.; Basatia, B K; Holder, I A

    1988-01-01

    To provide more detailed information about Candida epidemiology and pathogenesis in pediatric burn patients, Candida isolates from 113 patients collected over 3 years were identified at the species level and the serotypes and biotypes of the C. albicans isolates were determined. A total of 85% of the patients were colonized or infected by C. albicans, 18% by C. tropicalis, and 11% by C. parapsilosis. Although colonization or infection often was found at multiple sites and times, 87% of the pa...

  1. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Miličević Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific

  2. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Agda Lima; Antônio Olavo Cardoso JORGE; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Célia Regina Gonçalves e Silva; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from...

  3. Natural extracts from wild flowers used in Portuguese folk medicine like a new antifungal agents against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Carlos; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia Carina; Oliveira, Rosário; Henriques, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of opportunistic fungal infections has been increasing dramatically over the recent decades mainly due to the boom of the AIDS epidemic, increasing number of immunocompromised patients and the commonly use of indwelling medical devices. Although Candida albicans has been regarded as the most common causative agent of fungal infection in humans, nowadays other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis, are e...

  4. Verificación de Firmas Usando Transformada de Gabor Signature Verification using the Gabor Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cruz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone un sistema de verificación estática de firmas con alta capacidad de detección de falsificaciones. En la etapa de extracción de características se obtienen los coeficientes de la transformada de Gabor en cada región de la firma, extrayéndose la posición del coeficiente sobresaliente de cada región. Estas proporcionan información local acerca de la frecuencia y orientación de la textura de una firma. Usando las características extraídas, el sistema entrena una red neuronal de retropropagación con una arquitectura de 9-9-2 para cada firmante. La eficiencia del sistema propuesto se evaluó usando 30 firmas auténticas y 20 firmas falsificadas por expertos para cada firmante. De los resultados obtenidos por simulación, se concluye que el sistema propuesto presenta una verificación global con 90% de acierto, con una menor complejidad computacionalThis paper proposes an off-line signature verification system with fairly good detection capacity against expert forgeries. The feature extraction stage of the proposed system, estimates the coefficients of the Gabor Transform in each local region of the signature image, and extracts the positions of relevant coefficients. These provide local information about frequency and orientation of the signature image texture. Using the extracted features, the proposed system adapts a back-propagation multiplayer neural network with 9-9-2 architecture for each signer. The proposed system was evaluated using 30 genuine signatures and 20 expert forgeries for each signer. The computer simulation results show a 90% overall success, with a lower computational complexity

  5. Medical treatment of a pacemaker endocarditis due to Candida albicans and to Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P M; Boissy, C; Gari-Toussaint, M; Foucher, R; Mondain, V; Vandenbos, F; le Fichoux, Y; Michiels, J F; Dellamonica, P

    2000-09-01

    We describe a case of pacemaker infection due to two fungal species: Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the intraventricular wires. Because of severe underlying diseases, surgery was believed to be contraindicated. The patient was treated using high dose of fluconazole, resulting in clinical improvement and negative blood cultures. However, 2 months later, the patient underwent a fatal stroke. At autopsy, a large vegetation was found only all along the wires. Postmortem culture of the infected material was positive for both C. albicans and C. glabrata. PMID:11023765

  6. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  7. Proinflammatory chemokines during Candida albicans keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Hua, Xia; Wilhelmus, Kirk R

    2010-03-01

    Chemotactic cytokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes into infected tissues. This study investigated the profile of chemokines during experimental Candida albicans keratitis and determined the effects of chemokine inhibition on leukocyte infiltration and fungal growth during murine keratomycosis. Scarified corneas of BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with C. albicans and monitored daily over one week for fungal keratitis. After a gene microarray for murine chemokines compared infected corneas to controls, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining assessed chemokine expression in infected and mock-inoculated corneas. An anti-chemokine antibody was then administered subconjunctivally and evaluated for effects on clinical severity, corneal inflammation, fungal recovery, and cytokine expression. Of 33 chemokine genes examined by microarray, 6 CC chemokines and 6 CXC chemokines were significantly (Pamount of recoverable fungi was not significantly (P=0.4) affected. Anti-CCL3 treatment significantly (P=0.01) reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta in infected corneas. These results indicate that chemokines, especially the CC chemokine CCL3, play important roles in the acute inflammatory response to C. albicans corneal infection. PMID:20005222

  8. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  9. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia De Bernardis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs and antibody (Abs-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7 was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2 (PEV7, has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  10. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  11. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Krom, Bastiaan P; Meijering, Roelien A M; Peters, Brian M; Zhu, Jingsong; Scheper, Mark A; Harris, Megan L; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-06-01

    Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. In addition, we have shown that farnesol can trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells via the classical apoptotic pathways. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind farnesol cytotoxicity in C. albicans, the response to farnesol was investigated, using proteomic analysis. Global protein expression profiles demonstrated significant changes in protein expression resulting from farnesol exposure. Among the downregulated proteins were those involved in metabolism, glycolysis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial electron transport and the respiratory chain, whereas proteins involved in folding, protection against environmental and oxidative stress, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and apoptosis were upregulated. Cellular changes that accompany apoptosis (regulated cell death) were further analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and gene expression analysis. The results indicated reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial degradation, and positive terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the farnesol-exposed cells concurrent with increased expression of antioxidant-encoding and drug response genes. More importantly, the results demonstrated farnesol-induced upregulation of the caspase gene MCA1 and the intracellular presence of activated caspases. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that farnesol promotes apoptosis in C. albicans through caspase activation, implying an important physiological role for farnesol in the fungal cell life cycle with important implications for adaptation and survival. PMID:19364863

  12. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  13. Coaggregation of oral Candida isolates with bacteria from bone marrow transplant recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, L Y; Minah, G E; Peterson, D. E.; Wingard, J R; Merz, W G; Altomonte, V; Tylenda, C A

    1990-01-01

    In vitro coaggregation between Candida species isolated from immunosuppressed bone marrow transplant recipients and oral bacteria was investigated. Each Candida strain showed a different pattern of coaggregation with the 22 bacterial strains studied. Two strains of Lactobacillus amylovorus isolated from separate bone marrow transplant patients and Fusobacterium nucleatum (VPI 10197) coaggregated with all Candida strains. Ten bacterial strains showed no coaggregation with the Candida strains. ...

  14. Influence of saliva and mucin on the adhesion of Candida oral clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, C.; Botelho, C.M.; Oliveira, Ana C. N.; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This research work intends to clarify the role of artificial saliva, in particularly the role of mucin, a salivary protein, on the surface properties and adhesion ability of Candida spp. oral clinical isolates to abiotic surfaces. Methods: Four oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. were used: two Candida albicans strains (AC; AM) and two Candida parapsilosis strains (AD; AM2). The strains were isolated from patients using oral prosthesis. The microorganisms were cultured in the a...

  15. Effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin enzyme solutions on Candida biofilm formed on acrylic resin plates

    OpenAIRE

    A Jafari Nodoushan; A Fallah Tafti; Emami, P; H Ashoori

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:     Background and Aim: Denture stomatitis results from colonization of oral Candida on the surface of denture acrylic base. To control this infection,Candida biofilm formation must be prevented using mechanical and chemical decontamination. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin solutions on removal of Candida Albicans plaques formed on acrylic resin plates.   Materials and Methods : In this experimental study Candida biofilm was ...

  16. Effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin enzyme solutions on Candida biofilm formed on acrylic resin plates

    OpenAIRE

    AA jafari_nodoushan; FalahTafti A; Emmami P; Ashouri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Denture stomatitis results from colonization of oral Candida on the surface of denture acrylic base. To control this infection,Candida biofilm formation must be prevented using mechanical and chemical decontamination. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin solutions on removal of Candida Albicans plaques formed on acrylic resin plates. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study Candida biofilm was formed on 220 ...

  17. Eucalyptus globulus L. extract as an antifungal agent against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of botanical preparations have been prepared and used for a wide variety of conditions. Different studies have been carried out towards to confirm the effective multitude of health benefits provided by medicinal plants [I]. In parallel with these studies, in the last years, high rates of opportunistic fungal infections have been observed, namely involving Candida species. Candida albicans is the most common but, currently, other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have also b...

  18. In vitro evaluation of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolysin activities of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin C.D; Ruchi K; Santosh S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Virulence attributes of Candida species include adherence to host tissues, morphological changes and secretion of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes play pivotal roles in pathogenicity of candida infection. Aim: The present study aimed to determine phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin activities in Candida species isolated from various clinical samples. Material and Method: A total of 110 Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens were identified up ...

  19. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  20. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

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    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  1. Candida-Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Devon L; Willems, Hubertine M E; Jayatilake, J A M S; Bruno, Vincent M; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Candida species are the most common infectious fungal species in humans; out of the approximately 150 known species, Candida albicans is the leading pathogenic species, largely affecting immunocompromised individuals. Apart from its role as the primary etiology for various types of candidiasis, C. albicans is known to contribute to polymicrobial infections. Polymicrobial interactions, particularly between C. albicans and bacterial species, have gained recent interest in which polymicrobial biofilm virulence mechanisms have been studied including adhesion, invasion, quorum sensing, and development of antimicrobial resistance. These trans-kingdom interactions, either synergistic or antagonistic, may help modulate the virulence and pathogenicity of both Candida and bacteria while uniquely impacting the pathogen-host immune response. As antibiotic and antifungal resistance increases, there is a great need to explore the intermicrobial cross-talk with a focus on the treatment of Candida-associated polymicrobial infections. This article explores the current literature on the interactions between Candida and clinically important bacteria and evaluates these interactions in the context of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and disease management. PMID:27337476

  2. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis (fluconazole-resistant) osteomyelitis with caspofungin in a HIV patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legout, L; Assal, M; Rohner, P; Lew, D; Bernard, L; Hoffmeyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Treating Candida arthritis is challenging. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis successfully treated with caspofungin. We illustrate the likelihood of severe infections due fluconazole resistant C. parapsilosis after extensive fluconazole use and discuss the role of newer antifungal agents in the treatment of arthritis due to Candida spp. PMID:16857628

  3. The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białoń, M; Krzyśko-Łupicka, T; Koszałkowska, M; Wieczorek, P P

    2014-02-01

    Candida yeasts are saprophytes naturally present in the environment and forming colonies on human mucous membranes and skin. They are opportunistic fungi that cause severe and even fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Several essential oils, including eucalyptus, pine, cinnamon and lemon, have been shown to be effective against Candida strains. This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial lemon essential oils and their antifungal potential against selected Candida yeast strains. Antifungal potential and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for six commercial lemon essential oils against five Candida yeast strains (Candida albicans 31, Candida tropicalis 32, Candida glabrata 33, Candida glabrata 35 and Candida glabrata 38). On the basis of the GCMS analysis, it was found that the tested lemon essential oils had different chemical compositions, but mostly, they contained almost exclusively terpenes and oxygenated terpenes. The tests show that antifungal potential of lemon essential oils against Candida yeast strains was related to the high content of monoterpenoids and the type of Candida strains. From six tested commercial oils, only four (ETJA, Vera-Nord, Avicenna-Oil and Aromatic Art) shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata). Vera-Nord and Avicenna-Oil show the best activity and effectively inhibit the growth of the C. albicans strain across the full range of the concentrations used. Our study characterises lemon essential oils, which could be used as very effective natural remedies against candidiasis caused by C. albicans. PMID:24436010

  4. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  5. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  6. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  7. FLUCONAZOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA SPECI ES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND AGAR DILUTION METHOD

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    Supriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fungal infections with candida species are an import ant cause of morbidity and mortality 1 . Situation is further worsened by increasing resis tance to antifungal drugs 2 .The objective of this study was to evaluate antifu ngal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to fluconazole by disc diffusion and agar di lution method and compare these two methods as far as fluconazole is concerned. MATERIAL & METHODS: Between January 2006 to December 2006, 119 Candida species were isolated fro m 225 sputum samples of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and immunocomprised patients. RESULTS: Of the 119 Candida isolates 33 (27.73% were Candida albicans, 32 (26.89% were Candida gullermondi, 27 (22.68% Candida tropicalis, 14 (11.76% Candida pseudotropica lis, 7 (5.88% Candida parapsilosis and 6 (5.04% were Candida krusei. The Candida isolates w ere tested for fluconazole by disc diffusion method on Muller hinton agar with 2% glucose and 0. 5 microgram of methylene blue 3 .Amongst the 119 Candida isolates, 17 (14.28% isolates were resistant to fluconazole by disc diffusion method. MIC done by agar dilution method using CLSI guidelines 4. Candida isolates showed growth of 15 (88 .23% Candida strains upto 8 micro gram / ml with 80% inhibition of growth whereas 2 (1.7% isolates showed MIC upto 64 microgr am/ ml. CONCLUSIONS: Candida albicans though a common species other species were i solated in significant number. The results of disc diffusion for fluconazole do not co rrelate with agar dilution method. To cater the need of resource constrained laboratories, it is im portant to have results that correspond to the clinical outcome of antifungal treatment and show c o-relation to those obtained with the reference method as recommended by CLSI guidelines and also be reproducible 5 . Further critical studies are needed

  8. Native valve candida endocarditis complicating pregnancy after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saphina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida endocarditis is an emerging infectious disease, usually involving patients with intravascular prosthetic devices, and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. A 28-year-old primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation was admitted with low-grade fever and lower abdominal pain for 2 weeks. She had undergone open appendicectomy 2 months before admission. Echocardiogram showed a pedunculated 24 mm × 21 mm mass attached to the undersurface of anterior mitral leaflet near the tip and moderate mitral regurgitation. Repeated blood cultures showed growth of nonalbicans candida. She was immediately started on liposomal amphotericin and was taken up for surgery, but despite all efforts she succumbed to her illness.

  9. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

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    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  10. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  11. Glucanase Induces Filamentation of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, H.; Nobile, CJ; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Many organisms, including C. albicans, secrete glucanases under different environmental conditions. Here, we report a novel role for beta-1, 3- glucanase in inducing Candida albicans to form filaments at 22°C and enhancing filamentation at 37°C in nutrient-rich medium. Quorum sensing, the efg1-signaling and cek1 MAP kinase pathways are involved in this process. Our data suggest that the natural antifungal agent beta-glucanase may supp...

  12. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  13. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  14. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; Weetman, D A; MacFarlane, T W

    1986-05-01

    Growth characteristic and acid production of oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in glucose supplemented and glucose-free, pooled, human whole saliva were examined. Both Candida species exhibited sigmoidal growth curves in batch cultures of mixed saliva, supplemented with glucose. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in pH from 7.5 to 3.2 over 48 h and the major acidic components initiating and sustaining this pH drop were pyruvates and acetates. These acidic metabolites may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral Candida infections. PMID:3091791

  15. The Spermicidal Compound Nonoxynol-9 Increases Adhesion of Candida Species to Human Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    All 25 strains of Candida spp. tested were able to grow in medium supplemented with 25% nonoxynol-9 in vitro. Adhesion of Candida spp. to HeLa cells was found to increase in the presence of 5% nonoxynol-9 (2.2- to 6.6-fold; P less than 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, in 12.5% nonoxynol-9. Adhesion of Candida strains cultured in medium supplemented with nonoxynol-9 varied, with five of six strains of Candida albicans and the single strain of Candida tropicalis demonstrating increases of 1.4 to...

  16. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  17. Evaluación de la reducibilidad de un mineral de hierro usando char como reductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rubiela Hernández, Carlos Alberto Sandoval Fonseca, Claudia Inés Sánchez Buitrago

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Muestra los ensayos de  reduciblidad  realizados en un hornotipo Linder a un mineral de hierro del municipio de Ubalá(departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia, usando comoreductor un char. Se  indican las características del mineralde  hierro  de Ubalá, de  los  carbones  empleados para  laproducción del char y de la caliza, así como los ensayos dereducibilidad. Para la caracterización de  las materias primasy del char, como producto  final, se aplicaron normas ASTM.En  la producción de  los char se utilizaron  los hornos decoquización  tipo Cerchar  y  tipo  colmena  de  la Uptc  enSamacá  (Boyacá. Los ensayos de reducibilidad se hicieronbajo  los mismos parámetros de operación utilizados concarbón como reductor, y los resultados obtenidos dejan verque el mineral de hierro de Ubalá es reducible en menorporcentaje con char. Sin embargo, por  los grandes beneficiospara el medioambiente que se obtienen trabajando con elchar, no se descarta  la posibilidad de utilizarlo como posiblesustituto del carbón en el proceso de reducción directa.

  18. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  19. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro) (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro))

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman; Udijanto Tedjosasongko; Irmawati Irmawati

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucros...

  20. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Suelen Balero de Paula; Thais Fernanda Bartelli; Vanessa Di Raimo; Jussevania Pereira Santos; Alexandre Tadachi Morey; Marina Andrea Bosini; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Lucy Megumi Yamauchi; Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta

    2014-01-01

    Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All is...

  1. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested. PMID:21761153

  2. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Various Persian Cultivars of Punica granatum L. Extracts Against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassiri-Jahromi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. Candida species are now the fourth most common organisms isolated from hospitalized patients. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents. Plant-derived antifungal agents have always been a source of novel therapeutics. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of pomegranate peel and pulp extracts against Candida species. Materials and Methods Pomegranate pulp and peel were dried and powdered separately. The dried powders were extracted using a soxhlet extractor. The antifungal effect of pomegranate peel and pulp extracts were determined in vitro by using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against five standard species, including Candida albicans (ATCC 10231, Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, Candida tropicalis (ATCC 750, Candida glabrata (PTCC 5297 and Candida krusei (PTCC 5295. Results Maximum inhibitions were attributed to peel extract of the pomegranate cultivar against Candida species. The greatest antifungal inhibition among the eight different cultivars was observed for sour malas, sour white peel and sour summer extracts respectively, against the five Candida strains. The antifungal activity of pulp extracts against Candida species was somewhat negative. Conclusions Our work suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel has potential antifungal activity against Candidiasis, and it is an attractive option for the development of new management strategies for candidiasis.

  3. Erratum: Evaluation of CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu Sariguzel, Fatma; Berk, Elife; Nedret Koc, Ayse; Sav, Hafize; Aydemir, Gonca

    2016-03-01

    Erratum Following publication of the original article (Infez Med. volume 23, issue 4, pages 318-322, year 2015) we became aware of the following errors which we wish to correct. These corrections have no impact over the study results, their interpretation or conclusions. Title The correct title is the following: Evaluation of chromagenic agar, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures Text In the whole text CHROMOMagar Candida shoul be read as chromogenic agar. PMID:27031906

  4. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children Diversidade fenotípica e genotípica entre amostras de Candida albicans isoladas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livre de cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mardegan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans oral strains collected from caries-free and caries-active healthy children ranging from 24 to 36 months old, were studied. The aim of the study was to determine proteinase and phospholipase activities produced by Candida albicans in the two groups and to determine the phenotypic diversity of these enzymes based on genetic polymorphism using the AP-PCR method. Strains identified by morphological and fermentation tests as C. albicans were grown in proteinase and phospholipase agar media at 37ºC for 7 and 4 days, respectively. After the incubation period, the enzyme activity of the proteinase and phospholipase positive strains was measured. All strains were subjected to AP-PCR, using the arbitrary primer AP-3. The enzymatic analysis showed no differences between the two groups. The AP-PCR method was effective in demonstrating intra-individual genetic polymorphism in C. albicans, showing a greater clonal diversity in caries-active versus caries-free children. Dendograms of similarity showed only intra-individual clonal lineage. The results suggest that the enzymatic profile does not depend on the genotypic characteristics of the strains.Cepas orais de Candida albicans coletadas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livres de cárie com idade variando de 24 a 36 meses, foram estudadas. O propósito do estudo foi determinar a atividade da proteinase e da fosfolipase produzida por Candida albicans nos dois grupos e comparar com a diversidade genotípica usando o método AP-PCR. As cepas identificadas como C. albicans por testes morfológicos e de fermentação, foram cultivadas em meio ágar proteinase e fosfolipase a 37ºC por 7 e 4 dias, respectivamente. Após o período de incubação, a atividade enzimática das cepas proteinase e fosfolipase positiva foram medidas. Todas as cepas foram submetidas a técnica genotípica AP-PCR, usando o primer arbitrário AP-3. A análise enzimática demonstrou que não há diferença entre os

  5. DAYA HAMBAT EKSTRAK BUAH MENGKUDU TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Ilyas

    2008-01-01

    Mengkudu mengandung saponin, flavonoid, minyak atsiri dan alkaloid yang dinyatakan sebagai antibakteri dan antijamur. Penelitian ini merupakan Eksperimen Laboratories dengan rancangan Time Series Design menggunakan isolat ???Candida Albicans??? yang telah diremajakan, adapun tempat pelaksanaannya pada Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Unhas. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui konsentrasi hambat minimal dan daya hambat sari buah mengkudu berdasakan konsentarsi terhadap...

  6. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to Candida biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. ten Cate; F.M. Klis; T. Pereira-Cenci; W. Crielaard; P.W.J. de Groot

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infections in the oral cavity are mainly caused by C. albicans, but other Candida species are also frequently identified. They are increasing in prevalence, especially in denture-wearers and aging people, and may lead to invasive infections, which have a high mortality rate. Attachment to muc

  7. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  8. Is Candida stellatoidea disappearing from the vaginal mucosa?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon-Chung, K J; Wickes, B L; Salkin, I F; Kotz, H L; Sobel, J D

    1990-01-01

    A total of 681 vaginal isolates of germ tube-positive or germ tube-untested white, yeastlike fungi obtained from patients in various cities of the United States were tested for the presence of Candida stellatoidea (type I). Only 1 of the 681 isolates was identified as C. stellatoidea.

  9. Growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 on mixed substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick V. Gurgel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown on a mixed substrate comprising glucose and xylose. Inocula were grown using xylose or glucose as carbon source. Results showed that xylose utilization was delayed until glucose was utilized. Inoculum prepared on glucose showed a lag phase in xylose consumption. Cell mass production was higher when glucose was utilized during fermentation.

  10. Resistance of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawser, S. P.; Douglas, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida albicans on small discs of catheter material were resistant to the action of five clinically important antifungal agents as determined by [3H]leucine incorporation and tetrazolium reduction assays. Fluconazole showed the greatest activity, and amphotericin B showed the least activity against biofilm cells. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the biofilms.

  11. Kinetic if Phenol Oxidation by the Yeast Candida tropicalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prell, Aleš; Páca, J.; Komárková, E.; Stiborová, M.; Sobotka, Miroslav; Kujan, Petr

    Tatrianské Matriare, 2002, s. 45. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /29./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 27.05.2002-31.05.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : biodegradation * phenol * candida tropicalis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Adetumbi, M; Javor, G T; Lau, B H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of aqueous garlic extract on the macromolecular synthesis of Candida albicans was studied. Protein and nucleic acid syntheses were inhibited to the same extent as growth, but lipid synthesis was completely arrested. Blockage of lipid synthesis is likely an important component of the anticandidal activity of garlic.

  13. Synergistic activity of rabbit granulocyte peptides against Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, R I; Szklarek, D; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E

    1986-01-01

    Rabbit granulocytes contain six antimicrobial peptides that are structurally homologous to the human neutrophil "defensins." NP-5, a rabbit defensin, lacks significant activity against Candida albicans. Nevertheless, its addition to submicromolar concentrations of rabbit NP-1, NP-2, or NP-3a potentiates their candidacidal effect. Thus, granulocyte defensins can act synergistically against potential pathogens.

  14. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  15. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  16. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species d...

  17. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  18. Candida osteomyelitis and disc space infection of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Its radiographic manifestations are similar to those of other relatively indolent infectious agents. We report the CT and MR findings in a patient who developed this condition following treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia, and review the imaging literature covering similar cases. (orig.). With 7 figs

  19. Candida osteomyelitis and disc space infection of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, P.L. [British Columbia Cancer Agency - Vancouver Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, M.J. [British Columbia Cancer Agency - Vancouver Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Poon, P.Y. [British Columbia Cancer Agency - Vancouver Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O`Connell, J.X. [Department of Pathology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Coupland, D.B. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Janzen, D.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Logan, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dvorak, M.F. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Candida osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Its radiographic manifestations are similar to those of other relatively indolent infectious agents. We report the CT and MR findings in a patient who developed this condition following treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia, and review the imaging literature covering similar cases. (orig.). With 7 figs.

  20. Production of a hemolytic factor by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Manns, J M; MOSSER, D. M.; Buckley, H R

    1994-01-01

    Candida albicans exhibits hemolytic activity when grown on glucose-enriched blood agar. This activity is present on intact organisms, and it is secreted into the culture medium. Hemoglobin released from lysed erythrocytes can restore the transferrin-inhibited growth of C. albicans. We conclude that C. albicans expresses a hemolytic factor which allows it to acquire iron from host erythrocytes.

  1. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45digc, production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C18:1) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  2. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans mutants affected in multidrug resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J. M.; Henry, L K; Jiang, W; Koltin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Disruption of a multidrug resistance gene (CaMDR1) in Candida albicans resulted in mutant strains that colonized mouse kidneys to very high levels but were markedly reduced in their virulence. No obvious differences in several properties related to colonization and dissemination were noted among MDR+ or mdr- strains. These results suggest that specific fungal efflux pumps play a role in fungal pathogenicity.

  3. Immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B on Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletic, Nemanja; Abetz, Volker; Ebert, Katrin; Loos, Katja; Miletić, Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were prepared via a nanoprecipitation process. The influence of the pH of the buffer solution used during the immobilization process on the loading of Candida antarctica lipase B (Cal-B) and on the hydrolytic activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate) of the immobi

  4. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K;

    2015-01-01

    evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were...

  5. Functional comparison of Cnh1 antiporters from different Candida species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 274, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 127-127. ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress Molecular Machines /32./. 07.07.2007-12.07.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * Na/H antiporter * Candida * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Candida dubliniensis encrustation of an obstructing upper renal tract calculus

    OpenAIRE

    O'Kane, Dermot; Kiosoglous, Anthony; Jones, Kay

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old man, with a history of alcohol abuse, requiring intensive care unit admission, with an obstructing right upper renal calculus and Klebsiella pneumoniae urosepsis. Ureteroscopic treatment of this obstruction displayed a small calculus within the renal pelvis completely encapsulated within a fungal bezoar. Laboratory analysis of the fungal mass found it to be Candida dubliniensis.

  7. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  8. Emergence of non-albicans candida species in neonatal candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are one of the most common causes of blood stream infections among neonates and account for 9-13% of such infections. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungal isolate from neonatal candidemia, longitudinal studies have detected a shift towards non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Aim: To examine the prevalence and epidemiology of candidemia among infants admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 548 neonates and only those which yielded pure growth of Candida spp. were included in the study. The isolates were identified as per standard mycological techniques and antifungal susceptibility (AFS was done by disc diffusion method. Results: Of the total 132 neonates included in the study, NAC species were responsible for 80.30% cases with C. parapsilosis (25.0% and C. tropicalis (21.97% as the most predominant species; whereas 19.70% of cases were caused by C. albicans. AFS results revealed that 65.91, 73.49, and 96.21% isolates were sensitive to fluconazole (FLK, itraconazole (ITR, and amphotericin B (AMB, respectively. Conclusion: Candidemia in neonates is an ominous prognostic sign and is an important entity in our hospital. Strict infection control strategies, appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures such as prophylactic antifungal use and a restrictive policy of antibiotic use should be implemented.

  9. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  10. Un estudio sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento aleatorio usando recursos educativos abiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Patricia Pinzón Triana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta los resultados de un proyecto de investigación sobre la implementación de la enseñanza probabilística con recursos educativos abiertos (REA, diseñados en la plataforma Edmodo, y que está dirigido a estudiantes de tercer grado de educación básica secundaria de Bogotá, Colombia, y Tuxtepec, México. El fin era evidenciar sus preconceptos, nociones y evaluar el resultado de la instrucción en términos de su pensamiento probabilístico y dar respuesta a la interrogante ¿cuál es el efecto de la instrucción en probabilidad usando Edmodo en estudiantes de tercer grado de educación básica secundaria respecto a la valoración de fenómenos aleatorios de la vida cotidiana, sus conjeturas y la toma de decisiones? Se empleó un enfoque cualitativo a partir del método de estudio de casos, desde el análisis particular a lo general (Stake, 2005. Para la implementación, se consideró el estudio de Fishbein (1975 sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento probabilístico y el de Marzano (2000, relacionado con las dimensiones del aprendizaje. Estos elementos sirvieron para establecer el impacto del uso de los REA, en especial el de la plataforma Edmodo en el desarrollo de competencias en los estudiantes. Los instrumentos consistieron en una prueba de entrada, actividades de apoyo interactivo desde Edmodo y una prueba de salida para determinar los niveles de aprendizaje; mediante triangulación de datos, se evidenciaron alcances de niveles adecuados de desempeño acordes con los requerimientos de los estándares nacionales e internacionales.

  11. Pirólise catalítica do PEBD usando como catalisador a vermiculita modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciel Aureliano Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD é um dos polímeros mais usados atualmente, e a grande quantidade desse polímero produzida resulta em toneladas de resíduos, que necessitam ser tratados. Neste trabalho foi realizada a pirólise termocatalítica do PEBD usando como catalisador a argila vermiculita modificada, como alternativa para o tratamento dos resíduos. A argila foi tratada com solução de ácido nítrico a diferentes concentrações e calcinada a 400 °C. Os materiais foram caracterizados por técnicas de difratometria de raios X, termogravimetria, adsorção de nitrogênio e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. A pirólise térmica e termocatalítica foi realizada em um micro reator acoplado com GC/MS, a 500 °C. O intuito da pirólise de resíduos poliméricos é a obtenção de hidrocarbonetos leves (C<16, que possam ser empregados na indústria química e petroquímica, através de quebras na cadeia polimérica. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, com aumento no rendimento para hidrocarbonetos leves ao empregar os catalisadores chegando a 71,4% de produtos com C<16, enquanto a pirólise térmica resultou apenas de 25,8%.

  12. AUTOMATIZACIÓN DE LA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES GENÉRICOS USANDO UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Fuentes Ramírez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

     

    La arquitectura de componentes genéricos permite chequear la consistencia interna de sus elementos arquitectónicos (componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones internas en sus respectivas estructuras, que pueden ser de inclusión y transformación. También permite verificar la conexión entre componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones de transformación entre sus interfaces respectivas. Las ideas que se presentan aquí constituyen una propuesta para la automatización de la descripción de esta arquitectura usando el lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML a partir de la descripción formal de sus diagramas de clases y de secuencia, así como para el chequeo de la consistencia. En este artículo se muestra la aplicación de esta propuesta mediante una extensión de la herramienta Visual Paradigm, por medio de un módulo de software conectable.

  13. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas Daef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal's medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn't identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp.

  14. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Dos Santos, Leandro Vieira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  15. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  16. Estudio de la grasa de teobroma ozonizada usando la Resonancia Magnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Torres, Irán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozonation of theobroma fat at different applied ozone dosages was carried out and peroxide indexes along with antimicrobial activity were determined. The reaction products were identified using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR. The principal signal intensity values were used for following the reaction course between ozone and theobroma fat. The reaction was followed up to peroxide index values of 544 mmol-equiv/kg. The intensities of olefinic proton signals decreased with the gradual increase in ozone concentration until disappearing completely. The Criegee ozonides obtained at 87.4 mg/g of ozone doses were approximately 3.7 times higher than at the beginning of the reaction. The highest action spectrum of antimicrobial activity was obtained with the higher peroxide index. These results suggest that the 1H NMR spectroscopic technique provides valuable information about of the ozonization grade of theobroma fat which produces an affective antimicrobial activity against Candida albicansSe realizó un estudio de la ozonización de la grasa de teobroma el cual fue seguido a diferentes dosis de ozono y fueron determinados los índices de peróxidos y su actividad antimicrobiana. Los productos de reacción fueron identificado por la espectroscopia de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Protónica (RMN 1H. Los principales valores de intensidad de las señales fueron usados para el seguimiento de la reacción entre el ozono y la grasa de teobroma. La reacción fue seguida hasta un valor de índice de peróxidos de 1 544 mmolequiv/kg. Las intensidades de las señales de los protones olefínicos desaparecen con un gradual incremento de la concentración de ozono. Los ozónidos de Criegee obtenidos a dosis de ozono de 87,4 mg/g fueron 3,7 veces mayores que los obtenidos al inicio de la reacción. El mayor espectro de acción de la actividad antimicrobiana fue obtenido a mayor índice de peróxidos. Estos resultados sugieren que la t

  17. Application of the F1 Sterile Insect Technique (F1-SIT) for field host range testing of the Tortricid Episimus utilis, a candidate for classical biological control of Brazilian peppertree in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), is a dioecious evergreen shrub-like tree native to Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, that was introduced to Florida in 1898 as an ornamental. Currently, Brazilian peppertree is distributed widely throughout central and southern Florida, and is listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council as a 'Category 1' invasive exotic species because it is altering native plant communities. It also has exhibited invasive behaviour in California and Hawaii, as well as subtropical regions of at least 20 different countries. In 1994, several natural enemies of Brazilian peppertree were imported into a quarantine facility in Florida as candidates for classical biological control. One of the candidates was a South American leaf-rolling moth, Episimus utilis Zimmerman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae of E. utilis feed by scraping the surface of the Brazilian peppertree leaflets. As they mature, the developing larvae are capable of completely defoliating the plant. Host specificity tests are used to determine whether or not a potential biocontrol candidate is safe to release in the field. Some biologists believe that these tests often overestimate host range, which leads to the rejection of acceptable candidates. As cage testing under quarantine conditions may inhibit normal behaviour, open-field studies can provide a more realistic setting where insects can display an array of behaviours. However, open-field studies pose environmental risks in the area of introduction and are prohibited. Through the application of the F1 Sterile Insect Technique (F1-SIT), lepidopteran insects could be safely released temporarily for field host range testing. Advantages of F1-SIT include manifestation of sterility in the larvae of irradiated adults, exposure of the insect to the actual environmental conditions it will experience if approved for release, prediction of true field host range in the area of introduction

  18. Implementación de un controlador borroso usando técnicas de PWM analógico

    OpenAIRE

    Tombs, J. N.; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Torralba Silgado, Antonio Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Hoy día la mayoría de los sistemas de control borroso se implementan en software usando procesadores y micro controladores digitales. Los diseños digitales programables son capaces de resolver muchos problemas de control, pero en sistemas de tiempo real, donde las señales de control tienen que cambiar en solo unos ciclos del reloj, la implementación hardware es la única solución posible. En este artículo se presenta un diseño de VLSI hardware, basado en técnicas de diseño analógicas usan...

  19. Construcción de un modelo de secador de yuca, en medio poroso, usando flujo radial de aire caliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Durango

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño y fabricación de un secador radial de yuca, en lecho poroso, usando energía eléctrica como fuente de calentamiento del aire de secado. Se presentan las pruebas llevadas a cabo en el secador con el fin de analizar su desempeño energético, la tasa de remoción de humedad en función del tiempo y las temperaturas de operación del mismo

  20. Optimización del tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial horizontal

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica L. Jaramillo-Gallego; Ruth M. Agudelo-Cadavid; Gustavo A Peñuela-Mesa

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo: optimizar un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores, con el fin de mejorar la eficiencia en la remoción de los contaminantes, usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial-horizontal. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de tipo exploratorio experimental en dos etapas, en la primera se efectuó el acondicionamiento fisicoquímico y biológico del sistema de tratamiento, en la segunda, se llevó a cabo el seguimiento de la remoción de los contami...

  1. DIGESTÃO DE CARBOIDRATOS USANDO DIGESTIVOS ENZIMÁTICOS COMERCIAIS – UMA AULA PRÁTICA.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici; Roberval Serafim da Silva; Armindo Antonio Alves

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho mostra uma aula prática na qual se estuda a digestão decarboidratos “in vitro” utilizando amido gelatinizado como substrato e doismedicamentos comerciais indicados para problemas digestórios, como fonte deamilase. As reações enzimáticas foram feitas no equipamento dissolutor a 37º C, comagitação constante e usando meios que simulavam o pH do estômago e em seguida opH do intestino delgado. Para avaliar a eficácia das enzimas pancreáticas nosdigestivos, foi feita uma reação com am...

  2. Coaggregation of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Dashper, Stuart; Catmull, Deanne; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent. PMID:26054855

  3. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  4. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (Ptreatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  5. New type of antibody-enzyme conjugate which specifically kills Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, K; Ishiwara, K; Noguchi, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Tadokoro, I

    1980-01-01

    A new type of antibody-enzyme conjugate was made, and its possible application to Candida infection was studied. Both lactoperoxidase and xanthine oxidase were conjugated to specific antibody against Candida albicans. In vitro microbiocidal activity of the new antibody-enzyme conjugate, when incubated together with xanthine and minute amount of halides, showed a remarkable level of candidacidal ability. When the new antibody-enzyme conjugate was given to Candida-infected mice, followed by inj...

  6. Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy for the Inactivation of Candida spp. on Dentures: In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Dovigo, Livia Nordi; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the inactivation of different species of Candida on maxillary complete dentures. Background data: The treatment of denture stomatitis requires the inactivation of Candida spp. on dentures. PDT has been reported as an effective method for Candida inactivation. Methods: Reference strains of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei were tested. Thirty-four dentures were fabr...

  7. In vitro study of the antifungal potential of Lamiaceae hydroalcoholic extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants is an ancient practice, but recently there is an increasing interest towards the evaluation of their bioactive properties. Opportunistic fungal infections, linked with higher rates of fungal resistance to the current antifungal drugs, have deserved special relevance in the last decades. Candida albicans was identified as the main responsible agent for those infections, but other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been also found [1]. Thus,...

  8. In vitro study of the antifungal potential of Apiaceae hydroalcoholic extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia Carina

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants is an ancient practice, but recently there is an increasing interest towards the evaluation of their bioactive properties. Opportunistic fungal infections, linked with higher rates of fungal resistance to the current antifungal drugs, have deserved special relevance in the last decades. Candida albicans was identified as the main responsible agent for those infections, but other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been also found [1]. Thus, it is urgen...

  9. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Lyon; L.M. Moreira; M.A.G. Cardoso; Saade, J.; Resende, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples teste...

  10. Determination of MICs of Aminocandin for Candida spp. and Filamentous Fungi▿

    OpenAIRE

    Isham, N.; Ghannoum, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Candida and Aspergillus spp., as well as other filamentous molds, have increasingly been reported as the causes of severe invasive fungal infections. We evaluated the new echinocandin aminocandin (AMN) for its antifungal activities against a range of fungal pathogens by determination of the MICs for the organisms. The MICs of the comparator drugs amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin, and voriconazole were also determined. The MICs of AMN for 25 strains each of non-Candida albicans Candida ...

  11. Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with parenteral nutrition and contaminated blood pressure transducers.

    OpenAIRE

    Weems, J J; Chamberland, M. E.; Ward, J.; Willy, M; Padhye, A. A.; Solomon, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    During the period September 1983 through May 1985, Candida parapsilosis was isolated from intravascular sites (blood or vascular catheter tips) in 12 patients at a pediatric hospital. Of 205 patients with cultures of any site positive for Candida species, 32 (16%) had cultures positive for C. parapsilosis. In contrast, of 23 patients with intravascular cultures positive for Candida species, 12 (51%) had cultures positive for C. parapsilosis (P less than 0.001, Fisher's exact test). The 12 pat...

  12. Virulence of Candida albicans isolated from HIV infected and non infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wibawa, Tri; Praseno,; Aman, Abu Tholib

    2015-01-01

    Candida sp contributes 33.1 % of fungal infections among HIV patients. Among the species of the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated from HIV patients. This study aimed to analyze putative virulence factors of C. albicans isolated from oral cavities of HIV infected patients and healthy individuals. Twenty isolates from HIV infected patients and fourteen from healthy individuals were analyzed for phenotypic switching, cell growth rate, hyphae formation, hemolytic act...

  13. Candida species differ in their interactions with immature human gastrointestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Falgier, Christina; Kegley, Sara; Podgorski, Heather; Heisel, Timothy; Storey, Kathleen; Bendel, Catherine M.; Gale, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Life-threatening gastrointestinal (GI) diseases of prematurity are highly associated with systemic candidiasis. This implicates the premature GI tract as an important site for invasion by Candida. Invasive interactions of Candida spp. with immature enterocytes have heretofore not been analyzed. Using a primary immature human enterocyte line, we compared the ability of multiple isolates of different Candida spp. to penetrate, injure, and induce a cytokine response from host cells. Of all the C...

  14. In vitro study of the antifungal potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Silva, Sónia; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, an increasing incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has been observed, not only at hospital level but also in the community. Candida albicans was identified as the main responsible agent for those infections, but other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have also been associated with this complicated medical condition [1 ]. Furthermore, higher rates of fungal resistance to the current drugs have been observed and are still growing, makin...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna; Shilpa Patel; Madhusudan Astekar Sundarrao; Ravindra Setru Veerabhadrappa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additio...

  16. Aptitud combinatoria general y especifica de líneas tropicales de maiz usando probadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sierra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptitud combinatoria general y específica de líneas tropicales de maíz usando probadores. Durante el ciclo O - I 1996/97 fueron evaluados en el Campo Experimental Cotaxtla mestizos de líneas sobresalientes y provenientes de varias fuentes de germoplasma como son : a Líneas recicladas de H-513 X VS-536, b Líneas derivadas de un compuesto de amplia base genética, c Líneas élite de programa de maíz de Cotaxtla (LTs y d Líneas de CIMMYT (CMLs. Como probadores se usaron las líneas LT-154 y LT-155 progenitores del híbrido H-513 y las líneas CML247 y CML254 cuya cruza es un patrón heterótico definido por CIMMYT para el trópico. Hubo líneas con buen comportamiento per-se tanto en rendimiento como en características agronómicas y que se encuentran formando mestizos sobresalientes con uno o varios probadores. Con relación a la Aptitud combinatoria, se encontró que las líneas F31XF30-4-3-1, F41XF40-1-2-1, CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174 y CML15 registraron los máximos valores con el probador 2 (LT155; F4XF3-5-2-1 y CML15 con el probador 4 (CMl254. Así también, las líneas F4XF5-5-1-1, y CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174, CML13 y CML15 con buena ACG. Con relación a los probadores, se encontró que para el grupo de líneas Recicladas , los probadores 1(LT154 y 4 (CML254 registraron los coeficientes de regresión más altos, lo que indica que permiten identificar líneas sobresalientes. Para líneas CABG fué el probador 2 (LT155 el que registró el mejor valor y en líneas Élite , los probadores 2(LT155, y 3(CML247 identificaron mejor a las líneas sobresalientes. Para las líneas del CIMMYT el mejor valor fué para el probador 4(CML254

  17. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Candidaspecies are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, withCandida albicansbeing the most clinically relevant species.Candida albicansresides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation ofC. albicansvirulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and withinCandidaspecies), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein-DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics inC. albicansand discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  18. Successful management of presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis with oral voriconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Raju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly caused by Candida species and usually occurs in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, attains therapeutically significant concentrations in the vitreous cavity after systemic administration. We report, the successful management of presumed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis in a patient with multiple diseases and unstable systemic status with oral voriconazole. Though fungal endophthalmitis has been successfully treated with a combination of intravenous and intravitreal voriconazole, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report in ophthalmic literature (Medline Search on the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis with only the oral route of administration of voriconazole.

  19. [In vitro nystatin sensitivity of vaginal isolates of Candida spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, C M; Medina, Y E; Gonzáles, T C; Llanes, D M

    2001-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nistatine, one of the most used antifungal agents for this micosis, was determined in 68 Candida strains isolated from vaginal smears. Candida albicans represented 75% of the total strains whereas C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. glabrata were much less frequently found. The predisposing factors were pregnancy and antibacterial treatment whereas leukorrhea and itching were the prevailing symptoms in most of the cases. MIC values from the use of a broth dilution method ranged from 0,5-8mg/mL and the geometric mean was 1.36mg/ mL. For C. albicans, MIC was 4mg/mL due to two strains that showed the highest MIC values (8 mg/mL). Similarly, the strains showed low MIC values, this means that therapeutic failures are not inherent to the emergence of resistant strains. PMID:15846923

  20. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  1. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and osteomyelitis associated with CARD9 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas; Garcez, Tomaz; Newman, William; Denning, David

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with unilateral red eye and visual blur, and was found to have panuveitis with an inflammatory white mass at the macula, initially presumed to be Toxoplasma retinitis. After failure to respond, she underwent vitrectomy, which produced Candida albicans. Despite intraocular and systemic antifungal treatment, she lost all vision in that eye. Two years later, she developed unilateral hip osteomyelitis leading to total hip replacement and also revealing Candida infection. By clinical exome sequencing, she was then found to have caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder that causes a specific susceptibility to candidal infections. She remains otherwise well but on lifelong fluconazole prophylaxis. PMID:26941346

  2. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  3. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipi...

  4. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida SPP.

    OpenAIRE

    Gil1, Natalia F.; Rafael C. R. Martinez; Bruna C. Gomes; Auro Nomizo; De Martinis, Elaine C. P.

    2010-01-01

    Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested fo...

  5. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  6. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds of Inula candida (L.) Cass.

    OpenAIRE

    Maleš, Željan; HAZLER PILEPIĆ, KROATA; PETROVIĆ, LINA; BAGARIĆ, IVA

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Some species of the genus Inula L. are used in herbal medicine. Phenolic compounds contribute to many biological activities of the plants. No literature could be found in respect of the determination of the quantities of phenolic compounds of Inula candida. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in different plant parts was therefore performed. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from different locations in Croatia. The content of phenoli...

  7. Four Pathogenic Candida Species Differ in Salt Tolerance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2010), s. 335-339. ISSN 0343-8651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : candida species * salt tolerance * potassium homeostasis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.510, year: 2010

  8. Purpurin Triggers Caspase-Independent Apoptosis in Candida dubliniensis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Wai-Kei Tsang; Alan Pak-Kin Wong; Hai-Ping Yang; Ngai-For Li

    2013-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an important human fungal pathogen that causes oral infections in patients with AIDS and diabetes mellitus. However, C. Dubliniensis has been frequently reported in bloodstream infections in clinical settings. Like its phylogenetically related virulent species C. albicans, C. Dubliniensis is able to grow and switch between yeast form and filamentous form (hyphae) and develops biofilms on both abiotic and biotic surfaces. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antifungal therapie...

  9. Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pereira-Cenci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic progress, opportunistic oral fungal infectious diseases have increased in prevalence, especially in denture wearers. The combination of entrapment of yeast cells in irregularities in denture-base and denture-relining materials, poor oral hygiene and several systemic factors is the most probable cause for the onset of this infectious disease. Hence colonization and growth on prostheses by Candida species are of clinical importance. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss several key factors controlling the adhesion of Candida species which are relevant to denture-associated stomatitis. Although there is some consensus on the role of surface properties, studies on several other factors, as the use of denture liners, salivary properties and yeast-bacterial interactions, have shown contradictory findings. A comprehensive fundamental understanding is hampered by conflicting findings due to the large variations in experimental protocols, while other factors have never been thoroughly studied. Surface free energy and surface roughness control the initial adherence, but temporal changes have not been reported. Neither have in vivo studies shown if the substratum type is critical in dictating biofilm accumulation during longer periods in the oral environment. The contribution of saliva is unclear due to factors like variations in its collection and handling. Initial findings have disclosed that also bacteria are crucial for the successful establishment of Candida in biofilms, but the clinical significance of this observation is yet to be confirmed. In conclusion, there is a need to standardize experimental procedures, to bridge the gap between laboratory and in vivo methodologies and findings and - in general - to thoroughly investigate the factors that modulate the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of denture-base materials and the oral mucosa of patients subjected to Candida infections. Information on how

  10. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Altunhan, Hüseyin; Annagür, Ali; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Konak, Murat; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Örs, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolism disorder. The frequency of sepsis significantly increases in patients with galactosemia. The most common agent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungus in patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candida is an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive care units especially in newborns with underlying risk factors such as prematurity and low birth weight. Although the most common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. c...

  11. Role of extracellular DNA in Candida albicans biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Margarida; Henriques, Mariana; Lopez-Ribot, José L.; Oliveira, Rosário

    2009-01-01

    DNA has been described as a structural component of the extracellular matrix in bacterial biofilms. However, in Candida albicans there is a scarce knowledge concerning the contribution of extracellular DNA (ecDNA) to biofilm matrix and overall structure. The main objective of this work was to examine the effect of Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment and the addition of exogenous DNA on C. albicans biofilm as indicators of the role of ecDNA in biofilm structure and developm...

  12. Expression of surface hydrophobic proteins by Candida albicans in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Glee, P M; Sundstrom, P; Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    Candida albicans modulates cell surface hydrophobicity during growth and morphogenesis in vitro. To determine if surface hydrophobicity is expressed during pathogenesis, we generated a polyclonal antiserum against yeast hydrophobic proteins. The antiserum was then used for indirect immunofluorescence analysis of tissues from mice colonized and chronically infected with C. albicans. Results demonstrated that yeast hydrophobic proteins are exposed on fungal cells present in host tissues. The po...

  13. Improved assay for surface hydrophobic avidity of Candida albicans cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; LeMelle, W G

    1990-01-01

    A simple method that distinguishes among hydrophobic avidity levels of highly hydrophobic isolates of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is described. This method involves mixing polystyrene microspheres at different concentrations with a constant concentration of yeast cells and plotting the data in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm equation. A 10-fold difference between the C. albicans isolates with the lowest and highest avidity (KH) values was found. This method may also demonstra...

  14. La lipase de Candida rugosa : caractérisation biochimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtibaa Hounaida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les lipases ou triacylglycérols hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.3 sont des enzymes qui agissent en milieu hétérogène. Ces enzymes catalysent l’hydrolyse des liaisons esters des triacylglycérols à l’interface huile/eau [1]. Leur particularité vient du fait que ces enzymes sont plus actives sur les lipides qui sont sous forme agrégée [2]. Les lipases sont présentes dans la plupart des tissus animaux et végétaux ainsi que chez les microorganismes qui constituent une source importante de production de lipases à grande échelle. À ce jour, de nombreuses lipases de microorganismes ont été purifiées et caractérisées et certaines d’entres elles ont été cristallisées (lipase de Pseudomonas glumae [3], lipase de Rhizomucor miehei [4], lipase Geotrichum candidum [5], lipase de Candida rugosa [6].... La lipase de Candida cylindracea (qui est l’ancien nom de Candida rugosa a été cristallisée en présence et en l’absence d’inhibiteurs [7]. Il s’agit d’une alpha/beta hydrolase comprenant 11 brins beta entourés par 8 hélices alpha [6]. La triade catalytique est cachée sous un flap constitué de 26 résidus d’aminoacides. Dans le présent travail, nous avons cherché à étudier quelques caractéristiques biochimiques de la lipase de Candida rugosa (CRL qui a été purifiée dans notre laboratoire à partir de la poudre commercialisée.

  15. Interleukin 17-mediated host defense against candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role...

  16. Interleukin 17-Mediated Host Defense against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Sparber; Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role...

  17. Candida albicans specializations for iron homeostasis: from commensalism to virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal-pathogen that persistently associates with its mammalian hosts. Between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles, this microorganism inhabits host niches that differ markedly in the levels of bioavailable iron. A number of recent studies have exposed C. albicans specializations for acquiring iron from specific host molecules in regions where iron is scarce, while also defending against iron-related toxicity in regions where iron occurs in surfeit. Togethe...

  18. Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair J P Brown; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gow, Neil A R

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, s...

  19. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  20. Candida albicans Quorum Sensing Molecules Stimulate Mouse Macrophage Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Hargarten, Jessica C.; Moore, Tyler C.; Petro, Thomas M.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.; Atkin, Audrey L.

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphic commensal fungus Candida albicans causes life-threatening disease via bloodstream and intra-abdominal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Although host immune evasion is a common strategy used by successful human fungal pathogens, C. albicans provokes recognition by host immune cells less capable of destroying it. To accomplish this, C. albicans white cells secrete a low-molecular-weight chemoattractive stimulant(s) of macrophages, a phagocyte that they ar...

  1. Molecular genetic techniques for gene manipulation in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qiu-Rong; Yan, Lan; Lv, Quan-zhen; Zhou, Mi; Sui, Xue; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-ying

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen in humans due to its high frequency as an opportunistic and pathogenic fungus causing superficial as well as invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. An understanding of gene function in C. albicans is necessary to study the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, virulence and drug resistance. Several manipulation techniques have been used for investigation of gene function in C. albicans, including gene disruption, controlled...

  2. Mucosal damage and neutropenia are required for Candida albicans dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, A.Y.; Kohler, J.R.; Coggshall, K.T.; Rooijen, van, N.; Pier, G B

    2008-01-01

    Candida albicans fungemia in cancer patients is thought to develop from initial gastrointestinal (GI) colonization with subsequent translocation into the bloodstream after administration of chemotherapy. It is unclear what components of the innate immune system are necessary for preventing C. albicans dissemination from the GI tract, but we have hypothesized that both neutropenia and GI mucosal damage are critical for allowing widespread invasive C. albicans disease. We investigated these par...

  3. Zebrafish as a Model Host for Candida albicans Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chun-Cheih; Hsu, Po-Chen; Jen, Chung-Feng; Chen, I-Hui; Wang, Chieh-Huei; Chan, Hau-Chien; Tsai, Pei-Wen; Tung, Kai-Che; Wang, Chian-Huei; Lan, Chung-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the zebrafish model organism was developed to obtain a minivertebrate host system for a Candida albicans infection study. We demonstrated that C. albicans can colonize and invade zebrafish at multiple anatomical sites and kill the fish in a dose-dependent manner. Inside zebrafish, we monitored the progression of the C. albicans yeast-to-hypha transition by tracking morphogenesis, and we monitored the corresponding gene expression of the pathogen and the early host immune respons...

  4. Importance of Candida-bacterial polymicrobial biofilms in disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harriott, Melphine M.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, with an ability to inhabit diverse host niches and cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans also readily forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices and mucosal tissues, which serve as an infectious reservoir that is difficult to eradicate, and can lead to lethal systemic infections. Biofilm formation occurs within a complex milieu of host factors and other members of the human microbiot...

  5. Ser or Leu: structural snapshots of mistranslation in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Sárkány, Zsuzsa; Silva, Alexandra; Pereira, Pedro J.B.; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic opportunistic fungal pathogen normally residing as commensal on mucosal surfaces, skin and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. However, in immunocompromised patients C. albicans can cause superficial mucosal infections or life-threatening disseminated candidemia. A change in physiological conditions triggers a cascade of molecular events leading to morphogenetic alterations and increased resistance to damage induced by host defenses. The complex biolog...

  6. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Cucumis melo on Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Issa Gholampour-Azizi; Samaneh Rouhi; Fahimeh Yahyayi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With respect to the emergence of susceptibility of some fungi to antifungal agents, making use of medicinal plants is progressing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the anti-fungal characteristics of mature and immature Cucumis melo fruit on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, antifungal activity of aqueous, ethnolic and methanolic extracts of C. melo fruits were tested on C. albicans; also results were obtained by disc and well ...

  7. In vitro anti-Candida activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia Carina

    2016-01-01

    The severity and frequency of opportunistic fungal infections still growing, concomitantly to the increasing rates of antimicrobial drugs resistance. Natural matrices have been used over years due to its multitude of health benefits, including antifungal potential. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the anti-Candida potential of the phenolic extract and individual phenolic compounds of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice), by disc diffusion assay, followed by determination of the minimal inh...

  8. Candida rugosa Lipase-catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxyalkanephosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永辉; 徐成富; 李晋峰; 袁承业

    2003-01-01

    An efficient lipase-catalyzedenantioselective hydrolysis of butyryloxyalkanephosphonates in water-equillbrated diisopropyl ether was developed. The relationship between the substrates' structure and the reactivity, as well as the enantioselectivlty of this enzymatic transformation was studied. The catalytic preference of crude Candida rugosa lipase toward such molecules was assigned according to modified Mosher's method and Xray crystallographic analysis. Optically pure 2-hydroxy-2-arylethanephosphonates, 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanephosphonate, and 3, 3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanephosphonates were conveniently prepared in this manner.

  9. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of t...

  10. Comparison of methods for DNA extraction from Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Dadgar, Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Invasive Candida infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised patient. Molecular diagnosis based on genomic amplification methods, such as real time PCR, has been reported as an alternative to conventional culture for early detection of invasive candidiasis. The template DNA extraction step has been the major limitation in most reported nucleic acid based assays, due to problems in breaking fungal cell walls and incomplete purification in PCR inhibitor ...

  11. Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea, in contrast to other Candida species, bind iC3b and C3d but not C3b.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenreich, F; Dierich, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    It was demonstrated that complement-coated sheep erythrocytes bind to Candida albicans cells grown in serum-free RPMI 1640 medium. Testing of purified complement components proved that iC3b and C3d were responsible for the reaction, whereas C3b and C3b-H reacted only slightly if at all. Binding occurred only to C. albicans and C. stellatoidea, not to other species pathogenic to humans. There was evidence of a lectinlike nature of the effect.

  12. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  13. Regulation of filamentation in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyu; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Yue, Huizhen; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Dai, Yu; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    The yeast-filament transition is essential for the virulence of a variety of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a potent inducer of filamentation in Candida albicans and thermally dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. However, GlcNAc suppresses rather than promotes filamentation in Candida tropicalis, a fungal species that is closely related to C. albicans. Despite the intensive study in C. albicans, the regulatory mechanism of filamentation is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. By screening an overexpression library of 156 transcription factors, we have identified approximately 40 regulators of filamentous growth. Although most of the regulators (e.g., Tec1, Gat2, Nrg1, Sfl1, Sfl2 and Ash1) demonstrate a conserved role in the regulation of filamentation, similar to their homologues in C. albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of transcription factors (e.g., Wor1, Bcr1, Stp4, Efh1, Csr1 and Zcf17) play a specific role in C. tropicalis. Our findings indicate that multiple interconnected signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. These mechanisms have conserved and divergent features among different Candida species. PMID:26466925

  14. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27074245

  15. Polyketide glycosides from Bionectria ochroleuca inhibit Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; You, Jianlan; King, Jarrod B; Cai, Shengxin; Park, Elizabeth; Powell, Douglas R; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2014-10-24

    One of the challenges presented by Candida infections is that many of the isolates encountered in the clinic produce biofilms, which can decrease these pathogens' susceptibilities to standard-of-care antibiotic therapies. Inhibitors of fungal biofilm formation offer a potential solution to counteracting some of the problems associated with Candida infections. A screening campaign utilizing samples from our fungal extract library revealed that a Bionectria ochroleuca isolate cultured on Cheerios breakfast cereal produced metabolites that blocked the in vitro formation of Candida albicans biofilms. A scale-up culture of the fungus was undertaken using mycobags (also known as mushroom bags or spawn bags), which afforded four known [TMC-151s C-F (1-4)] and three new [bionectriols B-D (5-7)] polyketide glycosides. All seven metabolites exhibited potent biofilm inhibition against C. albicans SC5314, as well as exerted synergistic antifungal activities in combination with amphotericin B. In this report, we describe the structure determination of the new metabolites, as well as compare the secondary metabolome profiles of fungi grown in flasks and mycobags. These studies demonstrate that mycobags offer a useful alternative to flask-based cultures for the preparative production of fungal secondary metabolites. PMID:25302529

  16. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species. PMID:22315984

  17. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K; Kragelund, C; Twetman, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P nursing homes residents (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02391532). PMID:26202995

  18. Sampling of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis by Langerin-positive dendritic cells in mouse Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Magdia; Rodriguez, Adam E; Yagita, Hideo; Ostroff, Gary R; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Candida genus, including C. albicans and C. tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. In healthy populations, however, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are considered benign members of the mycobiome, and are presumably kept in check by the mucosal immune system. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that C. albicans and C. tropicalis are sampled by Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs). Uptake into gut-associated lymphoid tissues occurred rapidly and was at least partly M cell-dependent. C. albicans and C. tropicalis preferentially localized in (and persisted within) a recently identified sub- population of Peyer's patch DCs distinguished by their expression of the C-type lectin receptor, Langerin. This study is the first to identify a subset of PP DCs capable of sampling Candida species. PMID:26386376

  19. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2014-11-01

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and subunits B1 and B2 of RNA polymerase II B. From this analysis, the anamorphic species Candida borneana, Candida cidri, Candida floccosa, Candida hungarica, and Candida ogatae were transferred to the genus Kuraishia as new combinations and Candida anatomiae, Candida ernobii, Candida ishiwadae, Candida laoshanensis, Candida molendini-olei, Candida peltata, Candida pomicola, Candida populi, Candida wickerhamii, and Candida wyomingensis were transferred to the genus Nakazawaea. PMID:25132542

  20. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  1. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  2. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  3. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecká-Melkusová, Silvia; Moran, Gary P; Sullivan, Derek J; Kucharíková, Sona; Chorvát, Dusan; Bujdáková, Helena

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates. PMID:18627475

  4. An essential role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in host defense against the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Hise, Amy G.; Tomalka, Jeffrey; Ganesan, Sandhya; Patel, Krupen; Hall, Brian A.; Brown, Gordon D.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing life-threatening mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised humans. Using a murine model of mucosal Candida infection we investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in host-defense to Candida albicans. We find that the synthesis, processing and release of IL-1β in response to Candida are tightly controlled and first require transcriptional induction, followed by a second signal leading to caspase-1 mediated...

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test Using a Monoclonal Antibody To Identify Candida dubliniensis Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cel...

  6. ISOLATION AND SPECIATION OF CANDIDA FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT KURNOOL, ANDHRAPRADESH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dasari; Suguneswari; Mahendra; Sisira

    2014-01-01

    : Candida is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic fungi that cause infection in humans. The pathogenesis of Candida is complex and probably varies with each infection. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of Candida from various clinical specimens of patients and to show the emergence of Non albicans Candida in clinical samples. This study also focused on the antifungal susceptibility which guides the clinicians to treat the infection effective...

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Incubation Temperature and Ph On the Susceptibility of Candida Albicans Isolates to Ketoconazole Invitro

    OpenAIRE

    F Katiraee; Z Farahnejad; M Riazipoor; MH Yadegari; H Zarrinfar

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis, as an opportunistic infection, is caused by the Candida species. Although Candida albicans is classified in the body as an endogenic flora, it plays an important role in creating Candida related diseases. Candida vulvovaginitis in pregnant women, diabetes mellitus patients and those using multiple antibiotics and contraceptive drugs demonstrates the high resistance of the organism against conventional medication. On the other hand, recurrent vaginitis disintegrates ...

  8. Biofilm formation is a risk factor for mortality in patients with Candida albicans bloodstream infection – Scotland, 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Nile, Christopher; Sherriff, Andrea; Johnson, Elizabeth; Hanson, Mary; Williams, Craig; Munro, Carol; Jones, Brian; Ramage, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Biofilm formation by Candida species is an important virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. A prospective analysis of patients with Candida bloodstream infection (n = 217) in Scotland (2012–2013) was performed to assess the risk factors associated with patient mortality, in particular the impact of biofilm formation. Candida bloodstream isolates (n = 280) and cl...

  9. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic mathematical model accurately describes the activity of voriconazole against Candida spp. in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanjun; Nguyen, M. Hong; Cheng, Shaoji; Schmidt, Stephan; Zhong, Li; Derendorf, Hartmut; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) mathematical model that fits voriconazole time–kill data against Candida isolates in vitro and used the model to simulate the expected kill curves for typical intravenous and oral dosing regimens. A series of Emax mathematical models were used to fit time–kill data for two isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. PK parameters extracted from human data sets were used in the model to simulate kill curve...

  10. GRINDING OF HARDENED STEELS USING OPTIMIZED COOLING RECTIFICADO DE ACEROS ENDURECIDOS USANDO REFRIGERACIÓN OPTIMIZADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves

    2008-06-01

    medio. Para ello, al proceso de rectificación está intrínseco el reciclaje del fluido de corte, que se destaca por su costo. A través de la variación de la velocidad de avance en el proceso de rectificación cilíndrica externa del acero ABNT D6, racionalizando la aplicación de dos fluidos de corte y usando una muela superabrasiva de CBN (nitruro de boro cúbico con ligante vitrificado, se evaluaron los parámetros de salida fuerza tangencial de corte, rugosidad, circularidad, desgaste de la herramienta, la tensión residual y la integridad superficial a través de la microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM de las piezas de prueba. Con el análisis del desempeño fluido, muela y velocidad de inmersión se encontró las mejores condiciones de fabricación propiciando la disminución del volumen de fluido de corte, disminución del tiempo de fabricación sin perjudicar los parámetros geométricos, dimensionales, el acabado superficial y la integridad superficial de los componentes.

  11. Étude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans le traitement du diabète dans la médecine traditionnelle de la région Maritime du Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaly, Gbekley Efui; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Kodjovi, Agbodeka; Kokou, Anani; Tchadjobo, Tchacondo; Amegnona, Agbonon; Komlan, Batawila; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les plantes constituent une grande source de principes actifs qui peuvent être utilisés pour traiter de nombreuses maladies, dont le diabète. L'objectif de cette étude était de recenser les plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter le diabète dans la région Maritime du Togo. Méthodes De janvier 2013 à juin 2014, une enquête ethnobotanique a été réalisée auprès de 164 guérisseurs traditionnels dans la région Maritime par des interviews directes à l'aide d'un questionnaire semi structuré. Résultats Les données recueillies ont permis d'identifier 112 espèces végétales appartenant à 51 familles. Les familles les plus représentées ont été les Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae avec 9 espèces, suivie des Euphorbiaceae et des Compositae avec 8 espèces chacune. Les espèces les plus citées ont été Allium sativum, Alium cepa, Guilandina bonduc, Moringa oleifera et de Picralima nitida qui ont eu une valeur usuelle de 0,05. En termes de recettes, 132 recettes sont préparées à partir des 112 espèces de plantes. Les recettes à plantes uniques ont été au nombre de 78, tandis que 54 recettes sont obtenues par des associations de plantes. Les parties de plantes les plus utilisées ont été les feuilles suivies par les racines. La principale méthode de préparation reste la décoction. Conclusion La région maritime du Togo dispose d'une biodiversité floristique importante en matière de plantes antidiabétiques. Ces résultats constituent une bonne base de données pour le criblage biologique dans la recherche de molécules antidiabétiques à base des plantes. PMID:26309469

  12. Pengaruh Perendaman Basis Gigitiruan Resin Akrilik Polimerisasi Panas Dalam Ekstrak Kayu Manis Terhadap Jumlah Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Grace Asima

    2015-01-01

    Resin akrilik polimerisasi panas merupakan bahan yang sering digunakan dalam proses pembuatan basis gigitiruan. Bahan ini memilik sifat kemis dan biologis yang berhubungan dengan pembentukan koloni Candida albicans .Terbentuknya koloni Candida albicans pada basis gigitiruan akan mengakibatkan terjadinya denture stomatitis pada pasien pemakai gigitiruan. Oleh karena itu, dokter gigi memiliki tanggung jawab memberikan instruksi kepada pasien agar menjaga kebersihan gigitiruan dan kebersihan ron...

  13. Emergence of a Candida krusei Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Caspofungin during Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical failure associated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin has been described in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. We report a case of Candida krusei infection that progressed despite caspofungin therapy. Reduced microbial susceptibility to all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) was noted but was not associated with mutations in FKS1.

  14. Successful management of presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis with oral voriconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Biju Raju; Sushil Daniel; Georgy Nainan

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly caused by Candida species and usually occurs in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, attains therapeutically significant concentrations in the vitreous cavity after systemic administration. We report, the successful management of presumed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis in a patient with multiple diseases and unstable systemic status ...

  15. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  16. Portal vein thrombosis due to Candida albicans associated with hepatic cirrhosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, G.; Gil Grande, L. A.; Boixeda, B.; Martín-de-Argila, C.; Barcena, R.; Garcia Hoz, F.

    1993-01-01

    A case of portal vein thrombosis due to Candida albicans in a patient with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis in the absence of hepatocarcinoma is described. Infection is a known cause of portal vein thrombosis but thrombosis by Candida albicans has not to our knowledge been previously reported.

  17. Candida albicans genome sequence: a platform for genomics in the absence of genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Odds, Frank C.; Brown, Alistair JP; Gow, Neil AR

    2004-01-01

    Publication of the complete diploid genome sequence of the yeast Candida albicans will accelerate research into the pathogenesis of Candida infections. Comparative genomic analysis highlights genes that may contribute to C. albicans survival and its fitness as a human commensal and pathogen.

  18. Use of Multiple Restriction Endonucleases for the Enhanced Differentiation of Candida albicans Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple endonuclease restriction enzymes it was possible to distinguish 31 patterns among 33 epidemiologi-cally independent Candida albicans from the oral cavity. This degree of discrimination required the use of three restriction enzymes.Keywords - Candida albicans, RFLP, Electrophoretic patterns, Epidemiology.

  19. Diagnosis of bronchial asthma in sensitization to yeast-like fungus candida ablicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarities of bronchial asthma caused by hypersensitivity to antigens Candida albicans are studied. The allergen Candida albicans developed in the Kazan SIEM is used in the specific diagnosis. The various types of reactions in skin and provocative inhalation tests are analyzed, the role of specific immunoglobulins E is stressed

  20. Phenotypic variability and therapeutic implications of Candida species in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Verma, M; Gupta, S R; Urs, A B; Dhakad, M S; Kaur, R

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenotypic variation of Candida species in oral lichen planus (OLP) and the therapeutic implications of our findings. Eighty patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of OLP (64 non-erosive, 16 erosive) and a control group of 80 healthy individuals with no predisposing factors for oral candidiasis were examined for evidence of Candida infection. Oral swabs and smears were obtained for cytology and culture. Identification, speciation and antifungal susceptibility tests of Candida isolates were performed using an automated microbial identification system. Fifty percent of erosive OLP cases, 28% of non-erosive cases and none of the controls showed evidence of Candida. Candida albicans was found predominantly in non-erosive OLP, while other Candida species were predominate in erosive OLP. Non-Candida albicans isolates (C. glabrata, C. krusei) were resistant to the commonly used antifungals, clotrimazole and fluconazole. Candida infection is common in cases of OLP. We recommend antifungal sensitivity testing prior to antifungal therapy for the erosive form of OLP. PMID:26984382

  1. Combination of different molecular mechanisms leading to fluconazole resistance in a Candida lusitaniae clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboutier, David; Piednoël, Mathieu; Boisnard, Stéphanie; Conti, Audrey; Chevalier, Virginie; Florent, Martine; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Da Silva, Bruno; Chastin, Christiane; Fallague, Karim; Favel, Anne; Noël, Thierry; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Papon, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    We report on the underlying molecular mechanisms likely responsible for the high-level fluconazole resistance in a Candida lusitaniae clinical isolate. Fluconazole resistance correlated with overexpression of ERG11 and of several efflux pump genes, in particular, the orthologs of the Candida albicans MDR1, PDR16, CDR1, CDR2, and YOR1. PMID:19070454

  2. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  3. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the pathogenesis of Candida albicans in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denkins, Y.M.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation addresses questions concerning the effects of UV radiation on the pathogenesis of opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. UV radiation decreased the survival of Candida-infected mice; however, no correlation was found between suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the course of lethal infection. This suggested that DTH was not protective against lethal disease with this organism. UV radiation also changed the persistence of the organism in the internal organs. UV-irradiated, infected animals had increased numbers of Candida in their kidneys compared to non-irradiated mice. Sensitization prior to UV irradiation aided clearance of the organism from the kidneys of UV-irradiated mice. These data show that UV radiation suppresses cell-mediated immunity to Candida albicans in mice and increases mortality of Candida-infected mice. Moreover, the data suggest that an increase in environmental UV radiation could increase the severity of pathogenic infections.

  4. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    An 87-year-old,Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep,central ulceration covered with thick,whitish exudate in the stomach.Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori).She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer.Though cured of the lesion,she developed another ulcer in a different position,in which Candida was demonstrated but H.pylori was undetectable.This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world.Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H.pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs,Candida is considered,contrary to the prevailing opinion,to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  5. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the pathogenesis of Candida albicans in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation addresses questions concerning the effects of UV radiation on the pathogenesis of opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. UV radiation decreased the survival of Candida-infected mice; however, no correlation was found between suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the course of lethal infection. This suggested that DTH was not protective against lethal disease with this organism. UV radiation also changed the persistence of the organism in the internal organs. UV-irradiated, infected animals had increased numbers of Candida in their kidneys compared to non-irradiated mice. Sensitization prior to UV irradiation aided clearance of the organism from the kidneys of UV-irradiated mice. These data show that UV radiation suppresses cell-mediated immunity to Candida albicans in mice and increases mortality of Candida-infected mice. Moreover, the data suggest that an increase in environmental UV radiation could increase the severity of pathogenic infections

  6. Inhibitory effect of coated mannan against the adhesion of Candida biofilms to denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Ohshima, Tomoko; Maeda, Nobuko; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The adherence of Candida on dentures is related to diseases such as denture stomatitis and aspiration pneumonia. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell surface, and contributes to the cell adherence. A previous report indicated that the adherence of C. albicans to culture dishes was inhibited by the coating them with mannan. The purpose of this study was to examine the adhesion inhibitory effect of mannan coating on acrylic denture surfaces against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The amount of Candida attached on the acrylic surfaces coated with mannan was calibrated by culture methods. Mannan showed significant inhibitory effects on Candida adhesion in both the yeast and hyphal form in a concentration-dependent manner, and the durability of the inhibitory effect continued for three days. These results suggest that mannan coating on the denture base acrylic can prevent Candida adhesion on the denture. PMID:23718993

  7. Production of virulence factors in Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Araújo, Maria Izabel Daniel Santos Alves; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups. PMID:26971635

  8. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5...... 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus at the...... concentrations tested. The MIC of EGCG was 0.3125 μg/ml against C. glabrata and 5.0 μg/ml against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The effect was fungicidal against C. glabrata at higher concentrations. In conclusion, EGCG and other yet undefined substances in tea have differential antifungal activity in vitro...

  9. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Storti-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG, which received injections of sterile saline; positive control groups (PCG, which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG, which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN, que receberam injeções de salina estéril; grupos controle positivos (GCP, que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP, nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P<0,0001. Neste grupo, 100,0% das ratas contraíram a infecção vaginal na primeira semana, mas não a mantiveram até a terceira semana. A forma farmacêutica de ADMP foi efetiva em induzir as fases de metaestro e

  10. Comparison of the MUREX C. albicans, Albicans-Sure, and BactiCard Candida test kits with the germ tube test for presumptive identification of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Crist, A E; Dietz, T J; Kampschroer, K.

    1996-01-01

    The MUREX C. albicans (MC)(Murex Diagnostics), Albicans-Sure (AS) (Clinical Standards Laboratories), and BactiCard Candida (BC) (Remel) test kits were compared with the germ tube (GT) test for the rapid, presumptive identification of Candida albicans. All three test kits detect the enzymes L-proline aminopeptidase and beta-galactosaminidase in yeast cells grown on culture media and are based on the principle that C. albicans produces both enzymes whereas other yeasts produce only one or neith...

  11. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to differentiate between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amity L; Alelew, Aqilah; Iwen, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis in conjunction with the direct formic acid (FA) sample processing method was evaluated for the ability to differentiate the closely related species of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. The results showed that MALDI-TOF-MS, using the direct FA method, was reliable to differentiate between these species. PMID:26971641

  12. COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING OF Candida albicans AND Candida dubliniensis IDENTIFIES SFL2, A C. albicans GENE REQUIRED FOR VIRULENCE IN A RECONSTITUTED EPITHELIAL INFECTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    HIGGINS, JUDY; Sullivan, Derek; Coleman, David; Moran, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are closely related species displaying differences in virulence and genome content, therefore providing potential opportunities to identify novel C. albicans virulence genes. C. albicans gene arrays were used for comparative analysis of global gene expression in the two species in reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE). C. albicans (SC5314) showed upregulation of hypha-specific and virulence genes within 30 min postinoculation, coinciding with rapi...

  13. Candida species distribution, genotyping and virulence factors of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients of two geographic regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Lemos, Vitor Luiz de Brito; Svidizisnki, Terezinha Inês Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2014-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. This investigation aimed to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and to analyze the ABC genotypes of 76 clinical isolates of C. albicans obtained from the oral cavity of kidney transplant patients from two distinct geographic regions of Brazil. Methods We typed 48 strains with ABC genotyping and Microsatelitte using primer M13 and tested three virulence factors in vitro: phosp...

  14. Doxorubicin induces drug efflux pumps in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofla, Grzegorz; Turner, Vincent; Schulz, Bettina; Storch, Ulrike; Froelich, Daniela; Rognon, Bénédicte; Coste, Alix T; Sanglard, Dominique; Ruhnke, Markus

    2011-02-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important opportunistic fungal pathogens. It can cause serious fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients, including those with cancer. Treatment failures due to the emergence of drug-resistant C. albicans strains have become a serious clinical problem. Resistance incidents were often mediated by fungal efflux pumps which are closely related to the human ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is often overexpressed in cancer cells and confers resistance to many cytotoxic drugs. We examined whether cytotoxic drugs commonly used for cancer treatment (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) could alter the expression of genes responsible for the development of fluconazole resistance in Candida cells in the way they can influence homologous genes in cancer cell lines. ABC transporters (CDR1 and CDR2) and other resistance genes (MDR1 and ERG11) were tested by real-time PCR for their expression in C. albicans cells at the mRNA level after induction by antineoplastic drugs. The results were confirmed by a lacZ gene reporter system and verified at the protein level using GFP and immunoblotting. We showed that doxorubicin is a potent inducer of CDR1/CDR2 expression in C. albicans at both the mRNA and protein level and thus causes an increase in fluconazole MIC values. However, cyclophosphamide, which is not a substrate of human P-gp, did not induce ABC transporter expression in C. albicans. Neither doxorubicin nor cyclophosphamide could influence the expression of the other resistance genes (MDR1 and ERG11). The induction of CDR1/CDR2 by doxorubicin in C. albicans and the resulting alteration of antifungal susceptibility might be of clinical relevance for the antifungal treatment of Candida infections occurring after anticancer chemotherapy with doxorubicin. PMID:20818920

  15. ISOLATION AND SPECIATION OF CANDIDA FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT KURNOOL, ANDHRAPRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Candida is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic fungi that cause infection in humans. The pathogenesis of Candida is complex and probably varies with each infection. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of Candida from various clinical specimens of patients and to show the emergence of Non albicans Candida in clinical samples. This study also focused on the antifungal susceptibility which guides the clinicians to treat the infection effectively. METHODS: Clinical samples were collected from outpatients and inpatients of Government General Hospital, Kurnool over a period of one year from March2008 to June2009. Isolation, culture, speciation of Candida was done by using standard methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion technique against amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole and clotrimazole. RESULTS: Candida manifests in various sites depending on the predisposing factors and immune status of the person. In this study we found the association of Candida with various predisposing factors (Pregnancy, Oral contraceptive pills’s, Immune suppression, Diabetes. This study observed the dominance of non-albicans Candida (51% in the clinical samples over Candida albicans (49%. The maximum antifungal susceptibility was observed against amphotericin B in both the albicans and non-albicans Candia, but non-albicans Candida showed maximum resistance to azoles. CONCLUSION: Candida albicans was the most predominant species (49% isolated in various clinical samples. There was an increase in the prevalence of non albicans Candida in this study. Among the nonalbicans Candida (51% Candid tropicalis was the commonest species isolated. Candida albicans showed maximum susceptibility to amphotericin B and maximum resistance to azoles was seen in nonalbicans Candida.

  16. Devenir dans l'environnement dulçaquicole de l'oxytétracycline, l'acide oxolinique et la fluméquine, antibiotiques utilisés en thérapeutique piscicole

    OpenAIRE

    Delépée, Raphaël

    2003-01-01

    Sur les 10500 t d'antibiotiques consommés en Europe chaque année, la moitié sont à usage vétérinaire. Ceux utilisés en pisciculture dulçaquicole sont généralement administrés aux poissons via un aliment distribué directement dans les bassins d'élevage. Leur devenir et leurs effets dans l'environnement aquatique notamment pour l'acide oxolinique (AO), la fluméquine (FLU) et l'oxytétracycline (OTC) suscitent donc un intérêt grandissant. L'objectif de cette thèse est d'étudier le devenir de ces ...

  17. Caractérisation minéralogique, géochimique et géotechnique des matières premières utilisées en poterie dans le site d’Agafay, Marrakech, Maroc.

    OpenAIRE

    El Boudour El Idrissi, Hicham; Daoudi, Lahcen; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Collin, Frédéric; FAGEL, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Le site potier d’Agafay est localisé à 20 km au S-W de la ville de Marrakech, à l’ouest de l’oued N’Fis. L’activité potière y a débuté par transfert du savoir-faire à partir du village de Tamsloht vers 1940 apr. J.-C. Le site comporte environ 90 ateliers où sont actifs 240 artisans. Les principales pièces produites sont les gasriyas (i.e., plats traditionnels de couscous et de modelage de pâtes de pains) et les briques des grandes murailles traditionnelles. Les matières premières utilisées, b...

  18. Synthèse, caractérisation, étude des performances de polymères à blocs utilisés comme liants de peintures anti-salissures marines

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, The-Hy

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de ces travaux est de synthétiser des copolymères diblocs et triblocs à base d'unités monomères méthacrylate de tert-butyldiméthylsilyle et diméthylsiloxane. Le choix de ces unités monomères repose sur l'élaboration de films polymères hydrolysables dans le milieu marin et de faible énergie libre de surface, respectivement. Ces polymères ont été caractérisés puis utilisés comme liants dans la formulation de peintures anti-salissures marines SPC/FRC hybrides. Les performances des rev...

  19. The exocyst in Candida albicans polarized secretion and filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A; Bernardo, Stella M; Lee, Samuel A

    2016-05-01

    The exocyst is an octameric complex that orchestrates the docking and tethering of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis and is fundamental for key biological processes including growth and establishment of cell polarity. Although components of the exocyst are well conserved among fungi, the specific functions of each component of the exocyst complex unique to Candida albicans biology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. This commentary describes recent findings regarding the role of exocyst subunits Sec6 and Sec15 in C. albicans filamentation and virulence. PMID:26762634

  20. Resistance Candida spp. for amphotericin B in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Bagirova; N. V. Dmitrieva

    2016-01-01

    We have tested 253 strains (13 species) Candida spp. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B was performed by 2 methods: epsilometric method (Etest®, BioMerieux, France) and on the instrument the Vitek2 (BioMerieux, France). In general, resistance was detected in 5 strains (2.1%) (C. parapsilosis – 4, C. tropicalis – 1). There were no resistance to amphotericin B among strains of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C.krusei. Coincidence evaluation results of the minim...

  1. A Methylotrophic Pathway Participates in Pectin Utilization by Candida boidinii

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Miyaji, Tatsuro; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Kato, Nobuo; Tomizuka, Noboru

    2000-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii S2 was found to be able to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as a carbon source. When cells were grown on 1% (wt/vol) pectin, C. boidinii exhibited induced levels of the pectin-depolymerizing enzymes pectin methylesterase (208 mU/mg of protein), pectin lyase (673 mU/mg), pectate lyase (673 mU/mg), and polygalacturonase (3.45 U/mg) and two methanol-metabolizing peroxisomal enzymes, alcohol oxidase (0.26 U/mg) and dihydroxyacetone synthase (94 mU/mg)....

  2. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia × candida Pers

    OpenAIRE

    Randall P. Niedz; Evens, Terence J.; Hyndman, Scott E.; Adkins, Scott; Chellemi, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida ‘Creamsickle’. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3−, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weight of shoot mass, and shoot number. The experiment to determine the levels of NH4+, NO3−, and K+, was conducted as a 2-component NH4+: K+ mixture crossed by [NO3−] and resulted in an experimental de...

  3. Candida tropicalis biofilms : effect on urinary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, M.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Brêda, D.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Candida tropicalis infection is strongly associated with the presence of biofilms in urinary catheters. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis in biofilms of different ages (24e120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their effect in human urinary bladder cells (TCC-SUP). Reference strain ATCC 750 and two isolates from patients with candiduria (U69 and U75) were used in this study. The adhesion to human cells was evaluated after 2 h of contact wit...

  4. Stability of Surfactant—coated Candida Rugosa Lipase in Isooctane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宝东; 邢爱华; 吴金川; 王世昌

    2003-01-01

    The stability of Candida rugosa lipase coated with glutamic acid didodecyl ester ribitol amide was investigated taking esterification of lauryl alcohol and lauric acid in isooctane as a model reaction.At 30℃,the half-life of the activity of the coated lipase was ca 10h,the enzyme activity became less changed after 12h and the residual activity was 39% of the initial value ,The coated lipase obeyed a first-order deactivation model with a deactivation energy of 29.9 J.mol-1.

  5. Optimum Condition Selection of Xylitol Candida tropicaiis Conversion Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chan-yuan; YANG Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to select the optimum conditions of xylitol Candida tropicalis conversion production.[Method]The effect of cell culture time, conversion time, conversion pH value,conversion initial sugar concentration, speed and inoculation rate were determined respectivaiy.[Result]Optimum fermentation conditions were obtained as follows: cell culture 16 h, conversion time 10 h, conversion pH value 5.5,conversion initial sugar concentration 20 g/L, conversion shaking speed 150 r/min, inoculation rate 10% (volume ratio).The yield of xylitol has increased to 90%.[Conclusion]This study had provided basis for the further study on xylitol.

  6. Modulation of Candida albicans Biofilm by Different Carbon Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Suma C; Pruthi, Parul A; Prasad, R; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, the role of carbon sources (glucose, lactate, sucrose, and arabinose) on Candida albicans biofilm development and virulence factors was studied on polystyrene microtiter plates. Besides this, structural changes in cell wall component β-glucan in presence of different carbon sources have also been highlighted. Biofilm formation was analyzed by XTT (2,3-bis[2-Methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay. Glucose-grown cells exhibited the highest metabolic activity during adhesion among all carbon sources tested (p albicans biofilm development and modulate virulence factors and structural organization of cell wall component β-glucan. PMID:26899861

  7. Histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 is required for Candida albicans pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes da Rosa, Jessica; Boyartchuk, Victor L.; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Kaufman, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen that is the most prevalent cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections. In mammalian hosts, C. albicans is engulfed by phagocytes that attack the pathogen with DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) by the fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 is important for yeast model organisms to survive DNA damage and maintain genome integrity. To assess the importance of Rtt109 for C. al...

  8. Activation and binding of C3 by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozel, T R; Brown, R R; Pfrommer, G S

    1987-01-01

    Interaction with components of the complement system is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of infection by Candida albicans. The key role of C3 as an opsonic ligand and as an element in amplification of complement activation led us to examine several factors that influence the activation and binding of C3 cleavage fragments to the yeast. Activation and binding of C3 were determined by use of normal human serum containing 125I-labeled C3. Incubation of yeast-phase cells in 20% serum led t...

  9. Development of a High-Throughput Candida albicans Biofilm Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Anand; Uppuluri, Priya; Lopez-Ribot, Jose; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a high-density microarray platform consisting of nano-biofilms of Candida albicans. A robotic microarrayer was used to print yeast cells of C. albicans encapsulated in a collagen matrix at a volume as low as 50 nL onto surface-modified microscope slides. Upon incubation, the cells grow into fully formed “nano-biofilms”. The morphological and architectural complexity of these biofilms were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The extent of bi...

  10. Ingestion volontaire et digestibilité apparente d'une ration à base de la farine de graines de Mucuna pruriens var. utilis complétée de fourrages chez les lapins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboh, AB.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Volontary Ingestion and Apparent Digestibility of a Ration Based on Mucuna pruriens var. utilis Seeds Flour Completed with Forage on Rabbits. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (mucuna detoxified seeds flour is used as a vegetable protein source, in a basal diet of fifteen growing rabbits divided in five groups of tree. Each rabbit received per day a fixed quantity of basal diet (130.5 g DM, but as only feed (RP for control group; plus 40.5 g DM of Panicum maximum forage and, 60 g DM of one of the four experimental legumes of Aeschynomene histrix (RH, Mucuna pruriens (RFM, Stylosanthes scabra Secca (RS and Tridax procumbens (RT for the others groups. The experiment conducted in Benin has lasted 26 days, split in 19 days for diet adaptability and 7 days for data collection. Voluntary daily feed intake varied from 28 to 42 g/kg of dry mater (DM of live weight (LW for basal diet and from 10.5 to 18 g DM/kg of LW for Panicum maximum. Green forage consumption of Aeschynomene histrix, Mucuna pruriens and Stylosanthes scabra were higher compared to the one of Tridax procumbens (P< 0.01. The supply of green forage to basal diet has increased the total daily feed intake that is about 67 to 89 g DM/kg of LW and 26 to 39 g DM/day for dung production.Water intake is higher for rabbit fed with RP diet. Feed resource RFM but also RS and RH have been digestible with 70%, 61% and 54% DM. They gave high weight gain of 30-22 g/day.

  11. Utilização do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8 na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Sydney Hartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8 em diferenciar Candida dubliniensis de Candida albicans com base na produção de clamidoconídios. Noventa e três isolados de Candida albicans e vinte e seis de Candida dubliniensis foram incluídos; 100% de Candida dubliniensis formaram clamidoconídios e 92,5% de Candida albicans não evidenciaram estas estruturas. Estes resultados permitem sugerir este meio como recurso alternativo na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis.

  12. Développement de méthodes physico-chimiques pour le contrôle de la médication par l'Harpagophytum et l'Eleutherococcus, principes actifs utilisés en phytothérapie équine. : Etude par spectrométrie de masse des harpagosides, des éleuthérosides et du cycloarténol, principes actifs utilisés en phytothérapie équine.

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Cyril

    2006-01-01

    Ce mémoire, consacré au développement de méthodes physico-chimiques pour le contrôle de la médication par l'Harpagophytum et l'Eleutherococcus, principes actifs utilisés en phytothérapie équine, est constitué de cinq chapitres. Le premier chapitre situe les enjeux des recherches entreprises ; il détaille le principe d'un contrôle de la méditation et le déroulement de celui-ci. Les propriétés, tant botaniques que pharmacologiques, des plantes étudiées, l'Harpagophytum procumbens et l'Eleuthero...

  13. A rapid [3H]glucose incorporation assay for determination of lymphoid cell-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]glucose uptake by Candida albicans after interaction with lymphoid effector cells was used to provide a quick, accurate and objective assessment of the growth inhibitory potential of lymphoid cells on candida. After 18 h coincubation of effector cells with candida, [3H]glucose was added for 3 h and the amount of radiolabel incorporated into residual candida was measured. The results showed that [3H]glucose uptake was proportional to the number of candida organisms left in the microwell and is dose dependent on the effector/target (E/T) ratio. At an E/T ratio of 300/1, complete inhibition of candida was seen, with significant inhibition still present at 30/1. In addition, monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells were found to be the primary cells responsible for eliminating candida. (Auth.)

  14. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  15. Candida albicans in oral biofilms could prevent caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Hubertine Marjoleine; Kos, Kevin; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterium involved in development to caries, the most common infectious disease of our time. Streptococcus mutans interacts with other microbes, like the fungus Candida albicans and both are commonly isolated from patients with caries. Since the role of C. albicans in caries remains unknown, our aim was to unravel this using an in vitro dual-species cariogenic oral biofilm model. Biofilms were grown for 24-72 h on glass cover slips or hydroxyapatite (HA) disks to mimic the surface of teeth. Medium pH, lactic acid production capacity and calcium release from HA disks were determined. All 24-h biofilms had external pH values below the critical pH of 5.5 where enamel dissolves. In contrast, 72-h dual-species biofilms had significantly higher pH (above the critical pH) and consequently decreased calcium release compared to single-species S. mutans biofilms. Counter intuitively, lactic acid production and growth of S. mutans were increased in 72-h dual-species biofilms. Candida albicans modulates the pH in dual-species biofilms to values above the critical pH where enamel dissolves. Our results suggest that C. albicans is not by definition a cariogenic microorganism; it could prevent caries by actively increasing pH preventing mineral loss. PMID:27129365

  16. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

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    Hüseyin Altunhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  17. Management of Candida infections in liver transplant recipients: current perspectives

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    Lingegowda PB

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pushpalatha B Lingegowda,1–3 Tan Ban Hock1,2,4,5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, 2DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4SingHealth Internal Medicine Residency Program, 5Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Liver transplantation has emerged as a widely accepted lifesaving therapeutic option for many patients with a variety of liver diseases. Improved surgical and medical management has led to significant improvements in post-transplant survival rates with a 1 year and 5 year patient survival of 87% and 73%, respectively. A high mortality rate due to infections during the first post-transplant year persists. Invasive candidiasis is recognized as a significant problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent surveillance data has helped to understand the changes in the epidemiology and the evolving trends in the use of antifungal agents for prophylaxis and treatment combined with the challenges of managing these invasive fungal infections, which has led the transplant community to explore the best management strategies. The emergence of resistant fungi and excess costs in managing these invasive fungal infections has added to the complexities of management. In this context, current perspectives in the management of Candida infections in liver transplant recipients will be reviewed. Keywords: Candida infections, management, liver transplant

  18. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  19. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

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    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with 125I, or metabolically with [35S] methionine or [3H] mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen

  20. Bax-induced cell death in Candida albicans.

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    De Smet, Kris; Eberhardt, Ines; Reekmans, Rieka; Contreras, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins involved in the regulation of genetically programmed cell death in mammalian cells. It has been shown that heterologous expression of Bax in several yeast species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Pichia pastoris, also induces cell death. In this study we investigated the effects of Bax expression in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Cell death inducing expression of Bax required a synthetic BAX gene that was codon-optimized for expression in Candida albicans. Expression of this BAX gene resulted in growth inhibition and cell death. By fusing Bax with the yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein of Aequoria victoria, the cell death-inducing effect of Bax was increased due to reduced proteolytic degradation of Bax. Using this fusion protein we showed that, upon expression in C. albicans, Bax co-localizes with the mitochondria. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that expression of Bax in yeast causes the mitochondria, which are normally distributed throughout the cell, to cluster in the perinuclear region. PMID:15565645

  1. The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1.

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    Prasad, Rajendra; Banerjee, Atanu; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni

    2015-12-01

    In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms. PMID:26407965

  2. Candida glabrata survives and replicates in human osteoblasts.

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    Muñoz-Duarte, Ana Rosa; Castrejón-Jiménez, Nayeli Shantal; Baltierra-Uribe, Shantal Lizbeth; Pérez-Rangel, Sofia Judith; Carapia-Minero, Natalee; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; López-Santiago, Rubén; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; García-Pérez, Blanca Estela

    2016-06-01

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic pathogen that is considered the second most common cause of candidiasis after Candida albicans Many characteristics of its mechanisms of pathogenicity remain unknown. Recent studies have focused on determining the events that underlie interactions between C. glabrata and immune cells, but the relationship between this yeast and osteoblasts has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of interaction between human osteoblasts and C. glabrata, and to identify the roles played by some of the molecules that are produced by these cells in response to infection. We show that C. glabrata adheres to and is internalized by human osteoblasts. Adhesion is independent of opsonization, and internalization depends on the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that C. glabrata survives and replicates in osteoblasts and that this intracellular behavior is related to the level of production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. Opsonized C. glabrata stimulates the production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 cytokines. Adhesion and internalization of the pathogen and the innate immune response of osteoblasts require viable C. glabrata These results suggest that C. glabrata modulates immunological mechanisms in osteoblasts to survive inside the cell. PMID:27073253

  3. Candida milleri species reveals intraspecific genetic and metabolic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Antoniani, Davide; Roscini, Luca; Comasio, Andrea; Galafassi, Silvia; Picozzi, Claudia; Corte, Laura; Compagno, Concetta; Dal Bello, Fabio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Foschino, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Candida milleri, together with Candida humilis, is the most representative yeast species found in type I sourdough ecosystems. In this work, comparison of the ITS region and the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA gene partial sequences, karyotyping, mtDNA-RFLP analysis, Intron Splice Site dispersion (ISS-PCR) and (GTG)5 microsatellite analyses, assimilation test of different carbohydrates, and metabolome assessment by FT-IR analysis, were investigated in seventeen strains isolated from four different companies as well as in type strains CBS6897(T) and CBS5658(T). Most isolates were ascribed to C. milleri, even if a strong relatedness was confirmed with C. humilis as well, particularly for three strains. Genetic characterization showed a high degree of intraspecific polymorphism since 12 different genotypes were discriminated. The number of chromosomes varied from 9 to 13 and their size ranged from less than 0.3 to over 2 Mbp. Phenotypic traits let to recognize 9 different profiles of carbon sources assimilation. FT-IR spectra from yeast cells cultivated in different media and collected at different growth phases revealed a diversity of behaviour among strains in accordance with the results of PCR-based fingerprinting. A clear evidence of the polymorphic status of C. milleri species is provided thus representing an important feature for the development of technological applications in bakery industries. PMID:24929720

  4. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome.

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    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  5. Candida albicans interface infection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

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    Mohammad Reza Sedaghat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of interface Candida keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, may imitate rejection or crystalline keratopathy. We report here an 18-year-old woman presented with red eye, 4 months after undergoing DALK. Slit lamp examination revealed keratic precipitates (KPs and cojunctival injection. She was prescribed corticosteroid treatment for endothelial rejection by another ophthalmologist because of misdiagnosis, but suffered a recurrence of symptoms after reduction of the corticosteroid treatment. At that time, she was referred to our office. The recurrence persisted despite antibiotic and antifungal therapies. Ten days after treatment with interface irrigation with amphotericin, the infiltration and hypopyon were resolved. Topical steroid was added after 3 months of antifungal monotherapy. Irrigant cultures confirmed the presence of Candida albicans. The corneal graft appeared semi-clear with no signs of infection at 17-month follow-up. We recommend a close follow-up and a timely intervention to prevent the need for more invasive treatment such as penetrating keratoplasty.

  6. Candida dubliniensis identification in Brazilian yeast stock collection

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    Mariano Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Candida dubliniensis among isolates previously identified as Candida albicans and maintained in a yeast stock collection from 1994 to 2000. All isolates were serotyped and further evaluated for antifungal susceptibility profile. After doing a screening test for C. dubliniensis isolates based on the capability of colonies to grow at 42°C, its final identification was obtained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis using three different primers. A total of 46 out of 548 screened isolates did not exhibit growth at 42°C and were further genotyped by RAPD. Eleven isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis with RAPD analysis. Regarding serotypes, 81.5% of C. albicans and all C. dubliniensis isolates belonged to serotype A. Of note, 9 out of 11 C. dubliniensis isolates were obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids and all of them were susceptible to azoles and amphotericin B. We found 17 (3% C. albicans isolates that were dose-dependent susceptibility or resistant to azoles. In conclusion, we found a low rate of C. dubliniensis isolates among stock cultures of yeasts previously identified as C. albicans. Most of these isolates were recovered from oral samples of Aids patients and exhibited high susceptibility to amphotericin B and azoles. C. albicans serotype A susceptible to all antifungal drugs is the major phenotype found in our stock culture.

  7. Effect of Shark Liver Oil on Peritoneal Murine Macrophages in Responses to Killed-Candida albicans

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    Monire Hajimoradi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sShark Liver Oil (SLO is an immunomodulator. Macrophages play a key role in host defense against pathogens like fungi. Candida albicans have mechanisms to escape immune system. We determined the effect of killed-Candida on the in vitro viability of macrophages and the effect of SLO on augmentation of this potency.Materials and MethodsPeritoneal macrophages were separated and cultured (3×105/well. At first, the effect of killed-Candida (200 cells/well on macrophage viability was evaluated, using MTT test. Then, MTT was performed on macrophages stimulated with killed-Candida in the presence of SLO. ResultsKilled-Candida suppressed the ability of MTT reduction and hence macrophages viability (P=0.026, but addition of SLO (100 mg/ml significantly enhanced cell viability (P=0.00. So, SLO could neutralize the inhibitory effect of Candida.ConclusionSimultaneous with cytotoxic effect of killed-Candida cells on macrophages viability, SLO augment macrophages viability. So, it can be applied in candidiasis as a complement.

  8. A Novel Flucytosine-Resistant Yeast Species, Candida pseudoaaseri, Causes Disease in a Cancer Patient ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-01-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170T), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  9. A novel flucytosine-resistant yeast species, Candida pseudoaaseri, causes disease in a cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-12-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170(T)), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  10. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  11. Detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis DNA in symptomatic women

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    Vittorio Focarelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is now less frequent, fungal Candida spp. infections are frequently found and the bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common vaginal diseases caused by anaerobic microorganisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a rapid molecular test for the diagnosis of vaginitis/bacterial vaginosis in symptomatic women. In our clinic, between January 2008 - June 2009, we admitted 1592 (388 were pregnant symptomatic women with a specific request to test them for fungi, Trichomonas and Gardnerella on vaginal fluid. The samples were tested with the kit Affirm (Becton Dickinson that provides results in 40 minutes and allows the simultaneous identification of the DNA of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis. One hundred and eight out of 388 pregnant women were positive only for Gardnerella; 53 for Candida and Gardnerella; 59 were positive only for Candida and 10 for Trichomonas. As to the remaining 1204 not pregnant patients, 356 were positive only for Gardnerella; 98 for Candida and Gardnerella, 143 were positive only for Candida and 21 for Trichomonas.A simultaneous positivity for Trichomonas and Candida or for Trichomonas and Gardnerella has not been observed in any case. Molecular testing is obviously more sensitive and specific than culture method and microscopic research, especially for the detection of Gardnerella. It also enables differential diagnosis between bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis and therefore allows a targeted therapeutic intervention.

  12. Eficacia in vitro de la moxifloxacina frente a Candida albicans en enfermedad periodontal

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    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La periodontitis crónica está asociada a una compleja y diversa flora microbiana que incluye posiblemente especies de Candida. Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de Candida y su susceptibilidad in vitro a la moxifloxacina en pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se usó una técnica de diluciones seriales para evaluar la susceptibilidad de la Candida a la moxifloxacina. Se utilizó el porcentaje de individuos con al menos una bolsa infectada para describir la presencia de individuos positivos a especies de Candida. Resultados y conclusiones: se detectaron especies de Candida en 13,2% de 76 pacientes con periodontitis crónica. La moxifloxacina inhibió significativamente el crecimiento de Candida (90%. La moxifloxacina puede ser una buena alternativa para el tratamiento de Candida debido a que en situaciones específicas la sobreinfección por este microorganismo puede responder inadecuadamente a tratamientos periodontales convencionales.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additional objective was to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Fine texture powder or paste form of leaves was soaked in sterile distilled water and 100% ethyl alcohol, which were kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 24 h. Then filtrates were prepared and kept in a hot air oven to get a black shining crystal powder/paste form. Stock solutions of plant extracts were inoculated on petri plates containing species of Candida albicans and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 72 h. Results: Alcoholic curry leaves showed the maximum zone of inhibition on Candida albicans followed by aqueous tea leaves. The other plant extracts like alcoholic onion leaves, alcoholic tea leaves, alcoholic onion bulb, alcoholic aloe vera, and alcoholic mint leaves also inhibited the growth of Candida albicans but lesser extent. Conclusion: The present study renders few medicinal plants as an alternative medicines to the field of dentistry which can be used adjunct to conventional therapy of oral candidasis.

  14. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  15. Application of gamma rays for increasing the productivity of xylitol from rice straw by candida teleprocess and candida guilieliermondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiating the rice straw with high dose level of gamma rays (100-KGy) after being treated with diluted sulphuric acid increased the xylitol yields from the hydrolysates to 43.2 and 45.0 g/l out of 63.0 g/l xylose by Candida tropical and Candida guilliermondii, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiating C. tropical is and C. guilliermondii with low dose levels (0.25 and 0.5 KGy, respectively) before being inoculated in artificial medium, containing 150 g/l xylose, increased the yields of xylitol by the irradiated species. On the contrary, the produced xylitol was decreased sharply in case of isolates irradiated with 1 KGy especially C. tropical is, which showed less resistance to gamma rays recording. D10, value 1.225 compared with 1.608 for C. guilliermondii. Sub-lethal dose of gamma rays (10 and 8 KGy) shrank C. guilliermondii cells and their sh,ape became irregular while C. tropical is cells formed small cottony fibres structure on the external surface of the cell wall, respectively. Meanwhile, lethal radiation doses-(l l and 9 KGy) caused deformation of the vegetative cells of both isolates. Many cells were enlarged, the cell walls of many others were ruptured and the internal contents were released outside the cells. Complete lyses of some cells-was also observed

  16. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy; Candida Oral como fator agravante da mucosite radioinduzida

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    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de odontologia

    2011-07-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  17. Isolation and characterization of three distinct forms of lipases from Candida rugosa produced in solid state fermentation

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    Sailas Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct forms (Lip A, Lip B and Lip C of extra-cellular lipases (EC- 3.1.1.3, produced by Candida rugosa in solid state fermentation (SSF were purified and characterised. SSF was carried out in glass columns using coconut oil cake and wheat bran. The enzyme was purified from the aqueous extract of fermented matter by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ultra-filtration and gel filtration using Sephadex-200 to a 43-fold purification and 64.35-mg/ml specific activity. SDS-PAGE of purified enzyme revealed three distinct bands, indicating the existence of three iso-forms, Lip A, Lip B and Lip C with apparent molecular weight about 64,000, 62,000 and 60,000 Da, respectively. All the three iso-forms were optimally active at 35-40ºC and pH 7-8. They showed marked differences in their Km values with different saturated and unsaturated triacyl glycerols. Ag++ and Hg++ strongly inhibited enzyme activity of all the iso-forms, Mn++ has no effect and Ca++ and Mg++ enhanced the activity. EDTA also strongly inhibited the enzyme activities of iso-forms. However, activities of all the three lipases were completely inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, pefabloc and partially by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the purification and characterisation of C. rugosa lipase iso-forms from solid cultures. These lipase iso-forms with diverse characteristics produced in solid cultures may find potential application in biomedical field.Três formas distintas (Lip A, Lip B e Lip C de lipases extracelulares (EC- 3,1,1,3, produzidas por Candida rugosa em fermentação no estado sólido (SSF foram purificadas e caracterizadas. A fermentação foi realizada em colunas de vidro usando como substrato bolo de óleo de coco e o farelo de trigo. O enzima obtida no extrato aquoso do material fermentado foi precipitada com do sulfato de do amônio, dialisada , ultra

  18. Aislamiento de Candida dubliniensis en un adolescente con estomatitis protésica

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Christian Oscar; Moragues Tosantos, María Dolores; Brena Alonso, Sonia; Rosa, Alcira Cristina; Pontón San Emeterio, José

    2005-01-01

    Objetivos: Utilizar varios métodos que permiten la diferenciación entre Candida albicans y Candida dubliniensis en un intento de conocer si C. dubliniensis puede ser aislada de la cavidad oral de adolescentes con prótesis ortopédicas orales. Materiales y métodos: Se aislaron 12 cepas de género Candida procedentes de mucosa palatina y de soporte de prótesis de 12 pacientes adolescentes portadores de prótesis ortopédicas orales. Para la diferenciación entre C. albicans y C....

  19. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Di Stilio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

  20. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd., Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zhang, Lingxin [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Stoll, Janis M. [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. (orig.)

  1. Candida esophagitis in achalasia cardia: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is by far the most common cause of infectious esophagitis. In most patients, this infection is secondary to an immuno-compromised state. In nearly 25% of the cases, underlying causes of esophageal stasis, e.g., achalasia and scleroderma, facilitate fungal colonization of the esophagus. Double contrast esophagography is a highly sensitive tool for diagnosing candida esophagitis. This report discusses the uncommon association of Candida esophagitis with achalasia cardia, their radiographic features and a short review of the available literature.

  2. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Mark M; Zhang, Lingxin; Stoll, Janis M; Sheybani, Elizabeth F

    2016-04-01

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. PMID:26546567

  3. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. (orig.)

  4. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Norwegian Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kari-Mette; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Ingebretsen, André; Vikholt, Katharina Johnsen; Örtengren, Ulf Thore; Olsen, Ingar; Enersen, Morten; Gaustad, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients have resulted in greater incidence of invasive fungal infections with high mortality. Candida albicans infections dominate, but during the last decade, Candida glabrata has become the second highest cause of candidemia in the United States and Northern Europe. Reliable and early diagnosis, together with appropriate choice of antifungal treatment, is needed to combat these challenging infections. Objectives To confirm the identity of 183 Candida glabrata isolates from different human body sites using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and VITEK®2, and to analyze isolate protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven antifungal drugs was determined for the isolates to elucidate susceptibility. Design A total of 183 C. glabrata isolates obtained between 2002 and 2012 from Norwegian health-care units were analyzed. For species verification and differentiation, biochemical characterization (VITEK®2) and mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF) were used. MIC determination for seven antifungal drugs was undertaken using E-tests®. Results Using VITEK®2, 92.9% of isolates were identified as C. glabrata, while all isolates (100%) were identified as C. glabrata using MALDI-TOF. Variation in protein spectra occurred for all identified C. glabrata isolates. The majority of isolates had low MICs to amphotericin B (≤1 mg/L for 99.5%) and anidulafungin (≤0.06 mg/L for 98.9%). For fluconazole, 18% of isolates had MICs >32 mg/L and 82% had MICs in the range ≥0.016 mg/L to ≤32 mg/L. Conclusions Protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility characteristics of the C. glabrata isolates were diverse. Clustering of protein profiles indicated that many azole resistant isolates were closely related. In most cases, isolates had highest susceptibility to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. The results confirmed previous observations of high

  5. Estructura y diversidad genética en vacas Holstein de Antioquia usando un polimorfismo del gen bGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rincon F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas del polimorfismo del intrón 3 del gen bGH y estimar algunos parámetros de estructura poblacional en ganado Holstein. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó con 1366 vacas Holstein en 120 hatos de 11 municipios del departamento de Antioquia. Se extrajo DNA por el método de Salting out y la genotipificación se realizó usando la técnica de PCR-RFLPs. La diversidad genética se determinó mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades, El equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (HW y la diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones se realizó usando el software Arlequín 2.0 Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas se evaluaron mediante el paquete estadístico SAS®. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas encontradas fueron 0.764 (+/+, 0.223 (+/- y 0.013 (-/- y las frecuencias alélicas 0.876 (+ y 0.124 (-. No se encontraron desviaciones del Equilibrio de Hardy Weinberg en ninguna de las subpoblaciones. La diversidad genética determinada mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades fue relativamente baja entre poblaciones pero al interior de estas no. El valor de FST de toda la población fue de 0.0068 y significativo (p<0.05, algunos FST pareados también lo fueron, tomando valores desde 0.0 a 0.13. Los estadísticos FIT y FIS no fueron significativos. Conclusiones. El gen bGH es un candidato interesante para evaluar características de importancia económica ya que no parece haber sido sometido a selección directa, presenta una variabilidad media en las poblaciones, observándose diferenciación genética significativa entre distintos municipios, producto de los diferentes sistemas de producción y acceso a las biotecnologías.

  6. Monitorização de transplante cardíaco usando análises do eletrograma intracavitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROFMAN Paulo Roberto S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma série de registros do eletrograma intracavitário tem sido utilizada para monitorização não invasiva da rejeição em pacientes transplantados usando um marcapasso de dupla câmara e eletrodos endocavitários revestidos com estrutura fractal. Os sinais têm sido avaliados usando o sistema CHARM (Computerized Heart Acute Rejection Monitoring _ sistema computadorizado para monitorização da rejeição cardíaca aguda. Os relatórios obtidos com este sistema contêm curvas com parâmetros sensíveis à rejeição, que demonstram uma boa correlação com a clínica e os resultados das biópsias convencionais. A monitorização a longo prazo, usando estas análises, mostrou ser uma ferramenta valiosa no acompanhamento destes pacientes.

  7. Germ Tube Formation Changes Surface Hydrophobicity of Candida Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Fonseca

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic interaction is generally considered to play an important role in the adherence of microorganisms to eukaryotic cells and also to certain inert surfaces. Using a microbe adhesion assay to hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane, 68 strains of Candida albicans and 30 non-albicans strains were studied. Influence of source of isolate, age of the culture, and percentage of germ tube formation on adhesion were studied. C: albicans blastoconidia were found to be hydrophilic; conversely, blastoconidia of non-albicans strains were slightly more hydrophobic. Germ tube formation was associated with a significant rise in cell surface hydrophobicity. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:222–226, 1999.

  8. Conversion of hexadecan-1-ol by extracts of candida lipolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell extracts from the yeast Candida lipolytica ATCC 8661 grown on hexadecane were prepared by agitation with glass beads in phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. On incubation with radioactive hexadecane and hexadecan-1-ol and analysis of the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography the extracts showed only low conversion of the hexadecane to hexadecanol and hexadecanoic acid and no formation of the corresponding aldehyde or hexadecanoic acid with hexadecan-1-ol as substrate. However the microsomal fraction was capable of converting hexadecan-1-ol to an unidentified compound, believed to be either a wax ester or acyloin. Up to 70 % of the radioactivity was incorporated into the product. (author)

  9. Epithelial discrimination of commensal and pathogenic Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S X; Moyes, D L; Richardson, J P; Blagojevic, M; Naglik, J R

    2016-04-01

    All mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells and are colonised by opportunistic microbes. In health, these opportunistic microbes remain commensal and are tolerated by the immune system. However, when the correct environmental conditions arise, these microbes can become pathogenic and need to be controlled or cleared by the immune system to prevent disease. The mechanisms that enable epithelial cells to initiate the 'danger' signals activated specifically by pathogenic microbes are critical to mucosal defence and homeostasis but are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms will provide essential understanding to how mucosal tissues maintain health and activate immunity, as well as how pathogens promote disease. This review focuses on the interaction of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans with epithelial cells and the epithelial mechanisms that enable mucosal tissues to discriminate between the commensal and pathogenic state of this medically important fungus. PMID:26843519

  10. Interleukin 17-Mediated Host Defense against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Sparber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17 as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role of IL-17 in mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans. Research on mouse models has also contributed importantly to our current understanding of the regulation of IL-17 production by different cellular sources and its effector functions in distinct tissues. In this review, we highlight recent findings on IL-17-mediated immunity against C. albicans in mouse and man.

  11. Isolation of Candida albicans and their sensitivity to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Liu, C I; Chang, C F; Tsai, Y H

    1982-02-01

    During 1978 and 1979 outbreaks of candidiasis were encountered in about 500,000 broiler chickens on 30 farms, 30,000 guinea fowl on 4 farms, 500 geese on 1 farm, and 10 penguins in a zoo. This represents the first report of avian candidiasis in Taiwan. Diagnoses were based on typical gross and microscopic pathology consistent isolation of Candida albicans from crop and esophageal lesions, virulence of isolates in rabbits, identification of the isolates as C. albicans serotype A by chlamydospore and germ tube formation, fermentation tests, and agglutination by specific antisera, and the lack of any sign of fowl pox or trichomoniasis. The upsurge of candidiasis is attributed to the modernization stressors which interact deleteriously with opportunistic pathogens. In vitro sensitivity testing recorded the following order of effectiveness against 20 isolates: nystatin greater than gentian violet greater than copper sulfate = propionic acid = p-hydroxy benzoic acid greater than calcium propionate = propylene glycol. PMID:7042231

  12. Sensitization of Candida albicans to terbinafine by berberine and berberrubine

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAM, PIKLING; KOK, STANTON HON LUNG; LEE, KENNETH KA HO; LAM, KIM HUNG; HAU, DESMOND KWOK PO; WONG, WAI YEUNG; BIAN, ZHAOXIANG; GAMBARI, ROBERTO; CHUI, CHUNG HIN

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, particularly observed in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans accounts for 50–70% of cases of invasive candidiasis in the majority of clinical settings. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug, has been used to treat fungal infections previously. It has fungistatic activity against C. albicans. Traditional Chinese medicines can be used as complementary medicines to conventional drugs to treat a variety of ailments and diseases. Berberine is a quaternary alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese herb, Coptidis Rhizoma, while berberrubine is isolated from the medicinal plant Berberis vulgaris, but is also readily derived from berberine by pyrolysis. The present study demonstrates the possible complementary use of berberine and berberrubine with terbinafine against C. albicans. The experimental findings assume that the potential application of these alkaloids together with reduced dosage of the standard drug would enhance the resulting antifungal potency. PMID:27073630

  13. Candida dubliniensis: first identification in Sfax Hospital, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlif, M; Sellami, H; Sellami, A; Chelly, H; Makni, F; Bouaziz, M; Ayadi, A

    2009-03-01

    Candida dubliniensis, a newly described fungal pathogen associated mainly to immunocompromised host's infection, is phenotypically closely related to C. albicans. In this study, we report for the first time, isolation and identification, in Tunisia, of 14 isolates of C. dubliniensis from 12 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients hospitalised in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital. Our study was firstly based on the failure to grow at 45 degrees C. This presumptive identification was completed by other tests: chlamydospore production, culture on Candiselect4 (Bio-Rad) and the commercial test Bichro-Dubli fumouze, which specifically identify C. dubliniensis. The confirmation of the discrimination between both species was performed by PCR, targeting the hyphal wall protein (HWP1) gene. The recovery of C. dublinensis by routine laboratory diagnosis is recommended for elucidating the epidemiology of this novel pathogen. PMID:18522698

  14. Production of flavin mononucleotide by metabolically engineered yeast Candida famata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Ishchuk, Olena P; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Fedorovych, Daria V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-05-01

    Recombinant strains of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata able to overproduce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) that contain FMN1 gene encoding riboflavin (RF) kinase driven by the strong constitutive promoter TEF1 (translation elongation factor 1alpha) were constructed. Transformation of these strains with the additional plasmid containing the FMN1 gene under the TEF1 promoter resulted in the 200-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 100-fold increase in FMN production as compared to the wild-type strain (last feature was found only in iron-deficient medium). Overexpression of the FMN1 gene in the mutant that has deregulated riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and high level of riboflavin production in iron-sufficient medium led to the 30-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 400-fold increase in FMN production of the resulted transformants. The obtained C. famata recombinant strains can be used for the further construction of improved FMN overproducers. PMID:19558965

  15. Novel strategies against Candida biofilms: interest of synthetic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Marion; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A biofilm is a consortium of microbial cells that are attached to a substratum or an interface. It should be considered a reservoir that may induce serious infections. Indeed, Candidaspp. biofilms may be involved in the persistence or worsening of some chronic inflammatory diseases as well as in systemic infections, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. New strategies are currently being explored, utilizing several synthetic compounds to prevent or fight these Candida biofilms. This article focuses on active synthetic compounds classified with regards to their modes of action: inhibition of early adherence phase, inhibition or control of biofilm maturation and finally elimination of already formed biofilms. Some of them show promise in fighting biofilm. PMID:26673571

  16. Increased Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans in Simulated Microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara D. Altenburg; Sheila M. Nielsen-Preiss; Linda E. Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of simulated microgravity (SMG)-induced changes in the pathogenicity of microorganisms is important for success of long-term spaceflight. In a previous study using the high aspect ratio vessel bioreactor, we showed that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae underwent a significant phenotypic response when grown in modeled microgravity, which was reflected in the analysis of gene expression profiles. In this study, we establish that Candida albicans responds to SMG in a similar fashion, demonstrating that there is a conserved response among yeast to this environmental stress. We also report that the growth of C. albicans in SMG results in a morphogenic switch that is consistent with enhanced pathogenicity. Specifically, we observed an increase in filamentous forms of the organism and accompanying changes in the expression of two genes associated with the yeasthyphal transition. The morphological response may have significant implications for astronauts' safety, as the fungal pathogen may become more virulent during spaceflight.

  17. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  18. Evaluation of an immunomagnetic separation method to capture Candida yeasts cells in blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulain Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species have become the fourth most-frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, rapid identification of pathogenic fungi to species level has been considered critical for treatment. Conventional diagnostic procedures such as blood culture or biochemical tests are lacking both sensitivity and species specificity, so development of rapid diagnostic is essential. Results An immunomagnetic method involving anti-Candida monoclonal antibodies was developed to capture and concentrate in human blood four different species of Candida cells responsible for invasive yeast infections. In comparison with an automated blood culture, processing time of immunomagnetic separation is shorter, saving at least 24 hours to obtain colonies before identification. Conclusion Thus, this easy to use method provides a promising basis for concentrating all Candida species in blood to improve sensitivity before identification.

  19. Molecular and phenotypic identification of Candida isolates from pregnant women in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Abidemi Nurat

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The combine uses of chromogenic agar and PCR have the advantage of efficient differentiation and identification of Candida species. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 317-322

  20. Utilização do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8) na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis Utilization of tomato juice agar (V8 agar) in the presumptive identification of Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sydney Hartz Alves; Carlos Eduardo Linares; Érico Silva de Loreto; Magnus Rodrigues; Diego I. Thomazi; Felipe Souza; Janio M. Santurio

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a capacidade do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8) em diferenciar Candida dubliniensis de Candida albicans com base na produção de clamidoconídios. Noventa e três isolados de Candida albicans e vinte e seis de Candida dubliniensis foram incluídos; 100% de Candida dubliniensis formaram clamidoconídios e 92,5% de Candida albicans não evidenciaram estas estruturas. Estes resultados permitem sugerir este meio como recurso alternativo na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis.We ev...