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Sample records for candida utilis usando

  1. Genetic diversity of the yeast Candida utilis.

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    Stoltenburg, R; Klinner, U; Ritzerfeld, P; Zimmermann, M; Emeis, C C

    1992-12-01

    The electrophoretic karyotypes and some mtDNA restriction fragment patterns of 13 strains of Candida utilis and one strain of Hansenula jadinii were compared. PFGE separations revealed remarkable chromosome length polymorphisms between two groups of strains suggesting that perhaps they do not belong to the same species. However, all strains had the same or similar EcoRI, HindIII and BamHI mtDNA restriction patterns. The mtDNA genomes had an average size range of 55 kb. These results support the supposition that C. utilis is a yeast with a highly variable electrophoretic karyotype as already known for another imperfect yeast species, Candida albicans.

  2. Purification and characterization of assimilatory nitrite reductase from Candida utilis.

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    Sengupta, S; Shaila, M S; Rao, G R

    1996-07-01

    Nitrate assimilation in many plants, algae, yeasts and bacteria is mediated by two enzymes, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) and nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1). They catalyse the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrite to ammonia respectively. The nitrite reductase from an industrially important yeast, Candida utilis, has been purified to homogeneity. Purified nitrite reductase is a heterodimer and the molecular masses of the two subunits are 58 and 66 kDa. The native enzyme exhibits a molecular mass of 126 kDa as analysed by gel filtration. The identify of the two subunits of nitrite reductase was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibody for Cucurbita pepo leaf nitrite reductase. The presence of two different sized transcripts coding for the two subunits was confirmed by (a) in vitro translation of mRNA from nitrate-induced C. utilis followed by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translated products with heterologous nitrite reductase antibody and (b) Northern-blot analysis. The 66 kDa subunit is acidic in nature which is probably due to its phosphorylated status. The enzyme is stable over a range of temperatures. Both subunits can catalyse nitrite reduction, and the reconstituted enzyme, at a higher protein concentration, shows an activity similar to that of the purified enzyme. Each of these subunits has been shown to contain a few unique peptides in addition to a large number of common peptides. Reduced Methyl Viologen has been found to be as effective an electron donor as NADPH in the catalytic process, a phenomenon not commonly seen for nitrite reductases from other systems.

  3. Metabolic engineering of Candida utilis for isopropanol production.

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    Tamakawa, Hideyuki; Mita, Tokiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Ikushima, Shigehito; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    A genetically-engineered strain of the yeast Candida utilis harboring genes encoding (1) an acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, (2) an acetoacetate decarboxylase, and (3) a primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase derived from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593 produced up to 0.21 g/L of isopropanol. Because the engineered strain accumulated acetate, isopropanol titer was improved to 1.2 g/L under neutralized fermentation conditions. Optimization of isopropanol production was attempted by the overexpression and disruption of several endogenous genes. Simultaneous overexpression of two genes encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase increased isopropanol titer to 9.5 g/L. Moreover, in fed-batch cultivation, the resultant recombinant strain produced 27.2 g/L of isopropanol from glucose with a yield of 41.5 % (mol/mol). This is the first demonstration of the production of isopropanol by genetically engineered yeast.

  4. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

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    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  5. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the food-yeast Candida utilis.

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    Yasuyuki Tomita

    Full Text Available The industrially important food-yeast Candida utilis is a Crabtree effect-negative yeast used to produce valuable chemicals and recombinant proteins. In the present study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. utilis, which showed that this yeast diverged long before the formation of the CUG and Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clades. In addition, we performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing, which resulted in the identification of genes important for characteristic phenotypes of C. utilis such as those involved in nitrate assimilation, in addition to the gene encoding the functional hexose transporter. We also found that an antisense transcript of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, which in silico analysis did not predict to be a functional gene, was transcribed in the stationary-phase, suggesting a novel system of repression of ethanol production. These findings should facilitate the development of more sophisticated systems for the production of useful reagents using C. utilis.

  6. Oxygen and/or glucose limitation in a chemostat culture of Candida utilis. Mathematical model identification

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    Schwippel, J. [Inst. of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Votruba, J. [Inst. of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-08-01

    The glucose and/or dissolved oxygen limited continuous culture of yeast Candida utilis was studied. Six different mathematical models were designed to describe and analyze the experiments. The model considering the production of surface active compounds at autoanaerobic conditions and dissolved oxygen consumption for nongrowth associated exogeneous respiration yields the best fit. The results may be applied for aerobic waste water treatment plants, process analysis and simulation. (orig.)

  7. Two-stage continuous fermentation of Saccharomycopsis fibuligeria and Candida utilis.

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    Admassu, W; Korus, R A; Heimsch, R C

    1983-11-01

    Biomass production and carbohydrate reduction were determined for a two-stage continuous fermentation process with a simulated potato processing waste feed. The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was grown in the first stage and a mixed culture of S. fibuligera and Candida utilis was maintained in the second stage. All conditions for the first and second stages were fixed except the flow of medium to the second stage was varied. Maximum biomass production occurred at a second stage dilution rate, D(2), of 0.27 h (-1). Carbohydrate reduction was inversely proportional to D(2), between 0.10 and 0.35 h (-1).

  8. Control of the harmful alga Microcystis aeruginosa and absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus by Candida utilis.

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    Kong, Yun; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang; Miao, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at controlling eutrophication through converting the nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus into microbial protein and simultaneously inhibiting the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa by Candida utilis. C. utilis and M. aeruginosa (initial cell density was 2.25 × 10(7) and 4.15 × 10(7) cells·mL(-1)) were cultured together in the absence or presence of a carbon source (glucose) during a 10-day experiment. In the absence of carbon source, the measured removal efficiencies of NH(4) (+)-N and PO(4) (3-)-P were 41.39 ± 2.19 % and 82.93 ± 3.95 %, respectively, at the second day, with the removal efficiency of 67.82 ± 2.29 % for M. aeruginosa at the fourth day. In contrast, the removal efficiencies of NH(4) (+)-N and PO(4) (3-)-P were increased to 87.45 ± 4.25 % and 83.73 ± 3.55 %, respectively, while the removal efficiency of M. aeruginosa decreased to 37.89 ± 8.41 % in the presence of the carbon source (C/N = 2:1). These results showed that the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by C. utilis. Our finding sheds light on a novel potential approach for yeast to consume nutrients and control harmful algal during bloom events.

  9. Improvement of Physiological Characteristic of Selenium-Enriched Candida utilis with Amino Acids Addition

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    Ge Xiaoguang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of amino acids addition on cell growth, glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione distribution, and the intracellular oxidation-reduction environment of Candida utilis SZU 07-01 during selenium enrichment were investigated in this study. Most amino acids under appropriate concentrations have positive effects on cell growth of the yeast strain, except for phenylalanine and proline, compared with the control without amino acid addition. The bioconversion of selenite to organic selenium induced the reduction of glutathione synthesis and intracellular distribution of glutathione. However, amino acids including cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, and tyrosine could effectively promote the selenium-enriched yeast to elevate glutathione production, especially increasing the intracellular glutathione content. Moreover, addition of these six different amino acids apparently decreased malondialdehyde concentration and recovered the normal intracellular redox environment of the selenium-enriched C. utilis SZU 07-01. The improvement of physiological characteristic of the selenium-enriched yeast by increasing intracellular glutathione content and lowering malondialdehyde content will undoubtedly help to widen application of selenium-enriched yeast as food or feed additives.

  10. Formulation of mayonnaise with the addition of a bioemulsifier isolated from Candida utilis

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    Jenyffer M. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants have a number of industrial applications due their diverse properties, such as emulsification, foaming, wetting, and surface activity. The aim of the present study was to produce a biosurfactant from Candida utilis and employ it in the formulation of a mayonnaise. The biosurfactant was produced in a mineral medium supplemented with glucose and canola waste frying oil at 150 rpm for 88 h. The product was biologically tested on rats and in different formulations of mayonnaise, which were submitted to microbiological evaluations. The biosurfactant was added to the diet of the rats for 21 days. Greater consumption was found of the experimental diet. Moreover, no changes were found in the liver or kidneys of the animals, demonstrating the absence of a toxic effect from the biosurfactant. Six different formulations of mayonnaise were prepared and tested regarding stability with the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum (combined and isolated after 30 days of refrigeration. The most stable formulation with the best quality was obtained with combination of guar gum and the isolated biosurfactant, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms. In conclusion, the potential and innocuousness of the biosurfactant isolated from C. utilis indicates its safe use in food emulsions.

  11. Production of Candida utilis Biomass and Intracellular Protein Content: Effect of Agitation Speed and Aeration Rate

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    Rosma, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of agitation speed and aeration rate on the Candida utilis biomass and the intracellular protein content were investigated in this study. C. utilis inoculum of 10^6 cells/mL (7.8 % v/v was cultured in 1.5 L pineapple waste medium (3 % Brix in a 2-L fermentor for 30 h at 30 °C. Agitation speed and aeration rate have significant effects on the dissolved oxygen concentration, which in turn affect the cell growth and the intracellular protein content. The agitation speed of 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 rpm was employed. The highest yield of protein content (1.2 g/L media and total biomass (7.8 g/L media were resulted from yeast cultivation with agitation speed of 900 rpm. Thus, the effects of aeration rate (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 L/min were studied at agitation speed of 900 rpm. A maximum yield of protein content (1.6 g/L media and biomass (9.5 g/L media were attained at aeration rate of 2.0 L/min.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Supplementation on Yeast (Candida utilis) Biomass Production by Using Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Waste Extracted Medium

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    Rosma, A.; Cheong, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w/v). Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p

  13. Conservación de cepas de Candida utilis en agua destilada estéril

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    Aidín Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos métodos han sido utilizados para el mantenimiento de la colección de levaduras. La elección de uno u otro tiene como objetivo garantizar la estabilidad de los cultivos; teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones y posibilidades económicas de la colección. En este trabajo se empleó la preservación de levaduras en agua destilada estéril por ser un método sencillo, económico, seguro y, capaz de garantizar la viabilidad de los cultivos por un período prolongado. Se conservaron 8 cepas de Candida utilis y se aseguró el 100% de supervivencia de las mismas en dicho sustrato durante tres años, a la vez que no se observaron cambios en las características fisiológicas y morfológicas de los cultivos. Palabras clave: preservación, levaduras, agua destilada.

  14. Candida utilis and Chlorella vulgaris counteract intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

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    Fabian Grammes

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE. In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM, a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU, Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV. Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.

  15. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

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    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast.

  16. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus

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    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. CONCLUSIONS This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25371280

  17. Removal of Heavy Metals from Synthesis Industrial Wastewater Using Local Isolated Candida Utilis and Aspergillus Niger as Bio-Filter

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    Safaa Abd Alrasool Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass filter of Candida Utilis which isolated from food sample in Baghdad local market and Aspergillus Niger which isolated from Baghdad soil used to biosorption heavy metals from synthesis industrial wastewater. two bio-filters were designed as cylindrical Perspex with height 10cm, diameter 3cm as a shell and inside their are layers of Sponge were prepare as the size of diameter of the cylindrical filter with thickness of 2cm arrange inside it, biomass production were 6 g of ...

  18. [Changes in the trophic organization of mitotic cycle of Candida utilis after exposure to RNAse from Bacillus intermedius].

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    Kupriianova-Ashina, F G; Kolpakov, A I

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the RNase from Bacillus intermedius on the growth and trophic cycle of Candida utilis was studied. The RNase at concentrations of 0.001-0.01 microgram/ml stimulated yeast growth by 30-40% as compared to the control, reduced the mitotic cycle of the yeast by shortening its G1 phase, and decreased the number of exotrophic cells in the G1 phase to a minimum. It was suggested that RNase is involved in the regulation of the transition of cells from the exo- to endotrophic state.

  19. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

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    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-07-15

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  20. Cells of Candida utilis for in vitro (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol production in an aqueous/octanol two-phase reactor.

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    Rosche, Bettina; Breuer, Michael; Hauer, Bernhard; Rogers, Peter L

    2005-04-01

    (R)-Phenylacetylcarbinol (PAC), a pharmaceutical precursor, was produced from benzaldehyde and pyruvate by pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) of Candida utilis in an aqueous/organic two-phase emulsion reactor. When the partially purified enzyme in this previously established in vitro process was replaced with C. utilis cells and the temperature was increased from 4 to 21 degrees C, a screen of several 1-alcohols (C4-C9) confirmed the suitability of 1-octanol as the organic phase. Benzyl alcohol, the major by-product in the commercial in vivo conversion of benzaldehyde and sugar to PAC by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was not formed. With a phase volume ratio of 1:1 and 5.6 g C. utilis l-1 (PDC activity 2.5 U ml-1), PAC levels of 103 g l-1 in the octanol phase and 12.8 g l-1 in the aqueous phase were produced in 15 h at 21 degrees C. In comparison to our previously published process with partially purified PDC in an aqueous/octanol emulsion at 4 degrees C, PAC was produced at a 4-times increased specific rate (1.54 versus 0.39 mg U-1 h-1) with simplified catalyst production and reduced cooling cost. Compared to traditional in vivo whole cell PAC production, the yield on benzaldehyde was 26% higher, the product concentration increased 3.9-fold (or 6.9-fold based on the organic phase), the productivity improved 3.1-fold (3.9 g l-1 h-1) and the catalyst was 6.9-fold more efficient (PAC/dry cell mass 10.3 g g-1).

  1. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-07-01

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C andida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  2. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter of the food yeast Candida utilis strain NRRL Y-660 is functional in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

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    González, Tania; Eng, Felipe; Fraga, Reinaldo; Fonseca, Jennifer; Amores, Isis

    2013-11-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter of the food yeast Candida utilis strain NRRL Y-660 was cloned to create a novel integrative vector for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The new binary vector harbors β-glucuronidase activity as reporter and kanamicin/geneticin resistance as selection marker. Recombinant clones of A. tumefaciens show kanamycin resistance and high β-glucuronidase activity under the control of the C. utilis promoter. This finding can be explained by the presence of a prokaryotic core in the yeast promoter, predicted by in silico analysis of the sequence. This is the first report about functionality of a yeast promoter in A. tumefaciens.

  3. Serological differences between the multiple amine oxidases of yeasts and comparison of the specificities of the purified enzymes from Candida utilis and Pichia pastoris.

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    Green, J; Haywood, G W; Large, P J

    1983-05-01

    1. Antiserum to purified methylamine oxidase of Candida boidinii formed precipitin lines (with spurs) in double-diffusion tests with crude extracts of methylamine-grown cells of the following yeast species: Candida nagoyaensis, Candida nemodendra, Hansenula minuta, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pinus. No cross-reaction was observed with extracts of Candida lipolytica, Candida steatolytica, Candida tropicalis, Candida utilis, Pichia pastoris, Sporobolomyces albo-rubescens, Sporopachydermia cereana or Trigonopsis variabilis. Quantitative enzyme assays enabled the relative titre of antiserum against the various methylamine oxidases to be determined. 2. The amine oxidases from two non-cross-reacting species, C. utilis and P. pastoris, were purified to near homogeneity. 3. The methylamine oxidases, despite their serological non-similarity, showed very similar catalytic properties to methylamine oxidase from C. boidinii. Their heat-stability, pH optima, molecular weights, substrate specificities and sensitivity to inhibitors are reported. 4. The benzylamine oxidases of C. utilis and P. pastoris both oxidized putrescine, and the latter enzyme failed to show any cross-reaction with antibody to C. boidinii methylamine oxidase. Benzylamine oxidase from C. boidinii itself also did not cross-react with antibody to methylamine oxidase. The heat-stability, molecular weights, substrate specificities and sensitivity to inhibitors of the benzylamine/putrescine oxidases are reported. 5. The benzylamine/putrescine oxidase of C. utilis differed only slightly from that of C. boidinii. 6. Benzylamine/putrescine oxidase from P. pastoris differed from the Candida enzymes in heat-stability, subunit molecular weight and substrate specificity. In particular it catalysed the oxidation of the primary amino groups of spermine, spermidine, lysine, ornithine and 1,2-diaminoethane, which are not substrates for either of the Candida benzylamine oxidases that have been purified. 7. Spermine and

  4. Utilization of Candida utilis Cells for the Production of Yeast Extract:Effects of Enzyme Types, Dosages and Treatment Time

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    Yuping Guan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish an enzymatic hydrolysis process to prepare yeast extract with the advantages of low-cost and high-content of flavor nucleotides. Yeast extract was produced from the broken cell suspension of Candida utilis, using papain, 5′-Phosphodiesterase (RP-1 and Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP -deaminase. The effects of types, dosages and treatment time of enzymes on the recovery of solid, protein and flavor nucleotides, as well as the extract composition were investigated. Enzyme types remarkably affected the recovery of protein and solid and papain was found to be the most effective hydrolysis enzyme. The optimal dosage of papain and its treatment time were determined as 0.2% and 6 h, respectively. On this condition, the recovery of solid and protein of yeast cells was 69.26 and 60.87%, respectively. Further treatments with RP-1 (0.045%, 3 h and AMP-deaminase (0.045%, 2 h were employed to obtain a higher content of flavor 5′-nucleotides (GMP + IMP, 4.39%. This process had the advantages of a small amount of enzymes dosage, short enzymatic reaction time and high extraction yield.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Supplementation on Yeast (Candida utilis Biomass Production by Using Pineapple (Ananas comosus Waste Extracted Medium

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    Rosma, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple waste medium was used to cultivate yeast, Candida utilis. It served as the sole carbon and energy source for the yeast growth. However, pineapple waste media contain very little nitrogen (0.003-0.015% w/v. Various nitrogen sources were incorporate and their effects on biomass, yield and productivity were studied. Significant (p<0.05 increment on biomass production was observed when nitrogen supplement (commercial yeast extract, peptone, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate was added into fermentation medium. Commercial yeast extract, Maxarome® which increased 55.2% of biomass production at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content, is the most suitable among the selected organic source. On the other hand, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate at 0.09% (w/v nitrogen content is comparable inorganic source which enhanced 53.7% of production. Total nitrogen content of each treatment at 0.05% (w/v showed that nitrogen supplied was not fully utilized as substrate limitation in the fermentation medium.

  6. Influence of Selenium Content in the Culture Medium on Protein Profile of Yeast Cells Candida utilis ATCC 9950

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    Marek Kieliszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and it has been recognized as a component of several selenoproteins with crucial biological functions. It has been identified as a component of active centers of many enzymes, as well as integral part of biologically active complexes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content and amino acid profile of the protein of fodder yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 cultured in media control and experimental enriched selenium. Protein analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE method consisting of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The highest contents of soluble protein (49,5 mg/g were found in yeast cells after 24-hour culture conducted in control (YPD medium. In the presence of selenium there were determined small amounts of protein content. With increasing time of yeast culture (to 72 hours the control and experimental media were reported to reduce soluble protein content. In electropherogram proteins from control cultures was observed the presence of 10 protein fractions, but in all the experimental cultures (containing 20, 30, and 40 mg/L selenium of 14 protein fractions. On the basis of the molecular weights of proteins, it can be concluded that they were among others: selenoprotein 15 kDa and selenoprotein 18 kDa.

  7. Optimization of Single Cell Protein Production by Candida utilis Using Juice Extracted from Pineapple Waste through Response Surface Methodology

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    Rosma, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was applied to optimize protein content in Candida utilis grown in pineapple waste medium. A three-level full factorial design was used to develop a quantitative interpretation of mathematical models between the two variables studied, inoculum size 2.0-10.0% (v/v and total soluble solids in medium (1-5 Brix at 30 h fermentation time. Yeast cells were harvested, ruptured mechanically and the soluble extract was freeze-dried for determination of protein, vitamin-B, 5'-ribonucleotide and total sugar content. Maximum protein content in the yeast 66.61% (w/w was obtained from the predicted optimum inoculum size of 7.83% (v/v and Brix level of 3.02. Highest level of biomass, vitamin-B, 5'-ribonucleotide and total sugar content within the experimental region increased 216.8%, 17.5%, 38.0% and 60.8% respectively after optimization. A verification experiment, conducted at optimized protein content conditions produced values that were close to the predicted values, indicating the reliability of the model used.

  8. Evaluación de diferentes concentraciones de etanol rectificado en la producción del “bioaroma” acetato de etilo y proteína unicelular por Candida utilis var. major C.E.C.T. 1430

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos León Torres; Julio Arellano Barragán; Carlos Nomberto Rodriguez; Cecilia Bardales Vásquez; José Mostacero León; Guillermo Linares Luján

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar diferentes concentraciones de etanol rectificado en la producción del “bioaroma” acetato de etilo y proteína unicelular por Candida utilis var.major . Se construyó un biorreactor de 16 cm de altura tipo tanque agitado con turbina Rushton. La preparación del inóculo fue realizada a partir de la cepa Candida utilis var.major C.E.C.T. 1430. El medio de cultivo fue formulado a partir de diluciones de etanol rectificado desde 10 hasta 35 g /L en intervalos de ...

  9. Obtención de extracto de levadura a partir de residuo de extracción alcalina de ácido ribonucleico de Candida utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. Otero; Agustín J. Cabello

    2010-01-01

    El residuo de extracción de ácidos nucleicos de levadura Candida utilis comercial que compone 80% de la materia prima original, fue convertido en extracto de levadura por medio de las enzimas autolíticas (5% de levadura panadera fresca) y la adición de enzima alcalasa exógena (5 mg/mL). El proceso se lleva a cabo a 55 ºC por 15 horas, en presencia de 3% de NaCl. La conversión del residuo fue de 60% en presencia de levadura fresca y NaCl solamente. Este resultado se elevó hasta 90% cuando se a...

  10. Obtención de extracto de levadura a partir de residuo de extracción alcalina de ácido ribonucleico de Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Otero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El residuo de extracción de ácidos nucleicos de levadura Candida utilis comercial que compone 80% de la materia prima original, fue convertido en extracto de levadura por medio de las enzimas autolíticas (5% de levadura panadera fresca y la adición de enzima alcalasa exógena (5 mg/mL. El proceso se lleva a cabo a 55 ºC por 15 horas, en presencia de 3% de NaCl. La conversión del residuo fue de 60% en presencia de levadura fresca y NaCl solamente. Este resultado se elevó hasta 90% cuando se adicionó la enzima. El mismo tratamiento a la levadura de cerveza seca rindió resultados similares.

  11. EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis AND HERBS SUPPLEMENTATION IN FINISHING DIET ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mahyuddin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 75 days feeding trial was completed to study the effect of inclusion of a combined probioticyeast+herbs in finishing diet on carcass characteristics of beef cattle. Thirty bull of Ongole crossbred,age 2.5-3 years old with average body weight (BW of 320 kg were used in this experiment. They weredivided into 2 groups, each of 15 animals and were allotted to control and treatment. They wereslaughtered at around 450 kg BW. The treated animals were given a supplementation containingcombined yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis and herbs. All animals were fed a diet ofammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. Addition of combinedprobiotics + herbs in the diet increased percentage of carcass, dressing and meat, but there were noeffect on live weight gain (LWG, % bone, meat:bone ratio, % body fat, back fat thickness and eyemuscle area. There was a reduction in the percentage of offal due to a decrease in intestinal weight in thetreated animal.

  12. Evaluation of different concentrations of rectified ethanol in the production of the “Bioaroma” ethyl acetate and single cell protein from Candida utilis var. major C.E.C.T. 1430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos León Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out with the purpose to evaluate the different concentrations of rectified ethanol in the production of “bioaroma” ethyl acetate and single cell protein from Candida utilis var.major for it a stirred – tank reactor of 16 cm of height with turbine Rushton was built. The preparation of the inoculum was carried out starting from Candida utilis var. major C.E.C.T. 1430. The broth of culture was formulated starting from rectified ethanol dilutions from 10 to 35 g/L each 5 units. The bioprocess was carried out at 25ºC to pH 4.5 – 5.5 and during a time of 60 hours. It was found that the biomass productivity increase progressively from 4.82 to 7.90 g/L and from 0.082 a 0.108 g/L-h respectively. Such as increase the rectified ethanol concentration (g/L the production and the yield was down. The yield acetate ethyl was top to concentrations of 15 g/L of rectified ethanol (5.7% and smallest to concentrations of 35 (g/L of rectified ethanol (1.97%. Finally, the increase of rectified ethanol concentrations does not influence increasing the production of acetate ethyl and the single cell protein Candida utilis var. major.

  13. Evaluación de diferentes concentraciones de etanol rectificado en la producción del “bioaroma” acetato de etilo y proteína unicelular por Candida utilis var. major C.E.C.T. 1430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos León Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar diferentes concentraciones de etanol rectificado en la producción del “bioaroma” acetato de etilo y proteína unicelular por Candida utilis var.major . Se construyó un biorreactor de 16 cm de altura tipo tanque agitado con turbina Rushton. La preparación del inóculo fue realizada a partir de la cepa Candida utilis var.major C.E.C.T. 1430. El medio de cultivo fue formulado a partir de diluciones de etanol rectificado desde 10 hasta 35 g /L en intervalos de cada 5 unidades. El bioproceso se llevó a cabo a 25 ºC, pH de 4.5 – 5.5 y durante 60 horas. Se encontró que la biomasa y la productividad aumentan progresivamente, de 4.82 a 7.90 g/L y de 0.082 a 0.108 g/L - h respectivamente. Así mismo se determinó que a medida que aumenta la concentración (g/L de etanol rectificado, la producción y la productividad disminuyen. El rendimiento de acetato de etilo, fue máximo a la concentración de 15 g/L de etanol rectificado (5.7% y mínimo a 35 g/L y ( 1.97% respectivamente. Se concluye que el incremento de la concentración de etanol rectificado no influye aumentando la producción y rendimiento del “bioaroma” acetato de etilo y de la proteína unicelular de Candida utilis var. major .

  14. Study on conditions for selenium enrichment improving of Candida utilis%提高产朊假丝酵母富硒能力的工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大慧; 杨波; 卫功元; 丁志娟

    2011-01-01

    在5L发酵罐水平上研究不同培养条件对富硒产朊假丝酵母细胞生长、谷胱甘肽合成和富硒能力的影响,通过分批发酵试验确定较优的培养方案:在发酵培养的第18小时加入20mg/L亚硒酸钠,发酵罐转速450r/min,L-蛋氨酸的添加浓度10mmol/L.该条件下,酵母细胞干重为11.32g/L,胞内谷胱甘肽和有机硒含量分别达到11.5mg/g和1352μg/g,该方案为高性能(高胞内谷胱甘肽含量、高有机硒含量)富硒产朊假丝酵母的高效制备奠定了基础.%Studied the effects of different culture conditions on cell growth of selenium-enriched Candida utilis, the ability of glutathi-one biosynthesis and selenium enrichment cultured in a 5 L stirred fermentor. An optimum combination of culture conditions which involved 20 mg/L sodium selenite added to the culture medium at 18 h, together with agitation rate of 450 r/min and 10 mmol/L L-methionine added at 10h, were achieved under batch fermentation withC. Utilis SZU 07-01. Under these optimal conditions, the dry cell weight was 11. 32 g/L, and the contents of intracellular glutathi-one and organic selenium were 11. 5 mg/g, 1 352 fig/g. Respectively. This study laid a foundation for the efficient preparation of high quality (high intracellular glutathione and high organic selenium content) selenium-enriched Candida utilis.

  15. Effects of cultivation modes on performance of selenium-enriched Candida utilis%培养方式对富硒产朊假丝酵母性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 刘志奎; 卫功元; 董颖颖

    2012-01-01

    在摇瓶和5 L发酵罐水平上分别考察亚硒酸钠浓度及其添加方式对高性能(高有机硒含量和高谷胱甘肽含量)富硒产朊假丝酵母制备的影响.结果表明:亚硒酸钠添加质量浓度为15 mg/L时,产朊假丝酵母具有较好的富硒效果,但一次性添加对酵母细胞有较大的毒害作用.采用分批次添加亚硒酸钠的方法获得了较好的制备高性能富硒产朊假丝酵母的培养方式:发酵起始添加L-蛋氨酸10 mmol/L,并在发酵过程的12和15 h分别添加亚硒酸钠10和5 mg/L.在此培养方式下,产朊假丝酵母胞内谷胱甘肽和有机硒含量分别达到172.3 mg/L和1194 μg/g.%The effects of sodium selenite concentration and addition mode on the preparation of selenium-enriched Candida utilis with high performance ( high organic selenium content and high glutathi-one content) were investigated in flasks and a 5 L fermentor, respectively. It was found that efficient selenium enrichment in C. utilis could be achieved under the sodium selenite concentration of 15 mg/L, but one-shot addition of sodium selenite with high concentration had poisonous effect on yeast cells. Accordingly, a better culture mode for efficient preparation of selenium-enriched C. utilis was obtained with batch addition of sodium selenite as follows; 10 mmol/L L-methione was added at 0 h, and 10 and 5 mg/L sodium selenite was added at 12 and 15 h, respectively. Under this culture mode, glutathione of 172. 3 mg/L and organic selenium content of 1 194 p,g/g could be achieved within the selenium-enriched C. utilis.

  16. Efecto de la concentración de linóculo y la melaza como suplemento de la vinaza de destilería para la producción de biomasa de Candida utilis nativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Cajo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La vinaza es un residuo de las destilerías de alcohol, rico en materia orgánica y sales minerales, cuyo aprovechamiento está limitado y finalmente es vertido al alcantarillado, ocasionando contaminación, no obstante, puede constituir un sustrato par a la producción de biomasa de levaduras, utilizadas en la alimentación animal. En la presente investigación se determinó el efecto de la concentración del inóculo y la melaza como suplemento de la vinaza, para la producción de biomasa de Candida utilis nativa. Las levaduras se aislaron de panca de Zea mays L. “maíz” en agar Sabouraud glucosado, identificando el 40.23 % como C. utilis. Luego, se cultivaron en vinaza con 30 g/L de melaza, a 28 ºC, durante 24 horas, se pesó la biomasa y se seleccionó C. utilis MKJ12, debido a que alcanzó el mayor valor de 7.667 g/L. Esta levadura en concentraciones de 25, 50 y 75 mL/L de inóculo se cultivó en biorreactores tipo tanque, en lote discontinuo, conteniendo 300 mL de vinaza con 10, 30, y 50 g/L de melaza, con flujo de aire descendente (1vvm, y una incubación a 28 ºC, durante 20 horas. Con 50 mL/L de inóculo y 50 g/L de melaza se determinó el menor tiempo de generación (2.88 h y los mayores valores en el número de generaciones (6.95, tasa específica de crecimien to (0.35 h - 1 , peso de biomasa (11.78 g/L y proteína (40.15 %. Se demostró la factibilidad de la producción de biomasa de C. utilis con 5 mL/L de inóculo en vinaza suplementada con melaza.

  17. Reducción de la concentración de ion potasio en las vinazas de destilación de alcohol por medio de la propagación de Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Otero-Rambla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las levaduras son capaces de acumular cantidades apreciables de la mayoría de los minerales presentes en su medio de crecimiento. Una buena proporción de los contenidos de cenizas (7,5-8,1 % encontrados en la levadura panadera o en la recuperada de la fabricación de cerveza, está constituida por fosfato de potasio. Adicionalmente, la levadura posee la habilidad de acumular, en elevadas concentraciones, otros iones presentes en los sustratos en los que crecen, aun cuando no les sean necesarios. Las vinazasde destilación de alcohol contienen cerca de 70 % del potasio, proveniente de los fertilizantes químicos empleados en los campos de caña; así, la fertilización y el riego con estas aguas residuales debe ser calculada cuidadosamente para evitar la salinización del suelo. Cuando la levadura Candida utilis crece en un medio compuesto por vinazas de destilación, sales nutrientes (fosfato y sulfato de amonio y un estimulador de crecimiento microbiano, muestra una gran resistencia a la concentración de potasio en las condiciones de cultivo continuo. En los estudios experimentales realizados, las células de levadura fueron propagadas bajo las condiciones mencionadas en el párrafo anterior, en presencia de concentraciones crecientes de K2O en el medio de propagación, desde 2,5 gl-1 ( correspondientes a vinazas procedentes de la fermentación de melazas de caña hasta 25 gl-1. La tasa máxima de crecimiento (μmax varió desde 0,32 a 0,28 h-1 para los valores extremos señalados, en tanto que el rendimiento biomasa-sustrato se encontró en el rango de 0,23 a 0,18. Estos resultados sugieren que la levadura propagada sobre vinazas de destilación pueden reducir significativamente el contenido de potasio de estos residuales, haciéndolos más adecuados para propósitos de irrigación. De acuerdo con los informes de evaluación sobre la utilización de esta levadura en la alimentación animal, no se encontraron efectos negativos sobre la salud

  18. 'Exceptio Utilis' en el procedimiento formulario del derecho romano

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Buendía, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    La finalidad del presente estudio es la de constatar la existencia de la categoría clásica exceptio utilis y extraer sus caracteres fundamentales. El trabajo se divide en dos partes, una primera parte en que se presenta una aproximación al concepto clásico de exceptio, y una segunda parte, en la que se profundiza en el concepto de exceptio utilis a través de los fragmentos seleccionados. Finalmente en el apartado dedicado a las conclusiones, se da unidad al estudio cuyo hilo co...

  19. Efecto biocida del «barbasco» Lonchocarpus utilis (Smith,1930 como regulador de larvas de mosquitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mariños

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 7 bioensayos de laboratorio para evaluar la capacidad biocida de Lonchocarpus utilis (Smith,1930 «barbasco» sobre 7000 larvas de tercer y cuarto estadio de Anopheles benarrochi (Gabaldón, 1941, vector primario de malaria, en Yurimaguas y Loreto. La actividad biocida fue determinada con diferentes calidades de agua. Se procesaron las raíces frescas de L. utilis siguiendo el procedimiento utilizado por Vílchez (1993, obteniéndose como producto final un polvo fino que contiene como principio activo la rotenona. La actividad biocida, se midió con 5 dosis de polvo de la raíz diluida en agua destilada: 6,25; 3,1; 2,1; 1,0 y 0,15 g/L. Se utilizó 1 mL del homogenizado como inóculo por dosis. Para determinar la eficacia y susceptibilidad se realizaron lecturas cada hora hasta las 24 horas después del tratamiento. A las 12 horas postratamiento, las dosis de 6,25 y 3,1 g/L, mostraron 98 y 89 % de mortalidad larvaria cuando se utilizó agua destilada y 86 % y 82 % cuando se utilizó agua de criadero. A las 24 horas la mortalidad alcanzó el 99 y 94 % usando agua destilada y con agua de criadero fue 93 y 90 %. A las 6 horas de exposición con agua destilada, la dosis letal media (DL50 fue de 0,63 g/L y la dosis letal noventa (DL90 fue de 12,44 g/L; mientras a las 12 horas la DL50 fue de 0,48 g/L y la DL90 7,23 g/L. Utilizando agua de criadero a las 6 horas la DL50 fue de 1,36 g/L y la DL90 fue de 27,58 g/L; mientras que a las 12 horas la DL50 fue de 0,83 g/L y la DL90 fue de 9,83 g/L del extracto crudo de L utilis. Los resultados permitieron comprobar la efectividad del polvo de raíz de Lonchocarpus utilis sobre larvas de A. benarrochi como potencial biocida y que su acción está influenciada por la calidad del agua y la dosis de aplicación.

  20. Biosorption effects of copper ions on Candida utilis under negative pressure cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Yuan-gang; ZHAO Xiu-hua; HU Mao-sheng; REN Yuan; XIAO Peng; ZHU Lei; CAO Yu-jie; ZHANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    Under the optimal condition of copper ions adsorption on yeast, we found some different effects among static adsorption,shaking adsorption and negative pressure cavitation adsorption, and the methods of yeast with different pretreatments also affect adsorption of copper ions. At the same time, the change of intercellular pH before and after adsorption of copper with BCECF was studied. The copper distribution was located by using PhenGreen (dipotassium salt and diacetate), and the surface of yeast was observed by an atomic force microscope. The results showed that negative pressure cavitation can improve bioadsorption capacity of copper ions on yeast. However, the yeasts' pretreatment has a higher effect on bioadsorption. It indicates that heavy metal bioadsorption on yeast has much relation with its cellular molecule basis. With the adsorping, the intercellular pH of yeast increased gradually and changed from acidity to alkalescence. These results may suggest that negative pressure cavitation can compel heavy metals to transfer from the cell surface into inside cell and make the surface of yeast coarse.

  1. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Esposito, E.; de Mendonca, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Apple production in the world has increased significantly over the last 10 years. A considerable fraction of these fruits, mainly those not approved for fresh consumption, is industrially processed to produce juices, flavours and concentrates. During this processing, a large amount of solid...

  2. Antimycin-insensitive mutants of Candida utilis II. The effects of antimycin on Cytochrome b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Marres, C A; Slater, Conor

    1975-01-01

    1. Cytochrome b-562 is more reduced in submitochondrial particles of mutant 28 during the aerobic steady-state respiration with succinate than in particles of the wild type. When anaerobiosis is reached, the reduction of cytochrome b is preceded by a rapid reoxidation in the mutnat. A similar reo...

  3. Killer behavior within the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; García-Maldonado, Nancy; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan M; González, Gloria M

    2014-11-01

    A group of 29 isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, 29 of Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 of Candida metapsilosis were assayed for the presence of killer activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26609 as a sensitive strain. All C. metapsilosis isolates showed killer activity at 25 °C while strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis did not exhibit this activity. Sensitivity to killer toxins was evaluated using a set of previously reported killer strains of clinical origin. Only 11 isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex were inhibited by at least one killer isolate without resulting in any clear pattern, except for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ATCC 22019, which was inhibited by every killer strain with the exception of C. parapsilosis and Candida utilis. The lack of sensitivity to killer activity among isolates of the genus Candida suggests that their toxins belong to the same killer type. Differentiation of species within the C. parapsilosis complex using the killer system may be feasible if a more taxonomically diverse panel of killer strains is employed.

  4. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  5. Candida Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  6. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  7. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 17 different species of Candida. Of these, Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. ... blood. In many cases, the species found is Candida albicans , however, other species of Candida, Candida tropicalis , C. ...

  8. Anti-Candida effects of estragole in combination with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon; Pyun, Mi-Sun

    2004-10-01

    The anti-Candida effects of estragole combined with amphotericin B or ketoconazole, commonly used antifungal drugs for treatment of candidasis, were evaluated in this study. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of both estragole combined with ketoconazole against C. albicans and C. utilis calculated from the checkerboard microtiter assay were 0.28 and 0.50 respectively, indicating significant synergism. These drug combinations exhibited additive effects against C. tropicalis, with FIC index of 0.75. Consistent for the most part with the results from the checkerboard titer tests, the time-kill curves of the tested samples also indicated significant synergism or additive effect between ketoconazole and estragole against the Candida species evaluated. In contrast, amphotericin B showed antagonism in combination with estragole in most experiments of this study. Thus, we have shown the synergistic combination effects between estragole and ketoconazole, which may be effective combinations for the treatment of Candida infections.

  9. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  10. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  11. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  12. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  13. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  14. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee).

  15. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  16. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  17. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  18. Candida parapsilosis and candida guillermondii: Emerging pathogens in nail candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails. Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%. Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%. While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%, those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%, those of spp. were 20 (4.3% and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%. Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1% were men and 331 (70,9% were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of

  19. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  20. Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 discriminates Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Oliver, Debra; Palmer, Michael D; Szekely, Adrien; Odds, Frank C; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2009-07-01

    Two new cryptic sister species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, were recently identified by consistent DNA sequence differences among several genes within the genetically heterogeneous Candida parapsilosis complex. Here, we present data demonstrating that Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer region 2 rapidly and robustly distinguishes between these three closely related Candida species.

  1. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  2. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  3. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  4. GENOTYPING Candida albicans FROM CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA AND NON-CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA SHOWS NO ENRICHMENT OF MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING CLADES BUT ENRICHMENT OF ABC GENOTYPE C IN CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    MC MANUS, BRENDA; Coleman, David

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leu...

  5. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim; Brenda A McManus; Stephen R Flint; David C Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia pati...

  6. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  7. Temperature-dependent development and potential distribution of Episimus utilis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Veronica; Cuda, James P; Overholt, William A; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2008-08-01

    The invasive Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi), native to South America, is widely established throughout central and south Florida. The defoliating leaflet-roller Episimus utilis Zimmerman was selected as potential biocontrol agent of this invasive species. The objectives of this study were to determine development rate and survival of E. utilis at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, and 35 degrees C) and generate prediction maps of the number of generations per year this species may exhibit in the United States. The rate of development of E. utilis as a function of temperature was modeled using linear regression to estimate a lower developmental threshold of 9.6 degrees C and the degree-day requirement of 588. The Logan nonlinear regression model was used to estimate an upper developmental threshold of 33 degrees C. Cold tolerance of E. utilis was examined using all insect stages, and each stage was exposed to three constant temperatures (10, 5, 0 degrees C) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 d (or until all insects died). The pupal stage was the most cold tolerant with 100% mortality after 12 d at 0 degrees C. The pupal lethal times at 5 (Ltime50 = 10 d, Ltime90 = 28 d) and 0 degrees C (Ltime50 = 5 d, Ltime90 = 9 d) were used to generate isothermal lines to predict favorable regions for E. utilis establishment. A GIS map was generated to predict the number of generations of E. utilis (range, 0.5-9.8) across all Brazilian peppertree range in the United States. The potential for establishment of E. utilis and its probable distribution in the continental United States was examined.

  8. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  9. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  10. Filtrado de imágenes usando hardware dedicado

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Nelson; Tosini, Marcelo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo propone el diseño de una arquitectura dedicada para el procesamiento de imágenes. Se presenta el ciclo de desarrollo, en el cual el punto de partida es la implementación de la solución software, la que es migrada a VHDL para las etapas de simulación y síntesis. El funcionamiento y rendimiento del método fueron verificados usando Synopsys VHDL y simulaciones de computadora.

  11. Bobot potong dan karkas kelinci New Zealand White jantan setelah pemberian ransum dengan kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIP SANTOSO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Santoso U, Sutarno. 2010. Bobot potong dan karkas kelinci New Zealand White jantan setelah pemberian ransum dengan kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Bioteknologi 7: 19-26. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian tepung kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis terhadap produksi bobot potong dan karkas kelinci galur New Zealand White serta mengetahui dosis optimum pemberian tepung kacang koro yang memberikan bobot badan dan karkas terbaik. Metode penelitian digunakan adalah eksperimen dengan pola Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Sebanyak 25 ekor kelinci berumur sekitar 6 minggu yang memiliki kisaran bobot badan 450-1270 g dikelompokan menjadi lima kelompok menurut bobot badannya. Masing-masing kelompok mendapat perlakuan yang berbeda, perlakuan yang diberikan adalah ransum tanpa tepung kacang koro (R0 sebagai kontrol dan ransum dengan pemberian tepung kacang koro masing-masing sebanyak 21,5%, dengan perlakuan sebagai berikut: R1 (mentah, R2 (pemanasan, R3 (perebusan, dan R4 (fermentasi. Parameter yang diamati bobot potong, bobot karkas, bobot daging, bobot tulang, dan bobot lemak. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis ragam (ANAVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan (DMRT. Pemberian tepung kacang koro hasil olahan dalam ransum meningkatkan produksi bobot potong dan karkas yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pemberian tepung kacang koro tanpa diolah dan pada tingkat 21,5% pemberian tepung kacang koro hasil fermentasi dalam ransum menyebabkan peningkatan produksi bobot potong dan karkas paling baik.

  12. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  13. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  14. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; McManus, Brenda A; Flint, Stephen R; Coleman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  15. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  16. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  17. Candida albicans: adapting to succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, David; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2013-11-13

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lu et al. (2013) report on the redundancy of signaling pathways controlling Candida albicans filamentation and pathogenicity. In the process, they provide important insight into how this normal commensal of humans adapts to different host microenvironments to become a highly successful opportunistic pathogen.

  18. Control adaptable indirecto usando Redes Neuronales Dinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Moreno Armendariz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un nuevo tipo de control no-lineal por retroalimentación para una clase de sistemas continuos no-lineales de una entrada y una salida de la siguiente forma: Se supone que el sistema no-lineal es desconocido, así una red neuronal dinámica multicapa es usada para identificarlo. Usando un análisis tipo Lyapunov, una nueva ley de actualización estable es presentada, además la estabilidad global es probada. Finalmente, se presenta la aplicación de dicha técnica al sistema no-lineal TORA mediante simulaciones.

  19. AL AVOIDANCE AND AL TOLERANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS - EFFECTS OF A HETEROGENEOUS ROOT ENVIRONMENT AND THE NITROGEN FORM IN THE ROOT ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; STULEN, [No Value; VANNOORDWIJK, M; KUIPER, PJC

    1994-01-01

    In Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, grown with nitrate-N in a hydroponic split-root system, an Al avoidance reaction of root growth was observed, which was ascribed to local P stress in the Al containing compartment. The Al avoidance reaction was similar to the avoidance of Mucuna roots of acid subsoil

  20. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  1. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  2. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Alessia; De Bernardis, Flavia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Sandini, Silvia; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis each represents 1-10% of the infections/colonisations attributed to C. parapsilosis by conventional biochemical tests. Little is known on the virulence properties of these fungi and on their role in the establishment/progression of the infection. In this study, the adhesive properties of clinical isolates belonging to the 'psilosis' species were assessed in an in vitro model of co-incubation with human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs). Ectophosphatase activity was also measured for all isolates, since the activity of this enzyme has previously been linked to adhesion properties in C. parapsilosis. The results indicate that whilst C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains showed similar adhesion abilities, C. metapsilosis isolates displayed a significantly lower ability to adhere to HBECs (Porthopsilosis has a comparable behaviour to C. parapsilosis, whilst C. metapsilosis seems to possess a reduced virulence potential.

  3. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  4. Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in reconstituted human tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácser, Attila; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Nosanchuk, Jerome S; Salomon, Siegfried; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. To study the interactions of C. parapsilosis with human tissues, we evaluated the effects of the CBS 604 type strain and three different clinical isolates on reconstituted human oral epithelial and epidermal tissues. The newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were also examined in these models. Microscopy of reconstituted tissues infected with yeast cells revealed severe attenuation, morphological changes and cellular damage. C. orthopsilosis caused damage similar to C. parapsilosis isolates, whereas C. metapsilosis was less virulent. To further quantitate tissue damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant. The relative LDH measurements correlated with our histopathological observations. We also examined the effect of the lipase inhibitor Ebelactone B and proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A, to establish the utility of this model for studying factors of C. parapsilosis virulence. Both Ebelactone B and Pepstatin A reduced the destruction of epidermal and epithelial tissues. Our data show that reconstituted human tissues are extremely useful for modeling host interactions with C. parapsilosis and for studying fungal virulence factors.

  5. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans) y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso...

  6. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  7. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  8. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  9. Contribution à l’optimisation de la commande d’une machine asynchrone à double alimentation utilisée en mode moteur

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, François

    2008-01-01

    La Machine Asynchrone à Double Alimentation (MADA) n’est pas exclusivement utilisée dans la conversion d’énergie éolienne. Elle présente de nombreux avantages quand elle est utilisée en mode moteur et alimentée dans une configuration particulière telle que deux onduleurs de tensions sont connectés aux enroulements statoriques et rotoriques. Tout d’abord, l’étude présentée dans ce manuscrit justifie les avantages apportés par cette structure. D’une part, la tolérance en cas de panne onduleur a...

  10. Klinik örneklerde saptanan Candida türlerinin MALDI-TOF MS ile tiplendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Özcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Candida species are common nosocomial in­fectious agents. Since they have different antifungal resis­tance profiles, identification up to species level becomes more crucial. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS en­ables rapid and accurate identification of bacteria and fungi up to species level. We aimed to evaluate Candida species identified by MALDI-TOF MS in our laboratory. Methods: Overall 297 strains of Candida spp. were iso­lated from various clinical samples sent to Dicle Univer­sity Hospital Microbiology Laboratory between March 2015 and February 2016. Strains were identified up to the species level by MALDI Biotyper (BrukerDaltonics, USA mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 195 (65.7% yeasts were isolated from intensive care unit (ICU patients, 61 (20.5% yeasts from hospitalized patients other than ICU and 41 (13.8% yeasts from outpatients. The clinical samples consisted of 161 (54.2% urine, 78 (26.3% blood, 34 (11.4% vaginal samples, 10 (3.4% wound, 6 (2.0% respiratory and 8 of other samples (3 pleura, 2 peritoneum, 2 drain and 1 cerebrospinal fluid. Overall, 179 (60.3% C. albicans, 46 (15.5% C. tropicalis, 27 (9.1% C. parapsilosis, 19 (6.4% C. glabrata, 13 (4.4% C. kefyr, 7 (2.3% C. lusitaniae, 3 (1.0% C. krusei, 2 (0.7% C. utilis and 1 (0.3% C. guil­liermondii were isolated. Among all patients; 124 (41.8% were male and 173 (58.2% female. Among 84 patients with invasive samples, 50 (59.5% were male and 34 (40.5% female. Conclusion: Even though Candida albicans is the most frequently (60.3% isolated yeast, other yeast species are not uncommon (39.7% in our hospital. Identification of yeasts to the species level takes several days by conven­tional methods within minutes by mass spectrometry. This period is crucial in the treatment of critically ill patients.

  11. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  12. Severe-Use Polymers Les polymères utilisés dans des conditions extrêmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy P. E.

    2006-11-01

    mettre en forme des polymères stables. Ces types de polymères comprennent des aromatiques polyphénylènes, les polyesters, des polyamides, des polyimides, de nombreux matériaux de base hétérocycliques, à structure échelleet minérale. On discute dans cet article des synthèses et des propriétés de certains de ces polymères. Les applications géothermiques se font dans le domaine des joints en élastomère qui exigent une résistance à la réduction et à l'hydrolyse. Les formulations les plus réussies sont l'EPDM et les élastomères fluorés, le premier étant supérieur et étant utilisé maintenant dans ce domaine. Les utilisations sous-marines de longue durée des élastomères exigent une résistance à l'imprégnation et à l'absorption de l'eau, à l'hydrolyse et à la lixiviation des constituants du caoutchouc. La solubilité et le taux d'imprégnation augmentent fortement avec la température, ces effets pouvant être utilisés pour évaluer la longévité. Des laminés double couche d'élastomères différents ont une imprégnation qui dépend de la direction et qui ne correspond pas aux moyennes calculées et acceptées.

  13. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Candida haemulonii, Candida pseudohaemulonii, and a proposed new species (Candida auris) isolates from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong Joon; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Kyungwon; Joo, Min Young; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of Candida haemulonii and closely related species at five Korean hospitals has been recently described. We examined biofilm formation by these isolates and assessed their genotypic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This study is the first to show that all bloodstream isolates of Candida pseudohaemulonii can form significant biofilms in glucose-containing medium. PFGE of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed that C. pseudohaemulonii isolates recovered from seven patients in two hospitals shared five patterns, and that 15 isolates of a proposed new species (Candida auris) obtained from patients at three hospitals shared seven patterns, suggesting that some of these isolates may be related to clonal transmission.

  14. Aulas-laboratorios de bajo costo, usando TIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia E. Calderón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una propuesta educativa orientada a promover el desarrollo de un pensamiento critico y un mayor interes por las ciencias experimentales. Con este fin desarrollamos propuestas de proyectos educativos susceptibles de ser destinadas a las aulas y laboratorios de las escuelas secundarias y primeros anos de la universidad, que resaltan los aspectos metodologicos de las ciencias. Aqui, realizamos una compilacion de varios proyectos, que ilustran formas de incorporar las tecnologias de la informacion y la comunicacion (TIC en diversos experimentos de ciencias, muchos de ellos publicados individualmente anteriormente, y que en conjunto se pueden utilizar para implementar un aula-laboratorio de bajo costo. Con TIC hacemos referencia a la convergencia de computadoras, sistemas audiovisuales, Internet, telefonia, y diversos equipos que se integran con algunos de ellos. Los proyectos intentan integrar areas como fisica, matematica, quimica, informatica, arte, etc. y apuntan a que los estudiantes puedan responder a las preguntas: .Como sabemos esto?, .Por que creemos en aquello? Preguntas que ilustran la naturaleza del pensamiento cientifico. Nuestra contribucion mas significativa es haber desarrollado ≪aulas-laboratorios≫ de muy bajo costo, usando TIC. Con el advenimiento de programas como ≪Una Laptop por Nino≫ que se estan implementando en varios paises de Latinoamerica, resulta oportuno utilizar este recurso como base para generar laboratorios de bajo costo, que creemos pueden ser una herramienta util para mejorar el aprendizaje de las ciencias, incentivar vocaciones y contribuir a desarrollar un pensamiento critico, a la par de desarrollar habilidades con el uso de las TIC que pueden ser de utilidad en diversos ambitos academicos y laborales.

  15. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina De Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso discovertebral. Ante un paciente inmunocomprometido con dolor lumbar que presenta modificaciones disco vertebrales atípicas en la resonancia magnética, debe considerarse la infección micótica dentro de las posibilidades diagnósticas. El diagnóstico de certeza requiere la toma de biopsia del tejido afectado mediante punción aspiración y posterior análisis microbiológico. El tratamiento médico es el de elección, aunque en algunos casos se plantea el drenaje quirúrgico. El reconocimiento de las características radiológicas distintivas evita retardos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.Purpose: To describe Candida albicans spondylodiscitis distinctive imaging findings and treatment. The authors reported a 51 years old, male inmunocompromised patient with fever and lumbar pain. MR findings include bone marrow hypointense signal intensity in T2 weighted of affected vertebral bodies and intense discovertebral enhancement. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of an inmunocompromised patient with lumbar pain and lumbar atypical findings at MR. Biopsy sample is required in order to reach final diagnosis. The first choice treatment is antyfungal drugs although in certain cases surgery is required. Rapid recognition of distinctive imaging findings avoid missdiagnosis and treatment delays.

  16. In vitro aktivnost biofilma vrsta roda Candida izdvojenih iz anatolijskih bivolica s mastitisom u zapadnoj Turskoj.

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEKER, Esra; ÖZENÇ, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Identificirana su bila 66 izolata roda Candida izdvojena iz uzoraka mlijeka upaljenih četvrti vimena anatolijskih bivolica upotrebom sustava API 20 C AUX. Najčešće izdvojene vrste bile su Candida krusei (27,3%), zatim Candida rugosa (16,7%), Candida kefyr (12,1%) i Candida tropicalis (10,6%). Ostale izdvojene vrste bile su Candida albicans (9,1%), Candida zeylanoides (6,1%), Candida parapsilosis (6,1%), Candida guilliermondii (4,5%), Candida famata (3,0%), Candida glabrata (3,0%) i Candida ci...

  17. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  18. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  19. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  20. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  1. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  2. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  3. Candida pneumonia in intensive care unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Ronny M; Linssen, Catharina F; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N; Bergmans, Dennis C

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make v

  4. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  5. [Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; Ruiz-Aragón, Jesús; García-Agudo, Lidia; Saldarreaga, Abel; Lozano, María Carmen; Marín, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    A case of possible infection due to Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient is presented. This fungal species has been rarely reported as cause of human infection. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to fluconazole.

  6. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  7. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  8. Geographic Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Newly Described Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Comparison to the Closely Related Species Candida parapsilosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. pa...

  9. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  10. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  11. Four novel yeasts from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Four novel yeast species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and Candida vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. Blastobotrys robertii and Candida scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS Culture Collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 domai

  12. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  13. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  14. La démarche RAROC utilisée en banque est-elle transposable à l’assurance-vie ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Noël Ory

    2002-01-01

    L’objet de cet article est de dresser une tentative d’adaptation de la méthodologie RAROC (risk adjusted return on capital), utilisée en banque, au domaine de l’assurance-vie. Après avoir rappelé que la nécessité de constituer des fonds propres économiques est similaire pour une banque et pour une compagnie d’assurance-vie, nous rappelons la logique de construction de l’indicateur RAROC. Dans un deuxième temps, nous essayons de transposer cette logique à l’assurance-vie, en étudiant quels ser...

  15. Candida fermenticarens—a. new yeast from arboricole lichen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of an undescribed  Candida species were recovered from arboricole lichen collected in the eastern Cape. A description of the new species, Candida fermenticarens, is given.

  16. Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity Diferenças na produção de exoenzimas e habilidade de aderência entre isolados de espécies de Candida provenientes do cateter, sangue e cavidade bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1% and 55.9% of Candida albicans and 69.8% and 37.7% of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a c

  17. Effect of usnic acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections.

  18. IDENTIFIKASI SPESIES CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mu`min, Mulia Sari

    2012-01-01

    2011 Abstrak Candida albicans merupakan jenis Candida yang menginfeksi semua organ tubuh manusia, dapat ditemukan pada semua golongan umur, baik pada pria maupun wanita. Candida albicans merupakan fungi patogen oportunistik yang paling sering menginfeksi rongga mulut. Fungi ini dapat ditemukan pada seluruh permukaan rongga mulut, yaitu lidah (punggung lidah merupakan tempat yang disukai Candida albicans untuk tumbuh dan berkembang biak), pipi, mukosa palatal, plak gigi, karies gigi, flo...

  19. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  20. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  1. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  2. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  3. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D; Gow, Neil A R; Maiden, Martin C J; Odds, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.

  4. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  5. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD.

  6. Prevalence and Susceptibility Profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: Results from Population-Based Surveillance of Candidemia in Spain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Lopez, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Almirante, B.; Pahissa, A.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  7. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, A; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Rodriguez, D; Almirante, B; Pahissa, A; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2008-04-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  8. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  9. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  10. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re......) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  11. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  12. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida.

  13. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.

  14. Characterization of Candida species from different populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, An-Huei; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The opportunistic Candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. We investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. A total of 913 isolates comprising 395 Candida albicans, 230 Candida tropicalis, 202 Candida glabrata, 62 Candida parapsilosis, 13 Candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. Urine was the most common source (41.2%), followed by sputum (16.3%), blood (15.2%), and others (27.3%). Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were more prevalent in the working group [from 19 to 65 years], whereas C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the elder one (≥ 66 years). We found that the age of patients and the source of isolates affect the distribution of species. On the other hand, the drug susceptibility of isolates was associated with fungal species and whether patients were hospitalized.

  15. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. MacCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  16. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.

  17. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white-opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of Ste2 for the cellular response, whereas the first IC loop (IC1) of Ste2 is dispensable for signaling. To also address pheromone-receptor interactions in related species, including apparently asexual Candida species, Ste2 orthologues were heterologously expressed in Candida albicans. Ste2 receptors from multiple Candida clade species were functional when expressed in C. albicans, whereas the Ste2 receptor of Candida lusitaniae was nonfunctional. Significantly, however, expression of a chimeric C. lusitaniae Ste2 receptor containing the C-terminal tail of Ste2 from C. albicans generated a productive response to C. lusitaniae pheromone. This system has allowed us to characterize pheromones from multiple Candida species and indicates that functional pheromone-receptor couples exist in fungal species that have yet to be shown to undergo sexual mating.

  18. Therapeutic approach to Candida bezoar in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wall, L. L.; Van Den Heijkant, M. M C; Bökenkamp, A.; Kuijper, C. F.; Van Der Horst, H. J R; De Jong, T. P V M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Candida bezoar (CB) is a rare finding in neonates and infants with candiduria, presenting as necrotic debris with proliferating mycelia in the collecting system of the kidney. If initial antifungal medical treatment does not result in clearance of candiduria and disappearance of CB on u

  19. Melaleuca alternifolia nanoparticles against Candida species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M E; Lopes, L Q S; Bonez, P C; Gündel, A; Martinez, D S T; Sagrillo, M R; Giongo, J L; Vaucher, R A; Raffin, R P; Boligon, A A; Santos, R C V

    2017-03-01

    Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species. It was performed the characterization of the oil and nanoparticles. The levels of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and the biomass of biofilms were measured. The chromatographic profile demonstrated that the TTO oil is in accordance with ISO 4730 with major constituents of 41.9% Terpinen-4-ol, 20.1% of γ-Terpinene, 9,8% of α-Terpinene, and 6,0% of 1,8-Cineole. The TTO nanoparticles showed pH of 6.3, mean diameter of 158.2 ± 2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.213 ± 0.017, and zeta potential of -8.69 ± 0.80 mV. The addition of TTO and its nanoparticles represented a significant reduction of biofilm formed by all Candida species, as well as a reduction of proteins and exopolysaccharides levels. It was possible to visualize the reduction of biofilm in presence of TTO nanoparticles by Calcofluor White method.

  20. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...

  1. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.The authors studied the killer effect of nine standard strains of yeasts on 146 samples of Candida albicans isolated from the following clinical specimens: oral mucosa, feces, bronchial wash, sputum, vaginal secretion, urine, skin lesion, nail lesion and blood. Using this system it was possible to differentiate 23 biotypes of Candida albicans. The biotypes 211, 111 and 811 were most frequently isolated. Most of the samples of C. albicans (98.6% were sensitive to at least one or more of the nine killer strains. Using the killer system it was possible to show that two patients harbored the same killer biotypes, 111 and 211, respectively, in different clinical specimens and another patient harbored the same biotype (211 in blood cultures effected in different ocasions. The utilization of the killer system to differentiate types among species of pathogenic yeasts can be a useful method to stablish the eventual

  2. 产朊假丝酵母分批发酵生产谷胱甘肽的代谢通量分析%Metabolic flux analysis of glutathione biosynthesis with batch culture of Candida utilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫功元; 李寅; 堵国成; 陈坚

    2006-01-01

    根据产朊假丝酵母利用葡萄糖作为惟一碳源生物合成谷胱甘肽的代谢网络,利用代谢通量分析方法分析了谷胱甘肽分批发酵不同阶段各代谢途径碳通量的分布和变化规律.在此基础上,通过分阶段温度控制和L-半胱氨酸添加等策略,调节谷胱甘肽分批发酵过程中的代谢通量分布,谷胱甘肽生物合成的产量明显提高,最大增加幅度分别达到23%和91%.同时对这些策略下谷胱甘肽的过量合成机理进行了解释.

  3. Candida colonization and subsequent infections in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, D; Monod, M; Suter, P M; Frenk, E; Auckenthaler, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors determined the role of Candida colonization in the development of subsequent infection in critically ill patients. DESIGN. A 6-month prospective cohort study was given to patients admitted to the surgical and neonatal intensive care units in a 1600-bed university medical center. METHODS. Patients having predetermined criteria for significant Candida colonization revealed by routine microbiologic surveillance cultures at different body sites were eligible for the study. Risk factors for Candida infection were recorded. A Candida colonization index was determined daily as the ratio of the number of distinct body sites (dbs) colonized with identical strains over the total number of dbs tested; a mean of 5.3 dbs per patient was obtained. All isolates (n = 322) sequentially recovered were characterized by genotyping using contour-clamped homogeneous electrical field gel electrophoresis that allowed strain delineation among Candida species. RESULTS. Twenty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion; all were at high risk for Candida infection; 11 patients (38%) developed severe infections (8 candidemia); the remaining 18 patients were heavily colonized, but never required intravenous antifungal therapy. Among the potential risk factors for candida infection, three discriminated the colonized from the infected patients--i.e., length of previous antibiotic therapy (p < 0.02), severity of illness assessed by APACHE II score (p < 0.01), and the intensity of Candida spp colonization (p < 0.01). By logistic regression analysis, the latter two who were the independent factors that predicted subsequent candidal infection. Candida colonization always preceded infection with genotypically identical Candida spp strain. The proposed colonization indexes reached threshold values a mean of 6 days before Candida infection and demonstrated high positive predictive values (66 to 100%). CONCLUSIONS. The intensity of Candida colonization assessed by systematic

  4. Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeland, Laurence; Gazon, Mathieu; Guerin, Claude; Argaud, Laurent; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Bastien, Olivier; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Michallet, Mauricette; Picot, Stephane; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Since the outcomes of patients with candidemia is poor and Candida spp. with increased resistance to antifungal therapy may be associated with these results, the emergence of these blood infections caused by non-C. albicans Candida spp. was explored prospectively over a two-year period (2009-2010). Candidemia was defined as the recovery of Candida spp. in culture from a patient's blood sample. The in vitro susceptibility of each isolate to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined. In addition, characteristics of patients and outcomes were investigated in real-time. The Candida distribution was compared to that observed in a similar study 10 years earlier in the same hospital. A total of 182 patients with candidemia were included in the study. While C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (n = 102), non-C. albicans Candida spp. included; C. glabrata (n = 32), C. parapsilosis (n = 21), C. tropicalis (n = 13), C. krusei (n = 8), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. lusitaniae (n = 2), C. lipolytica (n = 2), C. famata (n = 1), C. guilliermondii (n = 1), C. inconspicua (n = 1), C. dubliniensis (n = 1), C. sake (n = 1) and C. nivariensis (n = 1). In seven patients, C. albicans was associated with another Candida spp. Surprisingly, this prospective study demonstrated that regardless of the department (intensive care unit or hematological department), Candida spp. distribution was no different from that found in the 1998-2001 survey, except for C. krusei. A reduction in the proportion of C. krusei isolates was observed from 2000-2010 (P = 0.028) as a result of its decreased recovery in the hematological department.

  5. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  6. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  7. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  8. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T).

  9. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  10. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis.

  11. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  12. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  13. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  14. Candida species exhibit differential in vitro hemolytic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Gang; Lakshman P Samaranayake; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 80 Candida isolates representing 14 species were examined for their respective responses to an in vitro hemolytic test. A modification of a previously described plate assay system where the yeasts are incubated on glucose (3%)-enriched sheep blood agar in a carbon dioxide (5%)-rich environment for 48 h was used to evaluate the hemolytic activity. A group of eight Candida species which included Candida albicans (15 isolates), C. dubliniensis (2), C. kefyr (2), C. krusei (4), C. zeyl...

  15. Expression and Mutagenesis studies of Candida antactica lipase B

    OpenAIRE

    Rotticci-Mulder, Johanna C.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Candida antarctica lipase B was successfullyproduced in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Thespecific activities of Candida antarctica lipase B produced inPichia pastoris and commercial Candida antarctica lipase B fromNovozymes were the same. In shake-flask cultivations theexpression levels were about 25 mg L-1. Production levels couldbe increased to 1.5 g L-1, using a fermentor. A model tosimulate growth and oxygen consumption was described. The highcell density growth cou...

  16. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra; Narjara Coelho; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The ...

  17. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Epub October 4th Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole upt...

  18. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  19. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  20. Childhood Candida Infections: Single-center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-06-01

    Results: Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with Candida infection. Of these patients 17 were male (59% and 12 were female (41%. Eleven patients were less than a year old (38%, 9 were between 1-5 years (31% and 9 were above the age of five (31%. The most important underlying disease malignancies were congenital heart disease and neurological diseases. Candida growth was determined in the blood cultures of 17 patients, the urine cultures of 10 patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one patient. While the most commonly used anti-fungal agent was fluconazole (51.7%, others used were caspofungin (41.3% and amfoterisin B (13.7%. No isolated Candida strain showed resistance to anti-fungal agents. Treatment was clinically and microbiologically 96.5% successful. Conclusions: Fluconazole still appears to be an effective treatment choice we believe there is a necessity to review the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values for anti-fungal agents. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 245-251

  1. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  2. Identification and differentiation of Candida parapsilosis complex species by use of exon-primed intron-crossing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Zengbin; Ling, Bo; Pan, Shuming; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex is composed of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and the closely related species Lodderomyces elongisporus. An exon-primed intron-crossing PCR assay was developed here to distinguish the members of the species complex on the basis of the distinct sizes of amplicons, and Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were further discriminated by restriction enzyme analysis.

  3. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex. PMID:26168269

  4. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  5. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  6. Caractérisation multi-échelle d'alliages nickel – titane utilisés pour des limes endodontiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serres N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L'analyse des comportements mécaniques, biologiques et physiques aux interfaces de biomatériaux médicaux ayant vocation à évoluer dans la sphère orale est particulièrement importante. En effet, des influences cliniques diverses, en termes de vieillissement des matériaux et de protection des éléments dentaires et péri-dentaires peuvent être constatées. Les alliages à mémoire de forme Nickel Titane sont couramment utilisés dans la fabrication d'instruments d'odontologie. Dans cette étude, deux systèmes de limes endodontiques ont été étudiés. Bien qu'ayant des compositions chimiques similaires, leurs structures différentes conduisent empiriquement à des modes de rupture distincts. En effet, certaines limes peuvent être utilisées plusieurs fois, alors que d'autres limes provenant d'un fournisseur différent peuvent casser dès la première utilisation, sans prévention possible. Ce travail cherche à comprendre cette différence à travers une étude couplée mécanique/métallurgique afin de corréler le comportement en traction et en fatigue avec l'état de surface des limes, corrélés à leurs procédés d'élaboration. L'étude métallurgique a d'abord été focalisée sur une comparaison des états de surface, avant et après des traitements de mordançage et/ou de polissage électrolytique (Fig. 1. L'étude mécanique a débuté par l'identification expérimentale des matériaux utilisés pour la fabrication de ces deux types de limes dentaires. Ces matériaux ont été fournis sous forme de fils. La littérature met en évidence la sensibilité du comportement de ces alliages à la vitesse de déformation. Deux vitesses de sollicitations sur trois fils de diamètre 0,6 mm ; 0,8 mm et 1 mm ont été testés. Des essais de traction (Fig. 2 et de fatigue (Fig. 3 ont été réalisés sur ces trois diamètres. Les faciès de rupture avant et après essais ont aussi été analysés.

  7. Non-Candida albicans Candida mediastinitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Mantadakis, Elpis; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Bourolias, Constantinos A; Papazoglou, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A; Samonis, George

    2008-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis occurs as a complication of oropharyngeal or cervical infections and its delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high mortality. A rare case of an odontogenic infection in a diabetic patient, complicated by Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei parapharyngeal space infection, descending mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia is described. Isolate identification was based on colonial and microscopic morphological characteristics and carbohydrate assimilation test results. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and debridement, broad spectrum antibacterials and liposomal amphotericin B followed by prolonged oral voriconazole therapy.

  8. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  9. Control de los movimientos de un robot usando un acelerómetro y nios ii

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Játiva, Pablo Geovanny; Bastidas Carrillo, Segundo Jeancarlos; Ponguillo Intriago, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto esta basado en el desarrollo e implementación de un control remoto para manejar los movimientos de un robot LEGO MINDSTORM NXT usando un acelerómetro ADXL345 incorporado en la tarjeta de desarrollo DE0-NANO y el procesador NIOS II. En este trabajo se abordan de forma general conceptos sobre protocolos de comunicación SPI, el protocolo usado por el robot, además de las características principales de la tarjeta DE0 NANO, de la FPGA Cyclone IV, del acelerómetro ADXL345 y del robot ...

  10. LAS PREFERENCIAS DEL CONSUMIDOR USANDO EL MÉTODO DE MÁXIMAS DIFERENCIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Farías; Bruno Fistrovic

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los atributos más importantes que el consumidor limeño utiliza en el proceso de elección del vino. Adicionalmente, se busca identificar diferencias entre segmentos en estas preferencias. La metodología consiste en una encuesta a consumidores de vino usando el método de máximas diferencias. El estudio es único en América Latina, donde existe una brecha importante en el mercado del vino y donde el método de máximas diferencias es inexplorado ...

  11. Aprendendo fun??es de ranking baseadas em blocos usando programa??o gen?tica

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Pedro Antonio Gonzales

    2013-01-01

    Na atualidade, a Internet ? considerada uma poderosa ferramenta de comunica??o e informa??o. Seu impacto na sociedade est? aumentando cada vez mais, o que significa que est? se tornando indispens?vel. Neste contexto, sistemas de busca por informa??o tornam-se cada vez mais importantes. Neste trabalho, propomos um novo m?todo de busca capaz de aprender fun??es de ranking que exploram a estrutura em bloco das p?ginas Web, usando programa??o gen?tica. Diferentemente de trabalhos anteriores, noss...

  12. Estudio y construcción de un lazo enganchado en fase usando el programa SPICE

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos la simulación y construcción de un lazo enganchado en Fase (PLL) usando el programa de simulación de circuitos PSPICE. Los bloques principales del PLL lo forman un oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO), al que se conecta un limitador de amplitud y un filtro para limpiar los espúreos generados. Para el diseño del VCO se ha utilizado un oscilador básico de Colpitts, al que se incorpora en el circuito de realimentación un diodo varicap controlado por tensión. El ...

  13. Implementación de una memoria asociativa lineal usando el lenguaje r

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Como un aspecto fundamental en muchos cursos de redes neuronales artificiales, el desarrollo de destrezas de programación es un objetivo fundamental. Este artículo tiene dos objetivos: el primero es presentar el lenguaje R para el cómputo estadístico como una poderosa herramienta para ejemplificar algoritmos, para ejecutar cálculos numéricos, y para ilustrar conceptos usando gráficos complejos. El segundo objetivo es ilustrar la implementación práctica de un modelo de redes neuronales en el l...

  14. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó Zsuzsanna (1973-) (biológus, biológia-kémia szakos középiskolai tanár); Szilágyi Judit (1984-) (környezettudományi vegyész); Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos Gábor (1974-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobiológus); Rozgonyi Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedigh (1980-) (népegészségügyi szakember, egészségfejlesztő); Majoros László (1966-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobológus)

    2009-01-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 ?g/mL (1?8? MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 ?g/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at ?1? MIC (0....

  15. Effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of two indigenous varieties of Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens Var. utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhuraju, P; Becker, K

    2001-06-01

    The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of total phenolics, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, and L-dopa compared to soaking or dry heating techniques. The germination processes (24 and 48 h) were also effective in the reduction of various antinutrients, although this reduction appeared to be more pronounced in a prolonged period of germination (72 h). Water soaking followed by dehusking was found to be ineffective in the reduction of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities in both varieties. All of the treatments were effective in significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the resistant starch content in the presently investigated samples. Cooking as well as autoclaving brought about a more significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the digestibility of protein and starch compared to germination and dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6-34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0-37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility.

  16. Comparison of the clinical risk factors between Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species for bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hayama, Brian; Ohji, Goh; Iwata, Kentaro; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors and susceptibilities to antifungal agents of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species (spp.) in candidemia cases in Kobe University Hospital. We investigated all consecutive patients with candida bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2008-2013 for whose full data were available for analyses, examining clinical factors such as gender, general complications, postoperative status or susceptibilities to antifungal agents. These factors were also compared between Candida albicans spp. and Candida non-albicans by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses showed a significantly higher rate of Candida non-albicans species BSI patients cancer (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=2.29 (1.04-5.06) and P=0.040), chemotherapy (OR=4.35 (1.11-17.1) and P=0.035), fluconazole (FLCZ) resistance (OR=77.3 (4.51-1324) and P=0.003), and itraconazole (ITCZ) resistance (OR=15.6 (5.39-45.1) and PCandida albicans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. had significantly higher rate of chemotherapy (OR=4.44 (1.04-19.0) and P=0.045), FLCZ resistance (OR=5.87 (2.01-17.1) and P=0.001), and ITCZ resistance (OR=18.7(5.77-60.4) and PCandida albicans. In conclusion, this study revealed several risk factors for BSI with Candida albicans (underlying cardiovascular diseases and postoperative status) and Candida non-albicans spp. (cancer and chemotherapy), and demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. were more resistant to FLCZ and ITCZ than Candida albicans.

  17. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  18. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  19. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  20. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic exposu

  1. Rapid identification of Candida species by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Maquelin (Kees); L.P. Choo-Smith; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); H.A. Bruining (Hajo); G.J. Puppels (Gerwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCandida species are important nosocomial pathogens associated with high mortality rates. Rapid detection and identification of Candida species can guide a clinician at an early stage to prescribe antifungal drugs or to adjust empirical therapy when resistant species are

  2. CLARIFICACIÓN DE AGUAS USANDO COAGULANTES POLIMERIZADOS: CASO DEL HIDROXICLORURO DE ALUMINIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MIGUEL COGOLLO FLÓREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un estudio del proceso de clarificación en sistemas de tratamiento de aguas industriales usando un coagulante inorgánico polimerizado (hidroxicloruro de aluminio. Inicialmente, se establecen los elementos conceptuales más importantes de las etapas del proceso de clarificación (coagulación, floculación y sedimentación. Luego, se señalan los principales coagulantes convencionales utilizados en el tratamiento de aguas y se abordan los policloruros de aluminio (PAC´s como integrantes de una nueva generación de coagulantes alternativos cuyo uso se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas dado su mejor desempeño respecto a los coagulantes convencionales; se especifican los aspectos técnicos y operativos que se deben considerar al momento de implementar un proceso de clarificación de aguas usando un PAC como coagulante. Finalmente, se presentan datos comparativos de condiciones operacionales reales de un proceso de clarificación de aguas, producto de un trabajo previo, donde se remplazó un coagulante convencional (sulfato de aluminio por hidroxicloruro de aluminio, donde se corrobora el mejor desempeño del proceso luego del remplazo.

  3. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  4. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  5. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)).

  6. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  7. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  8. Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM. This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes.

  9. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  10. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  11. Cerebral candida abscess in an infant

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    Baradkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained pus material. The patient responded to combination of surgery (drainage and intravenous amphotericin B. Neurological development six months after hospital discharge was normal. The organism being a rare cause of cerebral abscess in pediatric population is reported here.

  12. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  13. Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesharaki, Shirinsadat Hashemi; Haghani, Iman; Mousavi, Bita; Kargar, Melika Laal; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Abbasi, Kyomars; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure.

  14. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  15. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G.; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2...

  16. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  17. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  18. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  19. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

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    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  20. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts.

  1. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514(T), CBS 5366(T)) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747(T), CBS 10863(T)) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the two anamorphic species are proposed for transfer to Martiniozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 812061) with Martiniozyma abiesophila designated as type species (MycoBank MB 812062). In keeping with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which specifies that related anamorphic and teleomorphic species can be assigned to the same genus, the following Candida species are transferred to Saturnispora to conform with their phylogenetic placement: Candida diversa (NRRL Y-5713(T)), Candida halmiae (CBS 11009(T)), Candida sanitii (CBS 10864(T)), Candida sekii (CBS 10931(T)), Candida siamensis (CBS 11022(T)), Candida silvae (NRRL Y-6725(T)) and Candida suwanaritii (CBS 11021(T)).

  2. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  3. 菜心组织培养技术初探%Preliminary Study on Tissue Culture Technique in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔燕春; 黄红弟; 张华; 李光光; 郑岩松; 刘自珠

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish rapid propagation system of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. utilis, the anthers as explants were in vitro cultured. The results showed that the anthers should be selected from unopened buds, which stigma was slightly higher than petal, and most of microspores were at uninucleate stage. The pollen germination rate was not high, and that in autumn and winter was higher than that in summer. The callus induction medium for anthers was MS+1.0 mg L-1 KT+1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D+3%sugar+6 g L-1 agar+8%coconut milk (pH=5.8). The adventitious bud differentiation medium was MS+2.0 mg L-1 6-BA+0.5 mg L-1 NAA+1.0 g L-1 active carbon+2%sugar+6 g L-1 agar or MS+2.0 mg L-1 ZT+0.5 mg L-1 IAA+0.5 g L-1 AgNO3+1.0 g L-1 active carbon+2%sugar+6 g L-1 agar (pH=5.8). The adventitious bud rate inducted from anthers was 36.7%, and the regeneration plantlet rate was low owing to adventitious buds browning, while the regeneration plantlet rate reached to 80%induced from cotyledon or petioles.%为建立菜心(Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. utilis)的快繁技术体系,以花药和子叶-子叶柄为外植体进行组织培养研究。结果表明,花药培养以选取未开放的花蕾为宜,且花柱略高于花瓣,此时小孢子多数处于单核靠边期。菜心花粉的萌发率不高,且秋冬季的花粉比夏季的萌发率高。菜心花药愈伤组织诱导培养基为:MS+1.0 mg L-1 KT+1.0 mg L-12,4-D+3%糖+6 g L-1琼脂+8%椰乳,不定芽诱导培养基为:MS+2.0 mg L-16-BA+0.5 mg L-1 NAA+1.0 g L-1活性炭+2%糖+6 g L-1琼脂或MS+2.0 mg L-1 ZT+0.5 mg L-1 IAA+0.5 g L-1 AgNO3+1.0 g L-1活性炭+2%糖+6 g L-1琼脂。花药培养的不定芽诱导率为36.7%,不定芽培养出现褐化现象,不能形成再生植株;而以子叶-子叶柄为外植体培养获得的植株再生率可达80%。

  4. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  5. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  6. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  7. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  8. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  9. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  10. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  11. Candida infection in HIV positive patients 1985-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeder, Christian; Kowoll, Susann; Arastéh, Keikawus

    2008-09-01

    Infection with Candida species remains a major problem in HIV infected patients. The analysis of over 15,000 hospitalisations (1985-2007) in the AVK cohort shows an increasing incidence of non-albicans species in candida esophagitis. Although our analysis shows a decreasing incidence of opportunistic infections like PCP, cerebral toxoplasmosis and others since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy the incidence of candida esophagitis remains as high as in the years before the HAART era. This observation might reflect the development of resistance against fluconazole and the selection of non-albicans species as a consequence of a long-term prophylactic treatment of HIV+ patients over years.

  12. Candida arthritis in a patient diagnosed with spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Çevik

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida arthritis is an unusual manifestation that usually affects the knees. A 35-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of pain and swelling in the right knee. Swelling persisted after anti-inflammatory treatment. Peripheric spondyloarthritis was considered, but methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and methylprednisolone did not reduce the swelling. Direct examination of synovial fluid and a culture were positive for Candida albicans. Intravenous and intra-articular amphotericin-B were administered. The arthritis regressed and a culture and direct staining showed negative results. Candida arthritis should be considered in patients with arthritis that is resistant to treatment and prolonged, even if risk factors are absent.

  13. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood...... isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (

  14. ENSEÑANZA DE ONDAS MECÁNICAS EN CUERDAS USANDO MATHEMATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Iván González Pedreros

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se resuelve la ecuación de onda y se efectúa la simulación de la solución obtenida, usando el programa Mathematica, para el caso de una cuerda elástica tensa con un extremo fijo y el otro libre. Esto se propone como ejemplo para la enseñanza de los fenómenos ondulatorios mecánicos en cursos de física general para estudiantes de ciencias e ingeniería. El ejemplo orienta al estudiante en el análisis crítico mientras aprende conceptos fundamentales de física, además puede ser extendido al caso bidimensional y constituye una base sólida y adecuada para otros temas como las ondas electromagnéticas y la mecánica.

  15. ENSEÑANZA DE ONDAS MECÁNICAS EN CUERDAS USANDO MATHEMATICA

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Iván González Pedreros

    2005-01-01

    Se resuelve la ecuación de onda y se efectúa la simulación de la solución obtenida, usando el programa Mathematica, para el caso de una cuerda elástica tensa con un extremo fijo y el otro libre. Esto se propone como ejemplo para la enseñanza de los fenómenos ondulatorios mecánicos en cursos de física general para estudiantes de ciencias e ingeniería. El ejemplo orienta al estudiante en el análisis crítico mientras aprende conceptos fundamentales de física, además puede ser extendido al caso b...

  16. Avaliação de multielementos em amostras de sangue humano usando SR-TXRF

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Graciele V. Pinto; Carla L. S. Mota; Regina Cely R. Barroso; Silvana Moreira; Delson Braz

    2010-01-01

    A técnica de fluorescência de raios X por reflexão total usando radiação síncrotron (SR-TXRF) é uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada para a determinação das concentrações elementares presentes em amostras biológicas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas por processos de irradiação na concentração de elementos-traço em amostras de sangue humano. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas Dr. Elilel Figueiredo, Rio de Janeiro, e dividida...

  17. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  18. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species: quantification, structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, António; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to characterize biofilms produced by three NCAC species, namely C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The biofilm forming ability of clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata recovered from different sources, was evaluated by crystal violet staining. The structure and morphological characteristics of the biofilms were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the biofilm matrix composition analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content. All NCAC species were able to form biofilms although these were less extensive for C. glabrata compared with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. It was evident that C. parapsilosis biofilm production was highly strain dependent, a feature not evident with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences for biofilms with respect to cell morphology and spatial arrangement. Candida parapsilosis biofilm matrices had large amounts of carbohydrate with less protein. Conversely, matrices extracted from C. tropicalis biofilms had low amounts of carbohydrate and protein. Interestingly, C. glabrata biofilm matrix was high in both protein and carbohydrate content. The present work demonstrates that biofilm forming ability, structure and matrix composition are highly species dependent with additional strain variability occurring with C. parapsilosis.

  19. Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to Photodynamic Therapy Using Four Dyes as the Photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasim; Yazdanpanah, Samira; Saki, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Ghapanchi, Janan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. Photodynamic therapy, as one of its proposed treatment modalities, needs a distinct dye for achieving the best effect. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate photosensitization effects of four distinct dyes on standard suspension of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida dubliniensis (C. dubliniensis) and biofilm of C. albicans considering the obtained optimum dye concentration and duration of laser irradiation. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, colony forming units (CFU) of two sets of four groups of Laser plus Dye (L+D+), Dye (L-D+), Laser (L+D-) and No Laser, No Dye (L-D-) were assessed individually with different methylene blue concentrations and laser irradiation period. The photodynamic therapy effect on standard suspension of Candida species (using methylene blue, aniline blue, malachite green and crystal violet) were studied based on the obtained results. Similar investigation was performed on biofilm of C. albicans using the spectral absorbance. Data were imported to SPSS and assessed by statistical tests of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α= 0.05). Results: CFU among the different dye concentration and irradiation time decrease in dose- and time-dependent manner (p> 0.05), all of which were significantly lower than the control groups (p 0.05) though all of them were significantly decrease CFU compared with the control groups (p< 0.05). In L+D- and L+D+ groups, biofilm was significantly destroyed more than that of L-D- (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy might be used as an effective procedure to treat Candida associated mucocutaneous diseases and killing biofilm in the infected surfaces such as dentures. PMID:27942552

  20. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections.

  1. Verificación de Firmas Usando Transformada de Gabor Signature Verification using the Gabor Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cruz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone un sistema de verificación estática de firmas con alta capacidad de detección de falsificaciones. En la etapa de extracción de características se obtienen los coeficientes de la transformada de Gabor en cada región de la firma, extrayéndose la posición del coeficiente sobresaliente de cada región. Estas proporcionan información local acerca de la frecuencia y orientación de la textura de una firma. Usando las características extraídas, el sistema entrena una red neuronal de retropropagación con una arquitectura de 9-9-2 para cada firmante. La eficiencia del sistema propuesto se evaluó usando 30 firmas auténticas y 20 firmas falsificadas por expertos para cada firmante. De los resultados obtenidos por simulación, se concluye que el sistema propuesto presenta una verificación global con 90% de acierto, con una menor complejidad computacionalThis paper proposes an off-line signature verification system with fairly good detection capacity against expert forgeries. The feature extraction stage of the proposed system, estimates the coefficients of the Gabor Transform in each local region of the signature image, and extracts the positions of relevant coefficients. These provide local information about frequency and orientation of the signature image texture. Using the extracted features, the proposed system adapts a back-propagation multiplayer neural network with 9-9-2 architecture for each signer. The proposed system was evaluated using 30 genuine signatures and 20 expert forgeries for each signer. The computer simulation results show a 90% overall success, with a lower computational complexity

  2. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  3. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  4. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  5. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  6. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  7. [Gastric perforation associated with Candida infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Jesús; Carrilo, Elena; Lupu, Ion; Caballero, Ferran; Trias, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Notable causes of gastroduodenal ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, neoplastic disease, acid hypersecretory states and secondary peptic ulcer disease. There are case reports of healthy patients or those with risk factors for fungal infection who develop gastroduodenal ulcer perforation associated with the presence of fungi in ascitic fluid or gastroduodenal ulcer tissue but without the above-mentioned etiological factors. Thus, other factors and pathogens may be involved in the pathogenesis of perforation. The use of antifungal agents in patients following surgery for a perforated gastroduodenal ulcer is controversial. We report two cases of healthy patients who underwent surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, in whom the most frequent causes of perforation were excluded. Only the presence of Candida in the ulcer was found.

  8. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The constants obtained for this model were µmax = 0.246 h-1, Ks = 16.95 mg/L and Ki = 604.85 mg/L.Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradação de catecol em frascos de Erlenmeyers em água residuária sintética pela levedura Candida parapsilopsis. As respostas dos ensaios cinéticos mostraram que altas concentrações de catecol ocasionaram uma fase lag longa para a levedura. Portanto, a aclimatização da cultura de levedura empregada para biodegradação de catecol é de fundamental importância, sendo possível reduzir toda a concentração inicial de catecol da água residuária sintética de 910 mg/L em 48 horas. Os dados experimentais da cinética de biodegradação do catecol foram ajustados pelo modelo de Haldane adequadamente, sobre a faixa de concentração de catecol investigada de 36 a 910 mg/L. Os parâmetros cinéticos obtidos do modelo de Haldane foram: µmax = 0,246 h-1, Ks = 16,95 mg/L e Ki = 604,85 mg/L.

  9. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  10. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  11. Diseño de criptoprocesadores de curva elíptica sobre gf(2^163) usando bases normales gaussianas

    OpenAIRE

    Realpe, Paulo Cesar; Trujillo-Olaya, Vladimir; Velasco-Medina, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la implementación eficiente en hardware de criptoprocesadores que permiten llevar a cabo la multiplicación escalar kP sobre el campo finito GF(2163) usando dos multiplicadores a nivel de digito. Las operaciones aritméticas de campo finito fueron implementadas usando la representación de bases normales Gaussianas (GNB), y la multiplicación escalar kP fue implementada usando el algoritmo de López-Dahab, el algoritmo de bisección de punto 2-NAF y el método w-tNAF para...

  12. Fermentation of fruit juices by the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Andreia Sofia Soares de

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of the fermentation conditions required to modulate the metabolic flux in the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae and evaluate its potential to produce low-alcoholic and low-caloric fermented beverages. For that purpose, two strains, PYCC 2903 and PYCC 3191, were used and fermentation conditions as oxygenation, sugar concentration and the ratio of glucose to fructose were studied using synthetic culture media. Candida magnoliae PYCC 2903 was subsequently ...

  13. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  14. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  15. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  16. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Kevin P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB, an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1 and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http://cgob.ucd.ie.

  17. Rat indwelling urinary catheter model of Candida albicans biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Jeniel E; Brooks, Erin G; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

    2014-12-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract.

  18. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  19. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  20. Evolution and Application of Inteins in Candida species: a Review

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    José Alex Lourenço Fernandes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species. Although absent in Candida albicans, these elements are present in different sizes, in some environmental Candida spp. and also in most of the non-albicans Candida spp. considered emergent opportunistic pathogens. Besides, the possible role of these inteins in yeast physiology was also discussed in the light of the recent findings on the importance of these elements as post-translational modulators of gene expression, reinforcing their relevance as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-albicans Candida infections, because, once the splicing of an intein is inhibited, its host protein, which is usually a housekeeping protein, becomes nonfunctional.

  1. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ≤31 h with ≥0.5 μg/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails.

  2. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of the cases. Overall FCZ resistance rate was 5.5% and the rate of resistance according to the species was 2.8% for C.albicans and 11% for non

  3. [Candida dubliniensis studies and isolation of Candida types in oropharyngeal specimens from oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Alper; Dolapçi, Iştar; Cesur, Salih; Tekeli, Emin; Içli, Fikri

    2002-01-01

    Fungal opportunistic infections, and in particular those caused by the various Candida species, have gained considerable significance as a cause of morbidity and, often, mortality. Although Candida albicans remains to be the most frequently isolated fungal species as an opportunistic oral pathogen, other yeast species are often identified in immunocompromised patients. C. dubliniensis, the recently described species, has been recovered primarily from oropharyngeal candidasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization rates of fungal species, and especially C. dubliniensis, in the oropharyngeal samples from cancer patients. The oropharyngeal swabs of 543 patients were collected during their visits to oncology clinic in 9 months period, and a total of 209 Candida species have been isolated. Of them, 147 isolates were found to be positive for germ tube and chlamydospore formation, and they were tested for the growth inability at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, colony morphology in Staib agar and the intracellular beta-glucosidase activity, in order to identify C. dubliniensis. The results of these tests and carbohydrate assimilation tests by API 20C AUX yeast identification system, yielded that all these 147 (70.3%) isolates were C. albicans. The other isolates were identified as follows; 16 C. parapsilosis (7.6%), 13 C. tropicalis (6.2%), 10 C. glabrata (4.7%), 5 C. guilliermondii (2.3%), 4 C. krusei (1.9%), 3 C. keyfr (1.4%), 3 C. famata (1.4%), 2 S. cerevisiae (0.9%), 2 C. pelliculosa (0.9%), 1 C. utiles (0.4%), 1 C. neoformans (0.4%) and 1 Hansenula polymorpha (0.4%), while no C. dubliniensis was isolated.

  4. Candida guilliermondii as the aetiology of candidosis Candida guilliermondii como agente de candidose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii is one of the components of human microbiota. This yeast has been infrequently associated with human infections, which may be related to its low pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to provide clinical and epidemiological data for patients infected with C. guilliermondii at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. From October 1997 to October 2003, C. guilliermondii was isolated from clinical samples from 11 patients. Three patients were excluded because the isolation of the yeast represented colonisation. Specimens from the eight patients included in the study corresponded to blood (n = 5, ascitis fluid (n = 2, and oesophagus biopsy (n = 1. Three patients (37.5% had major immunosuppressed conditions, including solid organ transplantation, AIDS, and leukaemia. Previous use of antibiotics occurred in 87.5%. Main invasive medical procedures were central venous catheter (50.0%, abdominal surgery (25.0%, and peritoneal dialysis (50.0%. No susceptibility data was obtained. Although risk factors for candidaemia were similar amongst patients infected by with C. guilliermondii or other Candida species, mortality associated with C. guilliermondii was significantly lower.Candida guilliermondii é um dos componentes da microbiota humana e infecções associadas com esta levedura têm sido incomuns, o que pode ser atribuído a sua baixa patogenicidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi documentar aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos em pacientes que tiveram C. guilliermondii isolada a partir de amostras biológicas. O estudo foi conduzido na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brasil. Durante outubro de 1997 e outubro de 2003, C. guilliermondii foi isolada de 11 pacientes, três dos quais foram excluídos por se apresentarem apenas colonizados. Espécimes clínicos corresponderam a sangue (n = 5, líquido de ascite (n = 2 e biópsia de esôfago (n = 1. Três pacientes eram imunodeprimidos, incluindo transplante de órgãos sólidos, SIDA e

  5. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white–opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of ...

  6. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  7. Quantitation of Candida CFU in initial positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Samsa, Gregory P; Schell, Wiley A; Reller, L Barth; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-08-01

    One potential limitation of DNA-based molecular diagnostic tests for Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) is organism burden, which is not sufficiently characterized. We hypothesized that the number of CFU per milliliter (CFU/ml) present in an episode of Candida BSI is too low for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. In this study, we determined Candida burden in the first positive blood culture and explored factors that affect organism numbers and patient outcomes. We reviewed records of consecutive patients with a positive blood culture for Candida in the lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) from 1987 to 1991. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed. One hundred fifty-two episodes of Candida BSI were analyzed. Patient characteristics included adult age (72%), indwelling central venous catheters (83%), recent surgery (29%), neutropenia (24%), transplant (14%), and other immune suppression (21%). Rates of treatment success and 30-day mortality for candidemia were each 51%. The median CFU/ml was 1 (mode 0.1, range 0.1 to >1,000). In the multivariate analysis, pediatric patients were more likely than adults to have high organism burdens (odds ratio [OR], 10.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.3 to 26.5). Initial organism density did not affect patient outcome. Candida CFU/ml in the first positive blood culture of a BSI episode varies greatly; >50% of cultures had ≤1 CFU/ml, a concentration below the experimental yeast cell threshold for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. DNA-based diagnostics for Candida BSI will be challenged by low organism density and the need for sufficient specimen volume; future research on alternate targets is warranted.

  8. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  9. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc; Glenthøj, Andreas; Borregaard, Niels; Urban, Constantin F

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On the contrary, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans and mouse strains, which facilitates a more accurate interpretation of in vivo results.

  10. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  11. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  12. Effects of Two Curcuminoids on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da; LUO Jiao-yang; YAN Dan; JIN Cheng; DONG Xiao-ping; XIAO Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the action of curcuminoids on the causal pathogens of Candida albicans growth.Methods The effects of curcumin (CUR) and demethoxycurcumin (DMC) on C.albicans growth were first investigated and compared by microcalorimetry coupled with multiple analytical methods.The quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters obtained from these curves were analyzed to show difference of the actions.Results By analyzing the main parameters screened from principal component analysis together with 50% inhibiting concentration values,it was demonstrated that both CUR and DMC showed good antifungal activities and CUR was stronger.It was further concluded from structure-activity relationship that the existence of methoxy group might enhance lipophilicity of the mother nucleus,which made it easier for the molecular to enter into the cell membrane of fungi to inhibit its growth.Conclusion This study provides a new method for screening new antifungal agents with high efficacy and low toxicity.Meanwhile,it contributes to the application of curcuminoids as food additive,colorant,and drug.Microcalorimetry is real-time,online,and dynamic,and it could be used to characterize the subtle difference among the effects of synthetic and natural products on the vital process of fungi.

  13. Evaluación de la reducibilidad de un mineral de hierro usando char como reductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rubiela Hernández, Carlos Alberto Sandoval Fonseca, Claudia Inés Sánchez Buitrago

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Muestra los ensayos de  reduciblidad  realizados en un hornotipo Linder a un mineral de hierro del municipio de Ubalá(departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia, usando comoreductor un char. Se  indican las características del mineralde  hierro  de Ubalá, de  los  carbones  empleados para  laproducción del char y de la caliza, así como los ensayos dereducibilidad. Para la caracterización de  las materias primasy del char, como producto  final, se aplicaron normas ASTM.En  la producción de  los char se utilizaron  los hornos decoquización  tipo Cerchar  y  tipo  colmena  de  la Uptc  enSamacá  (Boyacá. Los ensayos de reducibilidad se hicieronbajo  los mismos parámetros de operación utilizados concarbón como reductor, y los resultados obtenidos dejan verque el mineral de hierro de Ubalá es reducible en menorporcentaje con char. Sin embargo, por  los grandes beneficiospara el medioambiente que se obtienen trabajando con elchar, no se descarta  la posibilidad de utilizarlo como posiblesustituto del carbón en el proceso de reducción directa.

  14. Functional genomics identifies type I interferon pathway as central for host defense against Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Ng, Aylwin; Kumar, Vinod; Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; van Diemen, Cleo; Arts, Peer; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Oosting, Marije; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Hoischen, Alexander; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Scott, William K.; Perfect, John R.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans. Candid

  15. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, Frans M. Verduyn; Mennink-Kersten, Monique A. S. H.; Ruegebrink, Dorien; van der Lee, Henrich A. L.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  16. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  17. Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Messer, Shawn A; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2008-08-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. parapsilosis using Vitek and conventional methods. Of the 1,929 isolates of presumed C. parapsilosis tested, 117 (6.1%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis and 34 (1.8%) as C. metapsilosis. The percentage of presumed C. parapsilosis isolates found to be C. orthopsilosis varied greatly by region, with the highest percentage (10.9%) from South America and the lowest (0.7%) from Africa. The MIC distributions of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were statistically significantly lower than those of C. parapsilosis for all drugs except fluconazole, for which they were significantly higher (P orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis isolates were fluconazole resistant, and all were susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin.

  18. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  19. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  20. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  1. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  2. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

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    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  3. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  4. Eucalyptus globulus L. extract as an antifungal agent against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of botanical preparations have been prepared and used for a wide variety of conditions. Different studies have been carried out towards to confirm the effective multitude of health benefits provided by medicinal plants [I]. In parallel with these studies, in the last years, high rates of opportunistic fungal infections have been observed, namely involving Candida species. Candida albicans is the most common but, currently, other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have also b...

  5. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms: Unique Efficacy of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations and Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, D M; T. George; CHANDRA, J; P. K. Mukherjee; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-01-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have ac...

  6. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  7. Prevalence of non-albican candida infection in Maharashtrian women with leucorrhea

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    Seema M Bankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the prevalence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. Objective: To study the prevalence of different species of Candida and the efficiency of different Candida detection methods in women from low socio-economic setup of Miraj and Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 150 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. In the control group, 50 asymptomatic women were included for comparison. Results: In 33% of the women the leucorrhea was due to Candida infection with highest incidence in women of sexually active age (20-40 years. Sabouraud′s culture was the most efficient method (100% efficiency to detect the Candida compared to wet mount, KOH and gram stain method. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida krusei was the least common one. Conclusion: Candida infection is the commonest reason for leucorrhea and non-albican candida species significantly contribute to candidiasis in women of Miraj and Sangli.

  8. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

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    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  9. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

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    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  10. Genetic diversity of F1 and F2 interspecific hybrids between dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) and Himalayan birch (B. utilis var. jacquemontii (Spach) Winkl. 'Doorenbos') using RAPD-PCR markers and ploidy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Małgorzata; Pławiak, Jarosław; Muras, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Crosses between Betula nana and B. utilis 'Doorenbos' were undertaken in order to obtain interspecific hybrids which could be characterized by wide spreading stems, strong branching habit, decorative clear white bark and an interesting shape of purple leaves. The research purpose was to examine genetic diversity of the 16 F1 and F2 putative progenies by using the RAPD-PCR method and the ploidy analysis. A total of 242 RAPD markers were scored with 24 primers and 220 (90.9%) polymorphic bands were found. In the NJ dendrogram, cluster I consisted of the female parent--B. nana and 12 hybrids and cluster II grouped the male parent--B. utilis 'Doorenbos' with 4 hybrids (F2/2, F1/8, F1/7 and F2/1). The 2-D scaling by PCoA was in agreement with the similarity index, i.e. two hybrids (F1/8, F2/2) grouped with the male parent while others with female parent. Classification of the hybrid plants by chromosome counting demonstrated that 13 hybrids were confirmed with accurate chromosome counts as being diploid (2n=2x=28) and 3 plants (F1/7, F1/8, F2/2) as triploid with 42 chromosomes.

  11. Two new anamorphic yeasts, Candida thailandica sp. nov. and Candida lignicola sp. nov., isolated from insect frass in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tuntirungkij, Manee; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nakase, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Two new yeast strains of the genus Candida were isolated from insect frass collected in Khao-Yai National Park, Nakhonrachasima, Thailand. Based on the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, these two strains were found to represent two distinct undescribed species and were named Candida thailandica sp. nov. (ST-17 = BCC 7717(T) = NBRC 102562(T)=CBS 10 610) and Candida lignicola sp. nov. (ST-33 = BCC 7733(T) = NBRC 102564(T) = CBS 10612). In the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, C. thailandica (GeneBank accession no. AY228491) differs from Candida tsuchiyae, the nearest species, in 66 nucleotide substitutions (10%) and C. lignicola (GeneBank accession no. AY845350) differs from Candida coipomoensis, the nearest species, in nine nucleotides (1.6%). These two new species are clearly distinguished from their closest species by the assimilation of several carbon compounds.

  12. Efficacy of micafungin in invasive candidiasis caused by common Candida species with special emphasis on non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Oliver A; Vazquez, Jose; De Waele, Jan; Betts, Robert; Rotstein, Coleman; Nucci, Marcio; Pappas, Peter G; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. is increasing. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidaemia caused by different Candida spp. This post hoc analysis used data obtained from two randomised phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of micafungin vs. caspofungin and micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B. Treatment success, clinical response, mycological response and mortality were evaluated in patients infected with C. albicans and NAC spp. Treatment success rates in patients with either C. albicans or NAC infections were similar. Outcomes were similar for micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Candida albicans was the most prevalent pathogen recovered (41.0%), followed by C. tropicalis (17.9%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (10.4%), multiple Candida spp. (7.3%) and C. krusei (3.2%). Age, primary diagnosis (i.e. candidaemia or invasive candidiasis), previous corticosteroid therapy and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were identified as potential predictors of treatment success and mortality. Micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B exhibit favourable treatment response rates that are comparable for patients infected with different Candida spp.

  13. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  14. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

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    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  15. [Antibiotic activity of P. aeruginosa against MRSA and Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigemi; Sato, Naotake; Yamada, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Sakiko; Oguri, Toyoko; Igari, Jun

    2002-04-01

    The antibiotic activity demonstrated by P. aeruginosa (Bacillus pyocyaneus) has been reported more than one hundred years ago by Emmerich et al (1899). Studies on such bacterial interference between P. aeruginosa and other pathogenic bacteria or fungi have not been extensively reported in recent years. In this paper, we report on the anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity demonstrated by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (34 strains). The antibiotic activity was tested by reversed agar plate method, as previously reported, and the degree of the activity was expressed as the diameter of the zone of growth inhibition. The stability of both anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity was evaluated at the time after 24 and 48-hr incubation. Also the effect of agar plate with or without 5% sheep blood on antibiotic activity was evaluated. Strong anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity was shown at the time after 24-hr incubation. At the time after 48-hr incubation, anti MRSA activities were significantly suppressed but anti Candida activities were persisted. The inhibitory activity was correlated with dye production of P. aeruginosa. Some strains having non or weak dye production, showed the inhibitory activity by 48-hr incubation. Result from these strains without suppression of anti Candida activity by additional blood may suggest that the existence of a new factor produced by P. aeruginosa. Because of frequent isolation of MRSA or Candida from clinical materials, we must consider bacterial flora and bacterial interference against pathogenic bacteria at the time of the antibiotic choice for the patients infected or colonized with P. aeruginosa.

  16. Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report

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    Weichert Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB, but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

  17. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

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    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  18. Radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Microbiology); Puccetti, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology)

    1982-08-13

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans.

  19. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

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    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  20. Native valve candida endocarditis complicating pregnancy after abdominal surgery

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    P Saphina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida endocarditis is an emerging infectious disease, usually involving patients with intravascular prosthetic devices, and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. A 28-year-old primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation was admitted with low-grade fever and lower abdominal pain for 2 weeks. She had undergone open appendicectomy 2 months before admission. Echocardiogram showed a pedunculated 24 mm × 21 mm mass attached to the undersurface of anterior mitral leaflet near the tip and moderate mitral regurgitation. Repeated blood cultures showed growth of nonalbicans candida. She was immediately started on liposomal amphotericin and was taken up for surgery, but despite all efforts she succumbed to her illness.

  1. Un estudio sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento aleatorio usando recursos educativos abiertos

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    Yenny Patricia Pinzón Triana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta los resultados de un proyecto de investigación sobre la implementación de la enseñanza probabilística con recursos educativos abiertos (REA, diseñados en la plataforma Edmodo, y que está dirigido a estudiantes de tercer grado de educación básica secundaria de Bogotá, Colombia, y Tuxtepec, México. El fin era evidenciar sus preconceptos, nociones y evaluar el resultado de la instrucción en términos de su pensamiento probabilístico y dar respuesta a la interrogante ¿cuál es el efecto de la instrucción en probabilidad usando Edmodo en estudiantes de tercer grado de educación básica secundaria respecto a la valoración de fenómenos aleatorios de la vida cotidiana, sus conjeturas y la toma de decisiones? Se empleó un enfoque cualitativo a partir del método de estudio de casos, desde el análisis particular a lo general (Stake, 2005. Para la implementación, se consideró el estudio de Fishbein (1975 sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento probabilístico y el de Marzano (2000, relacionado con las dimensiones del aprendizaje. Estos elementos sirvieron para establecer el impacto del uso de los REA, en especial el de la plataforma Edmodo en el desarrollo de competencias en los estudiantes. Los instrumentos consistieron en una prueba de entrada, actividades de apoyo interactivo desde Edmodo y una prueba de salida para determinar los niveles de aprendizaje; mediante triangulación de datos, se evidenciaron alcances de niveles adecuados de desempeño acordes con los requerimientos de los estándares nacionales e internacionales.

  2. AUTOMATIZACIÓN DE LA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES GENÉRICOS USANDO UML

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    Noel Fuentes Ramírez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

     

    La arquitectura de componentes genéricos permite chequear la consistencia interna de sus elementos arquitectónicos (componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones internas en sus respectivas estructuras, que pueden ser de inclusión y transformación. También permite verificar la conexión entre componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones de transformación entre sus interfaces respectivas. Las ideas que se presentan aquí constituyen una propuesta para la automatización de la descripción de esta arquitectura usando el lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML a partir de la descripción formal de sus diagramas de clases y de secuencia, así como para el chequeo de la consistencia. En este artículo se muestra la aplicación de esta propuesta mediante una extensión de la herramienta Visual Paradigm, por medio de un módulo de software conectable.

  3. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  4. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  5. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  6. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

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    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  7. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested.

  8. Comparative phenotypic analysis of the major fungal pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M; Schröder, Markus S; Turner, Siobhán A; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-09-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis.

  9. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood

  10. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  11. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  12. Occurrence of Candida species colonization in a population of denture-wearing immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, R; Pasquantonio, G; Vitali, L A; Nicoletti, M; Di Girolamo, M; Mirisola, C; Prenna, M; Condo, R; Baggi, L

    2013-01-01

    Infection of the oral cavity and dentures by Candida species are frequent in denture wearers. C. albicans is the most common pathogen; however, other emerging Candida species are also responsible for this condition. Few data are available about the occurrence of Candida species in the oral cavities of denture-wearing immigrants to Italy. In this study, we compare the Candida species found in the oral mucosa and on dentures from a population of denture wearing immigrants to Italy to a matched Italian group. Oral swabs were collected from dentures and the underlying mucosa of patients enrolled in the study and were then cultured to test for the presence of Candida species in each sample. Out of 168 patients enrolled (73 Italians and 95 immigrants), 51 Italians (69.8 percent) and 75 immigrants (78.9 percent) tested positive for the presence of Candida. Candida albicans was the most frequently observed species overall; however, we found a higher occurrence of C. glabrata among immigrants than among Italians. In addition, immigrants displayed a higher incidence of Candida – associated stomatitis and a lower mean age than Candida-positive individuals from the Italian group. Immigrants are more prone to longer colonization of the oral mucosa and dentures by Candida. In these patients, dentures must be checked periodically to prevent the presence of Candida.

  13. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit(ICU) patients.Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed.Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests.Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document.Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples: urine(43.3%), tracheal aspirate(31.1%), urinary catheter(12.2%), endotracheal tube(7.8%),abdominal drains(3.3%), sputum(2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by nonalbicans Candida(NAC) species(63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans(36.7%).The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis(41.1%), Candida glabrata(10%), Candida parapsilosis(6.7%), Candida krusei(3.3%) and Candida kefyr(2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Antifungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8% and 7.8% of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively.Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  14. Estudio de la grasa de teobroma ozonizada usando la Resonancia Magnética

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    Fernández Torres, Irán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozonation of theobroma fat at different applied ozone dosages was carried out and peroxide indexes along with antimicrobial activity were determined. The reaction products were identified using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR. The principal signal intensity values were used for following the reaction course between ozone and theobroma fat. The reaction was followed up to peroxide index values of 544 mmol-equiv/kg. The intensities of olefinic proton signals decreased with the gradual increase in ozone concentration until disappearing completely. The Criegee ozonides obtained at 87.4 mg/g of ozone doses were approximately 3.7 times higher than at the beginning of the reaction. The highest action spectrum of antimicrobial activity was obtained with the higher peroxide index. These results suggest that the 1H NMR spectroscopic technique provides valuable information about of the ozonization grade of theobroma fat which produces an affective antimicrobial activity against Candida albicansSe realizó un estudio de la ozonización de la grasa de teobroma el cual fue seguido a diferentes dosis de ozono y fueron determinados los índices de peróxidos y su actividad antimicrobiana. Los productos de reacción fueron identificado por la espectroscopia de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Protónica (RMN 1H. Los principales valores de intensidad de las señales fueron usados para el seguimiento de la reacción entre el ozono y la grasa de teobroma. La reacción fue seguida hasta un valor de índice de peróxidos de 1 544 mmolequiv/kg. Las intensidades de las señales de los protones olefínicos desaparecen con un gradual incremento de la concentración de ozono. Los ozónidos de Criegee obtenidos a dosis de ozono de 87,4 mg/g fueron 3,7 veces mayores que los obtenidos al inicio de la reacción. El mayor espectro de acción de la actividad antimicrobiana fue obtenido a mayor índice de peróxidos. Estos resultados sugieren que la t

  15. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing candidemia from 1996 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Tang, Ran-Bin; Fan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of 383 Candida species isolated from blood were determined. Candida albicans was the most common species (55.6%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (17.5%), Candida tropicalis (16.5%), Candida glabrata (5.2%), Candida guilliermondii (2.3%), and others (2.9%). All but three isolates, Candida ciferrii, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, one each, were susceptible to amphotericin B. A total of 367 (95.8%) and 15 (4.2%) isolates were susceptible and susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole, respectively. Only one isolate, a C. glabrata, was resistant to fluconazole. Few patients (13%) having prior fluconazole treatments may explain the low rate of resistance to fluconazole in this study.

  16. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children Diversidade fenotípica e genotípica entre amostras de Candida albicans isoladas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livre de cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mardegan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans oral strains collected from caries-free and caries-active healthy children ranging from 24 to 36 months old, were studied. The aim of the study was to determine proteinase and phospholipase activities produced by Candida albicans in the two groups and to determine the phenotypic diversity of these enzymes based on genetic polymorphism using the AP-PCR method. Strains identified by morphological and fermentation tests as C. albicans were grown in proteinase and phospholipase agar media at 37ºC for 7 and 4 days, respectively. After the incubation period, the enzyme activity of the proteinase and phospholipase positive strains was measured. All strains were subjected to AP-PCR, using the arbitrary primer AP-3. The enzymatic analysis showed no differences between the two groups. The AP-PCR method was effective in demonstrating intra-individual genetic polymorphism in C. albicans, showing a greater clonal diversity in caries-active versus caries-free children. Dendograms of similarity showed only intra-individual clonal lineage. The results suggest that the enzymatic profile does not depend on the genotypic characteristics of the strains.Cepas orais de Candida albicans coletadas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livres de cárie com idade variando de 24 a 36 meses, foram estudadas. O propósito do estudo foi determinar a atividade da proteinase e da fosfolipase produzida por Candida albicans nos dois grupos e comparar com a diversidade genotípica usando o método AP-PCR. As cepas identificadas como C. albicans por testes morfológicos e de fermentação, foram cultivadas em meio ágar proteinase e fosfolipase a 37ºC por 7 e 4 dias, respectivamente. Após o período de incubação, a atividade enzimática das cepas proteinase e fosfolipase positiva foram medidas. Todas as cepas foram submetidas a técnica genotípica AP-PCR, usando o primer arbitrário AP-3. A análise enzimática demonstrou que não há diferença entre os

  17. Study on the Anti-bacteria Effect of Extracts from Prinsepia utilis Royle Oil Meal in vitro%青刺果种粕粉提取物体外抑菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 蒲中慧; 殷中琼; 李超; 杜永华

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The inhibition effect of Prinsepia utilis Royle oil meal extracts on normal pathogenic bacteria and the effect of temperature, pH value ,ultraviolet light on its antibacterial activities were tested. [Method] Study on the effect of restraining bacterium of Prinsepia utilis Royle oil meal extract on Staphylococcus aureus、E.coli and SaLmonella sp by the method of paper dispersion. [Results] The results showed that the extract had certain inhibitory effects on normal pathogenic bacteria, low antibacterial concentration, thermo stabilization and ultraviolet light stabilizer were good, but the range of active pH value was narrow, the antibacterial effects were the best between four and six of pH value. [Conclusion] Prinsepia utilis Royle oil meal extract had good anti-bacteria effect and been can be developed into antibacterial medicines.%[目的]探讨青刺果种粕粉提取物对常见致病细菌的抑制作用以及温度、pH值、紫外光等因素对其抑菌活性的影响.[方法]采用滤纸片扩散法研究青刺果种粕粉提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌的抑制作用.[结果]青刺果种粕粉提取物对常见致病细菌均有一定的抑菌作用,抑菌浓度低,热稳定性和紫外光稳定性较好,但其抑菌pH值范围不够广,在pH值为4~6的条件下抑菌效果最佳.[结论]青刺果种粕粉提取物具有较好的抑菌作用,可望将其开发成抗菌药物.

  18. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  19. Broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility to ketoconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C E; Bennett, R L; Beggs, W H

    1987-01-01

    We performed a detailed investigation of the kinetics of ketoconazole activity in the setting of broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility. Turbidimetric readings reflected parallel quantitative colony counts. The method of endpoint determination markedly affected the results. Determinations of 50% inhibitory concentrations clearly separated the ketoconazole-resistant strains from the susceptible strains.

  20. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  1. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  2. Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya E.; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Ceballos-Garzón, Andrés; Martínez, Heidys P.; Rodríguez, Gerson J.; Álvarez-Moreno, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungus that causes a wide range of symptoms. We report finding 17 cases of C. auris infection that were originally misclassified but correctly identified 27.5 days later on average. Patients with a delayed diagnosis of C. auris had a 30-day mortality rate of 35.2%. PMID:27983941

  3. [Candida and the gastrointestinal tract. A medical-research evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, S; Stanescu-Siegmund, A; Schwantes, P A

    1998-02-28

    In immunocompetent persons, Candida species are members of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Budding yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, can, however, in patients with a corresponding disposition, spread topically and systemically, that is, they may become pathogenic. In hematological/oncological patients with severe immunodeficiency, for example, the mycelium may infiltrate the muscularis mucosae, with involvement also of the vascular system. The relationships between recurrent diarrhea and Candida are still discussed controversial; various data do, however, suggest that massive colonization with Candida might well represent a(n additional) diarrhea-provoking factor. Similar considerations may also be assumed to apply to diarrhea induced by antibiotic therapy. For immunocompetent persons, guidelines exist for the yeast cell count in the stools. The interpretation of quantitative findings must, however, always be made on an individual basis and against the background of clinical symptoms and/or any particular predisposition of the patient. Reliable treatment of superficial candidasis can be achieved with oral polyene antifungal antibiotics (nystatin, amphotericin B).

  4. New clonal strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Sharma, Cheshta; Duggal, Shalini; Agarwal, Kshitij; Prakash, Anupam; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Sarika; Kathuria, Shallu; Randhawa, Harbans S; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-10-01

    A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

  5. New clonal strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

  6. Al-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Jarosz, Lucja M.; Amir, Lisa R.; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (Al

  7. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K

    2015-01-01

    and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were...

  8. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 1

  9. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  10. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  11. PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PERMUKAAN POLIESTER EBP-2421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin has been the only polymeric material for denture base for many years. One of the requirements for an ideal polymeric denture base material. It should be resistant to bacterial growth. The growth of Candida albicans on the surface of dentures is a concern for many denture wearers. This organism often is associated with denture stomatitis. A preliminary study showed polyester EBP-2421, a polymeric material for statues can also be manipulated to denture base. This research examined the growth of Candida albicans on the surface of EBP-2421. Research was carried out on strips of polyester EBP-2421 and Selton acrylic resin. Strips were contaminated with Candida albicans for 24 hours. Examinations on polyester EBP-2421 and acrylic resin immersed in saliva significantly differ from the not immersed strips (p<0,05. The lowest frequency were Candida albicans adhered on stripes of polyester EBP-2421 immersed in saliva. This result related with the fact that polyester EBP-2421 has smoother surface topography than acrylic resin.

  12. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  13. Growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 on mixed substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick V. Gurgel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown on a mixed substrate comprising glucose and xylose. Inocula were grown using xylose or glucose as carbon source. Results showed that xylose utilization was delayed until glucose was utilized. Inoculum prepared on glucose showed a lag phase in xylose consumption. Cell mass production was higher when glucose was utilized during fermentation.

  14. A naturally occurring proline-to-alanine amino acid change in Fks1p in Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis accounts for reduced echinocandin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Katiyar, Santosh K; Park, Steven; Edlind, Thomas D; Perlin, David S

    2008-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a common cause of invasive fungal infection, especially in Latin America and in the neonatal setting. C. parapsilosis is part of a closely related group of organisms that includes the species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. All three species show elevated MICs for the new echinocandin class drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin relative to other Candida species. Despite potential impacts on therapy, the mechanism behind this reduced echinocandin susceptibility has not been determined. In this report, we investigated the role of a naturally occurring Pro-to-Ala substitution at amino acid position 660 (P660A), immediately distal to the highly conserved hot spot 1 region of Fks1p, in the reduced-echinocandin-susceptibility phenotype. Kinetic inhibition studies demonstrated that glucan synthase from the C. parapsilosis group was 1 to 2 logs less sensitive to echinocandin drugs than the reference enzyme from C. albicans. Furthermore, clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata which harbor mutations at this equivalent position also showed comparable 2-log decreases in target enzyme sensitivity, which correlated with increased MICs. These mutations also resulted in 2.4- to 18.8-fold-reduced V(max) values relative to those for the wild-type enzyme, consistent with kinetic parameters obtained for C. parapsilosis group enzymes. Finally, the importance of the P660A substitution for intrinsic resistance was confirmed by engineering an equivalent P647A mutation into Fks1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant glucan synthase displayed characteristic 2-log decreases in sensitivity to the echinocandin drugs. Overall, these data firmly indicate that a naturally occurring P660A substitution in Fks1p from the C. parapsilosis group accounts for the reduced susceptibility phenotype.

  15. Episodios depresivos en la comunidad rural de Huaripampa, Áncash, usando el MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview).

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Santiago A.; Médico. Sociedad de Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia (SOCEMCH), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; López-Rodas, José E.; Médico Psiquiatra. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto Nacional de Salud Mental “Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi”. Lima, Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia de episodios depresivos mayores en una comunidad rural.  Material y métodos: Se reclutó a 105 pobladores de la comunidad rural de Huaripampa, Áncash, y se les realizó un tamizaje usando las primeras dos preguntas del MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), estratificándolos en riesgo bajo, moderado y alto. Se aplicó el resto de la entrevista a los individuos con riesgo moderado o alto.  Resultados: Según el MINI, el 40,23% de la muestra cumplió ...

  16. Construcción de un modelo de secador de yuca, en medio poroso, usando flujo radial de aire caliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Durango

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño y fabricación de un secador radial de yuca, en lecho poroso, usando energía eléctrica como fuente de calentamiento del aire de secado. Se presentan las pruebas llevadas a cabo en el secador con el fin de analizar su desempeño energético, la tasa de remoción de humedad en función del tiempo y las temperaturas de operación del mismo

  17. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  18. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsa; Szilágyi, Judit; Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos, Gábor; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedique; Majoros, László

    2009-07-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 microg/mL (1-8x MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 microg/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at > or =1x MIC (0.5-2 microg/mL) against C. parapsilosis and at > or =2x MIC (4-8 microg/mL) against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. Voriconazole inhibited C. parapsilosis at > or =1x MIC (0.015-0.12 microg/mL), but the other 2 species were inhibited only at 4 to 8x MIC (0.25-0.5 microg/mL). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, posaconazole was fungistatic close to the MIC (0.03-0.06 and 0.015-0.03 microg/mL, respectively). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, fluconazole and voriconazole, but not posaconazole, seem to be less active in vitro than against C. parapsilosis.

  19. Aptitud combinatoria general y especifica de líneas tropicales de maiz usando probadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sierra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptitud combinatoria general y específica de líneas tropicales de maíz usando probadores. Durante el ciclo O - I 1996/97 fueron evaluados en el Campo Experimental Cotaxtla mestizos de líneas sobresalientes y provenientes de varias fuentes de germoplasma como son : a Líneas recicladas de H-513 X VS-536, b Líneas derivadas de un compuesto de amplia base genética, c Líneas élite de programa de maíz de Cotaxtla (LTs y d Líneas de CIMMYT (CMLs. Como probadores se usaron las líneas LT-154 y LT-155 progenitores del híbrido H-513 y las líneas CML247 y CML254 cuya cruza es un patrón heterótico definido por CIMMYT para el trópico. Hubo líneas con buen comportamiento per-se tanto en rendimiento como en características agronómicas y que se encuentran formando mestizos sobresalientes con uno o varios probadores. Con relación a la Aptitud combinatoria, se encontró que las líneas F31XF30-4-3-1, F41XF40-1-2-1, CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174 y CML15 registraron los máximos valores con el probador 2 (LT155; F4XF3-5-2-1 y CML15 con el probador 4 (CMl254. Así también, las líneas F4XF5-5-1-1, y CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174, CML13 y CML15 con buena ACG. Con relación a los probadores, se encontró que para el grupo de líneas Recicladas , los probadores 1(LT154 y 4 (CML254 registraron los coeficientes de regresión más altos, lo que indica que permiten identificar líneas sobresalientes. Para líneas CABG fué el probador 2 (LT155 el que registró el mejor valor y en líneas Élite , los probadores 2(LT155, y 3(CML247 identificaron mejor a las líneas sobresalientes. Para las líneas del CIMMYT el mejor valor fué para el probador 4(CML254

  20. Avaliação de multielementos em amostras de sangue humano usando SR-TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Graciele V. Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de fluorescência de raios X por reflexão total usando radiação síncrotron (SR-TXRF é uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada para a determinação das concentrações elementares presentes em amostras biológicas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as possíveis alterações causadas por processos de irradiação na concentração de elementos-traço em amostras de sangue humano. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas Dr. Elilel Figueiredo, Rio de Janeiro, e divididas em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo foi irradiado com doses de 1.500, 2.500 e 3.000 cGy, utilizando o irradiador Gammacell 220 Excel, e o segundo foi irradiado com doses que variaram de 2 cGy a 100 cGy, utilizando uma bomba de cobalto Theratron 780 C do Inca, Rio de Janeiro. Todas as amostras de sangue total, plasma e matriz celular foram então liofilizadas e, em seguida, passaram pelo procedimento padrão de digestão. Todas as medidas foram realizadas na linha de fluorescência de raios X do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS, em Campinas, Brasil. Não se verificou variação significativa na concentração de Ca e, em contrapartida, o K foi o único elemento que sofreu alterações significativas para todas as amostras analisadas em função da dose. A concentração de Fe diminuiu apenas para as amostras de sangue total e plasma. A concentração de Zn apresentou uma diminuição significativa somente para as amostras de sangue total.

  1. Etude exploratoire : caractérisation des émissions de fournitures scolaires et de produits d'entretien utilisés dans une école et analyse des données de composition

    OpenAIRE

    Derbez, Mickael; Solal, Cécilia; Nicolas, Mélanie; Cannier, Céline; Loisel, Gwendal; Lengo, Cyrielle; Fernandez, Marianne; Maupetit, François; Pignon, Cécile; Cochet, Valérie; Theyrat, Dominique; Cettier, Joane; Dassonville, Claire; Mandin, Corinne; Nisse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    74 p.; Dans le cadre de son programme de travail "Lieux de vie fréquentés par les enfants", l'Observatoire de la qualité de l'air intérieur (OQAI) a réalisé une étude exploratoire visant à caractériser les émissions de composés organiques volatils (COV) et d'aldéhydes issues de produits liés aux activités scolaires et des produits d'entretien utilisés dans les salles de classe. Vingt-trois produits ont été retenus afin d'être évalués en chambre d'essai d'émission. Les résultats des essais d'é...

  2. Ingestion volontaire et digestibilité apparente d'une ration à base de la farine de graines de Mucuna pruriens var. utilis complétée de fourrages chez les lapins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboh, AB.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Volontary Ingestion and Apparent Digestibility of a Ration Based on Mucuna pruriens var. utilis Seeds Flour Completed with Forage on Rabbits. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (mucuna detoxified seeds flour is used as a vegetable protein source, in a basal diet of fifteen growing rabbits divided in five groups of tree. Each rabbit received per day a fixed quantity of basal diet (130.5 g DM, but as only feed (RP for control group; plus 40.5 g DM of Panicum maximum forage and, 60 g DM of one of the four experimental legumes of Aeschynomene histrix (RH, Mucuna pruriens (RFM, Stylosanthes scabra Secca (RS and Tridax procumbens (RT for the others groups. The experiment conducted in Benin has lasted 26 days, split in 19 days for diet adaptability and 7 days for data collection. Voluntary daily feed intake varied from 28 to 42 g/kg of dry mater (DM of live weight (LW for basal diet and from 10.5 to 18 g DM/kg of LW for Panicum maximum. Green forage consumption of Aeschynomene histrix, Mucuna pruriens and Stylosanthes scabra were higher compared to the one of Tridax procumbens (P< 0.01. The supply of green forage to basal diet has increased the total daily feed intake that is about 67 to 89 g DM/kg of LW and 26 to 39 g DM/day for dung production.Water intake is higher for rabbit fed with RP diet. Feed resource RFM but also RS and RH have been digestible with 70%, 61% and 54% DM. They gave high weight gain of 30-22 g/day.

  3. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  4. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  6. Elevated chitin content reduces the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species.

  7. IMPLEMENTACIÓN EN FPGA DE UN CLASIFICADOR DE MOVIMIENTOS DE LA MANO USANDO SEÑALES EMG

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    David Alexander Reyes Lopez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el diseño e implementación de un clasificador de señales electromiográficas (EMG para tres movimientos de la mano: flexión, extensión y cierre, usando dos músculos del antebrazo: palmar largo y extensor común de los dedos. El desarrollo comprende dos bloques principales: el hardware para la adquisición y adecuación de la señales EMG análogas, y el sistema de procesamiento para la identificación y clasificación del movimiento realizado; el sistema completo fue implementado en hardware usando un kit de desarrollo DE2-70 que cuenta con un FPGA Cyclone II de Altera. Para la extracción de características la Transformada Rápida de Fourier (FFT es implementada para cada canal y características como la varianza y el promedio fueron calculados. Finalmente, se establece un umbral de decisión para identificar el movimiento realizado. El tiempo de respuesta del sistema total fue de 17,7 us, obteniendo una tasa de identificación mayor al 87%.

  8. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

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    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  9. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Esra

    2010-04-01

    In this study, identification of 207 Candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using API 20 C AUX system. The most frequently isolated species were Candida krusei (34.8%), followed by Candida rugosa (16.4%), Candida kefyr (12.6%), Candida albicans (10.1%), and Candida tropicalis (9.2%). Less common isolates were Candida zeylanoides (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%), Candida guilliermondii (3.4%), Candida famata (1.9%), and Candida glabrata (1.5%). Additionally, in vitro hemolytic activity of all Candida strains were also examined in the present study. C. krusei (72 isolates), C. kefyr (26), C. albicans (21), C. tropicalis (19), C. zeylanoides (12), and C. glabrata (3) demonstrated both alpha and beta hemolysis at 48-h postinoculation. Only alpha hemolysis was detected in C. rugosa (34), C. guilliermondii (7), and C. famata (4), while C. parapsilosis (9) did not show any hemolytic activity after incubation for 72 h. Statistically significant difference (P hemolytic activities of Candida strains. The hemolytic activities of C. zeylanoides, C. albicans and C. kefyr were higher than other strains. This is the first study to describe variable hemolysis types exhibited by different Candida strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk in Turkey.

  10. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

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    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  11. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  12. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  13. GRINDING OF HARDENED STEELS USING OPTIMIZED COOLING RECTIFICADO DE ACEROS ENDURECIDOS USANDO REFRIGERACIÓN OPTIMIZADA

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    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves

    2008-06-01

    medio. Para ello, al proceso de rectificación está intrínseco el reciclaje del fluido de corte, que se destaca por su costo. A través de la variación de la velocidad de avance en el proceso de rectificación cilíndrica externa del acero ABNT D6, racionalizando la aplicación de dos fluidos de corte y usando una muela superabrasiva de CBN (nitruro de boro cúbico con ligante vitrificado, se evaluaron los parámetros de salida fuerza tangencial de corte, rugosidad, circularidad, desgaste de la herramienta, la tensión residual y la integridad superficial a través de la microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM de las piezas de prueba. Con el análisis del desempeño fluido, muela y velocidad de inmersión se encontró las mejores condiciones de fabricación propiciando la disminución del volumen de fluido de corte, disminución del tiempo de fabricación sin perjudicar los parámetros geométricos, dimensionales, el acabado superficial y la integridad superficial de los componentes.

  14. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Naohito; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshioka, Shinji; Yamano, Masahiro; Henmi, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole. PMID:25215255

  15. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

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    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  16. Characterization of extracellular nucleotide metabolism in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gonçalves, Teresa; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of human disseminated fungal infection. Ectophosphatase and ectonucleotidase activities are known to influence the infectious potential of several microbes, including other non-albicans species of Candida. With the present work we aim to characterize these ecto-enzymatic activities in C. albicans. We found that C. albicans does not have a classical ecto-5'-nucleotidase enzyme and 5'AMP is cleaved by a phosphatase instead of exclusively by a nucleotidase that also can use 3'AMP as a substrate. Moreover, these enzymatic activities are not dependent on secreted soluble enzymes and change when the yeast cells are under infection conditions, including low pH, and higher temperature and CO2 content.

  17. Phenotypic consequences of LYS4 gene disruption in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Kur, Krzysztof; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Pulickal, Anoop S; Bliss, Joseph M; Milewski, Sławomir

    2014-08-01

    A BLAST search of the Candida Genome Database with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYS4 sequence known to encode homoaconitase (HA) revealed ORFs 19.3846 and 19.11327. Both alleles of the LYS4 gene were sequentially disrupted in Candida albicans BWP17 cells using PCR-based methodology. The null lys4Δ mutant exhibited lysine auxotrophy in minimal medium but was able to grow in the presence of l-Lys and α-aminoadipate, an intermediate of the α-aminoadipate pathway, at millimolar concentrations. The presence of d-Lys and pipecolic acid did not trigger lys4Δ growth. The C. albicans lys4Δ mutant cells demonstrated diminished germination ability. However, their virulence in vivo in a murine model of disseminated neonatal candidiasis appeared identical to that of the wild-type strain. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in fungal burden of infected tissues between the strains.

  18. Use of Amorolfine in Candida- associated Denture Stomatitis

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    S.Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis (DS is an inflammatory lesion, in which there is redness of theoral mucosa underneath a removable denture. Although Candida albicans is a component ofnormal microbial flora, local and systemic factors can cause opportunistic infections. Poorlyfitting or unhygienic dentures leads to the presence of yeasts attached to it., and causeinflammation. Treatment procedures include correction of ill-fitting dentures, plaquecontrol, and topical and systemic antifungal therapy. Nystatin and Amphoteresin B are usedtopically as suspension. Since candidiasis is highly resistant to antifungal agents, systemicusage of ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole are necessary. But the systemic use ofthese drugs can cause side effects like liver toxicity, drug interactions etc. Lucio; Lorengoetal had conducted a study of the efficacy of amorolfine antifungal varnish, by localapplication, and found that it suppresses the nystatin resistant Candida associated denturestomatitis.

  19. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  20. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Nielsen, Lene; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during the years 2004-2008. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene ( SADH) followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme Ban I, using C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. orthopsilosis ATCC 96139 and C. metapsilosis ATCC 96144 as controls. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH gene alone, four isolates (5.1 %) had a pattern identical to the C. orthopsilosis reference strain. Sequence analysis of SADH and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions identified two of these isolates as C. metapsilosis. These results were confirmed by creating a phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of SADH, ITS and 26S rRNA gene sequence regions. Optimal differentiation between C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis was predicted using digestion with NlaIII, producing discriminatory band sizes of: 131 and 505 bp; 74, 288 and 348 bp; and 131, 217 and 288 bp, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Denmark.

  1. Prospective multicenter study of the epidemiology, molecular identification, and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis isolated from patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen; Velasco, David

    2011-12-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species

  2. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.

  3. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan,, V.; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  4. The Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Isolated From Urine Samples to Posaconazole and Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; REZAEI-MATEHKOLAEI, Ali; Ghanavati, Fataemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candiduria is a rising condition among hospitalized patients and Candida albicans is the most common recovered agent. However, non-albicans Candida species (NACs) such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also important. Although most Candida species especially C. albicans are sensitive to routinely used antifungals, an increasing trend in resistance has been observed among NACs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility...

  5. Evolution of Mating within the Candida parapsilosis Species Group▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M.; McGee, Conor F.; Lynch, Denise B.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MT...

  6. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms.

  7. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin.

  8. STUDY OF CHARACTERIZATION & ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT CANDIDA SPECIES

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    Geeta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades Candida has accounted for the most serious opportunistic infections especially in the immuno-compromised individuals. Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections & the rates of resistance to standard antifungal therapies are on the rise. Awareness regarding fungal infections has compelled the clinicians and laboratories to lay more emphasis on the detection of fungi; as speciation and antifungal tests are not routinely done. Over the past decade significant progress has been made with standardization of the methods for antifungal susceptibility testing, correlation between in-vitro results & patient outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate, identify & determine the susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Candida species and study the spectrum of Non-albicans Candida species, thus contributing to overall reduction in the cost of treatment and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: The study was carried out at department of microbiology MVJ Medical Hospital Bangalore for one year from Aug 2010 – July 2011. 50 Candida species which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. They were identified by using various media & identification methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done on Yeast nitrogen base agar by disk diffusion method & analyzed. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida (NAC emerged as the commonest species with [39(22%] causing fungal infection followed by Candida albicans [11(22%]. Among the NAC isolates Candida tropicalis was predominant followed by Candida krusei, Candida glabrata & Candida guilliermondi. CONCLUSION: Studying the speciation & susceptibility patterns of Candida will help us understand the etio-pathology and might assist in better patient care

  9. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna; Shilpa Patel; Madhusudan Astekar Sundarrao; Ravindra Setru Veerabhadrappa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additio...

  10. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  11. Echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis: 12 cases and a review of published reports

    OpenAIRE

    Donal, E.; Abgueguen, P; Coisne, D.; Gouello, J; McFadden, E; Allal, J.; Corbi, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the specific echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis.
DESIGN—Retrospective review of the case records of patients with confirmed candida endocarditis.
SETTING—Cases referred to three French university centres over an eight year period were studied.
DESIGN—12 patients with confirmed Candida species endocarditis infection were identified. The transthoracic (n = 12) and transoesophageal (n = 12) echocardiographic appearances were compared with the surgica...

  12. Evolution of mating within the Candida parapsilosis species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M; McGee, Conor F; Lynch, Denise B; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MTLα, and 2 were MTLa/α heterozygotes. The C. orthopsilosis isolates belonged to two divergent groups, as characterized by restriction patterns at MTL, which probably represent subspecies. We sequenced both idiomorphs from each group and showed that they are 95% identical and that the regulatory genes are intact. In contrast, 18 isolates of C. metapsilosis contain only MTLα idiomorphs. Our results suggest that the role of MTL in determining cell type is being eroded in the C. parapsilosis species complex. The population structure of C. orthopsilosis indicates that mating may occur. However, expression of genes in the mating signal transduction pathway does not respond to exposure to alpha factor. C. parapsilosis is also nonresponsive, even when the GTPase-activating protein gene SST2 is deleted. In addition, splicing of introns in MTLa1 and MTLa2 is defective in C. orthopsilosis. Mating is not detected. The alpha factor peptide, which is the same sequence in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, can induce a mating response in Candida albicans. It is therefore likely either that mating of C. orthopsilosis takes place under certain unidentified conditions or that the mating pathway has been adapted for other functions, such as cross-species communication.

  13. Candida ciferrii: clinical and microbiological features of an emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gentile, L; Bouchara, J P; Cimon, B; Chabasse, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors report six cases of toenail onyxis due to an unusual yeast species, Candida ciferrii. For half of these cases, direct microscopical examination showed the presence of blastospores and pseudo-to-true mycelium, demonstrating the parasitic transition of the fungus. In light of the literature and of their own experience, the authors suggest that C. ciferrii could be an etiological agent of onychomycosis, particularly for elderly patients with extensive trophic disorders.

  14. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

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    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  15. Candida rugosa Lipase-catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxyalkanephosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永辉; 徐成富; 李晋峰; 袁承业

    2003-01-01

    An efficient lipase-catalyzedenantioselective hydrolysis of butyryloxyalkanephosphonates in water-equillbrated diisopropyl ether was developed. The relationship between the substrates' structure and the reactivity, as well as the enantioselectivlty of this enzymatic transformation was studied. The catalytic preference of crude Candida rugosa lipase toward such molecules was assigned according to modified Mosher's method and Xray crystallographic analysis. Optically pure 2-hydroxy-2-arylethanephosphonates, 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanephosphonate, and 3, 3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanephosphonates were conveniently prepared in this manner.

  16. Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights

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    Tatiana Pereira-Cenci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic progress, opportunistic oral fungal infectious diseases have increased in prevalence, especially in denture wearers. The combination of entrapment of yeast cells in irregularities in denture-base and denture-relining materials, poor oral hygiene and several systemic factors is the most probable cause for the onset of this infectious disease. Hence colonization and growth on prostheses by Candida species are of clinical importance. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss several key factors controlling the adhesion of Candida species which are relevant to denture-associated stomatitis. Although there is some consensus on the role of surface properties, studies on several other factors, as the use of denture liners, salivary properties and yeast-bacterial interactions, have shown contradictory findings. A comprehensive fundamental understanding is hampered by conflicting findings due to the large variations in experimental protocols, while other factors have never been thoroughly studied. Surface free energy and surface roughness control the initial adherence, but temporal changes have not been reported. Neither have in vivo studies shown if the substratum type is critical in dictating biofilm accumulation during longer periods in the oral environment. The contribution of saliva is unclear due to factors like variations in its collection and handling. Initial findings have disclosed that also bacteria are crucial for the successful establishment of Candida in biofilms, but the clinical significance of this observation is yet to be confirmed. In conclusion, there is a need to standardize experimental procedures, to bridge the gap between laboratory and in vivo methodologies and findings and - in general - to thoroughly investigate the factors that modulate the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of denture-base materials and the oral mucosa of patients subjected to Candida infections. Information on how

  17. Candida peritonitis in dogs: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Katy; Meinkoth, Jim; McKeirnen, Kelci; Love, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Candida peritonitis is reported in people and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality compared with sterile or bacterial peritonitis. Recognized predisposing risk factors include peritoneal dialysis, hollow viscous organ perforation, abdominal surgery, inflamed intestinal mucosa, antimicrobial administration, and immunosuppression. In this report, we describe 5 cases of dogs with peritonitis complicated by Candida spp; 3 dogs with C albicans, one dog with C albicans and C glabrata, and one dog with C glabrata only. The 3 dogs with C albicans peritonitis presented with duodenal perforation due to NSAID therapy, intestinal resection and anastomosis following postspay-surgery dehiscence, and intestinal foreign body removal. The 2 dogs with C glabrata peritonitis had undergone cholecystectomy due to gall bladder rupture and dehiscence of intestinal biopsy removal sites following exploratory laparatomy. In all cases, initial diagnosis of fungal peritonitis was made via cytologic examination of peritoneal effusions, which revealed marked pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous 3-8 μm oval, deeply basophilic yeast organisms with thin clear capsules noted within phagocytes and extracellularly. In addition, germ tube formation, hyphae, and pseudohyphae were rarely seen in some of the cases with pure C albicans. Identity of the organisms was determined by culture in all cases and confirmed by PCR in 3 cases. Candida spp. are commensals normally inhabiting the alimentary, the upper respiratory, and the lower urogenital tracts of mammals. They are opportunistic pathogens that can invade and colonize tissue when a patient is immune-compromised or there is disruption of the mucosal barrier. Candida peritonitis should be considered in patients with peritoneal contamination with gastrointestinal or biliary contents.

  18. La lipase de Candida rugosa : caractérisation biochimique

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    Mtibaa Hounaida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les lipases ou triacylglycérols hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.3 sont des enzymes qui agissent en milieu hétérogène. Ces enzymes catalysent l’hydrolyse des liaisons esters des triacylglycérols à l’interface huile/eau [1]. Leur particularité vient du fait que ces enzymes sont plus actives sur les lipides qui sont sous forme agrégée [2]. Les lipases sont présentes dans la plupart des tissus animaux et végétaux ainsi que chez les microorganismes qui constituent une source importante de production de lipases à grande échelle. À ce jour, de nombreuses lipases de microorganismes ont été purifiées et caractérisées et certaines d’entres elles ont été cristallisées (lipase de Pseudomonas glumae [3], lipase de Rhizomucor miehei [4], lipase Geotrichum candidum [5], lipase de Candida rugosa [6].... La lipase de Candida cylindracea (qui est l’ancien nom de Candida rugosa a été cristallisée en présence et en l’absence d’inhibiteurs [7]. Il s’agit d’une alpha/beta hydrolase comprenant 11 brins beta entourés par 8 hélices alpha [6]. La triade catalytique est cachée sous un flap constitué de 26 résidus d’aminoacides. Dans le présent travail, nous avons cherché à étudier quelques caractéristiques biochimiques de la lipase de Candida rugosa (CRL qui a été purifiée dans notre laboratoire à partir de la poudre commercialisée.

  19. Tyrosol is a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao; Fujita, Masaki; Feng, Qinghua; Clardy, Jon; Fink, Gerald R.

    2004-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans shows a significant lag in growth when diluted into fresh minimal medium. This lag is abolished by the addition of conditioned medium from a high-density culture. The active component of conditioned medium is tyrosol, which is released into the medium continuously during growth. Under conditions permissive for germ-tube formation, tyrosol stimulates the formation of these filamentous protrusions. Because germ-tube formation is inhibited by farnesol, ...

  20. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

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    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  1. Evaluation of in vivo pathogenicity of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis with different enzymatic profiles in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Elizondo-Zertuche, M; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; González, José G; González, Gloria M

    2014-04-01

    Six isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex with different enzymatic profiles were used to induce systemic infection in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Fungal tissue burden was determined on days 2, 5, 10, and 15 post challenge. The highest fungal load irrespective of post-infection day was detected in the kidney, followed by the spleen, lung, and liver, with a tendency for the fungal burden to decrease by day 15 in all groups. Significant differences among the strains were not detected, suggesting that the three species of the "psilosis" group possess a similar pathogenic potential in disseminated candidiasis regardless of their enzymatic profiles.

  2. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing nosocomial candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhak-Baysan, Betil; Ogunc, Dilara; Colak, Dilek; Ongut, Gozde; Donmez, Levent; Vural, Tumer; Gunseren, Filiz

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of Candida species isolated from urine specimens of hospitalized patients in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, as well as their susceptibilities to antifungal agents. A total of 100 patients who had nosocomial candiduria between March 2003 and May 2004 at the facility were included in the study. Organisms were identified by conventional methods and the use of API ID 32C strips. Susceptibilities of the isolates to amphotericin B were determined by Etest, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these same strains to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were assessed using the broth microdilution method. The most common species recovered was C. albicans 44% of all yeasts, followed by C. tropicalis (20%), C. glabrata (18%), C. krusei (6%), C. famata (5%), C. parapsilosis (4%), C. kefyr (2%) and C. guilliermondii (1%). A total of nine (9%) of the isolates, including five C. krusei and four C. glabrata isolates were susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) to fluconazole. In constrast, only two C. glabrata and one C. krusei isolates were resistant to this antifungal. The voriconazole MICs for all Candida isolates were ≤0.5 μg/ml, except for one C. glabrata isolate with a MIC value of 2 μg/ml. Among all isolates, 94% were susceptible to amphotericin B with MIC values of Candida urinary tract infections.

  3. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  4. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species.

  5. Candida Infections: An Update on Host Immune Defenses and Anti-Fungal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species are becoming increasing prevalent in the human population. Such pathogens cause life-threatening diseases with high mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Host defenses against fungal infections are provided by an exquisite interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, effective anti-fungal agents for Candida infections are limited, and fungal drug resistance is a significant treatment challenge. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of host–fungal interactions, discuss the modes action of anti-fungal drugs, explore host defense mechanisms, and define the new challenges for treating Candida infections.

  6. Neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response in candida vulvovaginitis patients with intracellular microorganism persistence complications

    OpenAIRE

    YAKOVYCHUK NINA DMYTRIVNA; DJUIRIAK VALENTYNA STEPANIVNA

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response and body immune reactivity in general considerably decrease in patients suffering from candida vaginitis on the basis of intracellular microorganisms persistence.

  7. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

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    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  8. Biofilm formation in clinical Candida isolates and its association with virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Fahmi; Xess, Immaculata; Wang, Xiabo; Jain, Neena; Fries, Bettina C.

    2009-01-01

    Biofilm formation, an important virulence trait of Candida species was measured in 107 Candida isolates from 32 candidemic patients by XTT [2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetra-zolium-5-carboxanilide] activity and compared to biofilm formation of Candida isolates from oropharyngeal lesions of 19 AIDS patients. Biofilm formation by XTT varied among species and C. albicans; C. lusitaniae and C. krusei produced more biofilm than the other Candida species. C. tropicalis was the most...

  9. Sampling of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis by Langerin-positive dendritic cells in mouse Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Magdia; Rodriguez, Adam E; Yagita, Hideo; Ostroff, Gary R; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Candida genus, including C. albicans and C. tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. In healthy populations, however, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are considered benign members of the mycobiome, and are presumably kept in check by the mucosal immune system. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that C. albicans and C. tropicalis are sampled by Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs). Uptake into gut-associated lymphoid tissues occurred rapidly and was at least partly M cell-dependent. C. albicans and C. tropicalis preferentially localized in (and persisted within) a recently identified sub- population of Peyer's patch DCs distinguished by their expression of the C-type lectin receptor, Langerin. This study is the first to identify a subset of PP DCs capable of sampling Candida species.

  10. Rapid molecular differentiation and genotypic heterogeneity among Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis strains isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Zia U

    2009-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have led to the recognition of three distinct species within the Candida parapsilosis complex, namely Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. As currently available yeast identification systems fail to differentiate these species, there is a paucity of information on their occurrence in different geographical regions. This study describes a simple PCR-based protocol for rapid discrimination among C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis strains by using primers derived from unique sequences within the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 region. Retrospective analysis of 114 C. parapsilosis-complex isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait identified 109 as C. parapsilosis, five as C. orthopsilosis and none as C. metapsilosis. The results were further validated by PCR-RFLP patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment. DNA sequencing of the ITS region and the D1/D2 regions of the 28S rRNA gene confirmed the species-specific identification of all five C. orthopsilosis strains. The amplicon length of the intergenic spacer between the 28S and 5S rRNA genes (IGS1) was also species-specific, and PCR-RFLP analyses of the IGS1 region identified two distinct genotypes among the five C. orthopsilosis strains, which corresponded with the ITS region sequence data. The three bloodstream C. orthopsilosis strains were confined to a single genotype. Among 81 randomly selected C. parapsilosis strains, two genotypes were detected by IGS1 region analyses, indicating limited genotypic heterogeneity among C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains. As far as is known, this is the first report on the identification of C. orthopsilosis from a bloodstream infection in the Arabian Gulf region.

  11. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection m...

  12. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Balero de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All isolates were able to form biofilms on different substrate surfaces. Eugenol showed inhibitory activity against planktonic and sessile cells of Candida spp. No metabolic activity in biofilm was detected after 24 h of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that eugenol drastically reduced the number of sessile cells on denture material surfaces. Most Candida species showed hydrophobic behavior and a significant difference in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed after exposure of planktonic cells to eugenol for 1 h. Eugenol also caused a significant reduction in adhesion of most Candida spp. to HEp-2 cells and to polystyrene. These findings corroborate the effectiveness of eugenol against Candida species other than C. albicans, reinforcing its potential as an antifungal applied to limit both the growth of planktonic cells and biofilm formation on different surfaces.

  13. 青刺果黄酮对糖尿病小鼠肺病理变化的影响%The effects of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle on the pathologic changes of lung in the diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 贾仁勇; 殷中琼; 吴小兰; 张雅雪

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察青刺果黄酮(FPR)对糖尿病小鼠肺病变的影响.方法 用四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,并ig给予300mg·kg-1 FPR治疗,连续4周.分别于2、4周末于各组随机抽取4只小鼠宰杀,取出肺脏.肺组织用石蜡切片、HE和Gomori染色、显微镜观测.结果 糖尿病小鼠的肺弥漫性出血,肺泡腔缩小,肺泡壁增厚,支气管周围的纤维细胞增生和淋巴细胞浸润,肺间质、支气管周围网状纤维和胶原纤维的含量增加.FPR治疗组小鼠的肺出血得到缓解,肺泡腔增大,肺泡壁基本恢复正常,肺间质、支气管周围有少量的网状纤维和胶原纤维.结论 FPR能明显减轻糖尿病小鼠肺的病理变化,有效延缓糖尿病引起的肺损伤.%OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle on the pathologic changes of lung in diabetic mice. METHODS Diabetic mice induced by alloxan were given flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle orally 300 mg·kg-1 each day for four weeks. Two weeks and four weeks later four mice in each group were randomly sacrificed, and the lungs were taken out and fixed with 4% polyoxym ethylene. The lung tissue was embedded with paraffin and the sections were tained with hematoxylin and eosin ( HE) and Gomori,then observed with microscopy. RESULTS In the model control group,the lung developed to the diffuse hemorrhages , the alveolar space was deflated, the alverolar walls were thickened, the fibrocytes proliferated and lymphocytes infiltrated in the surrounding of bronchi, the amount of reticular fiber and collagen fiber increased in lung interstitium and in the surrounding of bronchi. In the treatment group, the pulmonary haemorrhage was reliefed,the alveolar space was augmented, the alverolar walls were almost recovered to a normal state. Little reticular fiber and collagen fiber appeared in lung interstitium and in the surrounding of bronchi. CONCLUSION Flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle can relieve the

  14. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  15. ANÁLISE NUMÉRICA DO ARRANCAMENTO DE FIBRAS DE AÇO USANDO ELEMENTOS FINITOS

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Thalles Morais; Durand, Raul; Feitosa Pereira, Cláudio Henrique de Almeida; Rosales, Yadian Menéndez

    2017-01-01

    Resumo. No concreto reforçado com fibras de aço, a interação entre fibras e a matriz de concreto é de suma importância para o desempenho do compósito. A boa interação destes componentes permite o aumento da capacidade de absorção de energia do compósito. Neste contexto, este trabalho apresenta a simulação numérica de ensaios experimentais de arrancamento de fibra de aço usando o método dos elementos finitos. Os resultados destas simulações são úteis na verificação dos parâmetros do contato, o...

  16. Análise aerodinâmica de asas usando o método VLM acoplado ao XFOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Álvaro Gil Sampaio

    2009-01-01

    O objectivo do presente trabalho é desenvolver uma ferramenta numérica para a análise aerodinâmica de asas subsónicas usando o método de análise VLM (Vortex Lattice Method). A solução aerodinâmica é obtida em duas partes: o método VLM fornece a sustentação e a resistência aerodinâmica induzida e as suas distribuições sobre a superfície média da asa; para se obter a resistência aerodinâmica parasita o código XFOIL, que usa um método dos painéis acoplado a uma formulação de camada limi...

  17. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  18. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  19. Synergistic effect of amphotericin B and tyrosol on biofilm formed by Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis from intrauterine device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Sornakumari, Haridevvenkatesan; Lency, Arumugam; Kavitha, Senthil; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2014-11-01

    The presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) provides a solid surface for attachment of microorganisms and an ideal niche for the biofilm to form and flourish. Vaginal candidiasis is often associated with the use of IUDs. Treatment of vaginal candidiasis that develops in connection with IUD use requires their immediate removal. Here, we present in vitro evidence to support the use of combination therapy to inhibit Candida biofilm. Twenty-three clinical Candida isolates (10 C. krusei and 13 C. tropicalis) recovered from endocervical swabs obtained from IUD and non-IUD users were assessed for biofilm-formation ability. The rate of isolation of Candida did not differ significantly among IUD and non-IUD users (P = 0.183), but the biofilm-formation ability of isolates differed significantly (P = 0.02). An in vitro biofilm model with the obtained isolates was subjected to treatment with amphotericin B, tyrosol, and a combination of amphotericin B and tyrosol. Inhibition of biofilm by amphotericin B or tyrosol was found to be concentration dependent, with 50% reduction (P tyrosol and amphotericin B was studied. Interestingly, approximately 90% reduction in biofilm was observed with use of 80 μM tyrosol combined with 4 mg/l amphotericin B (P < 0.001). This represents a first step in establishing an appropriate antibiofilm therapy when yeasts are present.

  20. Prevalence and distribution profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis responsible for superficial candidiasis in a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Ling, Bo; Yang, Guimei; Yu, Xia; Ren, Daming; Yao, Zhirong

    2012-04-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex consists of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Recently, many studies described the prevalence of this species complex mainly in invasive candidiasis. Additionally, data showed that these three species are different in virulence and in vitro drug susceptibility. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence and distribution of the species complex in superficial candidiasis is not very clear to date. In this study, 2,128 Candida isolates from specimens of superficial candidiasis were collected over a 1-year period. Combination of routine and molecular tools, a total of 214 samples were identified to be positive for the C. parapsilosis complex (10.1%), of which 198 (92.5%) were monofungal and 16 (7.5%) were polyfungal. Among the 198 monofungal isolates, 191 (96.5%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5 (2.5%) as C. metapsilosis, and 2 (1.0%) as C. orthopsilosis species based on the molecular method. All C. parapsilosis complex isolates from the 16 polyfungal populations were found to be C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Further analysis showed that the distribution profiles of the C. parapsilosis complex in adult patients were different from that in pediatric patients, and the prevalence rate of it varied greatly by sites of isolation. This study provides insight into the epidemiology of the species complex in superficial candidiasis.

  1. 不同可食性涂膜对方竹笋保鲜效果的影响%Effect of different edible coatings preservative on the preservation of Chimonobarnbusa busa utilis shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐; 王洪新

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of edible coatings preservatives solutions were confected with carrageenan, CMC, sodium alginate and konjak. By determining changes of weight loss, respiration rate, TA and total sugar content, protein content,chlorophyll, carotenoid and appearance, the fresh- keeping effects of these four kinds of edible coatings preservatives on Chimonobarnbusa busa utilis shoots were studied. The results showed that all the four kinds of edible coatings preservatives can elongate the fresh time of Chimonobarnbusa busa utilis shoots. The 0.6% carrageenan and 0.3% konjak showed the best effects,25d after banmboo shoots were treated, the effects of these two coating preservatives were better than the others. The carrageenan and konjak, which were fit for the trend of natural coatings preservatives, being used in keeping bamboo shoots fresh would have good market prospects.%以卡拉胶、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)、海藻酸钠和魔芋多糖制备了四种涂膜保鲜剂,通过测定失重、呼吸强度、总酸和总糖、蛋白质、总叶绿素和总类胡萝卜素含量变化,并结合感官变化研究了这四种涂膜剂对方竹笋保鲜效果的影响.结果表明:四种涂膜剂均可以延长方竹笋的保鲜期.0.6%卡拉胶和0.3%魔芋多糖效果最优,用这两种涂膜剂处理竹笋,贮藏25d,保鲜效果优于其他两组.并且以卡拉胶和魔芋多糖涂膜符合天然涂膜保鲜荆的发展趋势,用于竹笋的保鲜必将有良好的市场前景.

  2. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Maia Valério; Rita de Cássia Botelho Weikert-Oliveira; Maria Aparecida de Resende

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did n...

  3. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida

  4. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SPP . ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Sagarika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the changing health scenario fungal infections have increased significantly, contributing to morbidity, mortality and health care cost. Candida is major human fungal pathogens that cause both superficial and deep tissue infections. With emergence of non - albicans Candida species, availability of advanced identification methods and antifungal resistance, the spectrum of candidiasis has changed. OBJ ECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates, risk factors associated with candidiasis and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty nine dif ferent clinical isolates of Candida were collected from indoor patients of a tertiary care centre of Gujarat from May 2009 to June 2010. Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with miniAPI (Analytical Prophylactic Index (Biomerieux, France which is an automatic identification and susceptibility testing instrument. RESULTS: We found that the non ‑ albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans . Candida tropicalis (48.9% was the most common Candida spp. and also more resistant than that of C.albicans . C.albicans showed resistance against fluconazole (3.5% and itraconazole (8.8% whereas C.tropicalis were res istant to amphotericin B (10.3%, fluconazole (20.7%, itraconazole (32.3%, and voriconazole (23.5% and flucytosine (5.8%. Overall resistance rates of Candida for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole and flucytosine were 6.4%, 15. 2%, 22.3%, 12.9%, 5% respectively. CONCLUSION: To achieve better clinical results species ‑ level identification of Candida spp. and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed.

  6. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez, Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel, Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurement, sialometry test, Gram-stained exfoliative cytology, and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida TM. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We examined 141 patients (mean age 57 years): 103 women (73%) and 38 men (26.9%). Exfoliative cytology was positive in 32 cases (23 with oral lesions); 78 had oral lesions but no Candida (93.9%). Candida was isolated in 58 patients (41.1%), 21 (45.6 %) had blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dl, and 37 (38.9%) had less than 126 mg/dl. The most frequent species was C. albicans (82.7%). Forty-two Candida carriers had salivary flow greater than 20 mm (72.4%), and 16 (27.5%) had hyposalivation. Candida was isolated in 25 of 79 patients with dental prosthesis (31.6%), 9 of 15 were smokers (60%), and 22 of 71 had symptoms (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of oral Candida carriers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico was similar to that found in other countries; exfoliative cytology was effective in finding Candida; salivary flow rate, use of prosthesis, and presence of oral lesions and symptoms were similar in oral Candida carriers and negative patients. Most smokers were Candida carriers. PMID:23739717

  7. Interactions Between Candida albicans and Host Interações entre Candida albicans e Hospedeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane De Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can cause grave infections in patients who are immunocompromised by diseases, by surgery, or by immunesupresive therapy. The high levels of morbidity and mortality resulting from those infections in hospitalized patients show that C. albicans became a prominent human pathogen. Although the host immune system is the major factor balancing the transition from commensalisms to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans by phagocytic cells, which present receptors Toll-like 4, dectin–1 associated to receptors Toll-like2 and mannose receptors. The cytokine IL-10 (IL-10 produced by phagocytes has a crucial role on susceptibility of host fungal infection, whereas IL-10 produced by regulatory T cells is mainly responsible by commensalisms. In contrast, productions of tumour necrosis factor - α (TNF-α, interleukin–1 β (lL-1 β, (IL-6 and (Il-12 provided protective cell–mediated immunity. The interferon-γ produced by natural killer and TH1 cells stimulates migration of phagocytes and major efficacy on destruction of fungi. In epithelial cells from mucosas the NOD-like receptors and defensins-β cytoplasmatic prevent the translocation of C. albicans from microbiota to tissues, which are modulated by IL-1 β, Il-17 and Il-22 cytokines. to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans

  8. Evaluation of the Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH probes for identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leslie; Le Febre, Kara M; Deml, Sharon M; Wohlfiel, Sherri L; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2012-04-01

    The Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH kit (YTL) correctly identified Candida spp. in 207/216 (96%) positive blood cultures. Discordant results were seen with known cross-reacting species and cultures containing Candida lambica and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The YTL provides rapid, reliable identification of the five common Candida species found in blood cultures.

  9. Role of Dectin-2 for Host Defense against Systemic Infection with Candida glabrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.; Bain, J.M.; Reid, D.M.; Oosting, M.; Verschueren, I.; Gow, N.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Brown, G.D.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Koentgen, F.; Erwig, L.P.; Quintin, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Although Candida glabrata is an important pathogenic Candida species, relatively little is known about its innate immune recognition. Here, we explore the potential role of Dectin-2 for host defense against C. glabrata. Dectin-2-deficient (Dectin-2(-/-)) mice were found to be more susceptible to C.

  10. Dendritic cell interaction with Candida albicans critically depends on N-linked mannan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambi, A.; Netea, M.G.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Gow, N.A.; Hato, S.V.; Lowman, D.W.; Kullberg, B.J.; Torensma, R.; Williams, D.L.; Figdor, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is the most common cause of mycotic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Little is known about the initial interactions between Candida and immune cell receptors, because a detailed characterization at the structural level is lacking. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells

  11. Enteric Gram-negative bacilli suppress Candida biofilms on Foley urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P

    2014-01-01

    Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p Candida albicans significantly (p Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS.

  12. Identification of a new species, Candida subhashii, as a cause of peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, H.; Groenewald, M.; Mohan, S.; Richardson, S.; Bunn, U.; Gibas, C.F.C; Poutanen, S.; Sigler, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of fungal peritonitis from which a novel Candida species was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene show that the Candida species is distinct from, but related to,

  13. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  14. Characterization of atypical Candida tropicalis and other uncommon clinical yeast isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlitzer, R L; Ahearn, D G

    1982-01-01

    Clinical yeast isolates representing alpha-glucoside-deficient variants of Candida tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, atypical C. albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized. Additional physiological tests, including cellobiose fermentation, rhamnose assimilation, and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction, are recommended for the detection and presumptive identification of uncommon Candida spp. in the clinical laboratory.

  15. Role of autophagy genetic variants for the risk of Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentul, D.C.; Plantinga, T.S.; Farcas, M.; Oosting, M.; Hamza, O.J.M.; Scott, W.K.; Alexander, B.D.; Yang, J.C.; Laird, G.M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Johnson, M.D.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans can cause candidemia in neutropenic and critically ill patients and oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with low CD4(+) counts. Because all patients at risk do not develop Candida infections, it is possible that a patient's genetic backg

  16. Colonization by Candida in children with cancer, children with cystic fibrosis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelsrud, K W; Sandven, P; Høiby, E A; Sandvik, L; Brandtzaeg, P; Gaustad, P

    2011-12-01

    A longitudinal, prospective study was conducted intermittently in Norway, from 1999 to 2008, to investigate the Candida colonization rates and species distributions in the tonsillopharyngeal and faecal flora in: (i) children with cancer; (ii) children with cystic fibrosis (CF); and (iii) healthy children. The effect of antibiotic treatment on Candida colonization was also studied, and we looked for changes in antifungal susceptibility over time within each child and between the different groups of children. In total, 566 tonsillopharyngeal swabs and 545 faecal samples were collected from 45 children with cancer, 37 children with CF, and 71 healthy, age-matched controls. The overall colonization rate with Candida was not significantly higher in the two groups of children undergoing extensive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics than in healthy controls. Approximately one-third of the cancer patients had a total lack of Candida colonization or had only one Candida-positive sample, despite multiple samples being taken, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, long hospital stays, and periods with neutropenia. Children with CF had the highest prevalence of Candida albicans. Amoxycillin, azithromycin, third-generation cephalosporins and oral vancomycin resulted in a significantly increased Candida colonization rate. Phenoxymethylpenicillin, second-generation cephalosporins, metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, penicillinase-resistant penicillins and inhaled tobramycin or colistin showed minimal effects on the Candida colonization rate. We found no evidence of development of antifungal resistance over time.

  17. Phenotypic variability and therapeutic implications of Candida species in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Verma, M; Gupta, S R; Urs, A B; Dhakad, M S; Kaur, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenotypic variation of Candida species in oral lichen planus (OLP) and the therapeutic implications of our findings. Eighty patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of OLP (64 non-erosive, 16 erosive) and a control group of 80 healthy individuals with no predisposing factors for oral candidiasis were examined for evidence of Candida infection. Oral swabs and smears were obtained for cytology and culture. Identification, speciation and antifungal susceptibility tests of Candida isolates were performed using an automated microbial identification system. Fifty percent of erosive OLP cases, 28% of non-erosive cases and none of the controls showed evidence of Candida. Candida albicans was found predominantly in non-erosive OLP, while other Candida species were predominate in erosive OLP. Non-Candida albicans isolates (C. glabrata, C. krusei) were resistant to the commonly used antifungals, clotrimazole and fluconazole. Candida infection is common in cases of OLP. We recommend antifungal sensitivity testing prior to antifungal therapy for the erosive form of OLP.

  18. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  19. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and antivirulence agents to fight against Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jinhui; Ren, Biao; Tong, Yaojun

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the pathogenic Candida species, causes high mortality rate in immunocompromised and high-risk surgical patients. In the last decade, only one new class of antifungal drug echinocandin was applied. The increased therapy failures, such as the one caused by multi...

  20. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez,Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel,Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. ...

  1. Favorable outcome of neonatal cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated Candida meningitis with caspofungin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, J.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Christmann, V.; Verweij, P.E.; Warris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections associated with medical devices are very difficult to cure without device removal. We present a case of neonatal cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated Candida meningitis, in which removal of the device was precluded, that was successfully treated with caspofungin. Pharmaco

  2. Emergence of a Candida krusei Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Caspofungin during Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical failure associated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin has been described in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. We report a case of Candida krusei infection that progressed despite caspofungin therapy. Reduced microbial susceptibility to all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) was noted but was not associated with mutations in FKS1.

  3. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; vanHoogmoed, CG; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderKuijlBooij, M; vanderMei, HC

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy i

  4. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    .0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC......In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  5. [Candida infiltrations in the iris and lens during iritis and situation after sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerten, D; Fuest, M; Mazinani, B; Walter, P; Plange, N

    2017-01-31

    Intraocular Candida infections are overall rather rare; nevertheless they are often found as endogenous infections after Candida sepsis and can be sight-threatening. The most common manifestations are either a sole chorioretinitis or an endophthalmitis. Here we report the case of a 35-year-old man developing Candida infiltrations in the lens capsule and behind the iris after corticosteroid treatment of a presumed HLA-B27-positive iritis. The patient suffered from a life-threatening intensive care stay with positive Candida blood cultures earlier after intestinal perforation. With systemic intracameral and topical voriconazole, the infection was successfully treated. In patients with positive blood samples for Candida, topical and systemic corticosteroids should be given with care even months after the last positive blood cultures.

  6. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  7. Inhibitory effect of coated mannan against the adhesion of Candida biofilms to denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Ohshima, Tomoko; Maeda, Nobuko; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The adherence of Candida on dentures is related to diseases such as denture stomatitis and aspiration pneumonia. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell surface, and contributes to the cell adherence. A previous report indicated that the adherence of C. albicans to culture dishes was inhibited by the coating them with mannan. The purpose of this study was to examine the adhesion inhibitory effect of mannan coating on acrylic denture surfaces against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The amount of Candida attached on the acrylic surfaces coated with mannan was calibrated by culture methods. Mannan showed significant inhibitory effects on Candida adhesion in both the yeast and hyphal form in a concentration-dependent manner, and the durability of the inhibitory effect continued for three days. These results suggest that mannan coating on the denture base acrylic can prevent Candida adhesion on the denture.

  8. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kenji

    2012-08-28

    An 87-year-old, Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep, central ulceration covered with thick, whitish exudate in the stomach. Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer. Though cured of the lesion, she developed another ulcer in a different position, in which Candida was demonstrated but H. pylori was undetectable. This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world. Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H. pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs, Candida is considered, contrary to the prevailing opinion, to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  9. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    An 87-year-old,Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep,central ulceration covered with thick,whitish exudate in the stomach.Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori).She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer.Though cured of the lesion,she developed another ulcer in a different position,in which Candida was demonstrated but H.pylori was undetectable.This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world.Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H.pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs,Candida is considered,contrary to the prevailing opinion,to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  10. New Eugenol Glucoside-based Derivative Shows Fungistatic and Fungicidal Activity against Opportunistic Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thiago Belarmino; Brito, Keila Mercês de Oliveira; Silva, Naiara Chaves; Rocha, Raissa Prado; de Sousa, Grasiely Faria; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Dias, Amanda Latércia Tranches; Veloso, Marcia Paranho; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    A new series of glucosides modified in their saccharide units were synthesized, evaluated against Candida sp., and compared to prototype 1, an eugenol tetracetyl glucoside previously synthesized and shown to be active against Candida glabrata. Among the new glucosides, benzyl derivative 5 was the most promising, showing fungistatic activity at IC50 18.1 μm against Candida glabrata (threefold higher than fluconazole) and fungicidal activity with a low IC90 value of 36.2 μm. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of compound 5 (CC50 : 580.9 μm), tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggests its potential as an agent to treat Candida glabrata infections, with a selectivity index of 32. The new eugenol glucoside 5 may be considered as a novel structural pattern in the development of new anti-Candida drugs.

  11. Production of virulence factors in Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Araújo, Maria Izabel Daniel Santos Alves; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups.

  12. Molecular characterization of Italian Candida parapsilosis isolates reveals the cryptic presence of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis in blood cultures from newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Orazio; Delfino, Demetrio; Costanzo, Barbara; Cascio, Antonio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The authors report the molecular characterization of Candida parapsilosis isolates recovered from the blood and venous central catheter tips of patients admitted to different care units of the Polyclinic Hospital, University of Messina, Italy. Among 97 presumed C. parapsilosis isolates examined, 94 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the remaining 3 isolates were found to belong to the cryptic species Candida orthopsilosis which was recovered only from blood cultures of neonates (orthopsilosis in newborns.

  13. Biosensor analyzer for BOD index express control on the basis of the yeast microorganisms Candida maltosa, Candida blankii, and Debaryomyces hansenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlyapov, Viacheslav; Kamanin, Stanislav; Ponamoreva, Olga; Reshetilov, Anatoly

    2012-04-01

    The parameters of biosensors based on the yeast strains Candida maltosa VKM Y-2359, Candida blankii VKM Y-2675, and Debaryomyces hansenii VKM Y-2482 for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) detection are compared. The catalytic activity of the strains was analyzed in relation to the growth phase. The possibility of using D. hansenii as a basis for receptor element of a biosensor for BOD detection in municipal and biotechnological wastewaters was shown.

  14. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Storti-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG, which received injections of sterile saline; positive control groups (PCG, which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG, which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN, que receberam injeções de salina estéril; grupos controle positivos (GCP, que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP, nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P<0,0001. Neste grupo, 100,0% das ratas contraíram a infecção vaginal na primeira semana, mas não a mantiveram até a terceira semana. A forma farmacêutica de ADMP foi efetiva em induzir as fases de metaestro e

  15. Molecular concordance of concurrent Candida albicans candidemia and candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Yen; Hung, Min-Hui; Shie, Shian-Sen; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Ke-Yuan; Ye, Jung-Jr; Chiang, Ping-Cheng; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Huang, Ching-Tai

    2013-07-01

    The significance of candiduria remains unclear. We correlated Candida albicans candidemia with candiduria by molecular genotyping. 33 pairs of concurrent blood and urine C. albicans isolates from 31 adult (≥ 18 years) were genotyped with infrequent-restriction-site PCR. The molecular concordance rates of three major genotypes were 100% for I, 82% for II, and 71% for III. The molecular concordance between concurrent C. albicans candidemia and candiduria was frequent. Our findings substantiate the importance of candiduria in appropriate clinical context as the majority of our patients were from intensive care units.

  16. Mitochondrial genome variability within the Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Matus; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Tomaska, Lubomir; Gacser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni; Nosek, Jozef

    2012-09-01

    Candida parapsilosis species complex includes three closely related species, namely C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto), C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Unlike most other yeast lineages, members of this species complex possess a linear mitochondrial genome. Yet, its circularized mutant form was identified in strains of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. To investigate the underlying variability, we performed comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences in a collection of strains. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to C. parapsilosis and C. metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis exhibits remarkably high nucleotide diversity whose pattern is consistent with intraspecific genetic exchange.

  17. Stability of Surfactant—coated Candida Rugosa Lipase in Isooctane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宝东; 邢爱华; 吴金川; 王世昌

    2003-01-01

    The stability of Candida rugosa lipase coated with glutamic acid didodecyl ester ribitol amide was investigated taking esterification of lauryl alcohol and lauric acid in isooctane as a model reaction.At 30℃,the half-life of the activity of the coated lipase was ca 10h,the enzyme activity became less changed after 12h and the residual activity was 39% of the initial value ,The coated lipase obeyed a first-order deactivation model with a deactivation energy of 29.9 J.mol-1.

  18. Human neutrophils dump Candida glabrata after intracellular killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Dietrich, Stefanie; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between fungal pathogens and human phagocytes can lead to remarkably variable outcomes, ranging from intracellular killing to prolonged survival and replication of the pathogen in the host cell. Using live cell imaging we observed primary human neutrophils that release phagocytosed Candida glabrata yeast cells after intracellular killing. This process, for which we propose the name "dumping", adds a new outcome to phagocyte-fungus interaction which may be of potential immunological importance as it allows professional antigen presenting cells to take up and process neutrophil-inactivated pathogens that in their viable state are able to evade intracellular degradation in these cells.

  19. Optimum Condition Selection of Xylitol Candida tropicaiis Conversion Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chan-yuan; YANG Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to select the optimum conditions of xylitol Candida tropicalis conversion production.[Method]The effect of cell culture time, conversion time, conversion pH value,conversion initial sugar concentration, speed and inoculation rate were determined respectivaiy.[Result]Optimum fermentation conditions were obtained as follows: cell culture 16 h, conversion time 10 h, conversion pH value 5.5,conversion initial sugar concentration 20 g/L, conversion shaking speed 150 r/min, inoculation rate 10% (volume ratio).The yield of xylitol has increased to 90%.[Conclusion]This study had provided basis for the further study on xylitol.

  20. Regulation of beta-D-galactosidase synthesis in Candida pseudotropicalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrique, M; Castillo, F J

    1982-01-01

    Regulation of lactose (beta-D-galactosidase) synthesis in the lactose-utilizing yeast Candida pseudotropicalis was studied. The enzyme was inducible by lactose and galactose. When grown on these sugars the enzyme level of the yeast was 20 times or higher than when grown on glycerol. The Km and optimal pH were similar for the lactase induced either by lactose or galactose. The hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside by the lactase was inhibited by galactose and several analogs and...

  1. Hand carriage of Candida species and risk factors in hospital personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Ozdemir, Davut; Tevfik Yavuz, M; Oksuz, Sukru; Cakir, Selma

    2007-05-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to be important for colonisation and infection of Candida spp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of Candida carriage on the hands of the hospital personnel the potential risk factors. Samples were collected from the hands of 214 (139 female and 75 male) hospital personnel working at Duzce Medical Faculty Hospital, Duzce, Turkey. Of these, 88 were nurses, 62 resident doctors, 21 laboratory workers, 30 officers and 13 dining room personnel. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Overall, 34.1% of the people analysed were found to harbour Candida spp. on their hands: 30.7% were nurses, 25.8% resident doctors, 28.6% laboratory workers, 84.6% dining room personnel and 43.3% officers. Candida carriage rates of the dining room personnel were higher than found in the other groups (P = 0.001). Isolated Candida species were C. parapsilosis (38.4%), C. tropicalis (26.0%), C. albicans (23.3%), C. kefyr (11.0%) and C. globosa (1.4%). Candida carriage rate was higher in the glove-using group (35.1%) than the non-glove using group (7.1%, P = 0.031). We concluded that carriage of Candida species on the hands of personnel was common especially in non-medical staff. Wearing gloves was found to be related to increased rates of Candida carriage in the nurse group. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequently colonising species that may be a predisposing condition for nosocomial infections transmitted with the hands of HCWs. Hospital personnel should be educated for regular hand washing practice for preventing Candida colonisation.

  2. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  3. Humoral immune responses to Candida albicans complement receptor 3-related protein in the atopic subjects with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Novel sensitive marker for Candida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovičová, Ema; Bujdáková, Helena; Chupáčová, Jarmila; Paulovičová, Lucia; Kertys, Pavol; Hrubiško, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In vitro evaluation of specific anti-Candida albicans sera antibodies based on synthetically prepared complement receptor 3-related protein (CR3-RP) mimicking the structure of native complement receptor 3 in a cohort of 72 patients with atopy and recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis (RVC) revealed effective humoral response against Candida CR3-RP. The most significant have been IgM and IgA isotype antibodies (33 and 47% positive cases, respectively). The quantitative evaluation of anti-CR3RP isotype antibodies was confronted with results of commercial ELISA anti-C. albicans antibodies diagnostics based on C. albicans cell wall mannan and β-glucan antigens, the most significant correlation being observed with anti-CR3-RP IgM and anti-β-D-glucan IgM (r(2) = 0.624) followed by isotype IgA (r(2) = 0.381). The immunogenicity and immunoreactivity of CR3RP antigen in RVC patients' sera had been evaluated with regard to the results reached by counterimmunoelectrophoresis and heterogeneous enzyme immunoassay. Obviously, synthetically prepared CR3-RP mimicking the Candida cell-wall-derived structure moiety represents a promising immunological tool not only for Candida serodiagnostics, but also prospectively for follow-up of targeted antifungal therapy and as promising Candida vaccine candidate.

  4. ISOLATION AND SPECIATION OF CANDIDA FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT KURNOOL, ANDHRAPRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Candida is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic fungi that cause infection in humans. The pathogenesis of Candida is complex and probably varies with each infection. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of Candida from various clinical specimens of patients and to show the emergence of Non albicans Candida in clinical samples. This study also focused on the antifungal susceptibility which guides the clinicians to treat the infection effectively. METHODS: Clinical samples were collected from outpatients and inpatients of Government General Hospital, Kurnool over a period of one year from March2008 to June2009. Isolation, culture, speciation of Candida was done by using standard methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion technique against amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole and clotrimazole. RESULTS: Candida manifests in various sites depending on the predisposing factors and immune status of the person. In this study we found the association of Candida with various predisposing factors (Pregnancy, Oral contraceptive pills’s, Immune suppression, Diabetes. This study observed the dominance of non-albicans Candida (51% in the clinical samples over Candida albicans (49%. The maximum antifungal susceptibility was observed against amphotericin B in both the albicans and non-albicans Candia, but non-albicans Candida showed maximum resistance to azoles. CONCLUSION: Candida albicans was the most predominant species (49% isolated in various clinical samples. There was an increase in the prevalence of non albicans Candida in this study. Among the nonalbicans Candida (51% Candid tropicalis was the commonest species isolated. Candida albicans showed maximum susceptibility to amphotericin B and maximum resistance to azoles was seen in nonalbicans Candida.

  5. Different scenarios for Candida parapsilosis fungaemia reveal high numbers of mixed C. parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Vaz, Catarina; Pais, Célia; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) are increasing significantly in hospitalized patients and Candida parapsilosis has emerged as an important pathogen responsible for numerous outbreaks. The objective of this study was to evaluate C. parapsilosis sensu lato infection scenarios, regarding species distribution and strain relatedness. One hundred isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu lato derived from blood cultures and catheter tips were analysed by multiplex microsatellite typing and by sequencing D1/D2 regions of the ribosomal DNA. Our results indicate that 9.5 % of patients presented infections due to C. parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, 57.1 % due to C. parapsilosis, 28.3 % due to C. orthopsilosis and 4.8 % due to Candida metapsilosis. Eighty per cent of the C. parapsilosis BSIs were due to a single strain that was also identified in the catheter, but in 10 % of the cases C. parasilosis was identified in the catheter but the BSI was due to C. orthopsilosis. There is a significant probability that C. parapsilosis isolates collected from the same patient at more than 3 months interval are of different strains (P = 0.0179). Moreover, several isolates were identified persistently in the same hospital, infecting six different patients. The incidence of polyfungal BSI infections with C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis is reported herein for the first time, emphasizing the fact that the species identified in the catheter is not always responsible for the BSI, thus impacting the treatment strategy. The observation that strains can remain in the hospital environment for years highlights the possible existence of reservoirs and reinforces the need for accurate genotyping tools, such as the markers used for elucidating epidemiological associations and detecting outbreaks.

  6. Estructura y diversidad genética en vacas Holstein de Antioquia usando un polimorfismo del gen bGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rincon F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas del polimorfismo del intrón 3 del gen bGH y estimar algunos parámetros de estructura poblacional en ganado Holstein. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó con 1366 vacas Holstein en 120 hatos de 11 municipios del departamento de Antioquia. Se extrajo DNA por el método de Salting out y la genotipificación se realizó usando la técnica de PCR-RFLPs. La diversidad genética se determinó mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades, El equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (HW y la diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones se realizó usando el software Arlequín 2.0 Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas se evaluaron mediante el paquete estadístico SAS®. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas encontradas fueron 0.764 (+/+, 0.223 (+/- y 0.013 (-/- y las frecuencias alélicas 0.876 (+ y 0.124 (-. No se encontraron desviaciones del Equilibrio de Hardy Weinberg en ninguna de las subpoblaciones. La diversidad genética determinada mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades fue relativamente baja entre poblaciones pero al interior de estas no. El valor de FST de toda la población fue de 0.0068 y significativo (p<0.05, algunos FST pareados también lo fueron, tomando valores desde 0.0 a 0.13. Los estadísticos FIT y FIS no fueron significativos. Conclusiones. El gen bGH es un candidato interesante para evaluar características de importancia económica ya que no parece haber sido sometido a selección directa, presenta una variabilidad media en las poblaciones, observándose diferenciación genética significativa entre distintos municipios, producto de los diferentes sistemas de producción y acceso a las biotecnologías.

  7. Utilização do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8 na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis

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    Alves Sydney Hartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8 em diferenciar Candida dubliniensis de Candida albicans com base na produção de clamidoconídios. Noventa e três isolados de Candida albicans e vinte e seis de Candida dubliniensis foram incluídos; 100% de Candida dubliniensis formaram clamidoconídios e 92,5% de Candida albicans não evidenciaram estas estruturas. Estes resultados permitem sugerir este meio como recurso alternativo na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis.

  8. Utilização do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8) na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Sydney Hartz; Linares Carlos Eduardo; Loreto Érico Silva de; Rodrigues Magnus; Thomazi Diego I.; Souza Felipe; Santurio Janio M.

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a capacidade do ágar suco de tomate (ágar V8) em diferenciar Candida dubliniensis de Candida albicans com base na produção de clamidoconídios. Noventa e três isolados de Candida albicans e vinte e seis de Candida dubliniensis foram incluídos; 100% de Candida dubliniensis formaram clamidoconídios e 92,5% de Candida albicans não evidenciaram estas estruturas. Estes resultados permitem sugerir este meio como recurso alternativo na identificação presuntiva de Candida dubliniensis....

  9. Análisis de la biodiversidad genética del algodón peruano usando marcadores moleculares: Avances en el 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Tres mini preparaciones de extracción de ADN de algodón fueron comparadas en términos de calidad y rendimiento. El método de extracción de ADN usando CTAB fue el más eficiente (30 ug) en comparación con un kit comercial de extracción (20 ug) a partir de 100 mg de hojas cotiledonarias. La óptima calidad del ADN fue evaluada con las enzimas de restricción EcoRI y MseI. El ADN preparado será usado para iniciar el análisis de la biodiversidad genética del algodón peruano, usando marcadores mole...

  10. Management of Candida infections in liver transplant recipients: current perspectives

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    Lingegowda PB

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pushpalatha B Lingegowda,1–3 Tan Ban Hock1,2,4,5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, 2DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4SingHealth Internal Medicine Residency Program, 5Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Liver transplantation has emerged as a widely accepted lifesaving therapeutic option for many patients with a variety of liver diseases. Improved surgical and medical management has led to significant improvements in post-transplant survival rates with a 1 year and 5 year patient survival of 87% and 73%, respectively. A high mortality rate due to infections during the first post-transplant year persists. Invasive candidiasis is recognized as a significant problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent surveillance data has helped to understand the changes in the epidemiology and the evolving trends in the use of antifungal agents for prophylaxis and treatment combined with the challenges of managing these invasive fungal infections, which has led the transplant community to explore the best management strategies. The emergence of resistant fungi and excess costs in managing these invasive fungal infections has added to the complexities of management. In this context, current perspectives in the management of Candida infections in liver transplant recipients will be reviewed. Keywords: Candida infections, management, liver transplant

  11. Rapid development of Candida krusei echinocandin resistance during caspofungin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastiero, A; Garcia-Gil, V; Rivero-Menendez, O; Garcia-Rubio, R; Monteiro, M C; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Jordan, R; Agorio, I; Mellado, E

    2015-11-01

    In invasive candidiasis, there has been an epidemiological shift from Candida albicans to non-albicans species infections, including infections with C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Although the prevalence of C. krusei remains low among yeast infections, its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole raises epidemiological and therapeutic concerns. Echinocandins have in vitro activity against most Candida spp. and are the first-line agents in the treatment of candidemia. Although resistance to echinocandin drugs is still rare, individual cases of C. krusei resistance have been reported in recent years, especially with strains that have been under selective pressure. A total of 15 C. krusei strains, isolated from the blood, urine, and soft tissue of an acute lymphocytic leukemia patient, were analyzed. Strains developed echinocandin resistance during 10 days of caspofungin therapy. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was investigated using two different typing methods: PCR-based amplification of the species-specific repetitive polymorphic CKRS-1 sequence and multilocus sequence typing. All isolates were genetically related, and the mechanism involved in decreased echinocandin susceptibility was characterized. Clinical resistance was associated with an increase in echinocandin MICs in vitro and was related to three different mutations in hot spot 1 of the target enzyme Fks1p. Molecular evidence of the rapid acquisition of resistance by different mutations in FKS1 highlights the need to monitor the development of resistance in C. krusei infections treated with echinocandin drugs.

  12. Detection and quantification of fluconazole within Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    Candida infections are often associated with biofilms and consequent high resistance to most common drugs (e.g. azoles). These resistance mechanisms are not only associated with the biofilm yeast physiology, but also with the presence of a diffusional barrier imposed by the biofilm matrix; however, the real biochemical role of the biofilm components remains very unclear. So, in order to further clarify this issue, we intend to determine, for the first time, fluconazole in biofilms within both supernatants and matrices. Candida biofilms were formed in the presence of fluconazole, and it was recovered from both supernatant and matrix cell-free fractions. Then, high-pressure liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the amount of drug that was present in the two fractions. Moreover, this study also showed that the presence of fluconazole in both fractions indicated that the drug administrated did not completely reach the cells, so this phenomena can easily be associated with lower biofilm susceptibility, since the drug administered did not completely reach the cells.

  13. Antiarthritic effect of lonicerin on Candida albicans arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jue-Hee; Han, Yongmoon

    2011-05-01

    Fungal arthritis is a potentially serious disease resulting in rapid destruction of the joint. Among the various Candida species, Candida albicans is the most commonly associated with fungal arthritis. In the present study, we examined the effect of lonicerin, a flavonoid isolated from Lonicerae Flos, on an arthritis caused by C. albicans cell wall (CACW) in mice. To examine the effect, an emulsified mixture of CACW and complete Freund's adjuvant (CACW/CFA) was injected into BALB/c mice via hind footpad route on days -3, -2, and -1. On Day 0, mice with the swollen footpad received lonicerin at 1 or 2 mg/dose/time intraperitoneally 3 times every other day. The footpad-swelling was measured for 20 days. Results showed that the lonicerin treatment reduced the edema at all dose levels, and, furthermore, there was app. 54% edema reduction in animals given the 2 mg-dose at the peak (day 10) of septic arthritis (p arthritis. In addition, the flavonoid had anticandidal activity (p fungal arthritis due to C. albicans infection.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Viachaslau M; Acheampong, Edward; Powell, Garry; Lobach, Ludmila; Logan, David A; Parveen, Zahida; Armstead, Valerie; Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above) inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections. PMID:17094810

  15. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  16. Candida dubliniensis identification in Brazilian yeast stock collection

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    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana Mariano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Candida dubliniensis among isolates previously identified as Candida albicans and maintained in a yeast stock collection from 1994 to 2000. All isolates were serotyped and further evaluated for antifungal susceptibility profile. After doing a screening test for C. dubliniensis isolates based on the capability of colonies to grow at 42°C, its final identification was obtained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis using three different primers. A total of 46 out of 548 screened isolates did not exhibit growth at 42°C and were further genotyped by RAPD. Eleven isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis with RAPD analysis. Regarding serotypes, 81.5% of C. albicans and all C. dubliniensis isolates belonged to serotype A. Of note, 9 out of 11 C. dubliniensis isolates were obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids and all of them were susceptible to azoles and amphotericin B. We found 17 (3% C. albicans isolates that were dose-dependent susceptibility or resistant to azoles. In conclusion, we found a low rate of C. dubliniensis isolates among stock cultures of yeasts previously identified as C. albicans. Most of these isolates were recovered from oral samples of Aids patients and exhibited high susceptibility to amphotericin B and azoles. C. albicans serotype A susceptible to all antifungal drugs is the major phenotype found in our stock culture.

  17. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats.

  18. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

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    Hüseyin Altunhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  19. Candida albicans interface infection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

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    Mohammad Reza Sedaghat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of interface Candida keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, may imitate rejection or crystalline keratopathy. We report here an 18-year-old woman presented with red eye, 4 months after undergoing DALK. Slit lamp examination revealed keratic precipitates (KPs and cojunctival injection. She was prescribed corticosteroid treatment for endothelial rejection by another ophthalmologist because of misdiagnosis, but suffered a recurrence of symptoms after reduction of the corticosteroid treatment. At that time, she was referred to our office. The recurrence persisted despite antibiotic and antifungal therapies. Ten days after treatment with interface irrigation with amphotericin, the infiltration and hypopyon were resolved. Topical steroid was added after 3 months of antifungal monotherapy. Irrigant cultures confirmed the presence of Candida albicans. The corneal graft appeared semi-clear with no signs of infection at 17-month follow-up. We recommend a close follow-up and a timely intervention to prevent the need for more invasive treatment such as penetrating keratoplasty.

  20. QUERATOPATÍA CRISTALINA ATÍPICA POR CANDIDA PARAPSILOSIS

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    Raquel Martínez Chico

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínicoMujer de 91 años con antecedentes de  queratoplastia penetrante excéntrica. Un año después presentó una gran reacción inflamatoria y un infiltrado corneal de aspecto arboriforme. Se inició tratamiento con vancomicina intravenosa y vancomicina y amikacina intravítreas, tópicas e intracamerulares y se obtuvieron muestras de humor acuoso y del infiltrado corneal mediante arrastre con aguja de safil de 8/0 con resultado microbiológico positivo para Candida Parapsilosis. Se inició entonces tratamiento con voriconazol y trimetroprim-sulfametoxazol tópicos con respuesta favorable. DiscusiónEl caso que presentamos es atípico puesto que encontramos una intensa reacción inflamatoria; sin embargo tanto el aspecto biomicroscópico de la cornea, como el resultado del análisis microbiológico y la respuesta positiva al tratamiento apoyan el diagnóstico de queratopatía cristalina por Candida Parapsilosis. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Histidine-rich glycoprotein protects from systemic Candida infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rydengård

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, such as Candida spp., are commonly found on the skin and at mucosal surfaces. Yet, they rarely cause invasive infections in immunocompetent individuals, an observation reflecting the ability of our innate immune system to control potentially invasive microbes found at biological boundaries. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides are becoming increasingly recognized as important effectors of innate immunity. This is illustrated further by the present investigation, demonstrating a novel antifungal role of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, an abundant and multimodular plasma protein. HRG bound to Candida cells, and induced breaks in the cell walls of the organisms. Correspondingly, HRG preferentially lysed ergosterol-containing liposomes but not cholesterol-containing ones, indicating a specificity for fungal versus other types of eukaryotic membranes. Both antifungal and membrane-rupturing activities of HRG were enhanced at low pH, and mapped to the histidine-rich region of the protein. Ex vivo, HRG-containing plasma as well as fibrin clots exerted antifungal effects. In vivo, Hrg(-/- mice were susceptible to infection by C. albicans, in contrast to wild-type mice, which were highly resistant to infection. The results demonstrate a key and previously unknown antifungal role of HRG in innate immunity.

  2. [Colonization by Candida in a neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Trejo, Amilcar; Aguirre-Morales, Carlos Eduardo; González-González, Gloria M; Cortés-Palma, Dzoara; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones por Candida se han incrementado en las últimas décadas. La colonización previa es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de fungemia. Es necesario conocer la epidemiología local de un hospital para seleccionar el tratamiento óptimo. El objetivo del estudio que se presenta fue establecer la colonización por especies de Candida en pacientes, personal y dispositivos médicos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo de cohorte. Se obtuvieron muestras de diferentes sitios anatómicos, de dispositivos médicos y de manos del personal de salud, al ingreso de los pacientes y cada siete días hasta el egreso de la unidad. Se realizó identificación de los microorganismos y se determinó su sensibilidad a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol y caspofungina.

  3. Chloroquine sensitizes biofilms of Candida albicans to antifungal azoles

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    Ravikumar Bapurao Shinde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic assay were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions between chloroquine and four antifungal drugs were determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Azole resistance in biofilms was reverted significantly (p < 0.05 in presence of 250 µg/mL of chloroquine, which resulted in inhibition of biofilms at very low concentrations of antifungal drugs. No significant alteration in the sensitivity of biofilms to caspofungin and amphotericin B was evident in combination with chloroquine. This study for the first time indicates that chloroquine potentiates anti-biofilm activity of fluconazole and voriconazole.

  4. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  5. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  6. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Maia Valério

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did not allow for the differentiation between strains of the same species obtained from distinct clinical sources (catheter, urine and surgical wounds. The RAPD profiles generated were able to differentiate among the species of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata strains isolated in this study.Treze amostras de leveduras do gênero Candida foram isoladas de catéter, urina e feridas cirúrgicas de pacientes da Santa Casa de Misericórida de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. Dez amostras foram identificadas como Candida albicans, duas como Candida glabrata e uma como Candida parapsilosis. Os isolados foram avaliados quanto ao perfil molecular pela técnica de amplificação aleatória de DNA polimórfico utilizando 15 iniciadores. A análise do DNA genômico obtido revelou um baixo polimorfismo intraespecífico e não permitiu a diferenciação entre amostras da mesma espécie obtidas a partir de diferentes espécimes clínicos (catéter, urina e feridas cirúrgicas. Os perfis de RAPD obtidos foram capazes de diferenciar entre as espécies Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata isoladas neste estudo.

  7. Monitorização de transplante cardíaco usando análises do eletrograma intracavitário

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    BROFMAN Paulo Roberto S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma série de registros do eletrograma intracavitário tem sido utilizada para monitorização não invasiva da rejeição em pacientes transplantados usando um marcapasso de dupla câmara e eletrodos endocavitários revestidos com estrutura fractal. Os sinais têm sido avaliados usando o sistema CHARM (Computerized Heart Acute Rejection Monitoring _ sistema computadorizado para monitorização da rejeição cardíaca aguda. Os relatórios obtidos com este sistema contêm curvas com parâmetros sensíveis à rejeição, que demonstram uma boa correlação com a clínica e os resultados das biópsias convencionais. A monitorização a longo prazo, usando estas análises, mostrou ser uma ferramenta valiosa no acompanhamento destes pacientes.

  8. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  9. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida biofilms: unique efficacy of amphotericin B lipid formulations and echinocandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, D M; George, T; Chandra, J; Mukherjee, P K; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-06-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have activities against Candida biofilms. We also explored effects of preincubation of C. albicans cells with subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of drugs to see if they could modify subsequent biofilm formation. Finally, we used confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) to image planktonic- and biofilm-exposed blastospores to examine drug effects on cell structure. Candida biofilms were formed on silicone elastomer and quantified by tetrazolium and dry weight (DW) assays. Susceptibility testing of fluconazole, nystatin, chlorhexidine, terbenafine, amphotericin B (AMB), and the triazoles voriconazole (VRC) and ravuconazole revealed resistance in all Candida isolates examined when grown as biofilms, compared to planktonic forms. In contrast, lipid formulations of AMB (liposomal AMB and AMB lipid complex [ABLC]) and echinocandins (caspofungin [Casp] and micafungin) showed activity against Candida biofilms. Preincubation of C. albicans cells with sub-MIC levels of antifungals decreased the ability of cells to subsequently form biofilm (measured by DW; P formulations.

  10. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candida species from hospitalized patients.

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    Magalhães, Yankee C; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q; Melônio, Luciane C; Ribeiro, Patrícia C S; Cosme, Lécia M; Rhoden, Cristianne R; Marques, Sirlei G

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp . (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  11. Ammonium assimilation by Candida albicans and other yeasts: evidence for activity of glutamate synthase.

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    Holmes, A R; Collings, A; Farnden, K J; Shepherd, M G

    1989-06-01

    Activities and properties of the ammonium assimilation enzymes NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were determined in batch and continuous cultures of Candida albicans. NADP+-dependent GDH activity showed allosteric kinetics, with an S0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate of 7.5 mM and an apparent Km for ammonium of 5.0 mM. GOGAT activity was affected by the buffer used for extraction and assay, but in phosphate buffer, kinetics were hyperbolic, yielding Km values for glutamine of 750 microM and for 2-oxoglutarate of 65 microM. The enzymes GOGAT and NADP+-dependent GDH were also assayed in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and three other pathogenic Candida spp.: Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Evidence is presented that GS/GOGAT is a major pathway for ammonium assimilation in Candida albicans and that this pathway is also significant in other Candida species.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additional objective was to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Fine texture powder or paste form of leaves was soaked in sterile distilled water and 100% ethyl alcohol, which were kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 24 h. Then filtrates were prepared and kept in a hot air oven to get a black shining crystal powder/paste form. Stock solutions of plant extracts were inoculated on petri plates containing species of Candida albicans and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 72 h. Results: Alcoholic curry leaves showed the maximum zone of inhibition on Candida albicans followed by aqueous tea leaves. The other plant extracts like alcoholic onion leaves, alcoholic tea leaves, alcoholic onion bulb, alcoholic aloe vera, and alcoholic mint leaves also inhibited the growth of Candida albicans but lesser extent. Conclusion: The present study renders few medicinal plants as an alternative medicines to the field of dentistry which can be used adjunct to conventional therapy of oral candidasis.

  13. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age.

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    Prakash, Bharathi; Shekar, Malathi; Maiti, Biswajit; Karunasagar, Indrani; Padiyath, Sreeshma

    2015-01-01

    Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  14. Eficacia in vitro de la moxifloxacina frente a Candida albicans en enfermedad periodontal

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    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La periodontitis crónica está asociada a una compleja y diversa flora microbiana que incluye posiblemente especies de Candida. Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de Candida y su susceptibilidad in vitro a la moxifloxacina en pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se usó una técnica de diluciones seriales para evaluar la susceptibilidad de la Candida a la moxifloxacina. Se utilizó el porcentaje de individuos con al menos una bolsa infectada para describir la presencia de individuos positivos a especies de Candida. Resultados y conclusiones: se detectaron especies de Candida en 13,2% de 76 pacientes con periodontitis crónica. La moxifloxacina inhibió significativamente el crecimiento de Candida (90%. La moxifloxacina puede ser una buena alternativa para el tratamiento de Candida debido a que en situaciones específicas la sobreinfección por este microorganismo puede responder inadecuadamente a tratamientos periodontales convencionales.

  15. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

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    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  16. Photodynamic inactivation of virulence factors of Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Silva, Michelle Peneluppi; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Candida species are major microorganisms isolated in denture stomatitis (DS), an inflammatory process of the mucosa underlying removable dental prostheses, and express a variety of virulence factors that can increase their pathogenicity. The potential of Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) in planktonic culture, biofilms and virulence factors of Candida strains was evaluated. A total of 48 clinical Candida isolates from individuals wearing removable maxillary prostheses with DS were included in the study. The effects of erythrosine (ER, 200 μM) and a green LED (λ 532 ± 10 nm, 237 mW/cm(2) and 42.63 J/cm(2)) in a planktonic culture were evaluated. The effect of the addition of ER at a concentration of 400 μM together with a green LED was evaluated in biofilms. The virulence factors of all of the Candida strains were evaluated before and after the PDI process in cells derived from biofilm and planktonic assays. All of the Candida species were susceptible to ER and green LED. However, the biofilm structures were more resistant to PDI than the planktonic cultures. PDI also promoted slight reductions in most of the virulence factors of C. albicans and some of the Candida tropicalis strains. These results suggest that the addition of PDI is effective for reducing yeasts and may also reduce the virulence of certain Candida species and decrease their pathogenicity.

  17. Effect of Shark Liver Oil on Peritoneal Murine Macrophages in Responses to Killed-Candida albicans

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    Monire Hajimoradi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sShark Liver Oil (SLO is an immunomodulator. Macrophages play a key role in host defense against pathogens like fungi. Candida albicans have mechanisms to escape immune system. We determined the effect of killed-Candida on the in vitro viability of macrophages and the effect of SLO on augmentation of this potency.Materials and MethodsPeritoneal macrophages were separated and cultured (3×105/well. At first, the effect of killed-Candida (200 cells/well on macrophage viability was evaluated, using MTT test. Then, MTT was performed on macrophages stimulated with killed-Candida in the presence of SLO. ResultsKilled-Candida suppressed the ability of MTT reduction and hence macrophages viability (P=0.026, but addition of SLO (100 mg/ml significantly enhanced cell viability (P=0.00. So, SLO could neutralize the inhibitory effect of Candida.ConclusionSimultaneous with cytotoxic effect of killed-Candida cells on macrophages viability, SLO augment macrophages viability. So, it can be applied in candidiasis as a complement.

  18. Deciphering the toxicity of bisphenol a to Candida rugosa lipase through spectrophotometric methods.

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    Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Lining; Liu, Rutao

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A is widely used in the manufacture of food packaging and beverage containers and can invade our food and cause contamination. Candida rugose lipase has been a versatile enzyme for biocatalysis and biotransformations to produce useful materials for food, pharmaceutical and flavor. The interactions between bisphenol A and Candida rugosa lipase in vitro were studied by UV-vis, steady-state fluorescence, circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence, light scattering spectra, molecular docking and enzyme activity assay to better understand the toxicity and toxic mechanisms of bisphenol A. The intrinsic fluorescence of the tryptophan amino acid residue and the secondary structure of the globular protein candida rugose lipase were made use of to thoroughly investigate the structural changes caused by bisphenol A. The results of the fluorescence indicated that bisphenol A interacted with candida rugose lipase and made tryptophan be exposed to a hydrophobic environment. Multi-spectroscopic measurements showed that the addition of bisphenol A increased the intrinsic fluorescence of Candida rugosa lipase, loosened its skeleton structure and changed its secondary structure. Also, the increased activity of Candida rugosa lipase revealed that the position or the structure of the catalytic triad of Candida rugosa lipase may be changed. The molecular docking results showed that bisphenol A bound with the residue Serine 209 which could be another reason for the increased activity of Candida rugosa lipase. Moreover, as can be seen from the results of resonance light scattering and dynamic light scattering, the volume of the Candida rugosa lipase was decreased and the lid may be stripped.

  19. Oral Candida carriage and immune status in Thai human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

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    Thanyasrisung, Panida; Kesakomol, Piyanate; Pipattanagovit, Patchara; Youngnak-Piboonratanakit, Pornpan; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Matangkasombut, Oranart

    2014-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, with growing concerns about the emergence of non-albicans species with resistance to antifungal agents. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of oral Candida species in Thai HIV-infected adults and factors affecting their colonization. Candida species were identified from oral rinse samples of 60 HIV-infected participants of the MTCT-Plus initiative and 49 healthy controls by culture-based and molecular assays. The prevalence of oral Candida carriage was similar in HIV-infected patients (56.6 %) and in controls (55.1 %, P = 0.87). Candida albicans was the most predominant species in both groups (94.1 % of Candida carriers in HIV, 88.9 % in control). Interestingly, Candida dubliniensis was the second most common species in controls (29.6 %) and the third in HIV-infected patients (11.8 %, P = 0.08). Multivariate analysis showed that, amongst HIV-infected individuals, CD4 count oral carriage of both C. albicans (P = 0.03) and non-albicans species (P = 0.03). Moreover, patients with tuberculosis infection had a higher prevalence of the non-albicans species than those without (P = 0.03). Intriguingly, contraceptive use was also associated positively with non-albicans and multi-species carriage (P = 0.04 for both). However, use of antiretroviral drugs protected the patients from Candida carriage (P = 0.03), especially from C. albicans (P = 0.02). In conclusion, while HIV-infected individuals had a similar prevalence of oral Candida carriage to that of the control group, host immune status, tuberculosis infection, and contraceptive use may influence oral colonization of Candida, especially of the non-albicans species.

  20. Prevalence of Candida spp. during radiographic examination in Diabetes mellitus patients

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    Flávia Cristina Volpato

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is suggested that individuals with diabetes are more susceptible to Candida infections than healthy people, especially if periodontal infection is associated. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. during radiographic examination in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 patients without diabetes mellitus, presenting chronic periodontitis and presence of Candida spp. in saliva were evaluated. During radiographic examination, samples of saliva were collected from: oral mucosa, conventional radiographic periapical film, digital x-ray sensor (CDR, and bite block of the receptor-positioning device. Colony forming units (cfu/mL and identification of Candida yeasts were assessed. RESULT: Oral mucosa from both groups showed the highest colonization with Candida spp. if compared with others surfaces collected (p < 0.05. In diabetic patients, the mucosa of the upper left regions showed higher levels of colonization. In non-diabetic patients, the upper right molar region showed the highest level of colonization during the examination of the receptor-positioning device, the sensor and the non-sensitive film. Candida spp. levels in saliva were similar between diabetics (mean = 3.0 × 10(6 and non-diabetics (mean = 3.8 × 10(6. CONCLUSION: No difference in Candida spp. colonization (cfu/mL in diabetics and non-diabetic patients was observed for the five collected surfaces and the simulated radiographic region. Candida albicans was the prevalent species of Candida spp. found on all the samples.

  1. Criptosporidiose em paciente com espondilite anquilosante usando adalimumabe Cryptosporidiosis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis treated with adalimumab

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    Fernando Augusto Chiuchetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A criptosporidiose é uma doença parasitária causada pelo protozoário Cryptosporidium sp. Observou-se um aumento no número de diagnósticos realizados nos últimos vinte anos, principalmente em pacientes que apresentam imunodeficiências como a síndrome da imunodeficiência humana adquirida e as imunodeficiências induzidas como em pacientes transplantados e nos que necessitam realizar hemodiálise frequentemente. Relata-se o caso de um jovem com espondilite anquilosante que, usando adalimumabe, apresentou diarreia devido à criptosporidiose.Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoan called Cryptosporidium sp. An increased number of diagnoses were made in the last 20 years, especially in patients with immunodeficiency like the acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome and induced immunodeficiency, such as in transplant patients and those who need frequent hemodialysis, has been observed. We report the case of a young patient with ankylosing spondylitis treated with adalimumab who developed chronic diarrhea secondary to cryptosporidiosis

  2. MODELAMIENTO DE LA CINÉTICA DE BIOADSORCIÓN DE Cr (III USANDO CÁSCARA DE NARANJA

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    MARTHA LUCIA PINZÓN-BEDOYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utilizó como material bioadsorbente cáscara naranja con el fin de remover iones cromo presentes en soluciones hipotéticas diluidas, utilizadas como modelo de aguas contaminadas con bajas concentraciones de este metal. Las condiciones de operación utilizadas fueron: relación sólido/líquido 4 g/l, tamaño de partícula ??0,425 mm, concentración inicial de disolución de Cr(III 100 mg/l, tiempo de contacto 60 h y pH constante (4 y 5. Los modelos cinéticos escogidos para identificar el mecanismo de reacción del proceso de bioadsorción usando cáscara de naranja fueron: primer orden reversible, pseudo- segundoorden, Elovich y difusión intraparticular. Los resultados indican que la ecuación de Elovich proporciona mayor exactitud en el ajuste de los datos experimentales del equilibrio a este modelo cinético. La bondad del ajuste de los datos se realizó por regresión no-lineal utilizando como criterio la minimización de la función objeto suma de los cuadrados del error, SCE, haciendo uso de la herramienta matemática MATLAB.

  3. DISEÑO DE UN GENERADOR DE FLUJO AXIAL USANDO EL MÉTODO DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS

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    Luisa Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las simulaciones y cálculos realizados para el diseño básico de un generador de flujo axial usando el método de elementos finitos. Durante el proceso de diseño se evalúa el comportamiento electromagnético de los imanes seleccionados, se obtiene la característica B vs distancia, así mismo se define la geometría a usar para el montaje de las bobinas y los imanes, calculando el flujo máximo. Posteriormente se analiza la variación del flujo magnético dentro de la bobina en función de la posición angular, se define el número mínimo de espiras a usar por polo y se calcula la tensión inducida en la máquina asumiendo que tiene un sistema de 12 polos.

  4. Nuevo enfoque para desarrollar sistemas de enseñanza-aprendizaje inteligentes usando mapas conceptuales y razonamiento basado en casos

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    Zenaida García Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso de métodos pedagógicos con tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones produce una cualidad nueva que favorece la tarea de generar, transmitir y compartir el conocimiento. Tal es el caso de la fortaleza pedagógica del empleo de los Mapas Conceptuales, que constituyen una herramienta para la gestión del conocimiento, por la posibilidad que estos ofrecen de personalizar el aprendizaje, compartir conocimiento, y para aprender a aprender. En este trabajo se expone un nuevo enfoque para elaborar Sistemas de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje Inteligentes, donde se combinan las técnicas de diagramas conceptuales e Inteligencia Artificial, usando el Razonamiento Basado en Casos como marco teórico para el modelado del alumno. El modelo propuesto se ha implementado en el sistema computacional HESEI, el cual ha sido aplicado exitosamente en la toma de decisiones en tareas de enseñanza-aprendizaje, por personas no expertas en el campo informático.

  5. Comparison of virulence factors of oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans isolates in healthy people and patients with chronic candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, J; Saarela, M; Dogan, B; Paatsama, J; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Pirinen, S; Alakomi, H L; Perheentupa, J; Asikainen, S

    2000-08-01

    We determined differences in the expression of certain virulence factors between oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans species. In addition, clonal differences were sought among C. albicans isolates recovered from patients with and without compromised immune system. The material comprised 93 clinical yeast isolates originated in 40 subjects (1-5 isolates per subject). All 26 C. dubliniensis isolates and 46 C. albicans isolates originated from healthy routine dental clinic patients. Additionally, 21 C. albicans isolates were collected from patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidosis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), who have chronic candidosis as one manifestation of their immunocompromising disease. Polymerase chain reaction amplification using the random sequence primer OPE-03 enabled grouping of the C. dubliniensis isolates in 2 genotypes (I and II) and C. albicans isolates in 15 genotypes (I-XV). No significant difference was found in the distribution of genotypes between the patients with APECED and the healthy subjects. C. dubliniensis isolates exhibited high-frequency phenotypic switching significantly more frequently than did C. albicans isolates, and vice versa regarding phospholipase and proteinase production. Proteinase production was significantly more frequent among C. albicans genotype V than genotype IX isolates. No significant difference was found in expression of virulence factors of C. albicans isolates between the patients with APECED and the healthy subjects.

  6. Clusters of patients with candidaemia due to genotypes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis: differences in frequency between hospitals.

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    Marcos-Zambrano, L J; Escribano, P; Sanguinetti, M; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, E; De Carolis, E; Vella, A; Cantón, R; Bouza, E; Guinea, J

    2015-07-01

    The presence of clusters (identical genotypes infecting different patients) suggests patient-to-patient transmission or a common source for strains. We report the results of a genotyping study based on microsatellite markers of Candida albicans (n = 179) and Candida parapsilosis (n = 76) causing candidaemia, to assess and compare the percentage of patients grouped in clusters during the study period (January 2010 to December 2012). The study was performed in two large tertiary hospitals in Madrid, Spain. We detected 145 C. albicans genotypes (21 in clusters) and 63 C. parapsilosis genotypes (seven in clusters). Clusters involved two to seven patients each. Most of the clusters in the two centres involved two patients for both species, but the number of patients included in each cluster differed between hospitals. Considering both species, the percentage of patients per cluster ranged from 19% to 38% (p albicans and C. parapsilosis genotypes causing candidaemia differed between hospitals, suggesting differences in strain transmission. Occasionally, the same genotypes were found in patients admitted to different hospitals located in the same city.

  7. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

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    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  8. Comparison of Switching and Biofilm Formation between MTL-Homozygous Strains of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

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    Pujol, Claude; Daniels, Karla J; Soll, David R

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture in comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit a far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilms composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to a pseudohypha-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved.

  9. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy; Candida Oral como fator agravante da mucosite radioinduzida

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    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de odontologia

    2011-07-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  10. Isolation and characterization of three distinct forms of lipases from Candida rugosa produced in solid state fermentation

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    Sailas Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct forms (Lip A, Lip B and Lip C of extra-cellular lipases (EC- 3.1.1.3, produced by Candida rugosa in solid state fermentation (SSF were purified and characterised. SSF was carried out in glass columns using coconut oil cake and wheat bran. The enzyme was purified from the aqueous extract of fermented matter by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ultra-filtration and gel filtration using Sephadex-200 to a 43-fold purification and 64.35-mg/ml specific activity. SDS-PAGE of purified enzyme revealed three distinct bands, indicating the existence of three iso-forms, Lip A, Lip B and Lip C with apparent molecular weight about 64,000, 62,000 and 60,000 Da, respectively. All the three iso-forms were optimally active at 35-40ºC and pH 7-8. They showed marked differences in their Km values with different saturated and unsaturated triacyl glycerols. Ag++ and Hg++ strongly inhibited enzyme activity of all the iso-forms, Mn++ has no effect and Ca++ and Mg++ enhanced the activity. EDTA also strongly inhibited the enzyme activities of iso-forms. However, activities of all the three lipases were completely inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, pefabloc and partially by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the purification and characterisation of C. rugosa lipase iso-forms from solid cultures. These lipase iso-forms with diverse characteristics produced in solid cultures may find potential application in biomedical field.Três formas distintas (Lip A, Lip B e Lip C de lipases extracelulares (EC- 3,1,1,3, produzidas por Candida rugosa em fermentação no estado sólido (SSF foram purificadas e caracterizadas. A fermentação foi realizada em colunas de vidro usando como substrato bolo de óleo de coco e o farelo de trigo. O enzima obtida no extrato aquoso do material fermentado foi precipitada com do sulfato de do amônio, dialisada , ultra

  11. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

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    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  12. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans by murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Alieke G; Netea, Mihai G; Kullberg, Bart Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are important phagocytes in the control of Candida infections. The phagocytic contribution of PMNs to host defence can by assessed by various methods, such as microbiological assays. However, assessment and definition of intracellular killing capacity can be a source of considerable confusion. A comparison of the growth of Candida in the presence of PMN with the growth of Candida in phagocyte-free suspensions may lead to an overestimation of killing capacity because PMNs can use both intracellular and extracellular killing mechanisms. Here, we describe the use of an adherent monolayer of exudate peritoneal PMNs that is used to differentiate between the process of phagocytosis and intracellular killing.

  13. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd., Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zhang, Lingxin [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Stoll, Janis M. [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. (orig.)

  14. Aislamiento de Candida dubliniensis en un adolescente con estomatitis protésica

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Christian Oscar; Moragues Tosantos, María Dolores; Brena Alonso, Sonia; Rosa, Alcira Cristina; Pontón San Emeterio, José

    2005-01-01

    Objetivos: Utilizar varios métodos que permiten la diferenciación entre Candida albicans y Candida dubliniensis en un intento de conocer si C. dubliniensis puede ser aislada de la cavidad oral de adolescentes con prótesis ortopédicas orales. Materiales y métodos: Se aislaron 12 cepas de género Candida procedentes de mucosa palatina y de soporte de prótesis de 12 pacientes adolescentes portadores de prótesis ortopédicas orales. Para la diferenciación entre C. albicans y C....

  15. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

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    Gisela Di Stilio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

  16. 氮源及碳氮比对产朊假丝酵母合成谷胱甘肽的影响%Effect of nitrogen source and C/N ratio on the fermentative production of glutathione by Candida utilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂敏; 卫功元; 邵娜; 葛晓光

    2010-01-01

    研究了N源对产朊假丝酵母细胞生长和谷胱甘肽(GSH)合成的影响.在此基础上,分别以(NH_4)_2SO_4和尿素作为单一N源,摇瓶条件下研究了不同C、N比对GSH发酵的影响.结果发现尿素有利于细胞生长,而(NH_4)_2SO_4更有利于GSH的合成,并且酵母细胞在利用这2种N源合成GSH时,各自具有最佳的C、N比((NH_4)_2SO_4为8.3 mol/mol,尿素为5.6 mol/mol).最佳C、N比下的GSH分批发酵结果显示,尿素是更合适的N源,最终细胞干质量和GSH产量可以分别达到16.48 g/L和246.4 mg/L.最后分别采用发酵动力学模型和代谢网络分析对该结果产生的原因进行了定量解释.

  17. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. Results The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg. However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%, C. novergensis (37%, C. krusei (25%, C. glabrata (20%, and C. kefyr (12%. Conclusions We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates

  18. A 5-year (2000-2004) epidemiological survey of Candida and non-Candida yeast species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in Graz, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitsch, A; Weger, W; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Marth, E; Buzina, W

    2006-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidasis (VVC) is a common disease. The majority of cases is caused by Candida albicans, but in recent years an increase has been observed in the frequency of non-albicans Candida infections, especially due to C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of non-albicans Candida infections in patients suffering from VVC. Therefore, the statistical data of culture-confirmed VVC ascertained at the Institute of Hygiene (Medical University Graz) have been studied. Altogether, 10,463 samples from patients with vulvovaginal complaints were analysed in the years 2000-2004, a number of 3184 proved to be culture-positive for yeast. Candida albicans was the most prevalent cause in 87.9% of all cases. Non-albicans Candida yeast were detected in 12.1%, mainly C. glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During a 1-year period 185 patients showed more than one episode of VVC. Patients aged 21-40 years were significantly more prone to suffer from VVC compared with other age-related groups.

  19. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  20. Interleukin 17-Mediated Host Defense against Candida albicans

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    Florian Sparber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17 as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role of IL-17 in mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans. Research on mouse models has also contributed importantly to our current understanding of the regulation of IL-17 production by different cellular sources and its effector functions in distinct tissues. In this review, we highlight recent findings on IL-17-mediated immunity against C. albicans in mouse and man.

  1. Candida albicans mutant construction and characterization of selected virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, T E; Albertyn, J; Pohl, C H; Köhler, Gerwald

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid, polymorphic yeast, associated with humans, where it mostly causes no harm. However, under certain conditions it can cause infections ranging from superficial to life threatening. This ability to become pathogenic is often linked to the immune status of the host as well as the expression of certain virulence factors by the yeast. Due to the importance of C. albicans as a pathogen, determination of the molecular mechanisms that allow this yeast to cause disease is important. These studies rely on the ability of researchers to create deletion mutants of specific genes in order to study their function. This article provides a critical review of the important techniques used to create deletion mutants in C. albicans and highlights how these deletion mutants can be used to determine the role of genes in the expression of virulence factors in vitro.

  2. Detection of Candida albicans by mass spectrometric fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehm, Sarah; Schweinitz, Simone; Würzner, Reinhard; Colvin, Hans Peter; Rieder, Josef

    2012-03-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequent causes of fungal infections in humans. Significant correlation between candiduria and invasive candidiasis has previously been described. The existing diagnostic methods are often time-consuming, cost-intensive and lack in sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the profile of low-molecular weight volatile compounds in the headspace of C. albicans-urine suspensions of four different fungal cell concentrations compared to nutrient media and urine without C. albicans was determined using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). At fungal counts of ≥1.5 × 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/ml signals at 45, 47 and 73 atomic mass units (amu) highly significantly increased. At fungal counts of albicans-urine suspensions of different fungal cell concentrations. PTR-MS represents a promising approach to rapid, highly sensitive and non-invasive clinical diagnostics allowing qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  3. Molecular methods for strain typing of Candida albicans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghrouni, F; Ben Abdeljelil, J; Boukadida, J; Ben Said, M

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most medically important fungi because of its high frequency as a commensal and pathogenic microorganism causing superficial as well as invasive infections. Strain typing and delineation of the species are essential for understanding its biology, epidemiology and population structure. A wide range of molecular techniques have been used for this purpose including non-DNA-based methods (multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis), conventional DNA-based methods (electrophoretic karyotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, restriction enzyme analysis with and without hybridization, rep-PCR) and DNA-based methods called exact typing methods because they generate unambiguous and highly reproducible typing data (including microsatellite length polymorphism and multi-locus sequence typing). In this review, the main molecular methods used for C. albicans strain typing are summarized, and their advantages and limitations are discussed with regard to their discriminatory power, reproducibility, cost and ease of performance.

  4. Recent Taxonomic Developments with Candida and Other Opportunistic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mary E; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2012-09-01

    Increases in susceptible patient populations and advances in identification methods have resulted in the continued recognition of novel yeasts as agents of human infection. Most of these agents are members of the well-recognized genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula. Some of these agents are "cryptic species," members of species complexes, and may not be detectable using classical carbohydrate assimilation-based methods of yeast identification. Such species require DNA- or MALDI-based methods for correct identification, although sporadic isolates may not routinely require delineation to the individual species level. The coming end of the fungal taxonomy rules requiring separate names for sexual and asexual forms of the same fungus will hopefully allow greater clarity, as names for medically important yeast can now be based on the needs of the medical mycology community and the common goal of better communication between laboratory and clinician.

  5. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

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    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  6. Genetic analysis of methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii PLD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtchev, K; Penkova, R; Ivanova, V; Tuneva, D

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports the initial experiments for genetic analysis of the haploid methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii PLD1. The collection of multiply marked auxotrophic mutants was obtained after treatment with UV-light or X-rays. Protoplasts from several mutants were fused by the PEG-CA2+ technique and five prototrophic hybrids were isolated. The genetic structure of the hybrids was studied by means of spontaneous and induced mitotic segregation. Our data suggest that hybrids are diploids, heterozygous by parental auxotrophic markers. We obtained genetic linkage between mutations lys2-8-met-3 from one hand and ade-17-arg-24 from the other. The genetic maps constructed showed similar characteristics concerning both the order of the markers and their map distances.

  7. Short peptides allowing preferential detection of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hani E J; Pölderl, Antonia; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    Whereas the detection of pathogens via recognition of surface structures by specific antibodies and various types of antibody mimics is frequently described, the applicability of short linear peptides as sensor molecules or diagnostic tools is less well-known. We selected peptides which were previously reported to bind to recombinant S. cerevisiae cells, expressing members of the C. albicans Agglutinin-Like-Sequence (ALS) cell wall protein family. We slightly modified amino acid sequences to evaluate peptide sequence properties influencing binding to C. albicans cells. Among the selected peptides, decamer peptides with an "AP"-N-terminus were superior to shorter peptides. The new decamer peptide FBP4 stained viable C. albicans cells more efficiently in their mature hyphal form than in their yeast form. Moreover, it allowed distinction of C. albicans from other related Candida spp. and could thus be the basis for the development of a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  8. Increased Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans in Simulated Microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara D. Altenburg; Sheila M. Nielsen-Preiss; Linda E. Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of simulated microgravity (SMG)-induced changes in the pathogenicity of microorganisms is important for success of long-term spaceflight. In a previous study using the high aspect ratio vessel bioreactor, we showed that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae underwent a significant phenotypic response when grown in modeled microgravity, which was reflected in the analysis of gene expression profiles. In this study, we establish that Candida albicans responds to SMG in a similar fashion, demonstrating that there is a conserved response among yeast to this environmental stress. We also report that the growth of C. albicans in SMG results in a morphogenic switch that is consistent with enhanced pathogenicity. Specifically, we observed an increase in filamentous forms of the organism and accompanying changes in the expression of two genes associated with the yeasthyphal transition. The morphological response may have significant implications for astronauts' safety, as the fungal pathogen may become more virulent during spaceflight.

  9. Adaptation of Candida albicans to commensalism in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Daniel; Correia, Inês; Pla, Jesús; Román, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a common resident of the oral cavity, GI tract and vagina in healthy humans where it establishes a commensal relationship with the host. Colonization of the gut, which is an important niche for the microbe, may lead to systemic dissemination and disease upon alteration of host defences. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the adaptation of C. albicans to the gut is therefore important for the design of new ways of combating fungal diseases. In this review we discuss the available models to study commensalism of this yeast, the main mechanisms controlling the establishment of the fungus, such as microbiota, mucus layer and antimicrobial peptides, and the gene regulatory circuits that ensure its survival in this niche.

  10. Stabilization of Candida rugosa lipase during transacetylation with vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Abir B; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2010-04-01

    An optimally prepared Candida rugosa lipase aggregate cross-linked with bovine serum albumin, was found to overcome acetaldehyde deactivation during transacetylation of a series of benzyl alcohols with vinyl acetate. The formulation, under the same reaction conditions, exhibited 4-30x enhancement in the reaction rate as compared to the celite immobilized lyophilized formulation and 25-133x enhancement as compared to the free lyophilized enzyme depending upon the alcohol chosen. The racemic 1-phenylethanol, taken as one of the alcohols, underwent a more efficient enantioselective transacetylation giving 80% enantiomeric excess of the product, (R)-1-phenylethyl acetate, at 38% conversion (E = 15) within 24h while the enzyme immobilized on celite gave 83% enantiomeric excess at 18% conversion (E = 13) during the same period of time.

  11. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia F. Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, coaggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of coaggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l, followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l, L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l, and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l. All isolates produced H2O2 , but the highest levels (3 -10 mg/l were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use.

  12. Recurrent arthritis by Candida glabrata, a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erami, Mahzad; Afzali, Hasan; Heravi, Mansoureh Momen; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Moazeni, Maryam; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Hosseinpour, Leila

    2014-06-01

    Infectious arthritis due to Candida glabrata is very rare. A 40-year-old Iranian man had developed a painful swelling on the left knee since a year ago. A surgery (meniscectomy) was performed on his knee. However, in follow-up visit after 2 months, the patient's condition was deteriorated. Direct examination of synovial fluid with Gram and hematoxylin-eosin stains were negative for any bacterial or fungal infection or crystal elements; however, inoculation into BACTEC™ Mycosis IC/F and Plus Aerobic/F culture bottles led to the isolation of a yeast strain. The macroscopic examination on CHROMagar™ Candida medium combined with microscopical examination on CMT80 agar made a presumptive identification of the isolate to be considered as C. glabrata, and it was later on confirmed by ITS sequencing. Initial empirical treatment was started with intravenous amphotericin B for 4 weeks followed by oral itraconazole which was unsuccessful. Prescription of an oral 150-mg tablet of fluconazole was considered for a 2-month course. All symptoms completely declined, and no recurrence of infection was detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) was performed for this isolate, and the result showed sensitivity to both amphotericin B and itraconazole and less susceptibility to fluconazole while clinical recovery was achieved by fluconazole. In any suspected clinical case caused by infectious agents, application of an effective fungal diagnostic test should be considered to avoid complications due to misdiagnosis. The correlation of AFST result with real in vivo therapeutic responses can be strain or patient dependent, and this should be considered for a successive treatment.

  13. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections.

  14. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  15. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  16. Molecular and phenotypic identification of Candida isolates from pregnant women in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Abidemi Nurat

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The combine uses of chromogenic agar and PCR have the advantage of efficient differentiation and identification of Candida species. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 317-322

  17. Formation, topography and reactivity of Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on silicon surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletic, Nemanja; Fahriansyah, [No Value; Nguyen, Le-Thu T.; Loos, Katja; Miletić, Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) was immobilized on silicon wafers previously modified with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and activated with glutaraldehyde (GLA). The various steps of immobilization were characterized using transmission FTIR, AFM, contact angle measurements and XPS. Furthermo

  18. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

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    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  19. Candida sergipensis, a new asexual yeast species isolated from frozen pulps of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria A; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen strains of the new yeast species Candida sergipensis have been isolated from frozen pulps of the tropical fruits umbú ( Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.) and mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa Gom.). Candida sergipensis was one of the prevalent species in the yeast community of these substrates. The new asexual ascomycetous yeast is phylogenetically related to Candida spandovensis and Candida sorbophila, species belonging to the Wickerhamiella clade, as evidenced by the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of their large subunit ribosomal DNAs. The species C. sergipensis and C. spandovensis can be separated on the basis of growth on 50% glucose agar, xylose and succinate, negative for the first species and positive for the second. The type culture is strain UFMG-R188 (CBS 9567).

  20. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided.