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Sample records for candida oleophila strain

  1. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-glucanase from Candida Oleophila for the Biocontrol of Penicillium expansum

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    Carlos Tamayo-Urbina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida oleophila was originally isolated from apple fruit peel in the region of Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, Mexico, and utilizes exo-β-1,3-glucanase production as a mode of action against Penicillium expansum in postharvest apples. β-1,3- Glucanase activity generated by C. oleophila on a minimal-salt medium using glucose, laminarin or cell wall fragments of P. expansum as a sole carbon source was determined. Highest β-1,3-glucanase activity (249 U/L was obtained after 48 hours of incubation using only glucose. β-1,3-Glucanase was purified from a growth medium using anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sepharose, which increased the specific activity of β-1,3-glucanase 74-fold, compared to the crude extract after ultrafiltration. SDS-PAGE demonstrated a purified β-1,3- glucanase with an estimated molecular weight of 48.3 kDa. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed laminarin to glucose as a final product and was identified on native polyacrylamide gels as a monomeric protein. Optimum activity occurred at pH 5 and at 40°C, and the enzyme was stable at 30°C for 1 hour. The purified exo-β-1,3-glucanase, when challenged against P. expansum conidia, reduced conidial germination to 51.8% and mycelial growth to 31%. Results indicate that one mode of action of C. oleophila for controlling P. expansum is by producing β-1,3-glucanase and that the purified

  2. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of Candida strains.

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    Manzoor, S; Ugena, L; Tornero-Lopéz, J; Martín, H; Molina, M; Camacho, J J; Cáceres, J O

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) for the discrimination of different strains of various species of Candida. This genus of yeast was selected due to its medical relevance as it is commonly found in cases of fungal infection in humans. Twenty one strains belonging to seven species of Candida were included in the study. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was employed as a complementary technique to provide information about elemental composition of Candida cells. The use of LIBS spectra in combination with optimized NN models provided reliable discrimination among the distinct Candida strains with a high spectral correlation index for the samples analyzed, without any false positive or false negative. Therefore, this study indicates that LIBS-NN based methodology has the potential to be used as fast fungal identification or even diagnostic method. PMID:27216662

  3. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of t...

  4. The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains.

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    Białoń, M; Krzyśko-Łupicka, T; Koszałkowska, M; Wieczorek, P P

    2014-02-01

    Candida yeasts are saprophytes naturally present in the environment and forming colonies on human mucous membranes and skin. They are opportunistic fungi that cause severe and even fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Several essential oils, including eucalyptus, pine, cinnamon and lemon, have been shown to be effective against Candida strains. This study addresses the chemical composition of some commercial lemon essential oils and their antifungal potential against selected Candida yeast strains. Antifungal potential and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for six commercial lemon essential oils against five Candida yeast strains (Candida albicans 31, Candida tropicalis 32, Candida glabrata 33, Candida glabrata 35 and Candida glabrata 38). On the basis of the GCMS analysis, it was found that the tested lemon essential oils had different chemical compositions, but mostly, they contained almost exclusively terpenes and oxygenated terpenes. The tests show that antifungal potential of lemon essential oils against Candida yeast strains was related to the high content of monoterpenoids and the type of Candida strains. From six tested commercial oils, only four (ETJA, Vera-Nord, Avicenna-Oil and Aromatic Art) shows antifungal potential against three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata). Vera-Nord and Avicenna-Oil show the best activity and effectively inhibit the growth of the C. albicans strain across the full range of the concentrations used. Our study characterises lemon essential oils, which could be used as very effective natural remedies against candidiasis caused by C. albicans. PMID:24436010

  5. Coaggregation of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain dependent.

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    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Dashper, Stuart; Catmull, Deanne; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent. PMID:26054855

  6. Erratum: Evaluation of CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures.

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    Mutlu Sariguzel, Fatma; Berk, Elife; Nedret Koc, Ayse; Sav, Hafize; Aydemir, Gonca

    2016-03-01

    Erratum Following publication of the original article (Infez Med. volume 23, issue 4, pages 318-322, year 2015) we became aware of the following errors which we wish to correct. These corrections have no impact over the study results, their interpretation or conclusions. Title The correct title is the following: Evaluation of chromagenic agar, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures Text In the whole text CHROMOMagar Candida shoul be read as chromogenic agar. PMID:27031906

  7. Using routine laboratory techniques for differentiation of pathogenic Candida strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykydalová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Kahle, Vladislav

    Toruń: Adam Marszałek, 2012 - (Węgłowska, J.). s. 380 ISBN 978-83-7780-440-7. [International Symposium on Chromatography /29./. 09.09.2012-13.02.2012, Toruń] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Candida parasilosis * Candida metapsilosis * biofilm * SDS-PAGE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Treatment with some anti-inflammatory drugs reduces germ tube formation in Candida albicans strains

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Rusu; Manuela Radu-Popescu; Diana Pelinescu; Tatiana Vassu

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroida...

  9. Evaluation of the disc diffusion method with a comparison study for fluconazole susceptibility of Candida strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To performance susceptibility testing of antifungal agents. Due to the increasing number of resistant strains, susceptibility testing of antifungal agents is gaining importance. Methods We compared the results of standard macrotube dilution reference method with two different microdilution methods, as well as the disc diffusion method in order to test the susceptibility of 150 Candida strains to fluconazole. Results Overall correlation between microdilution and macrodilution methods was 86%. It was 91% between the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations obtained from macrodilution and disc diffusion zone diameters. Conclusion The disc diffusion test was evaluated as a low-cost, reproducible, and efficient way of assessing the in vitro susceptibility of Candida strains to fluconazole.

  10. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

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    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  11. PHENOTYPIC INVESTIGATION OF VIRULENCE PROFILES IN SOME CANDIDA SPP. STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Alina Maria Holban

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida species great versatility may explain their wide range of infections occurred in a great variety of hosts. Even though many modern molecular techniques arise, phenotypic assays still provide valuable information and can guide the diagnosis and the treatment of infections. The phenotypic investigation of virulence determinants in some recent nosocomial isolates of Candida spp. revealed that the fungal clinical strains may develop specific virulence profiles depending on the taxonomic affiliation of the tested strains and the source of infection. Our data support the usefulness of phenotypic assays in predicting the clinical outcome of the fungal infections and in the adjustment of the antifungal treatment.

  12. Assessing the Potential of FT-IR to Identify Clinical Strains of Candida Spp

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Filipa; Veríssimo, Cristina; Brandão, João

    2011-01-01

    21 clinical isolates of Candida spp were examined by FT-IR in order to compare identification using FT-IR with biochemical identification (bioMerieux®). FT-IR revealed itself as a fast and effective method for identification of the strains tested as all were placed into the appropriate species, including one which was misidentified by the biochemical method.

  13. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

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    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  14. Morphogenesis of Candida albicans and Cytoplasmic Proteins Associated with Differences in Morphology, Strain, or Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The extent of change in cytoplasmic proteins which accompanies yeast-to-mycelium morphogenesis of Candida albicans was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Pure cultures of yeasts and true hyphae (i.e., without concomitant production of pseudohyphae) were grown in a synthetic low-sulfate medium. The two strains selected for this study were strain 4918, which produces pure mycelial cultures in low-sulfate medium at 37 degrees C and yeast cells at 24 degrees C, and strain 2252, whic...

  15. [Construction of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata strains with high riboflavin kinase activity using gene engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, O P; Iatsyshyn, V Iu; Dmytruk, K V; Voronovs'kyĭ, A Ia; Fedorovych, D V; Sybirnyĭ, A A

    2006-01-01

    The recombinant strains of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata, which contain the DNA fragment consisting of the FMN1 gene (encoding the riboflavin kinase, enzyme that converts riboflavin to flavinmononucleotide) driven by the strong promoters (the regulated RIB1 or constitutive TEF1 promoter) were isolated. Riboflavin kinase activity in the isolated transformants was tested. The 6-8-fold increase of the riboflavin kinase activity was shown in the recombinant strains containing the integrated Debaryomyces hansenii FMN1 gene under the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter. The recombinant strains can be used for the following construction of flavinmononucleotide overproducers. PMID:17290783

  16. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

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    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  17. Particular Candida albicans Strains in the Digestive Tract of Dyspeptic Patients, Identified by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yan-Bing; Zheng, Jian-Ling; Jin, Bo; Zhuo, De-Xiang; Huang, Zhu-Qing; Qi, He; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Wei; Fu, Ji-Ting; Wang, Chui-Jie; Mao, Ze-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a human commensal that is also responsible for chronic gastritis and peptic ulcerous disease. Little is known about the genetic profiles of the C. albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, diversity, and genetic profiles among C. albicans isolates recovered from natural colonization of the digestive tract in the dyspeptic patients. Methods and Findings Oral swab samples (n = 111) and gast...

  18. Lipopeptides from Bacillus strain AR2 inhibits biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

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    Rautela, Ria; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Abha; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-05-01

    The ability of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to reversibly switch between different morphological forms and establish biofilms is crucial for establishing infection. Targeting phenotypic plasticity and biofilm formation in C. albicans represents a new concept for antifungal drug discovery. The present study evaluated the influence of cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AR2 on C. albicans biofilms. The biosurfactant was characterized as a mixture of iturin and fengycin by MALDI-TOF and amino acid analysis. The biosurfactant exhibited concentration dependent growth inhibition and fungicidal activity. The biosurfactant at sub-minimum growth inhibition concentration decreased cell surface hydrophobicity, hindered germ tube formation and reduced the mRNA expression of hyphae-specific gene HWP1 and ALS3 without exhibiting significant growth inhibition. The biosurfactants inhibited biofilm formation in the range of 46-100 % depending upon the concentration and Candida strains. The biosurfactant treatment dislodged 25-100 % of preformed biofilm from polystyrene plates. The biosurfactant retained its antifungal and antibiofilm activity even after exposure to extreme temperature. By virtue of the ability to inhibit germ tube and biofilm formation, two important traits of C. albicans involved in establishing infection, lipopeptides from strain AR2 may represent a potential candidate for developing heat stable anti-Candida drugs. PMID:24623107

  19. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-Bromo-2-Chloro-2-(4-Chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-Phenylethanone against Candida Strains

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    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Estrada-Mata, Eine; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (compound 4). The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of α-chloro-β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of 63 clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species toward compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 μg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint) against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG), was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis) and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival) and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (agent development that might be useful in limiting the emergence of resistance in Candida strains.

  20. STRAIN IMPROVEMENT OF CANDIDA TROPICALIS OVC5 FOR XYLITOLPRODUCTION BY RANDOM MUTAGENESIS.

    OpenAIRE

    Sama. Jagadish Kumar, Marrivada. Sudhakara Reddy and Linga.Venkateswar Rao

    2010-01-01

    Candida tropicalis OVC 5 was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) rays and the mutants obtained were screened for xylitol production. One of the mutant strain CT-UV20, produced 0.78 g xylitol/ g xylose. To isolate high xylitol yielding, Xylitol de hydrogenase enzyme (XDH) defective mutant strain, CT-UV20 was further treated with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) and five mutants were selected based on difference in colony morphology. Xylitol production of these MNNG treated mutants were co...

  1. Treatment with some anti-inflammatory drugs reduces germ tube formation in Candida albicans strains

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    Elena Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.

  2. Comparison of proteolytic activity of Candida sp. strains depending on their origin.

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    Modrzewska, B; Kurnatowski, P; Khalid, K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the proteolytic activity of various Candida strains isolated from the oral cavity of persons without clinical symptoms of fungal infection, outpatients with oral cavity disorders and patients hospitalized due to head and neck tumors. A secondary aim was to confirm the presence of secreted aspartyl protease (SAP) genes in the isolated strains and then to compare it depending on the fungal species. Material consisted of 134 fungal strains that were analysed by a modified Staib method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the use of specific primer pairs. The greatest proteolytic activity of fungi was observed at pH 3.5. The proteolysis were the strongest for strains isolated from dental patients and the weakest from persons without changes in the oral cavity. In total, 61.9% of the strains exhibited the presence of at least one of the SAP1-3 genes in all examined groups, SAP1 being the most common; SAP4-6 genes were not observed. All genes were more frequent in the strains isolated from the dental patients than from other groups. SAP1-3 genes were present in Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. humicola and C. lipolytica, but were not noted in other isolated species. The lowest activity of proteolytic enzymes and the least number of aspartyl protease genes are observed among strains isolated from patients without clinical symptoms of mycosis. SAP1-3 genes are most frequently detected in the strains isolated from the oral cavity; their presence varies depending on the species of the fungi. PMID:26922385

  3. Metabolic engineering and classic selection of the yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) for construction of strains with enhanced riboflavin production.

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    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Sybirna, Natalia O; Fedorovych, Daria V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the mutant of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata dep8 isolated by classic mutagenesis and selection is used for industrial riboflavin production. Here we report on construction of a riboflavin overproducing strain of C. famata using a combination of random mutagenesis based on the selection of mutants resistant to different antimetabolites as well as rational approaches of metabolic engineering. The conventional mutagenesis involved consecutive selection for resistance to riboflavin structural analog 7-methyl-8-trifluoromethyl-10-(1'-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine), 8-azaguanine, 6-azauracil, 2-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and guanosine as well as screening for yellow colonies at high pH. The metabolic engineering approaches involved introduction of additional copies of transcription factor SEF1 and IMH3 (coding for IMP dehydrogenase) orthologs from Debaryomyces hansenii, and the homologous genes RIB1 and RIB7, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthetase, the first and the last enzymes of riboflavin biosynthesis pathway, respectively. Overexpression of the aforementioned genes in riboflavin overproducer AF-4 obtained by classical selection resulted in a 4.1-fold increase in riboflavin production in shake-flask experiments. D. hansenii IMH3 and modified ARO4 genes conferring resistance to mycophenolic acid and fluorophenylalanine, respectively, were successfully used as new dominant selection markers for C. famata. PMID:21040798

  4. Diversities of interaction of murine macrophages with three strains of Candida albicans represented by MyD88, CARD9 gene expressions and ROS, IL-10 and TNF-α secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaohuan; Ge, Yanping; Li, Wenqing; Hu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the mechanisms underlying the different responses of macrophages to distinct Candida albicans strains. Methods: Bone marrow was collected from mice. Macrophages were independently incubated with 3 Candida albicans strains. Results: MyD88 expression in Candida albicans 3683 group was significantly higher than that in Candida albicans 3630 group and Candida albicans SC5314 group, and marked difference was also observed between later two groups (P

  5. DNA microarray analysis of fluconazole resistance in a laboratory Candida albicans strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Several mechanisms are responsible for the acquired fluconazole (FLC) resistance in Candida albicans. In this study, we developed a FLC-resistant C. albicans strain through serial cultures of a FLC-susceptible C. albicans strain with inhibitory concentrations of FLC. Complimen-tary DNA microarray analysis and real-time reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction were used to investi-gate gene expression changes during the acquisition of azole resistance in the susceptible parental strain and the resis-tant daughter strain. The differentially expressed genes rep-resented functions as diverse as transporters (e.g. CDRI, PDR17), ergosterol biosynthesis (e.g. ERG2, ERG9), sterol metabolism (e.g. ARE2, IPF6464), energy metabolism (e.g. ADH3, AOX2) and transcription factors (e.g. FCR1, ECM22). Functional analysis revealed that energy-depen-dent efflux activity of membrane transporters increased and that ergosterol content decreased with the accumulation of sterol intermediates in the resistant strain as compared with the susceptible strain. We found that a point mutation (N977K) in transcription factor TAC1 that resulted in hy-peractivity of Tac1 could be the reason for overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and PDR17 in the resistant strain.Furthermore, a single amino acid difference (DI9E) in ERG3 that led to the inactivation of Erg3 could account for both sterol precursor accumulation and the changes in the ex-pression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes in this resistant strain. These findings expand the understanding of poten-tial novel molecular targets of FLC resistance in clinical C.albicans isolates.

  6. The differences in the isoelectric points of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Kubesova, Anna; Pavlik, Tomas; Votava, Miroslav

    2010-03-01

    The isoelectric points of 39 Candida parapsilosis strains were determined by means of capillary isoelectric focusing. The value of the isoelectric point corresponded well with cell surface hydrophobicity, as well as with the ability to form biofilm in these yeasts. PMID:20079385

  7. Genotype comparisons of strains of Candida albicans from patients with cutaneous candidiasis and vaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Xiao-dong; WANG Xue-jun; FU Mei-hua; SHEN Yong-nian; LIU Wei-da

    2008-01-01

    Background It is uncertain whether genotypes of Candida albicans (C. Albicans) are associated with colonizing body locations or variant conditions of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant associations between strain genotypes and body sites of infection and to determine the potential pathogenesis of cutaneous candidiasis at multiple locations.Methods A total of 151 strains of C. Albicans were isolated from 74 infant patients with cutaneous candidiasis and 61 female patients with vaginal candidiasis. Patients were grouped according to the body sites and underlying conditions of infection. Genolypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 25S rDNA and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ALT repeals digested with EcoRI and Clal.Results Ten genotypes were detected. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies between the two groups. However, we found no clear association between genotypes and the sites of cutaneous infection or the underlying conditions of vaginal candidiasis (VVC). In addition, strains of C. Albicans from multiple cutaneous locations of the same patient had identical genotypes.Conclusions Populations of C. Albicans from patients with cutaneous and vaginal candidiasis were genetically different. However, the lack of genetic difference between strains from different body sites with cutaneous infections or from different underlying conditions for VVC suggests no evidence of genotype selection for different skin surfaces or patients with different underlying conditions for VVC.

  8. Candida famata (Candida flareri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2012-11-01

    Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so-called 'flavinogenic yeasts', capable of riboflavin oversynthesis under condition of iron starvation. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known and were used for industrial production of riboflavin for a long time in the USA. C. famata is characterized by high salt tolerance, growing at NaCl concentrations of up to 2.5  M. Development of basic tools for the metabolic engineering of C. famata, such as a transformation system, selective markers, insertional mutagenesis, a reporter system and others, are described. The developed tools were used for cloning and identification of structural and regulatory genes of riboflavin synthesis. The construction of improved yeast strains producing riboflavin, FMN and FAD, based on the industrial riboflavin-producing strain dep8 and its non-reverting analogue AF4, is also described. PMID:23108915

  9. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  10. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  11. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  12. Use of Multiple Restriction Endonucleases for the Enhanced Differentiation of Candida albicans Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple endonuclease restriction enzymes it was possible to distinguish 31 patterns among 33 epidemiologi-cally independent Candida albicans from the oral cavity. This degree of discrimination required the use of three restriction enzymes.Keywords - Candida albicans, RFLP, Electrophoretic patterns, Epidemiology.

  13. Production of virulence factors in Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Araújo, Maria Izabel Daniel Santos Alves; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups. PMID:26971635

  14. Molecular typing of Candida albicans strains isolated from nosocomial candidemia Tipificação molecular de espécies de Candida albicans isoladas de candidemia hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Moretti Branchini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have been recognized as important microorganisms responsible for nosocomial fungemia. Six blood-stream and two intravenous central catheter C. albicans strains were isolated from eight patients and studied by electrophoretic karyotyping of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven chromosomal DNA profiles were identified. Two patients showed isolates with the same profile, suggesting nosocomial transmission. Karyotyping of C. albicans revealed an excellent discriminatory power among the isolates and may therefore be useful in the study of nosocomial candidemia.Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido reconhecidas como importantes causadoras de fungemias hospitalares. Foram estudados os DNA cromossômicos de oito cepas de C. albicans, obtidas de oito pacientes com fungemia hospitalar, por cariotipagem eletroforética através de "pulsed-field gel electrophoresis". As cepas foram obtidas pelo isolamento da levedura em seis hemoculturas e duas infecções relacionadas ao uso de cateter intra-venoso central. Foram identificados sete perfis de DNA cromossômico. Dois pacientes mostraram cepas com o mesmo perfil de DNA sugerindo transmissão nosocomial. A cariotipagem eletroforética revelou excelente capacidade discriminatória entre os isolados sendo útil no estudo das candidemias hospitalares.

  15. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Candida albicans strains isolated from infectious disease patients in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lvyin; Du, Xin; Li, Tianming; Song, Yan; Zai, Shubei; Hu, Xiangnan; Zhang, Xiaonan; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, as an opportunistic pathogen, can cause superficial and life-threatening candidiasis in immunocompromised individuals. The formation of surface-associated biofilms and the appearance of drug resistance pose a significant challenge for clinical intervention. In this study, a total of 104 hospital-acquired C. alibcans clinical isolates were collected from sterile sites and mucosal lesions of 92 infectious disease patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and analysed. The resistance rates to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole were 12.5 %, 15.4 % and 11.5 % respectively. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis identified 63 diploid sequence types (DSTs) with a decentralized phylogeny, of which 37 DSTs (58.7 %) had not been reported in the online MLST database. Loss of heterozygosity was observed in ACC1 and ADP1 sequences obtained from six sequential isolates from a patient receiving antifungal treatment, which exemplified the effect of microevolution on C. albicans genetic alterations. Biofilm formation capability, an important virulence trait of C. albicans, was variable among strains isolated from different anatomical sites (P = 0.0302) and affected by genotypes (P = 0.0185). The mRNA levels of the azole antifungal target ERG11 gene and efflux pump genes (CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) were detected in 9-18.1 % of azole-resistant and susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) isolates. Twelve mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions in ERG11 were found in azole-resistant and S-DD isolates. Among them, A114S, Y132H and Y257H substitution in the ERG11 gene may be primarily related to azole resistance. Taken together, we observed a high level of diversity within C. albicans isolates. Multiple inter-related underlying mechanisms, including genetic and environmental factors, may account for high surface adhesion or azole resistance in clinical C. albicans infections. PMID:25351710

  16. Inhibition of Hyphal Growth of Azole-Resistant Strains of Candida albicans by Triazole Antifungal Agents in the Presence of Lactoferrin-Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Shigeru; Teraguchi, Susumu; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    1998-01-01

    The effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) or the LF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) on the growth of Candida albicans hyphae, including those of three azole-resistant strains, were investigated by a crystal violet staining method. The hyphae of two highly azole-resistant strains were more susceptible to inhibition by LF or LFcin B than the azole-susceptible strains tested. One moderately azole-resistant strain was defective in the formation of hyphae and showed a suscepti...

  17. Nalidixic acid inhibition of post-ultraviolet recovery by nalidixic acid sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalidixic acid (Nal) can kill Candida albicans directly or suppress the organism's recovery from ultraviolet irradiation. Mutants selected for resistance to inactivation by Nal alone have generally enhanced DNA repair proficiencies evidenced by their coincident increased resistances to ultraviolet radiation, ethylmethane sulfonate, and nitrous acid. The effects of Nal, erythromycin, and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation on survivals of mutant and wild type strains following ultraviolet exposure indicate that different mechanisms underly the direct lethality of Nal and its ability to inhibit post-irradiation recovery. (author)

  18. Multidrug-resistant endemic clonal strain of Candida auris in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Kumar, V.; Sharma, C.; Prakash, A.; Agarwal, K.; Babu, R.; Dinesh, K.R.; Karim, S.; Singh, S.K.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Candida auris is a recently described rare agent of fungemia. It is notable for its antifungal resistance. A total of 15 C. auris isolates, originating from seven cases of fungemia, three cases of diabetic gangrenous foot, and one case of bronchopneumonia from a tertiary care hospital in south India

  19. 880株念珠菌的临床分布特征及药敏结果分析%Strain distribution and drug susceptibility results analysis of 880 candida strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文英; 吴显劲; 罗虹烈; 林湛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status and drug susceptibility of candida in our hospital from Jan.2012 to Dec. 2013. Methods Clinical specimens were inoculated culture. When candida strains were advantage strains in the specimens from open position or candida strains were come from the sterile specimens, these were further cultivated and tested for drug suscepti-bility. Results A total of 888 candida strains were detected,most of which were candida albicans,followed by smooth candida, tropical candida, nearly smooth candida; Mainly from the older population, candida distribution had obvious difference in different age groups (P<0.01);Men more than women;With sputum specimens were most, urine second, gastric juice to a minimum, it had obvious difference in specimen source distribution (P<0.01); Candida infection were mainly from patients with lung disease and heart head blood-vessel disease, it had obvious difference in different clinical diagnosed patients (P<0.01);The sensitivity to flu-conazole and voriconazole had statistically difference in different candida(P<0.05), smooth candida and tropical candida were high-er than other candida. Conclusion Candida albicans is the main pathogen of fungal infection, next, smooth candida. Elderly pa-tients and cardiovascular patients should guard candida infections in double. Clinical antifungal therapy should be based on the results of strain identification and antifungal susceptibility testing.%目的:了解2012年1月-2013年12月本院念珠菌感染状况和药敏情况。方法临床标本经接种培养,开放性部位标本若培养出以念珠菌为优势菌株和无菌部位标本培养出念珠菌均进一步进行纯培养及药敏试验。结果880例念珠菌以白色念珠菌为主要致病菌,其次为光滑念珠菌、热带念珠菌、近平滑念珠菌;主要来源于老年人群,不同年龄人群念珠菌分布具有明显差异(P<0.01);男性多于女性;以痰标本最多,尿液

  20. Nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid on Growth Inhibition of Standard Strain of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Haghighi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, the incidence of opportunistic fungi has shown a marked increase. Infection caused by common pathogenic fungi is a significant health problem in immune compromised hosts. The present study evaluated antifungal activity of Titanum dioxide nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid against Candida albicans as self-cleaning agent by standard micro dilution test. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the Medical University of Tarbiyat Modares in 2009. TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 (Titanium tetrachloride. Size and type of these nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray-Diffraction (XRD. Afterwards, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicide Concentration (MFC test for TiO2 and EDTA were performed. Results: Concentration of synthesised TiO2 was 7.03 mg/ml and 5.63 5.63 ×1020 particles/ml. Evaluation of morphology and diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles with SEM showed that nanoparticles were spherical with diameter between 40-65 nm. MIC50 of 2.2, 1.24 and 0.125 µg/ml respectively. MIC90 and MFC of TiO2, EDTA and fluconazole were 3.51, 2.48 , 0.5 µg/ml and 4.06, 3.1 ,1 µg/ml respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, using of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles with chemical method showed a suitable activity against Candida in comparison with Fluconazole. Thus it might represent a good candidates in elimination of Candida in medical from medical devices. Key Words:

  1. Biodegradation of crude petroleum oil and environmental pollutants by Candida tropicalis strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, Soha [Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt). Genetic Engineering Biotechnology Research Institute. Environmental Biotechnology Dept.; Soliman, Nadia A. [Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt). Genetic Engineering Biotechnology Research Institute. Bioprocess Development Dept.

    2011-07-15

    A local yeast isolate named A was isolated from polluted area of Abou-Qir gulf (Alexandria, Egypt), identified according to a partial sequence of 18sRNA as Candida tropicalis. The isolate showed a high potency in petroleum oil biodegradation as well some hydrocarbons. Morphological changes in cell diameter of this yeast were recognized upon growing the target cell in sea water medium supplemented with petroleum oil as sole carbon source in comparison to the growth in enriched medium. Statistically-based experimental design was applied to evaluate the significance of factors on petroleum oil biodegradation by this yeast isolate. Eleven culture conditions were examined by implementing Plackett-Burman factorial design where aeration, NH{sub 4}Cl and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} had the most positive significance on oil degradation. (author)

  2. Uricase production by a recombinant Hansenula polymorpha strain harboring Candida utilis uricase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhaoyue; He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Borun

    2008-06-01

    Uricase is an important medical enzyme which can be used to determine urate in clinical analysis, to therapy gout, hyperuricemia, and tumor lysis syndrome. Uricase of Candida utilis was successfully expressed in Hansenula polymorpha under the control of methanol oxidase promoter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide as the secretory sequence. Recombinant H. polymorpha MU200 with the highest extracellular uricase production was characterized with three copies of expression cassette and selected for process optimization for the production of recombinant enzyme. Among the parameters investigated in shaking flask cultures, the pH value of medium and inoculum size had great influence on the recombinant uricase production. The maximum extracellular uricase yield of 2.6 U/ml was obtained in shaking flask culture. The yield of recombinant uricase was significantly improved by the combined use of a high cell-density cultivation technique and a pH control strategy of switching culture pH from 5.5 to 6.5 in the induction phase. After induction for 58 h, the production of recombinant uricase reached 52.3 U/ml (about 2.1 g/l of protein) extracellularly and 60.3 U/ml (about 2.4 g/l) intracellularly in fed-batch fermentation, which are much higher than those expressed in other expression systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the heterologous expression of uricase in H. polymorpha. PMID:18437374

  3. A repressor activator protein1 homologue from an oleaginous strain of Candida tropicalis increases storage lipid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Atrayee; Dey, Prabuddha; Barik, Amita; Bahadur, Ranjit P; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-06-01

    The repressor activator protein1 (Rap1) has been studied over the years as a multifunctional regulator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, its role in storage lipid accumulation has not been investigated. This report documents the identification and isolation of a putative transcription factor CtRap1 gene from an oleaginous strain of Candida tropicalis, and establishes the direct effect of its expression on the storage lipid accumulation in S. cerevisiae, usually a non-oleaginous yeast. In silico analysis revealed that the CtRap1 polypeptide binds relatively more strongly to the promoter of fatty acid synthase1 (FAS1) gene of S. cerevisiae than ScRap1. The expression level of CtRap1 transcript in vivo was found to correlate directly with the amount of lipid produced in oleaginous native host C. tropicalis. Heterologous expression of the CtRap1 gene resulted in ∼ 4-fold enhancement of storage lipid content (57.3%) in S. cerevisiae. We also showed that the functionally active CtRap1 upregulates the endogenous ScFAS1 and ScDGAT genes of S. cerevisiae, and this, in turn, might be responsible for the increased lipid production in the transformed yeast. Our findings pave the way for the possible utility of the CtRap1 gene in suitable microorganisms to increase their storage lipid content through transcription factor engineering. PMID:25805842

  4. Pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, Candida oleophila with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. These phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeas...

  5. 505株念珠菌感染特点及耐药性分析%505 strains of Candida infection and antibiotic resistance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈玲; 李芳芹; 艾芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics and drug resistance of Candida infection in our hospital, for clinical rational use of antifungal agents provide aetiological basis. Methods Retrospective investigation and analysis method in our hospital from May 2009 to December 2010 samples were separated in 505 strains of Candida and statistics to common antifungal susceptibility test results analysis. Results Patients older than 60 years accounted for 74. 2%. Candida albicans accounted for 74. 7%. Lower respiratory tract specimens accounted for 76. 0%. Department of respiratory medicine accounted for 27. 8%. In 7 kinds tof antifungal susceptibility test, amphotericin B, nystatin, 5-fluorocytosine on Candida albicans, Torulopsis Candida, Candida Tropicalis, Candida krusei resistance rates were lower than 5%. Miconazole, Kconazole for more than 4 species of Candida resistance rates were lower than 20% ,Itraconazole and fluconazole against Candida albicans,Candida tropicalis,Candida krusei resistance rates were higher than 50% , showing different degrees of resistance. Conclusion To pay attention to fungal isolates to antibacterial drug resistance,clini-ciang could apply antifungal drugs according to the result of drug sensitivity tests.%目的 探讨本院念珠菌感染特点及耐药情况,为临床合理使用抗真菌药物提供病原学依据.方法 应用回顾性调查分析的方法,对本院2009年5月至2010年12月期间送检标本中分离的505株念珠菌进行统计并对常用抗真菌药敏试验结果进行分析.结果 念珠菌感染患者中,60岁以上者占74.2%.505株念珠菌中,白色念珠菌占74.7%.念珠菌在痰液标本中检出率最高,占76.0%,在呼吸科分布最多,占27.8%.在药敏试验中,两性霉素B、制霉菌素、5-氟胞嘧啶对白色念珠菌、光滑球拟酵母菌、热带念珠菌、克柔氏念珠菌的耐药率均低于5%;咪康唑、益康唑对以上4种念珠菌的耐药率均低于20%;伊曲康唑、氟康唑

  6. Activity of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol produced by a strain of Streptomyces mutabilis isolated from a Saharan soil against Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghit, S; Driche, E H; Bijani, C; Zitouni, A; Sabaou, N; Badji, B; Mathieu, F

    2016-06-01

    In a search for new antifungal antibiotics active against Candida albicans and others pathogenic fungi, a strain of actinobacteria, designated G61, was isolated from a Saharan soil and tested for its activity against these microorganisms. The analysis of its 16S rDNA sequence showed a similarity level of 100% with Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T). The highest anticandidal activities produced by the strain G61 were obtained on Bennett medium in the fourth day of incubation. The active product, extracted by n-butanol, contained one bioactive spot detected on thin layer chromatography plates. It was purified by HPLC and its chemical structure was determined by spectroscopic analyses as 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of this product against several strains of pathogenic microorganisms are interesting. PMID:27107984

  7. Analysis of the Distribution of Candida Infection on 304 Strains and Its Drug Resistance%304株念珠菌感染分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭俊华; 王海忠; 魏捷; 薛荣利; 马嘉伟

    2011-01-01

    Our objective is to investigate the drug resistance of Candida infection and give a clinical guidance to the rational use of drugs. The fungus was separate by conventional culture,the Candida spp was I-dentified by coloration medium and VITEK 32 automatic microorganism analysor,and the sensitivity was detected by drug analysing box. The results showed that the percent of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei,candida glabrata was 73. 7%, 14. 1%,4. 9% and 4. 3%,respectively,among 304 strains of Candida. The sensitivity of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata treated with ketocon-azole was 90. 5% ,57.1% and 50.0%. A lower sensitivity of Candida albicans was found when treated with itraconazole. The sensitivity of Candida albicans treated with either miconazole or fluconazol was 82. 4% and 86. 5 %, respectively. There was a higher resistance of Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata when treated with miconazole or fluconazol. Our conclusion is that Candida albicans infection is the main clinical Candida spp. Fluconazol is the first choice to administrate Candida spp infection. It is necessary to enforce clinically fungus' segregation,identification and sensitivity dectection,thus decreasing the drug-resistant strains.%为调查念珠菌的耐药情况,指导临床合理用药,采用常规培养分离真菌,用显色培养基和VITEK 32全自动微生物分析仪鉴定真菌,真菌药敏测定试剂盒分析药敏.结果显示,304株念珠菌中白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、克柔氏念珠菌、光滑念珠菌分别为73.7%、14.1%、4.9%、4.3%.酮康唑对白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、光滑念珠菌的敏感率分别为90.5%、57.1%、50.0%%,伊曲康唑对念珠菌的敏感性较差.咪康唑、氟康唑对白色念珠菌的敏感率分别为82.4%、86.5%,对热带念珠菌和光滑念珠菌的耐药性较高.表明临床念珠菌感染以白色念珠菌为主,氟康唑是临床较好的首选用

  8. Production of Formaldehyde by Detergent-Treated Cells of a Methanol Yeast, Candida boidinii S2 Mutant Strain AOU-1

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Tani, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of cells of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii, with the cationic detergent cetyldimethylbenzyl-ammonium chloride (Cation M2) improved the production of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde production was improved twofold with respect to the initial amount of formaldehyde and 1.61-fold with respect to the final amount of formaldehyde after a 12-h reaction under optimized detergent treatment conditions. The treatment caused formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenases to leak out of the cells more ...

  9. Subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole increase the intracellular sodium content in both fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida albicans strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolecká, A.; Krauke, Yannick; Bujdáková, H.; Sychrová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 605-610. ISSN 0008-4166 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Candida albicans * fluconazol * salt tolerance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.262, year: 2009

  10. A Candida albicans Strain Expressing Mammalian Interleukin-17A Results in Early Control of Fungal Growth during Disseminated Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Huppler, Anna R.; Whibley, Natasha; Woolford, Carol A.; Childs, Erin E.; He, Jie; Biswas, Partha S.; McGeachy, Mandy J.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is normally a commensal fungus of the human mucosae and skin, but it causes life-threatening systemic infections in hospital settings in the face of predisposing conditions, such as indwelling catheters, abdominal surgery, or antibiotic use. Immunity to C. albicans involves various immune parameters, but the cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) (also known as IL-17) has emerged as a centrally important mediator of immune defense against both mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Con...

  11. Comparative identification of Candida species isolated from animals using phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadăş George Cosmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify 58 Candida sp. strains isolated from animals using the Chromatic Candida test, the API 20 C AUX system, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The Chromatic Candida test was able to identify only C. albicans and C. krusei. The API 20 C AUX system and PCR-RFLP had similar specificity for the identification of Candida strains. In case of both methods, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species - 22 (37.93% strains, followed by Candida krusei - 17 (29.31% strains, Candida famata - 10 (17.24% strains, Candida parapsilosis - five (8.62% strains, and Candida kefyr - four (6.89% strains. PCR-RFLP represents a reliable, quick and relatively inexpensive genotyping method, recommended for rapid identification of Candida spp.

  12. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  13. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. PMID:26452180

  14. Coaggregation of oral Candida isolates with bacteria from bone marrow transplant recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, L Y; Minah, G E; Peterson, D. E.; Wingard, J R; Merz, W G; Altomonte, V; Tylenda, C A

    1990-01-01

    In vitro coaggregation between Candida species isolated from immunosuppressed bone marrow transplant recipients and oral bacteria was investigated. Each Candida strain showed a different pattern of coaggregation with the 22 bacterial strains studied. Two strains of Lactobacillus amylovorus isolated from separate bone marrow transplant patients and Fusobacterium nucleatum (VPI 10197) coaggregated with all Candida strains. Ten bacterial strains showed no coaggregation with the Candida strains. ...

  15. Suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes com estomatite protética Susceptibility to antifungal drugs of Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moreira BATISTA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes portadores de próteses totais, apresentam, com freqüência a chamada estomatite protética, com a qual associa-se Candida albicans determinando a chamada candidíase eritematosa. Assim, procuramos avaliar a suscetibilidade dessa levedura a agentes antifúngicos. A suscetibilidade de dezenove cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes apresentando estomatite protética foi estudada frente a: um derivado poliênico representado, pela anfotericina B (AnB, e dois derivados azóicos, cetoconazol e miconazol. A atividade antifúngica foi estudada a partir da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração fungicida mínima (CFM, pela técnica de diluição em ágar. Os resultados obtidos, mostraram baixos valores de CIMs e CFMs (mg/ml para a AnB frente a todas as leveduras. Para o miconazol e o cetoconazol, foram observadas CIMs invariavelmente £ 4,00 mg/ml; para as CFMs, foram obtidos valores ³ 16,00 mg/ml frente a maioria das cepas. Conclui-se que a AnB apresentou maior ação fungicida in vitro enquanto os azóis demonstraram ação fungistática mas não fungicida. Acreditamos que a pesquisa de novas drogas, principalmente de uso tópico ainda é necessária, a fim de se tratar, com sucesso, a candidíase eritematosa, comumente observada nas chamadas estomatites protéticas.Users of total prosthesis present in general a high frequency of the so called denture stomatitis, associated to erythematous candidiasis. So, we evaluated the susceptibility of oral yeast to three antifungal agents. Strains of Candida albicans isolated from patients with denture stomatitis were evaluated in relation to the susceptibility of the antifungal drugs as amphotericin B (polyenic derivatives, and azole agents as ketoconazole and miconazole. The antifungal activity was evaluated, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicide concentration (MFC were determined utilizing the agar dilution method. The

  16. Differences in fingerprints of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida strains exploitable for clinical practice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykydalová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Šalplachta, Jiří; Růžička, E.; Kahle, Vladislav

    Brno: Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 117-120 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Candida * biofilm * fingerprint Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215227

  17. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T). PMID:26410375

  18. Penetration of Candida Biofilms by Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fattani, Mohammed A.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2004-01-01

    A filter disk assay was used to investigate the penetration of antifungal agents through biofilms containing single and mixed-species biofilms containing Candida. Fluconazole permeated all single-species Candida biofilms more rapidly than flucytosine. The rates of diffusion of either drug through biofilms of three strains of Candida albicans were similar. However, the rates of drug diffusion through biofilms of C. glabrata or C. krusei were faster than those through biofilms of C. parapsilosi...

  19. Absence of Amphotericin B-Tolerant Persister Cells in Biofilms of Some Candida Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhaheri, Rawya S.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms and planktonic cells of five Candida species were surveyed for the presence of persister (drug-tolerant) cell populations after exposure to amphotericin B. None of the planktonic cultures (exponential or stationary phase) contained persister cells. However, persisters were found in biofilms of one of two strains of Candida albicans tested and in biofilms of Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, but not in biofilms of Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis. These results suggest th...

  20. Comprehensive approach for the detection of antifungal compounds using a susceptible strain of Candida albicans and confirmation of in vivo activity with the Galleria mellonella model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Godal, Quentin; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Conan, Céline; Marcourt, Laurence; Wardojo, Bambang Prajogo Eko; Voinesco, Francine; Buchwalder, Aurélie; Gindro, Katia; Sanglard, Dominique; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-09-01

    An efficient screening strategy for the identification of potentially interesting low-abundance antifungal natural products in crude extracts that combines both a sensitive bioautography assay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) microfractionation was developed. This method relies on high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautography with a hypersusceptible engineered strain of Candida albicans (DSY2621) for bioactivity detection, followed by the evaluation of wild type strains in standard microdilution antifungal assays. Active extracts were microfractionated by HPLC in 96-well plates, and the fractions were subsequently submitted to the bioassay. This procedure enabled precise localisation of the antifungal compounds directly in the HPLC chromatograms of the crude extracts. HPLC-PDA-mass spectrometry (MS) data obtained in parallel to the HPLC antifungal profiles provided a first chemical screening about the bioactive constituents. Transposition of the HPLC analytical conditions to medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) allowed the efficient isolation of the active constituents in mg amounts for structure confirmation and more extensive characterisation of their biological activities. The antifungal properties of the isolated natural products were evaluated by their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in a dilution assay against both wild type and engineered strains of C. albicans. The biological activity of the most promising agents was further evaluated in vitro by electron microscopy and in vivo in a Galleria mellonella model of C. albicans infection. The overall procedure represents a rational and comprehensive means of evaluating antifungal activity from various perspectives for the selection of initial hits that can be explored in more in-depth mode-of-action studies. This strategy is illustrated by the identification and bioactivity evaluation of a series of antifungal compounds from the methanolic extract of a Rubiaceae

  1. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 143 Candida strains%143株念珠菌菌种分布及对5种抗真菌药物的敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云昆; 朱雯梅; 高辉; 徐敏; 许丽虹; 王杨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of 143 Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens. Methods A comprehensive study was carried out to analyze the species distribution of Candida spp. and their susceptibility to five commonly used antifungal agents. A total of 143 isolates were collected from Yan' an Hospital between 2005 and 2009. Antifungal susceptibility testing was conducted with ATB-Fungus-3 strip. Results Candida albicans accounted for 39. 2% (56/143), and non-albicans Candida spp. 60.8% (87/143), including Candida glabrata 24.5% (35/143), Candida tropicalis 7. 7% (11/143) and Candida parapsilosis 5.6% (8/143). Of the 143 Candida isolates, the overall percentage of strains susceptible to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole was 86. 0%, 100%, 90.9%, 69.9%, and 93.5 %, respectively. About 91. l%, 100%, 96.4%, 82. 1 %, and 96.3% of the 56 Candida a lbicans strains were susceptible to these five antifungal agents. Of the 87 non-albicans Candida spp. isolates, the susceptibility rates were 82.8%, 100%, 87. 4%, 62. 1 %, and 92. 0%, respectively. Conclusions Candida albicans remains a common species in Candida infections. Non-albicans Candida spp. is also increasing. Candida albicans isolates are still highly susceptible to the common antifungal agents. Non-albicans Candida species are more resistant than Candida albicans. Clinical antifungal therapy should be based on the results of pathogen identification and antifungal susceptibility testing.%目的 分析临床标本中念珠菌属的菌种分布及对常用抗真菌药物的敏感性,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 总结分析昆明市延安医院2005-2009年念珠菌属的菌种分布及其对5种常用抗真菌药物的敏感性.药敏试验采用ATB-Fungus-3微量稀释法.结果 在2005-2009年分离的共143株念珠菌中,白念珠菌占39.2%(56/143),非白念珠菌占60

  2. Influence of saliva and mucin on the adhesion of Candida oral clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, C.; Botelho, C.M.; Oliveira, Ana C. N.; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This research work intends to clarify the role of artificial saliva, in particularly the role of mucin, a salivary protein, on the surface properties and adhesion ability of Candida spp. oral clinical isolates to abiotic surfaces. Methods: Four oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. were used: two Candida albicans strains (AC; AM) and two Candida parapsilosis strains (AD; AM2). The strains were isolated from patients using oral prosthesis. The microorganisms were cultured in the a...

  3. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J;

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance of the...... antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating that...

  4. Species distribution and drug resistance of 386 strains of candida%386例假丝酵母菌菌种分布及药敏结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贤云; 何小丽; 夏春; 薛莲

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析假丝酵母菌属临床感染的种类分布及药物耐药性.方法 采用VITEK-AMS全自动微生物鉴定系统、酵母样真菌鉴定卡YBC进行鉴定和药敏实验.结果 所分离的386例假丝酵母菌属中,白色假丝酵母菌占第一位,为64.2%;其次为热带假丝酵母菌,占20.7%;白色假丝酵母菌对唑类的耐药率较低(氟康唑0.6%,酮康唑1.2%);热带假丝酵母菌对唑类的耐药率较白色假丝酵母菌高(氟康唑6.2%,酮康唑7.5%);光滑假丝酵母菌对唑类的耐药率较高(氟康唑16.7%,酮康唑13.3%);克柔假丝酵母菌对氟康唑的耐药率达84.2%.结论 假丝酵母菌属的感染种类不断增多,耐药性上升,对易感患者应加强监测,分析发病原因,合理应用抗菌剂,以延缓和防止真菌耐药性的进一步发展.%Objective To analyze the species distribution and drug resistance of clinical isolates of Candida. Methods Clinical I solates were identified and detected for drug susceptibility by using VITEK AMS automated microbial identification system and yeast like fungi identification card YBC. Results Among 386 strains of Candida mycoderma,the most common specie was Candida albicans with the proportion of 64. 2%,followed by Candida tropicalis(20. 7%). Candida albicans was sensitive to azoles,with re sistance rate of 0. 6% and 1.2% to fluconazole and ketoconazole. Candida tropicalis was more resistant to azoles than Candida albi cans,with resistance rate of 6. 2% to fluconazole and 7.5% to ketoconazole. Candida glabrata was highly resistant to azoles,with re sistance rate of 16. 7% and 13. 3% to fluconazole and ketoconazole. The resistance rate of Candida krusei to fluconazole was 84. 2%. Conclusion Many species of Candida could cause infections,with the increasing of drug resistance. Monitoring on suscepti ble patients should be strengthened for the analysis of etiology and rational use of antimicrobial drugs to prevent and delay further development of drug resistance.

  5. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against candida species from oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida . Forty six (61.3% Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%, Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34% each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17% each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii .

  6. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2014-11-01

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and subunits B1 and B2 of RNA polymerase II B. From this analysis, the anamorphic species Candida borneana, Candida cidri, Candida floccosa, Candida hungarica, and Candida ogatae were transferred to the genus Kuraishia as new combinations and Candida anatomiae, Candida ernobii, Candida ishiwadae, Candida laoshanensis, Candida molendini-olei, Candida peltata, Candida pomicola, Candida populi, Candida wickerhamii, and Candida wyomingensis were transferred to the genus Nakazawaea. PMID:25132542

  7. The Spermicidal Compound Nonoxynol-9 Increases Adhesion of Candida Species to Human Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    All 25 strains of Candida spp. tested were able to grow in medium supplemented with 25% nonoxynol-9 in vitro. Adhesion of Candida spp. to HeLa cells was found to increase in the presence of 5% nonoxynol-9 (2.2- to 6.6-fold; P less than 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, in 12.5% nonoxynol-9. Adhesion of Candida strains cultured in medium supplemented with nonoxynol-9 varied, with five of six strains of Candida albicans and the single strain of Candida tropicalis demonstrating increases of 1.4 to...

  8. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  9. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  10. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial and antifungal activities towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial strains and different species of Candida fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahisuddin; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Khan, Zaheer; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2015-09-01

    Biomimetic and economic method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with controlled size has been reported in presence of shape-directing cetlytrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Biochemical reduction of Ag(+) ions in micellar solution with an aqueous lemon extract produced spherical and polyhedral AgNPs with size ranging from 15 to 30 nm. The influence of [CTAB] and [lemon extract] on the size of particles, fraction of metallic silver and their antimicrobial properties is discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities (antibacterial and antifungal) against different pathogenic organisms. For this purpose, AgNPs were tested against two model bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC405)) and three species of Candida fungus (Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Candida glabrata (ATCC90030) and Candida tropicalis (ATCC750). AgNPs were found to be highly toxic towards both bacteria. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall. PMID:26017756

  11. Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Güven; Arslan, Seza; Ekener, Serpil

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The various culture specimens of patients were investigated in our research. Material and methods: 123 Candida strains were isolated. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, formation of membranes in sabouraud medium, and the tests of ascospore in the mediums with cycloheximide and the test of nitrate were...

  12. Virulence factors of non-Candida albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sónia Carina; Negri, M.; Monteiro, D. R.; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species (candidosis) have greatly increased over recent years, mainly due to the escalation of the AIDS epidemic, population ageing, increasing number of immunocompromised patients and the more widespread use of indwelling medical devices. Besides Candida albicans, non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis are now frequently identified as potential human pathogens. Candida species pathogenicit...

  13. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar;

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  14. Comparison of cell wall proteins in putative Candida albicans & Candida dubliniensis by using modified staining method & SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Nezarati, Seyedeh Shahrzad Mahdavi; Heshmati, Fariba; Hamzehlou, Sepideh

    2012-01-01

    Background Candida species are among the most common causes of opportunistic fungal diseases. Among Candida species, Candida albicans is responsible for most infections. Having many strains, C. albicans is very polymorph. C. dubliniensis is very similar to albicans species both morphologically and physiologically. For an infection to occur, cell wall proteins play an important role as they enable yeast to adhere to host cells and begin pathogenesis. Therefore, we decided to extract these prot...

  15. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  16. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children Diversidade fenotípica e genotípica entre amostras de Candida albicans isoladas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livre de cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mardegan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans oral strains collected from caries-free and caries-active healthy children ranging from 24 to 36 months old, were studied. The aim of the study was to determine proteinase and phospholipase activities produced by Candida albicans in the two groups and to determine the phenotypic diversity of these enzymes based on genetic polymorphism using the AP-PCR method. Strains identified by morphological and fermentation tests as C. albicans were grown in proteinase and phospholipase agar media at 37ºC for 7 and 4 days, respectively. After the incubation period, the enzyme activity of the proteinase and phospholipase positive strains was measured. All strains were subjected to AP-PCR, using the arbitrary primer AP-3. The enzymatic analysis showed no differences between the two groups. The AP-PCR method was effective in demonstrating intra-individual genetic polymorphism in C. albicans, showing a greater clonal diversity in caries-active versus caries-free children. Dendograms of similarity showed only intra-individual clonal lineage. The results suggest that the enzymatic profile does not depend on the genotypic characteristics of the strains.Cepas orais de Candida albicans coletadas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livres de cárie com idade variando de 24 a 36 meses, foram estudadas. O propósito do estudo foi determinar a atividade da proteinase e da fosfolipase produzida por Candida albicans nos dois grupos e comparar com a diversidade genotípica usando o método AP-PCR. As cepas identificadas como C. albicans por testes morfológicos e de fermentação, foram cultivadas em meio ágar proteinase e fosfolipase a 37ºC por 7 e 4 dias, respectivamente. Após o período de incubação, a atividade enzimática das cepas proteinase e fosfolipase positiva foram medidas. Todas as cepas foram submetidas a técnica genotípica AP-PCR, usando o primer arbitrário AP-3. A análise enzimática demonstrou que não há diferença entre os

  17. Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Maria Magdalena Simatupang

    2009-01-01

    義歯性口内炎患者のデンチャープラーク中には、多数の真菌が認められることから、これら真菌が衰症の原因菌の一つとされている。このようなデンチャープラーク中の真菌には、Candida属が高頻度に検出され、中でもCandida albicansの検出率が著しく高いことが知られている。本真菌は、酵母(Y)型並びにフィラメント(F)型の二つの形態をとる二形性真菌であり、種々の因子によりその形態が変化することが、古くから知られている。しかし、その詳細な機構については未だ不明な点が多い。著者は、C.albicansが培地中のビオテン濃度により形態変化を受ける事実に着目し、本菌の二形性と脂質代謝との間に、なんらかの関連性があるのではないかとの作業仮設のもとに、以下の実験を行った。 本研究は、Candida albicans A IFO 1385株を用いて行った。使用培地は、サブローグルコース培地(2% グルコース、1% ペプトン、 0.5% イーストエキス)(medium A)並びにメチオニン含有合成培地(medium B)である。培養温度は、それぞれY型薗並びにF型菌を得るために、25℃...

  18. Acute extrarenal kidney damage in the course of infection with fungal strain of Candida glabrata in a patient with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acute renal injury is becoming a significant epidemiological problem among patients requiring hospital treatment. Extrarenal aetiology of the kidney injury is recognized in 5 % to 10 % of hospitalized patients; however, the identification of the mycelium of the Candida glabrata as the direct factor causing the acute urinary obstruction is extremely rare. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to the clinic because of progressing weakness, nausea and vomiting, poor appetite and reduced urination. On admission, laboratory findings revealed pyuria, inflammatory changes, acute renal failure (eGFR-MDRD 6 ml/min), and hyperglycemia. The patient underwent USG of the abdominal cavity, which showed bilateral hydronephrosis, with lithiasis on the right site. Cystoscopy done the next day revealed that the mucous membrane of the bladder was reddened and had a white coating. During the next several days, a renal fistula was created on the left and right sides. Candida glabrata was isolated from urine, and was sensitive only to voriconazole. V-fend (voriconazole) treatment resulted in increase of diuresis and decrease in creatinine and urea levels. Conclusions: Urinary tract infection caused by Candida glabrata causes significant therapeutic problems. In most cases, these yeasts are resistant to triazole anti-fungal drugs such as fluconazole, which translates into significantly increased mortality of patients. To date, a similar case was described only by one group of doctors, however, due to the intensity of the currently used immunosuppression and multiantibiotic therapy, increased incidence of diabetes and the aging of the population, it is expected that the prevalence of this clinical problem will increase. (authors)

  19. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Cosam C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay method, using a standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028. Results Twenty- seven (48% out of the 56 plants were found to be active. Extracts of the root barks of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca, and roots of Plectranthus barbatus showed strong activity. Conclusion The extracts that showed strong anti-Candida activity are worth of further investigation in order to isolate and identify the active compounds.

  20. Antifungal Activity of Local Anesthetics Against Candida Species

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    Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of benzydamine, lidocaine, and bupivacaine, three drugs with local anesthetic activity, against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains and to clarify their mechanism of activity.

  1. Pathogenesis of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of candida vulvovaginitis (CVV) has been estimated based on statistical data from Great Britain to be an increase to 200/100,000 over 10 years to 1984. CVV in the US is the 2nd commonest cause of vaginal infection, with bacterial vaginosis occurring twice as often. 85-90% of the yeasts isolated from the vagina are candida albicans, based on biotyping rather that the newer methods of DNA hybridization. The pathogenesis of CVV is discussed in terms of the microbiology (virulence factors, adherence, germ tube and mycelium formation, proteinase secretion, and switching colonies), asymptomatic vaginal colonization, transformation to symptomatic vaginitis, host predisposing factors (pregnancy, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobes, and other), vaginal defense mechanisms (humoral system, phagocytic system, cell mediated immunity, vaginal flora, other), and pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic CVV (internal reservoir, sexual transmission, vaginal relapse, and experimental models) The discussion of the development of virulent symptoms is capsuled in the following comments. Vaginal cell receptivity varies among individuals, but all strains of C. Albicans adhere to both exfoliated vaginal and buccal epithelial cells, or mucosal surfaces, through the yeast surface mannoprotein. It is suggested from in vitro studies that germ tube and mycelium formation facilitates vaginal mucosal invasion. Exogenous and endogenous factors may enhance germination and precipitate symptomatic vaginitis, or inhibit germination. Increased proteinase secretion may be a result of the transformation from the blastoconidium/colonization phase to the germinated invasive vaginitis stage or an independent virulence factor. It is reported that hereditable spontaneous switching may occur spontaneously in vivo also. Colonizing yeasts with a change in environment can transform to a more virulent phase. Colonization rates vary from 10-25%, and the critical issue is understanding

  2. Adherence to HeLa cells, typing by killer toxins and susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida dubliniensis strains Adesão a células HeLa, tipagem pelas toxinas "killer" e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismari Miranda da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777 was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035. No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia. O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padr��o produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777 de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035. Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.

  3. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives and in Vitro Antifungal Evaluation on Candida Strains

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    Almir G. Wanderley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylpropan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or click chemistry. Next the in vitro antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different Candida species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1H-(1,2,3triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  4. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...

  5. Three novel species of the anamorphic yeast genus Candida in the Candida intermedia clade found in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Takashi; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Am-In, Somit; Lee, Ching-Fu; Imanishi, Yumi; Limtong, Savitree

    2011-01-01

    Four strains of yeasts isolated in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan were found to represent three novel species of the genus Candida. The three species are located in a clade including Candida tsuchiyae, Candida thailandica and Candida akabanensis in a tree based on the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit rRNA genes but clearly differentiated from these relative species. Three novel species are proposed for these strains, i. e., Candida berkhoutiae sp. nov., for strains ST-49(T) (=BCC 7749(T)=NBRC 106733(T)=CBS 11722(T)) isolated from insect frass in Thailand and SA13S01 (=NBRC 106053) isolated from soil in Taiwan, Candida ezoensis sp. nov., for strain Y07-1601-2(T) (=NBRC 105019(T)=CBS 11753(T)) isolated from forest soil in Japan, and Candida inulinophila sp. nov., for ST-369(T) (=BCC 15081(T)=NBRC 106735(T)=CBS 11725(T)) isolated from an unidentified wild mushroom from Thailand. PMID:21606608

  6. The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ted; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Chibana, Hiroji; Dungan, Jan; Kalman, Sue; Magee, B. B.; Newport, George; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.; Agabian, Nina; Magee, P T; Davis, Ronald W.; Scherer, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    We present the diploid genome sequence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Because C. albicans has no known haploid or homozygous form, sequencing was performed as a whole-genome shotgun of the heterozygous diploid genome in strain SC5314, a clinical isolate that is the parent of strains widely used for molecular analysis. We developed computational methods to assemble a diploid genome sequence in good agreement with available physical mapping data. We provide a whole-genome description ...

  7. Optimization of ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase production from date wastes by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acourene, S; Ammouche, A

    2012-05-01

    The present study deals with submerged ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SDB, Aspergillus niger ANSS-B5, and Candida guilliermondii CGL-A10, using date wastes as the basal fermentation medium. The physical and chemical parameters influencing the production of these metabolites were optimized. As for the ethanol production, the optimum yield obtained was 136.00 ± 0.66 g/l under optimum conditions of an incubation period of 72 h, inoculum content of 4% (w/v), sugars concentration of 180.0 g/l, and ammonium phosphate concentration of 1.0 g/l. Concerning citric acid production, the cumulative effect of temperature (30°C), sugars concentration of 150.0 g/l, methanol concentration of 3.0%, initial pH of 3.5, ammonium nitrate concentration of 2.5 g/l, and potassium phosphate concentration of 2.5 g/l during the fermentation process of date wastes syrup did increase the citric acid production to 98.42 ± 1.41 g/l. For the production of α-amylase, the obtained result shows that the presence of starch strongly induces the production of α-amylase with a maximum at 5.0 g/l. Among the various nitrogen sources tested, urea at 5.0 g/l gave the maximum biomass and α-amylase estimated at 5.76 ± 0.56 g/l and 2,304.19 ± 31.08 μmol/l/min, respectively after 72 h incubation at 30°C, with an initial pH of 6.0 and potassium phosphate concentration of 6.0 g/l. PMID:22193823

  8. Insights into Candida world : the extracellular milieu

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years fungi have emerged as a major cause of human disease. Candida albicans is the most common cause of opportunistic mycoses, albeit Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, namely Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis, are emerging as pathogens. Candida species factors that might influence the pathogenesis of infection include the ability to: undergo a reversible conversion between yeast and fil...

  9. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa; Patrícia Dotto

    2003-01-01

    O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular f...

  10. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  11. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  12. Fermentation of fruit juices by the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Andreia Sofia Soares de

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of the fermentation conditions required to modulate the metabolic flux in the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae and evaluate its potential to produce low-alcoholic and low-caloric fermented beverages. For that purpose, two strains, PYCC 2903 and PYCC 3191, were used and fermentation conditions as oxygenation, sugar concentration and the ratio of glucose to fructose were studied using synthetic culture media. Candida magnoliae PYCC 2903 was subsequently ...

  13. Three distinct secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    White, T C; Miyasaki, S H; Agabian, N

    1993-01-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans (products of the SAP genes) are thought to contribute to virulence through their effects on Candida adherence, invasion, and pathogenicity. From a single strain of C. albicans (WO-1) which expresses a phenotypic switching system, three secreted aspartyl proteinases have been identified as determined by molecular weight and N-terminal sequence. Each of the three identified proteins represents the mature form of one of three distinct protein...

  14. Study of puromycin and acridic orange strain effect on photoprotection of yeasts Candida guillermondii from the lethal action of short-wave ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis inhibitor of puromycin albumen has been used to establish that photoprotection formation in yeasts of a hypothetic compound which protects DNA from lethal damages, is not connected with macromolecular synthesis. The combined effect of photoprotective light and acridic orange strain on cells has been studied. It is shown that the mechanism in the base of the protector action is analogous to the mechanism of DNA protection with acridic orange

  15. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans mutants affected in multidrug resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J. M.; Henry, L K; Jiang, W; Koltin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Disruption of a multidrug resistance gene (CaMDR1) in Candida albicans resulted in mutant strains that colonized mouse kidneys to very high levels but were markedly reduced in their virulence. No obvious differences in several properties related to colonization and dissemination were noted among MDR+ or mdr- strains. These results suggest that specific fungal efflux pumps play a role in fungal pathogenicity.

  16. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of ... Where in my body can I get a Candida infection? Candida infection can happen in almost any part ...

  17. Genetics of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, S.; Magee, P T

    1990-01-01

    Candida albicans is among the most common fungal pathogens. Infections caused by C. albicans and other Candida species can be life threatening in individuals with impaired immune function. Genetic analysis of C. albicans pathogenesis is complicated by the diploid nature of the species and the absence of a known sexual cycle. Through a combination of parasexual techniques and molecular approaches, an effective genetic system has been developed. The close relationship of C. albicans to the more...

  18. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  19. FLUCONAZOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA SPECI ES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND AGAR DILUTION METHOD

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    Supriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fungal infections with candida species are an import ant cause of morbidity and mortality 1 . Situation is further worsened by increasing resis tance to antifungal drugs 2 .The objective of this study was to evaluate antifu ngal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to fluconazole by disc diffusion and agar di lution method and compare these two methods as far as fluconazole is concerned. MATERIAL & METHODS: Between January 2006 to December 2006, 119 Candida species were isolated fro m 225 sputum samples of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and immunocomprised patients. RESULTS: Of the 119 Candida isolates 33 (27.73% were Candida albicans, 32 (26.89% were Candida gullermondi, 27 (22.68% Candida tropicalis, 14 (11.76% Candida pseudotropica lis, 7 (5.88% Candida parapsilosis and 6 (5.04% were Candida krusei. The Candida isolates w ere tested for fluconazole by disc diffusion method on Muller hinton agar with 2% glucose and 0. 5 microgram of methylene blue 3 .Amongst the 119 Candida isolates, 17 (14.28% isolates were resistant to fluconazole by disc diffusion method. MIC done by agar dilution method using CLSI guidelines 4. Candida isolates showed growth of 15 (88 .23% Candida strains upto 8 micro gram / ml with 80% inhibition of growth whereas 2 (1.7% isolates showed MIC upto 64 microgr am/ ml. CONCLUSIONS: Candida albicans though a common species other species were i solated in significant number. The results of disc diffusion for fluconazole do not co rrelate with agar dilution method. To cater the need of resource constrained laboratories, it is im portant to have results that correspond to the clinical outcome of antifungal treatment and show c o-relation to those obtained with the reference method as recommended by CLSI guidelines and also be reproducible 5 . Further critical studies are needed

  20. Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy for the Inactivation of Candida spp. on Dentures: In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Dovigo, Livia Nordi; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the inactivation of different species of Candida on maxillary complete dentures. Background data: The treatment of denture stomatitis requires the inactivation of Candida spp. on dentures. PDT has been reported as an effective method for Candida inactivation. Methods: Reference strains of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei were tested. Thirty-four dentures were fabr...

  1. Determination of MICs of Aminocandin for Candida spp. and Filamentous Fungi▿

    OpenAIRE

    Isham, N.; Ghannoum, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Candida and Aspergillus spp., as well as other filamentous molds, have increasingly been reported as the causes of severe invasive fungal infections. We evaluated the new echinocandin aminocandin (AMN) for its antifungal activities against a range of fungal pathogens by determination of the MICs for the organisms. The MICs of the comparator drugs amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin, and voriconazole were also determined. The MICs of AMN for 25 strains each of non-Candida albicans Candida ...

  2. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Various Persian Cultivars of Punica granatum L. Extracts Against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassiri-Jahromi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. Candida species are now the fourth most common organisms isolated from hospitalized patients. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents. Plant-derived antifungal agents have always been a source of novel therapeutics. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of pomegranate peel and pulp extracts against Candida species. Materials and Methods Pomegranate pulp and peel were dried and powdered separately. The dried powders were extracted using a soxhlet extractor. The antifungal effect of pomegranate peel and pulp extracts were determined in vitro by using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against five standard species, including Candida albicans (ATCC 10231, Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, Candida tropicalis (ATCC 750, Candida glabrata (PTCC 5297 and Candida krusei (PTCC 5295. Results Maximum inhibitions were attributed to peel extract of the pomegranate cultivar against Candida species. The greatest antifungal inhibition among the eight different cultivars was observed for sour malas, sour white peel and sour summer extracts respectively, against the five Candida strains. The antifungal activity of pulp extracts against Candida species was somewhat negative. Conclusions Our work suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel has potential antifungal activity against Candidiasis, and it is an attractive option for the development of new management strategies for candidiasis.

  3. Culture and Identification of Candida Albicans from Vaginal Ulcer and Separation of Enolase on SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    P. Saravana Bhavan; R. Rajkumar; S. RadhaKrishnan; C. Seenivasan; S Kannan

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans were isolated from patients with clinical symptoms of vaginal ulcer. Culture test for vaginal swab andscrapings were conducted on Sabouraud’s dextrose broth and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate respectively. Hichromecandida agar culture was used for differential identification of Candida. Smears from vaginal scrapings were preparedfor gram staining. The suspected strain of Candida was inoculated on corn meal agar medium for chlamydosporeformation. The suspected strain of Candi...

  4. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ota Samek; Katarina Mlynariková; Silvie Bernatová; Jan Ježek; Vladislav Krzyžánek; Martin Šiler; Pavel Zemánek; Filip Růžička; Veronika Holá; Martina Mahelová

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to...

  5. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total m...

  6. Triclosan Antagonizes Fluconazole Activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, J.; Pinjon, E.; Oltean, H.N.; White, T. C.; Kelly, S.L.; Martel, C.M.; Sullivan, D. J.; Coleman, D C; MORAN, G.P

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total ...

  7. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  8. Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence▿†

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Brenda A.; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M.; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Derek J. Sullivan; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one ...

  9. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

  10. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin; Hasmah Abdullah; Wan Nor Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida t...

  11. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  12. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T). PMID:16627669

  13. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas Daef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal's medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn't identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp.

  14. Performance of Candida ID, a New Chromogenic Medium for Presumptive Identification of Candida Species, in Comparison to CHROMagar Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Birgit; Hillowoth, Cornelia; Selitsch, Brigitte; Manafi, Mammad

    2001-01-01

    Candida ID agar allows identification of Candida albicans and differentiation of other Candida species. In comparison with CHROMagar Candida, we evaluated the performance of this medium directly from 596 clinical specimens. In particular, detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on Candida ID (sensitivity, 96.8%) than on CHROMagar (sensitivity, 49.6%).

  15. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  16. [In vitro nystatin sensitivity of vaginal isolates of Candida spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, C M; Medina, Y E; Gonzáles, T C; Llanes, D M

    2001-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nistatine, one of the most used antifungal agents for this micosis, was determined in 68 Candida strains isolated from vaginal smears. Candida albicans represented 75% of the total strains whereas C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. glabrata were much less frequently found. The predisposing factors were pregnancy and antibacterial treatment whereas leukorrhea and itching were the prevailing symptoms in most of the cases. MIC values from the use of a broth dilution method ranged from 0,5-8mg/mL and the geometric mean was 1.36mg/ mL. For C. albicans, MIC was 4mg/mL due to two strains that showed the highest MIC values (8 mg/mL). Similarly, the strains showed low MIC values, this means that therapeutic failures are not inherent to the emergence of resistant strains. PMID:15846923

  17. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  18. An alternative respiratory pathway on Candida krusei : implications on susceptibility profile and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sofia Costa de; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Barbosa, Matilde; Ricardo, Elisabete; Vaz, Cidália Pina; Ludovico, Paula; Rodrigues, Acácio G.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to detect the presence of an alternative oxidase (AOX) in Candida krusei clinical strains and its influence on fluconazole susceptibility and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Candida krusei clinical isolates were tested to evaluate the presence of AOX. Debaromyces hansenii 2968 (AOX positive) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 (AOX negative) were used as control strains. Measurements of oxygen consumption were performed in the presence of 1 mM KCN, an inhibitor of the...

  19. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of two dynamically expressed cell surface determinants on Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J E

    1986-01-01

    Variability in the expression of two different cell surface carbohydrate determinants was examined with two agglutinating immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies (H9 and C6) and immunoelectron microscopy during growth of three strains of Candida albicans. A single strain of Candida parapsilosis did not express either antigen at any time during growth. Antigens were detected on the surface of C. albicans by agglutination tests with either H9 or C6 over a 48-h growth period. The difference in sp...

  20. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  1. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.; Jørgensen, G.; Skvarc, M.; Stenderup, Jesper; Jørck-Ramberg, Dorte; Polakova, S.; Piskur, Jure

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini...

  2. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee). PMID:10917850

  3. Candida species distribution, genotyping and virulence factors of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients of two geographic regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Lemos, Vitor Luiz de Brito; Svidizisnki, Terezinha Inês Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2014-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. This investigation aimed to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and to analyze the ABC genotypes of 76 clinical isolates of C. albicans obtained from the oral cavity of kidney transplant patients from two distinct geographic regions of Brazil. Methods We typed 48 strains with ABC genotyping and Microsatelitte using primer M13 and tested three virulence factors in vitro: phosp...

  4. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility

  5. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrille, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHOROMagar Candida, and CandidaSelect, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93.1 to 100%. These parameters decreased, however, to 91.4% when the test was performed with yeast isolated

  6. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  7. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  8. Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Species Isolates to Antifungal Agents by E-Test, Southern Iran: A Five Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alborzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has increased in recent years. This study was designed to identify Candida species and determine antifungal susceptibility patterns of 595 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens.Material and Methods: Identification of the isolates were determined by the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.Results: Candida albicans (48% was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%, Candida glabrata (13.5%, Candida kefyr (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis (4.8%, Candida tropicalis (1.7% and other species (8.5%. Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 μg/ml. The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 μg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 μg/ml for voriconazole.Conclusions: Species definition and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns are advised for the proper management and treatment of patients at risk for systemic candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial fungal infections.

  9. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  10. A Novel Flucytosine-Resistant Yeast Species, Candida pseudoaaseri, Causes Disease in a Cancer Patient ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-01-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170T), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  11. A novel flucytosine-resistant yeast species, Candida pseudoaaseri, causes disease in a cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfüller, Roland; Gräser, Yvonne; Erhard, Marcel; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2011-12-01

    Some members of the genus Candida are among the most common human fungal pathogens and cause serious diseases especially in immunocompromised people. A yeast was isolated from a blood culture from an immunocompromised cancer patient who suffered from acute pneumonia. The growth characteristics of the yeast on CHROMagar Candida were similar to those of Candida tropicalis, whereas the API ID 32C system identified the yeast as Candida silvicola. On the basis of the nucleotide divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S nuclear rRNA (nrRNA) gene, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain of the nrRNA gene region, a new species, Candida pseudoaaseri sp. nov. with type strain VK065094 (CBS 11170(T)), which was found to be closely related to Candida aaseri, is proposed. While C. aaseri strains were susceptible to all tested antifungals, the new species is resistant to flucytosine and may also be distinguished from C. aaseri by its ability to assimilate l-rhamnose, whereas its colony morphology on CHROMagar Candida may be helpful for differentiation. PMID:21976765

  12. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Carola Parolin; Antonella Marangoni; Luca Laghi; Claudio Foschi; Rogers Alberto Ñahui Palomino; Natalia Calonghi; Roberto Cevenini; Beatrice Vitali

    2015-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 an...

  13. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    OpenAIRE

    Michelline Viviane Marques das Neves; Tânia Maria Sarmento da Silva; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão da Cunha; Eduardo de Jesus Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2) was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 µg/mL. The hexane, acet...

  14. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  15. Resistance Candida spp. for amphotericin B in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Bagirova; N. V. Dmitrieva

    2016-01-01

    We have tested 253 strains (13 species) Candida spp. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B was performed by 2 methods: epsilometric method (Etest®, BioMerieux, France) and on the instrument the Vitek2 (BioMerieux, France). In general, resistance was detected in 5 strains (2.1%) (C. parapsilosis – 4, C. tropicalis – 1). There were no resistance to amphotericin B among strains of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C.krusei. Coincidence evaluation results of the minim...

  16. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Francisco Tuon; Antonio Carlos Nicodemo

    2006-01-01

    Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatado...

  17. Candida wangnamkhiaoensis sp. nov., an anamorphic yeast species in the Hyphopichia clade isolated in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limtong, Savitree; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Nakase, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Two strains representing a single novel yeast species were isolated from a flower of Calycoopteris floribunda Lame (SK170(T)) and insect frass (ST-122) collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region, the two strains were assigned as a single novel Candida species in the Hyphopichia clade for which the name Candida wangnamkhiaoensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SK170(T)=BCC 39604(T)=NBRC 106724(T)=CBS 11695(T)). PMID:22331449

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Issam Alshami; Alharbi, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract. Methods: In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming ...

  19. The in vitro Activity of Vaginal Lactobacillus With Probiotic Properties Against Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr B. Heczko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli, the predominant vaginal microorganisms in healthy premenopausal women, control other members of the vaginal microflora and thus protect against bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections. It has been claimed that some lactobacilli are also protective against Candida vaginitis. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms by which these lactobacilli can control vaginal populations of Candida and prevent vaginitis. To address this question, vaginal Lactobacillus strains with known antagonistic properties against bacteria were tested for their cell surface properties, adhesion to vaginal cell lines in vitro and antagonistic activities against Candida. A small proportion of the lactobacilli tested adhered strongly to cultured vaginal epithelial cells and inhibited growth of Candida albicans but not of C. pseudotropicalis. This anticandidal activity was in some Lactobacillus strains related to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production, but catalase treatment did not suppress this activity in other Lactobacillus strains, suggesting alternative mechanism(s. Moreover, tested vaginal Candida strains were resistant to relatively high concentrations of H2O2 that markedly exceeded those produced by even the most active Lactobacillus strains.

  20. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  1. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, S P; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the...

  2. Time to overcome fluconazole resistant Candida isolates: Solid lipid nanoparticles as a novel antifungal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Kelidari, Hamid Reza; Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Ketayoun; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gohar, Atefeh Abdollahi; Akbari, Jafar; Lotfali, Ensieh; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Antifungal therapy results in complications in management due to changes in the patterns of epidemiology and drug susceptibility of invasive fungal infections. In this study, we prepared fluconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (FLZ-SLNs) and investigated the efficacy of the optimal formulation on fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant strains of several Candida species. FLZ-SLN was produced using probe ultrasonication techniques. The morphology of the obtained SLNs was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the new formulations against fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida were investigated using CLSI document M27-A3. The FLZ-SLNs presented a spherical shape with a mean diameter, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 84.8nm, -25mV and 89.6%, respectively. The drug release from FLZ-SLNs exhibited burst release behaviour at the initial stage (the first 30min) followed by a sustained release over 24h FLZ-resistant yeast strains behaved as susceptible strains after treatment with FLZ-SLNs (≤8μg/ml). The MIC50 drug concentrations were 2μg/ml, 1μg/ml and 2μg/ml for FLZ-resistant strains of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, respectively. In this study, we evaluated novel delivery systems for combating Candida strains that exhibit low susceptibility against the conventional formulation of FLZ as a first-line treatment. PMID:26974361

  3. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  4. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marol Serhat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  5. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipi...

  6. Productividad y selectividad del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca en el crecimiento de levaduras nativas del género Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Productivity and selectivity of culture medium from the sour guava (Psidium araca in the growth of native yeast Candida sp Resumen El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo para evaluar la eficiencia del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca frente a medios comerciales en el crecimiento de tres cepas nativas: Candida guillermondii, Candida famita y Candida sp. Se evaluó el crecimiento microbiano a diferentes concentraciones de fruta, 5, 10, 25 y 50% p/v, tomando como control los medios comerciales: Malta, Sabouraud y agar papa dextrosa (PDA. La productividad y selectividad del medio de guayaba agria fue determinada mediante el método Ecométrico en un tiempo de 48 horas. Los análisis estadísticos aplicados para evaluar y comparar el crecimiento de las cepas en los medios comerciales y en el medio de guayaba agria a diferentes concentraciones demostraron lo siguiente: Candida guillermondii presentó crecimiento mayor o igual a 25 y 50% p/v comparado con los medios comerciales; Candida famata y Candida sp presentaron mejores crecimientos al 5% p/v, con respecto a los diferentes medios comerciales. Los resultados demostraron que el medio de cultivo es altamente productivo y no selectivo, lo que representa una alternativa en la conservación, el mantenimiento y el desarrollo de las levaduras estudiadas. Palabras clave: método Ecométrico; Candida guillermondii; Candida famata; Candida sp. Abstract This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the culture medium from sour guava (Psidium araca against commercial media in the growth of three native strains: Candida guillermondii, Candida famata and Candida sp. Microbial growth was evaluated at different concentrations of fruit, 5, 10, 25, 50% w /v, using as control the commercial media: Malta, Sabouraud and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar. The productivity and selectivity of the sour guava medium was determined by the Ecometric method in a time of 48 hours

  7. Preliminary Characterization of the Probiotic Properties of Candida Famata and Geobacillus Thermoleovorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhrouf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance, producing metabolites which inhibit the colonization or growth of other microorganisms or by competing with them for resources such as nutrients or space. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of Candida famata and Geobacillus thermoleovorans.Material and Methods: In this study, yeast and bacterial strains isolated from pure oil waste were identified using Api 50 CHB and Api Candida Systems and their probiotic properties were studied through antimicrobial activity, biofilm production, adherence assay and enzymatic characterization.Results and Conclusion: According to biochemical analyses, these strains corresponded to Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Candida famata. Antagonism assay results showed that the tested strains have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic bacteria. The yeast Candida famata was unable to produce biofilm on Congo Red Agar (CRA, while the bacterial strain was a slime producer. Adherence assays to abiotic surfaces revealed that the investigated strains were fairly adhesive to polystyrene with values ranging from 0.18 to 0.34 at 595 nm. The enzymatic characterization revealed that the tested strains expressed enzymes such as phosphatase alkaline, esterase lipase (C8, amylase, lipase, lecitenase and caseinase. The obtained results may allow the isolated strains to be considered as having the potential to be candidate probiotics.

  8. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Apurva K Pathak; Sanjay Sharma; Pallavi Shrivastva

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral...

  9. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45digc, production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C18:1) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  10. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  11. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  12. Selected mechanisms of molecular resistance of Candida albicans to azole drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołąbek, Karolina; Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Cuber, Piotr; Ślemp-Migiel, Anna; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A phenomenon of increasing resistance of Candida spp. to azoles has been observed for several years now. One of the mechanisms of lack of sensitivity to azoles is associated with CDR1, CDR2, MRD1 genes (their products are active transport pumps conditioning drug efflux from pathogen's cell), and ERG11 gene (encoding lanosterol 14α-demethylase). Test material was 120 strains of Candida albicans (60 resistant and 60 susceptible to azole drugs) obtained from clinical samples. The first stage of experiment assessed the expression of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1 and ERG11 genes by Q-PCR. The impact of ERG11 gene's mutations on the expression of this gene was analysed. The final stage of the experiment assessed the level of genome methylation of Candida albicans strains. An increase in the expression of CDR2, MDR1 and ERG11 was observed in azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans in comparison to strains sensitive to this class of drugs. Furthermore, 19 changes in the sequence of ERG11 were detected in tested strains. Four of the discovered mutations: T495A, A530C, G622A and A945C led to the following amino acid substitutions: D116E, K128T, V159I and E266D, respectively. It has also been found that statistically five mutations: T462C, G1309A, C216T, C1257T and A945C affected the expression of ERG11. The applied method of assessing the level of methylation of Candida albicans genome did not confirm its role in the development of resistance to azoles. The results indicate however, that resistance of Candida albicans strains to azole drugs is multifactorial. PMID:25901298

  13. Comparison of the extracellular polymeric substances of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; M.C. Fernandes; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis live as benign commensal organisms in the oral cavity of both healthy and unhealthy individuals behaving, under certain conditions, as opportunistic pathogens, causing candidiasis. These two Candida species have been mismatched for years, but recently Candida dubliniensis was recovered from the mouth of imunnosupressed patients and identified as a different species. Candidiasis is usually related with the Candida capacity of forming biofilms on inert ...

  14. Farnesol : beyond morphogenesis control in non-candida albicans candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade the incidence of candidiasis increased dramatically. Although Candida albicans remains the most frequent cause of infections, non-Candida albicans candida (NCAC) species are emerging as new pathogens. Candida infections are often associated with biofilms that can develop on natural surfaces and medical devices. In a similar manner to other microorganisms, signalling pathways may control the diversity and distribution of Candida species within biofilms. E,...

  15. Effect of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis planktonic/biofilm quorum sensing molecules on yeast morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Martins, M.; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of this work was to study the effect of farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule for Candida albicans, on morphologic inhibition of Candida dubliniensis. The second goal of this work was to confirm if Candida dubliniensis also excreted quorum sensing molecules, on both planktonic and biofilm forms. The results clearly demonstrate that Candida dubliniensis undergoes morphological alterations triggered by farnesol. It was also found that supernatants of Candida dubliniensis and Ca...

  16. Candida in mouth or on dummy?

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, D J; Coughlin, R P; Poskitt, E M

    1985-01-01

    Mouth and dummy swabs for Candida spp. were obtained from 100 children under 18 months old admitted with acute medical conditions. Forty four per cent of dummies were colonised by Candida spp. Children who sucked dummies had clinical thrush and positive mouth swabs for candida more frequently than those who did not.

  17. Feeding of yeast (Candida spp.) improves in vitro ruminal fermentation of ifbrous substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoandra Marrero; Yamicela Castillo; Oscar Ruiz; Eduviges Burrola; Claudio Angulo

    2015-01-01

    In vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) was used with the objective of determining the inclusion effect of live cel s of two strains of Candida yeast on in vitro ruminal fermentation of two ifbrous substrates. In order to achieve this, two experiments were performed:A) using oat straw (Avena sativa) as substrate;B) using alfalfa hay (Medicabo sativa) as substrate, comparing the effect of two different strains of Candida genre, both isolated from the rumen, on the mentioned substrates. Levica 25 (Candida tropicalis) yeast belongs to the culture col ection of the Institute of Animal Science, Cuba, and Levazoot 15 (Can-dida norvegensis) yeast is part of the col ection of the Faculty of Zootechnology and Ecology of the Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Mexico. Both strains demonstrated their potential in activating the ruminal fermentation. They stimulated (P<0.0001) the ruminal fermentation of the substrates under study. However, the Levazoot strain stimulated the dry matter (DM) fermentation of alfalfa in 21.43%, more than Levica 25. It is concluded that there is an inlfuence of yeast strain and diet on the rumen environment and, therefore, it is important to select the appropriate strain in every production condition.

  18. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution ofCandidaspecies in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype ofCandida albicansin vaginal swab. A total of 115Candida albicansstrains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115Candida albicansstrains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicanswas the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance amongCandida albicansisolated from VVC patients. PMID:26468549

  19. Candida materiae sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from rotting wood in the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Cadete, Raquel M; Gomes, Fátima C O; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Three strains of a novel yeast species, Candida materiae sp. nov., were isolated from rotting wood in an Atlantic rain forest site in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rDNA showed that this species belonged to the Spathaspora clade and was related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum. Unlike C. jeffriesii and S. passalidarum, C. materiae sp. nov. did not ferment xylose. The type strain of C. materiae sp. nov. is UFMG-07-C15.1BT (=CBS 10975T=CBMAI 956T). PMID:19605715

  20. Clinical and experimental evaluation of a new chromogenic medium (OCCA, Oxoid) for direct identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixench, M T; Taillandier, A; Paugam, A

    2006-07-01

    Oxoid Chromogenic Candida Agar (OCCA) is a new commercial ready-to-use medium that contains chromogenic substrates for rapid detection and specific identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. We evaluated the performance of this medium with 364 clinical specimens and 31 subcultures, and examined its ability to support the growth of small inocula of six reference strains. CHROMagar Candida was used as the reference medium. OCCA permitted the growth of most important yeasts, and readily discriminated among Candida spp. in clinical specimens, including mixed cultures. PMID:16784446

  1. [An update on Candida dubliniensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, A; Baixench, M-T; Viguié, C

    2008-01-01

    Eleven years ago, Irish authors, using molecular biology, demonstrated the existence of Candida dubliniensis, a new species of Candida close to Candida albicans. Initially isolated from AIDS patients with oral candidiasis, this species was detected, even in immunocompetent patients. Recently, with new, easy to implement identification tests (latex, immunochromatography), numerous epidemiological studies were undertaken. In most studies, C. dubliniensis was most often identified in the oral cavity. In the absence of HIV infection, the proportion C. dubliniensis/C. albicans ranged from 1 to 5% but it increased to 15-20% in case of HIV infection. It should be stressed that, from an experimental point of view, the acquisition of a secondary resistance to fluconazole is more quickly obtained with C. dubliniensis that with C. albicans, this resistance remains exceptionally observed in clinical observations. PMID:18065177

  2. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  3. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  4. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  5. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Candidaspecies are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, withCandida albicansbeing the most clinically relevant species.Candida albicansresides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation ofC. albicansvirulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and withinCandidaspecies), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein-DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics inC. albicansand discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  6. Production of flavin mononucleotide by metabolically engineered yeast Candida famata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshyn, Valentyna Y; Ishchuk, Olena P; Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Fedorovych, Daria V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-05-01

    Recombinant strains of the flavinogenic yeast Candida famata able to overproduce flavin mononucleotide (FMN) that contain FMN1 gene encoding riboflavin (RF) kinase driven by the strong constitutive promoter TEF1 (translation elongation factor 1alpha) were constructed. Transformation of these strains with the additional plasmid containing the FMN1 gene under the TEF1 promoter resulted in the 200-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 100-fold increase in FMN production as compared to the wild-type strain (last feature was found only in iron-deficient medium). Overexpression of the FMN1 gene in the mutant that has deregulated riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and high level of riboflavin production in iron-sufficient medium led to the 30-fold increase in the riboflavin kinase activity and 400-fold increase in FMN production of the resulted transformants. The obtained C. famata recombinant strains can be used for the further construction of improved FMN overproducers. PMID:19558965

  7. The proteolytic potential of Candida albicans in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; MacFarlane, T W

    1984-02-01

    The production of proteases by Candida albicans in batch cultures of human saliva supplemented with glucose was investigated with two clinical strains of Candida and both individual and pooled samples of whole saliva from volunteers. Salivary proteolysis during a 48-h period was estimated by biochemical and isoelectric focusing techniques. Candidal growth in saliva was associated with acid production and salivary proteolysis and there was a highly significant positive correlation between these two activities. Neither candidal growth nor proteolysis was observed in glucose-free control samples and with one strain of Candida cultured in the saliva of one individual. Isotachophoretic analysis of culture liquor showed a significant increase in acetate and pyruvate ions. The oral cavity provides niches that have a low pH and are periodically supplemented with dietary carbohydrates. The acidic proteases of C. albicans may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral candidoses. PMID:6363704

  8. Soft X-ray tomography of phenotypic switching and the cellular response to antifungal peptoids in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Maho; McDermott, Gerry; Wetzler, Modi; Le Gros, Mark A.; Myllys, Markko; Knoechel, Christian; Barron, Annelise E.; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans can undergo phenotypic switching between a benign, unicellular phenotype and an invasive, multicellular form that causes candidiasis. Increasingly, strains of Candida are becoming resistant to antifungal drugs, making the treatment of candidiasis difficult, especially in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. Consequently, there is a pressing need to develop new drugs that circumvent fungal drug-resistance mechanisms. In this work we used sof...

  9. Effect of Low-Level Laser therapy on the fungal proliferation of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Araújo, Natália C.; Menezes, Rebeca F. d.; Moreno, Lara M.; Santos-Neto, Alexandrino d. P.; Gerbi, Marleny Elizabeth M.

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans plays an important role in triggering infections in HIV+ patients. The indiscriminate use of antifungals has led to resistance to Candida albicans, which requires new treatment alternatives for oral candidiasis. Low-level laser therapy promotes a considerable improvement in the healing of wounds and in curing illnesses caused by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser radiation on the cell proliferation of Candida albicans in immunosuppressed patients. Six Candida albicans strains that had been isolated from immunosuppressed patients were divided into a control group and experimental groups, which received eight sessions of laser therapy (InGaAlP, λ685nm, P = 30mW, CW, Φ~6 mm and GaAlAs, λ830nm, P = 40mW, CW, Φ~6 mm) using dosimetries of 6J/cm2, 8J/cm2, 10J/cm2 and 12J/cm2 for each wavelength and power. The results were not statistically significant (Kruskal Wallis, p > 0.05), although the proliferation of Candida albicans was lower in some of the experimental groups. The dosimetry of 6J/cm2 (GaAlAs, λ830nm, P = 40mW) provided lower mean scores than the other groups for the growth of Candida. Further studies are required to confirm whetehr laser therapy is a viable option in the treatment of fungal infections.

  10. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda Mb; Girão, Manoel João Bc; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14 Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and two Candida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrata isolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ. PMID:27304096

  11. Candida milleri species reveals intraspecific genetic and metabolic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Antoniani, Davide; Roscini, Luca; Comasio, Andrea; Galafassi, Silvia; Picozzi, Claudia; Corte, Laura; Compagno, Concetta; Dal Bello, Fabio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Foschino, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Candida milleri, together with Candida humilis, is the most representative yeast species found in type I sourdough ecosystems. In this work, comparison of the ITS region and the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA gene partial sequences, karyotyping, mtDNA-RFLP analysis, Intron Splice Site dispersion (ISS-PCR) and (GTG)5 microsatellite analyses, assimilation test of different carbohydrates, and metabolome assessment by FT-IR analysis, were investigated in seventeen strains isolated from four different companies as well as in type strains CBS6897(T) and CBS5658(T). Most isolates were ascribed to C. milleri, even if a strong relatedness was confirmed with C. humilis as well, particularly for three strains. Genetic characterization showed a high degree of intraspecific polymorphism since 12 different genotypes were discriminated. The number of chromosomes varied from 9 to 13 and their size ranged from less than 0.3 to over 2 Mbp. Phenotypic traits let to recognize 9 different profiles of carbon sources assimilation. FT-IR spectra from yeast cells cultivated in different media and collected at different growth phases revealed a diversity of behaviour among strains in accordance with the results of PCR-based fingerprinting. A clear evidence of the polymorphic status of C. milleri species is provided thus representing an important feature for the development of technological applications in bakery industries. PMID:24929720

  12. Multilocus Microsatellite Markers for Molecular Typing of Candida glabrata: Application to Analysis of Genetic Relationships between Bloodstream and Digestive System Isolates▿

    OpenAIRE

    Enache-Angoulvant, A.; BOURGET, M; S Brisse; Stockman-Pannier, C.; Diancourt, L.; François, N.; Rimek, D.; Fairhead, C; Poulain, Daniel; Hennequin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Candida glabrata has emerged as the second most common etiologic agent, after Candida albicans, of superficial and invasive candidiasis in adults. Strain typing is essential for epidemiological investigation, but easy-to-use and reliable typing methods are still lacking. We report the use of a multilocus microsatellite typing method with a set of eight markers on a panel of 180 strains, including 136 blood isolates from hospitalized patients and 34 digestive tract isolates from nonhospitalize...

  13. Fluconazole susceptibility and ERG11 gene expression in vaginal candida species isolated from Lagos Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam, Victoria K; Akpan, Juliet U; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Fowora, Muinah A; Oladele, Rita O; Ogunsola, Folasade T; Smith, Stella I

    2012-01-01

    Fluconazole resistance is an important type of resistance in Candida because in most countries, fluconazole is the drug of choice for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida species resist fluconazole by various mechanisms but there is paucity of data on these in our environment. Such mechanisms include among others, over-expression of the ERG11 gene, which codes for synthesis of the target enzymes in the fungus. The aim of this study was to screen Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole for the expression of ERG11 gene. Fluconazole susceptibility test was performed on 28 clinical strains of Candida species previously obtained from students of a School of Nursing in Lagos, Nigeria. They were identified by API Candida, CHROMagar candida and germ tube test. Using 25 mcg discs, fluconazole susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method and results were interpreted in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria; sensitive (S), resistant (R) and susceptible dose dependent (SDD). The R and SDD isolates were subsequently evaluated for the presence of ERG11 gene. Of the 28 clinical isolates, 14 were identified as C. albicans and six as C. tropicalis. The remaining isolates were identified as C. glabrata (2), C. famata (2) C. kefyr (2) one each of C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii respectively. In this study, 18 were susceptible (S) to fluconazole, eight were SDD and two were resistant to the antifungal agent. Out of the 14 C. albicans isolates, 12 were susceptible, one showed high level resistance and similar number showed susceptible dose dependence. ERG11 was detected in three susceptible dose dependent Candida species. This analysis demonstrates that susceptible dose dependence should not be overlooked as it may be associated with the presence of ERG11 gene and resistance to fluconazole. There is a need to consider routine antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida species causing vulvovaginitis. PMID:22493755

  14. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  15. Adherence of cell surface mutants of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and analyses of the cell surface proteins of the mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukayama, M; Calderone, R A

    1991-01-01

    Strains of Candida albicans, selected on the basis of their reduced agglutination with a polyclonal anti-Candida antiserum, were tested for their adherence to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). Of four strains, one (A9V2) had reduced binding to BEC in vitro. Adherence of wild type (wt) yeast cells (A9), as measured by the percentage of BEC with adhering Candida cells, was 73.4% +/- 3.8% compared with 49.3% +/- 3.1% for A9V2 (P less than 0.01). From yeast cells of A9 and A9V2, whole-cell ext...

  16. Evaluation of Fluorescent Capillary Electrophoresis for Rapid Identification of Candida Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obručová, Hana; Tihelková, Radka; Kotásková, Iva; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Němcová, Eva; Freiberger, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical for initiating antifungal therapy and reducing the high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we focused on rapid and sensitive identification of clinically important Candida species, utilizing the variability in the length of the ITS2 rRNA gene and fluorescent capillary electrophoresis (f-ITS2-PCR-CE). The method was developed and optimized on 29 various Candida reference strains from which 26 Candida species were clearly identified, while Candida guilliermondii, C. fermentati, and C. carpophila, which are closely related, could not be distinguished. The method was subsequently validated on 143 blinded monofungal clinical isolates (comprising 26 species) and was able to identify 88% of species unambiguously. This indicated a higher resolution power than the classical phenotypic approach which correctly identified 73%. Finally, the culture-independent potential of this technique was addressed by the analysis of 55 retrospective DNA samples extracted directly from clinical material. The method showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to those of the combined results of cultivation and panfungal PCR followed by sequencing used as a gold standard. In conclusion, this newly developed f-ITS2-PCR-CE analytical approach was shown to be a fast, sensitive, and highly reproducible tool for both culture-dependent and culture-independent identification of clinically important Candida strains, including species of the "psilosis" complex. PMID:26935732

  17. Genome Sequence of Candida tropicalis no. 121, Used for RNA Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bingbing; Guo, Ting; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Niu, Huanqing; Liu, Dong; Cheng, Jian; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Zhu, Chenjie; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Candida tropicalis no. 121. C. tropicalis no. 121 is a high-RNA-producing strain obtained by mutagenesis in our laboratory. The complete genome sequence was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and contains 6,415 genes. The genome size of C. tropicalis no. 121 is >15.3 Mb.

  18. A new methanol assimilating yeast, Ogataea parapolymorpha, the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogataea parapolymorpha sp. n. (NRRL YB-1982, CBS 12304, type strain), the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha, is described. The species appears homothallic, assimilates methanol as is typical of most Ogataea species and forms hat-shaped ascospores in asci that become deliquescent. Ogataea pa...

  19. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  20. Candida albicans killing by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells: effects of Candida genotype, infection ratios, and gamma interferon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcil, A; Harcus, D; Thomas, D Y; Whiteway, M

    2002-11-01

    Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are potential components of the immune defense that protects mammals against Candida albicans infection. We have tested the interaction between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and a variety of mutant strains of C. albicans. We used an end point dilution assay to monitor the killing of C. albicans at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs). Several mutants that show reduced virulence in mouse systemic-infection models show reduced colony formation in the presence of macrophage cells. To permit analysis of the macrophage-Candida interaction at higher MOIs, we introduced a luciferase reporter gene into wild-type and mutant Candida cells and used loss of the luminescence signal to quantify proliferation. This assay gave results similar to those for the end point dilution assay. Activation of the macrophages with mouse gamma interferon did not enhance anti-Candida activity. Continued coculture of the Candida and macrophage cells eventually led to death of the macrophages, but for the RAW 264.7 cell line this was not due to apoptotic pathways involving caspase-8 or -9 activation. In general Candida cells defective in the formation of hyphae were both less virulent in animal models and more sensitive to macrophage engulfment and growth inhibition. However the nonvirulent, hypha-defective cla4 mutant line was considerably more resistant to macrophage-mediated inhibition than the wild-type strain. Thus although mutants sensitive to engulfment are typically less virulent in systemic-infection models, sensitivity to phagocytic macrophage cells is not the unique determinant of C. albicans virulence. PMID:12379711

  1. Occurrence and Diversity of Candida Genus in Marine Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; CHI Zhenming; YUE Lixi; CHI Zhe; ZHANG Dechao

    2008-01-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater,sediments,mud of salterns,guts of marine fishes and marine algae wereobtained.The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeastsbelonged to Candida genus as Candida interrnedia for YA01a,Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2,Candida quercitrusa for JHSb,Can-die rugosa for wl8,Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a,and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3.Isolates YA01a (Candida interme-die),wl8 (Candida rugosa),3eA2 (Candida parapsilosis),and JHSb (Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase,while isolate W14-3 (Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin.These marine yeast Candida spp.Seem to have wide potentialapplications in biotechnology.

  2. Nucleotide substitutions in the Candida albicans ERG11 gene of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Slemp-Migiel, Anna; Rother, Magdalena; Gołąbek, Karolina; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of Candida albicans resistance to azole drugs used in antifungal therapy relies on increased expression and presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene that encodes sterol 14α demethylase (14DM), an enzyme which is the primary target for the azole class of antifungals. The aim of the study was to analyze nucleotide substitutions in the Candida albicans ERG11 gene of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates. The Candida albicans isolates represented a collection of 122 strains selected from 658 strains isolated from different biological materials. Samples were obtained from hospitalized patients. Fluconazole susceptibility was tested in vitro using a microdilution assay. Candida albicans strains used in this study consisted of two groups: 61 of the isolates were susceptible to azoles and the 61 were resistant to azoles. Four overlapping regions of the ERG11 gene of the isolates of Candida albicans strains were amplified and sequenced. The MSSCP (multitemperature single strand conformation polymorphism) method was performed to select Candida albicans samples presenting genetic differences in the ERG11 gene fragments for subsequent sequence analysis. Based on the sequencing results we managed to detect 19 substitutions of nucleotides in the ERG11 gene fragments. Sequencing revealed 4 different alterations: T495A, A530C, G622A and A945C leading to changes in the corresponding amino acid sequence: D116E, K128T, V159I and E266D. The single nucleotide changes in the ERG11 gene did not affect the sensitivity of Candida albicans strains, whereas multiple nucleotide substitutions in the ERG11 gene fragments indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs. PMID:24340302

  3. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Pereira-Cenci; D.M. Deng; E.A. Kraneveld; E.M.M. Manders; A.A. Del Bel Cury; J.M. ten Cate; W. Crielaard

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  4. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and theoretical prediction of NMR chemical shifts of thiazole and selenazole derivatives with high antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z.; Motylewska, Katarzyna; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Biernasiuk, Anna; Misiura, Konrad; Malm, Anna; Fernández, Berta

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activities of novel thiazoles and selenazoles is presented. Their structures were determined using NMR, FAB(+)-MS, HRMS and elemental analyses. To support the experiment, theoretical calculations of the 1H NMR shifts were carried out for representative systems within the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** approximation which additionally confirmed the structure of investigated compounds. Among the derivatives, compounds 4b, 4h, 4j and 4l had very strong activity against reference strains of Candida albicans ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 with MIC = 0.49-7.81 μg/ml. In the case of compounds 4b, 4c, 4h - 4j and 4l, the activity was very strong against of Candida spp. isolated from clinical materials, i.e. C. albicans, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua, Candida famata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida sake, C. parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis with MIC = 0.24-15.62 μg/ml. The activity of several of these was similar to the activity of commonly used antifungal agent fluconazole. Additionally, compounds 4m - 4s were found to be active against Gram-positive bacteria, both pathogenic staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus ATCC with MIC = 31.25-125 μg/ml and opportunistic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 with MIC = 7.81-31.25 μg/ml.

  5. Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Fries, Bettina C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: All humans are colonized with Candida species, mostly Candida albicans, yet some develop diseases due to Candida, among which genitourinary manifestations are extremely common. The forms of genitourinary candidiasis are distinct from each other and affect different populations. While vulvovaginal candidiasis affects mostly healthy women, candiduria occurs typically in elderly, hospitalized, or immunocompromised patients and in neonates. Despite its high incidence and clinical relevan...

  6. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, C. C.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oi...

  7. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27074245

  8. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K; Kragelund, C; Twetman, S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P nursing homes residents (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02391532). PMID:26202995

  9. GAp permeases in Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraidlová, Lucie; Sychrová, Hana; Van Dijck, P.

    Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), 79P-79P ISSN 0862-8408. [PhD Student Workshop of Institute of Physiology. 02.06.2008-04.06.2008, Seč] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * Candida albicans * amino-acid uptake * GAP permease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Germ Tube Formation Changes Surface Hydrophobicity of Candida Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Fonseca

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic interaction is generally considered to play an important role in the adherence of microorganisms to eukaryotic cells and also to certain inert surfaces. Using a microbe adhesion assay to hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane, 68 strains of Candida albicans and 30 non-albicans strains were studied. Influence of source of isolate, age of the culture, and percentage of germ tube formation on adhesion were studied. C: albicans blastoconidia were found to be hydrophilic; conversely, blastoconidia of non-albicans strains were slightly more hydrophobic. Germ tube formation was associated with a significant rise in cell surface hydrophobicity. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:222–226, 1999.

  11. Peroxisomal Catalase in the Methylotrophic Yeast Candida boidinii: Transport Efficiency and Metabolic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Horiguchi, Hirofumi; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Goh, Toh-Kheng; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    In this study we cloned CTA1, the gene encoding peroxisomal catalase, from the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii and studied targeting of the gene product, Cta1p, into peroxisomes by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. A strain from which CTA1 was deleted (cta1Δ strain) showed marked growth inhibition when it was grown on the peroxisome-inducing carbon sources methanol, oleate, and d-alanine, indicating that peroxisomal catalase plays an important nonspecific role in pe...

  12. New aniline blue dye medium for rapid identification and isolation of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, M C; Fung, D Y; Grant, R; White, J.; Brown, T

    1991-01-01

    Organic dyes have long been used in diagnostic microbiology to differentiate species by color reactions. We studied the ability of a new noninhibitory medium, YM agar containing 0.01% aniline blue WS dye, Colour Index 42780 (YMAB), to identify Candida albicans among 1,554 yeast specimens obtained from seven clinical laboratories. Appropriate American Type Culture Collection and other characterized strains served as controls. A total of 487 of the clinical strains were identified as C. albican...

  13. Candida halmiae sp. nov., Geotrichum ghanense sp. nov. and Candida awuaii sp. nov., isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Geotrichum, but in all cases with 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) similarities below 87 %. For Group C, the most closely related species were Candida rugopelliculosa (92.4 %), Pichia occidentalis (91.6 %) and Pichia exigua (91.9 %). The very low gene sequence similarities obtained for the three groups of...... isolates were considered to represent three novel species, for which the names Candida halmiae (group A, type strain G3(T)=CBS 11009(T)=CCUG 56721(T)); Geotrichum ghanense (group B, type strain G6(T)=CBS 11010(T)=CCUG 56722(T)) and Candida awuaii (group C, type strain G15(T)=CBS 11011(T)=CCUG 56723(T)) are...

  14. Candida tropicalis biofilms : effect on urinary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, M.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Brêda, D.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Candida tropicalis infection is strongly associated with the presence of biofilms in urinary catheters. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis in biofilms of different ages (24e120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their effect in human urinary bladder cells (TCC-SUP). Reference strain ATCC 750 and two isolates from patients with candiduria (U69 and U75) were used in this study. The adhesion to human cells was evaluated after 2 h of contact wit...

  15. Candida tropicalis CE017: a new Brazilian enzymatic source for the bioreduction of aromatic prochiral ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Gizelle A.B.; Araujo, Daniel M. de Freitas; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Melo, Vania M.M., E-mail: mcdmatto@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Gotor-Fernandez, Vicente; Gotor, Vicente [Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Univ. de Biotecnologia de Asturias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2010-07-01

    The reactivity and stereoselectivity showed by a new strain of Candida tropicalis in the reduction of prochiral ketones have been compared with the ones previously attained in our laboratory using microorganisms from the Brazilian biodiversity. In this manner, Candida tropicalis has demonstrated its versatility as stereoselective agent in the bioreduction of a series of aromatic ketones. These prochiral compounds were converted into their corresponding optically alcohols with moderate to excellent stereopreference depending on the substrate structure. Among ketones tested, nitroacetophenones were enzymatically reduced to enantiopure (S)-alcohol with complete conversion. (author)

  16. Candida tropicalis CE017: a new Brazilian enzymatic source for the bioreduction of aromatic prochiral ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity and stereoselectivity showed by a new strain of Candida tropicalis in the reduction of prochiral ketones have been compared with the ones previously attained in our laboratory using microorganisms from the Brazilian biodiversity. In this manner, Candida tropicalis has demonstrated its versatility as stereoselective agent in the bioreduction of a series of aromatic ketones. These prochiral compounds were converted into their corresponding optically alcohols with moderate to excellent stereopreference depending on the substrate structure. Among ketones tested, nitroacetophenones were enzymatically reduced to enantiopure (S)-alcohol with complete conversion. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Robert, Raymond; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2006-06-01

    We have evaluated the ability of the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze (Fumouze Diagnostics, Levallois-Perret, France) latex agglutination test to identify colonies of Candida dubliniensis grown on different media. The test was positive for 103 of 106 isolates of C. dubliniensis and negative for Candida albicans and other Candida species studied. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 97.1% and 100%, respectively. The test is very rapid, simple, and reliable giving the same results independently of whether the colonies are grown previously on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHROMagar Candida medium, Candida ID2 medium, or CHROMagar-Pal's medium. PMID:16529902

  18. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Débora; Oro; Andréia; Heissler; Eliandra; Mirlei; Rossi; Diane; Scapin; Patrícia; da; Silva; Malheiros; Everton; Boff

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum(C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis.Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fl uconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined.Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them.Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  19. Rapid identification of medically important Candida isolates using high resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nemcova

    Full Text Available An increasing trend in non albicans infections and various susceptibility patterns to antifungal agents implies a requirement for the quick and reliable identification of a number of medically important Candida species. Real-time PCR followed by high resolution melting analysis (HRMA was developed, tested on 25 reference Candida collection strains and validated on an additional 143 clinical isolates in this study. All reference strains and clinical isolates inconclusive when using phenotypic methods and/or HRMA were analysed using ITS2 sequencing. Considering reference and clinical strains together, 23 out of 27 Candida species could be clearly distinguished by HRMA, while the remaining 4 species were grouped in 2 pairs, when applying the mean Tm ± 3 SD values, the shape of the derivative melting curve (dMelt curve and, in some cases, the normalized and temperature-shifted difference plot against C. krusei. HRMA as a simple, rapid and inexpensive tool was shown to be useful in identifying a wide spectrum of clinically important Candida species. It may complement the current clinical diagnostic approach based on commercially available biochemical kits.

  20. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M. J.; Lewis, M. A.; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  1. Molecular investigation of a fungemia outbreak due to Candida parapsilosis in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dizbay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a nosocomial cluster of four Candida parapsilosis fungemia episodes that occurred in a neurological intensive care unit over a two-week period. The four infected patients had received parenteral nutrition through central lines, and all four had catheter-related candidemia. All of the isolates were susceptible to all of the antifungals tested, including amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin. They had strictly related fingerprints, based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Additional DNA sequencing data revealed that they were same strain. Although no isolate of Candida parapsilosis was recovered from other clinical, surveillance, or environmental samples, nosocomial spread of this yeast ceased, following the reinforcement of infection-control measures. Candida parapsilosis may require an intravascular foreign body to cause fungemia, but this outbreak shows that it can be transmitted nosocomially and can cause epidemics.

  2. Genetic variability analysis among clinical Candida spp. isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M Pinto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The patterns of genetic variation of samples of Candida spp. isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Thirty-seven strains were isolated from different anatomical sites obtained from different infection episodes of 11 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. These samples were subjected to randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis using 9 different primers. Reproducible and complex DNA banding patterns were obtained. The experiments indicated evidence of dynamic process of yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients, and also that certain primers are efficient in the identification of species of the Candida genus. Thus, we conclude that RAPD analysis may be useful in providing genotypic characters for Candida species typing in epidemiological investigations, and also for the rapid identification of pathogenic fungi.

  3. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  4. Novel strategies to fight Candida species infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of human fungal infections. The increase in cases of infection caused by Candida species, and the consequent excessive use of antimicrobials, has favored the emergence of resistance to conventional antifungal agents over the past decades. Consequently, Candida infections morbidity and mortality are also increasing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients suffering from Candida infections, because it seems unlikely that the established standard treatments will drastically lower the morbidity of mucocutaneous Candida infections and the high mortality associated with invasive candidiasis. This review aims to present the last advances in the traditional antifungal therapy, and present an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of Candida infections, with a special focus on combined antifungal agents, antifungal therapies with alternative compounds (plant extracts and essential oils), adjuvant immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy and laser therapy. PMID:25383647

  5. Nocvel potential targets and related genes of transcription factor Caplp in Candida albicans 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YahWANG; Yong-bingCAO; Xin-mingJIA; De-junWANG; ZhengXU; HuiSHEN; KangYING; Wan-shengCHEN; Yuan-yingJIANG

    2005-01-01

    AIM Capl p, encoded by CAP1 in Candida albicans, is highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Yapl p. It has been associated with tolerance to oxidative stress and resistance to a variety of toxicants previously. We used homemade microarray to reveal Capl p related genes in a broad spectrum as well as to lucubrate the functions of Capl p. METHODS Microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes between CAP1 deletion strain CJD21 and its parental strain CAI4. CAP1 over-expression strain was constructed to confirm the relationship between CAP1 and some differentially expressedgenes. Bioinformatics was applied to reveal promoters with Capl p binding site as well as the clusters of differentially expressed genes. RT-PCR and drug efflux analysis were used to lucubrate the functions of Caplp in Candida albicans.

  6. Simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms ofCandida and Cryptococcusspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe antifungal activity of some statins against different fungal species has been reported. Thus, at the first moment, the in vitro antifungal activity of simvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin was tested againstCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Then, in a second approach, considering that the best results were obtained for simvastatin, this drug was evaluated in combination with antifungal drugs against planktonic growth and tested against biofilms ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the microdilution broth method, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The interaction between simvastatin and antifungals against planktonic cells was analyzed by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Regarding biofilm susceptibility, simvastatin was tested against growing biofilm and mature biofilm of one strain of each tested yeast species. Simvastatin showed inhibitory effect against Candida spp. andCryptococcus spp. with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 to 1000 mg L-1 and from 62.5 to 1000 mg L-1, respectively. The combination of simvastatin with itraconazole and fluconazole showed synergism against Candidaspp. and Cryptococcus spp., while the combination of simvastatin with amphotericin B was synergistic only againstCryptococcus spp. Concerning the biofilm assays, simvastatin was able to inhibit both growing biofilm and mature biofilm ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The present study showed that simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms ofCandida and Cryptococcus species.

  7. Analysis of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis%外阴阴道念珠菌病的致病菌群分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海萍; 王桂芝; 王君; 臧运书; 葛红芬; 王莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in Qingdao and surrounding areas.Methods Vaginal discharge specimens were collected from 362 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis in the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College from May 2011 to November 2011,and subjected to routine fungal culture.The Candida isolates were identified by using Sabouraud dextrose agar,CHROMagar medium,germ tube test with serum,and API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.Results Totally,313 (86.46%) Candida strains were isolated from the specimens of 362 patients.Of these Candida strains,275 were identified as Candida albicans,38 as non-albicans Candida species,including 13 Candida glabrata strains,8 Candida parapsilosis strains,7 Candida tropicalis strains,5 Candida krusei strains,1 Candida lusitaniae strain,1 Candida dubliniensis strain,1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain,1 Pichia ohmeri strain and 1 Trichosporon mucoides strain.Conclusions As far as vulvovaginal candidiasis is concerned,Candida albicans is still the most prevalent pathogen,and Candida glabrata appears to be the predominant species in pathogenic non-albicans Candida species.%目的 探讨青岛及周边地区外阴阴道念珠菌病致病菌的菌种特征.方法 采用常规念珠菌培养方法鉴定菌种,包括沙氏培养基,血清芽管实验,CHROMagar念珠菌显色培养基及API 20C AUX酵母菌鉴定系统.结果 2011年5~11月共收集362例妇科门诊患者的阴道分泌物,病原学分析显示,念珠菌阳性例数为313例,总感染率为86.46%,菌种构成分布为白念珠菌275株,光滑念珠菌13株,近平滑念珠菌8株,热带念珠菌7株,克柔念珠菌5株,葡萄牙念珠菌1株,都柏林念珠菌1株,粘质红酵母菌1株,奥默毕赤酵母菌1株,粘性丝孢酵母菌1株.结论 白念珠菌仍是外阴阴道念珠菌病的常见致病菌,非白念以光滑念珠菌为主.

  8. Lipase Gene Expression of Resistant and Sensitive Candida Albicans to Fluconazole Isolated from Patients Suffering from Oral Candidiasis and Vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NasrollahiOmran, A. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With the development of drug resistance in strains of fungi, there is a considerable resistance of Candida albicans strains to fluconazole. Molecular studies are developing to determine the relationship of such a drug resistance with the increased gene expression of enzymes produced in drug-resistant Candida isolates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between extracellular lipase gene (LIP8 expression of Candida albicans isolated from candidiasis and sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility of Candida albicans was performed in oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine the proportion of strains sensitive or resistant to fluconazole using NCCLS method. To evaluate and compare the expression of these genes in the susceptible and resistant strains, RT real-time PCR reaction was used. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans, 20 were susceptible, 12 were semi-susceptible and 14 were resistant to fluconazole. By using PCR reaction, the results showed that the expression of this gene in fluconazole-susceptible isolates was moderate, while it was high in the isolates resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: The results of lipase gene (LIP8 expression showed that the additional expression of some genes of the enzymes responsible for virulence of Candida may also play a role in resistance to fluconazole.

  9. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis.

  10. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  11. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  12. Hydrophobic properties of Candida spp. under the influence of selected essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Pęczek, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    Processes of colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation depend inter alia on hydrophobic properties of Candida spp. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea tree, thyme and clove essential oils on hydrophobic properties of environmental and clinical Candida isolates. The relative cell surface hydrophobicity of strains tested was high, and ranged from 68.7% to 91.2%, with the highest value for a C. rugosa food-borne strain. The effectiveness of essential oils was diversified and depended on the type of essential oil, concentration and yeast strain. Statistically significant decrease of hydrophobicity indexes was observed after application of tea tree oil for C. krusei, clove oil for C. albicans reference strain, and all essential oils tested for C. rugosa. Only in the case of C. famata food-borne strain and C. albicans clinical isolate, solely used essential oils did not affect their hydrophobic properties. To determine the interactions of essential oils, their mixtures (1 MIC:1 MIC, 1 MIC:2 MIC and 2 MIC:1 MIC) were applied. Generally, essential oils used in combinations influenced yeast's hydrophobic properties much more than applied separately. The essential oils' mixtures reduced hydrophobicity of Candida yeasts in the range of 8.2 to 45.1%, depending on combination and strain. The interaction indexes of essential oils used in combinations predominantly indicate their additive effect. The application of tea tree, thyme and clove essential oils, especially in combinations, decreases hydrophobicity of the tested Candida isolates with implications of a probable advantageous limitation of their ability to colonize the food production industry environment. PMID:26601324

  13. Analysis of durg resistance of clinical isolated Candida in two years%两年间临床分离念珠菌耐药情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 陶家驹; 张坚磊; 蒋萍; 余更生; 郑红

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解我院住院患者临床分离的念珠菌分布及耐药现状.方法 收集近两年我院临床分离的念珠菌,测定常用抗真菌药物的敏感性.结果 两年内分别分离出念珠菌585株和1030株,分离率分别为11.76%和16.21%.白色念珠菌是最常见的分离菌,但热带念珠菌分离率上升.受检药物均有较高的抗菌活性,仅克柔念珠菌对氟康唑的耐药率分别为66.7%和77.1%,剂量依赖性敏感的比例分别为16.7%和20.0%.结论 白色念珠菌仍是分离出最常见的念珠菌,其次为热带念珠菌,建议白色念珠菌和热带念珠菌感染时使用氟康唑,克柔念珠菌感染者应用伊曲康唑.%Objective To investigate the epidemiology of clinical isolated Candida and their etiology resistance.Methods All strains of etiological Candida isolated from the inpatients of the hospital in the recent two years were collected.The susceptibility of usual antifungal drugs was analyzed.Results 585 and 1030 strains of Candida were isolated in the two years,the rate was 11.76%and 16.21%respectively.Candida albicans was the most common Candida,but Candida tropicalis increased in the second year.Most of the antifungal drugs kept high sensitive to Candida,only 66.7%and 77.1%of Candida kruser was resistant to fluconazole,16.7%and 20.0%was dose-depended sensitive to fluconazole.Conclusions Candida albicans is still the most common Candida in clinic,followed by Candida tropicalis.So fluconazole is suggested to be used in infections caused by Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis,and itraconazole in Candida kruser infection.

  14. 肺癌患者念珠菌临床分离株的基因型特征分析%Genotyping of Candida species from patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the feature of lung cancer patients in hospital of Candida infection on the level of molecular biology, in order to investigate the relationship between the infection and lung cancer. Methods: To make interspecies speices of Candida and intraspecific speices of Candida albicans by PCR. Results: Clinical isolated 157 strains genotype of common Candida from lung cancer patients were identified for Candida albicans, Candida grabrata, Candida tropicals and Candida krusei. Clinical isolated 93 strains of Candida albicans were divided into three types: type A, type B and type C. Lung cancer patients with Candida infection were more in small cell lung cancer. Conclusion: PCR method is proved to be a fast, sensitive and specific technology to detect clinical Candida,and is helpful to the diagnoses and treatment of the diseases caused by Candida.%目的:对住院肺癌患者感染的念珠菌进行分子生物学水平研究,探讨该种感染与肺癌的关系.方法:应用PCR技术对肺癌患者感染的念珠菌进行种间基因分型,对白色念珠菌进行种内基因分型.结果:肺癌患者157株念珠菌分为四种:白色念珠菌、光滑念珠菌、热带念珠菌和克柔念珠菌.93株白色念珠菌分为A、B、C三型.肺癌合并念珠菌感染患者病理类型以小细胞肺癌多见.结论:PCR方法检测念珠菌具有较高的灵敏性与特异性,有助于临床真菌感染性疾病的诊断与治疗.

  15. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  16. Characterization of thiamine uptake and utilization in Candida spp. subjected to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Natalia; Tomasi, Massimo; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are associated with an increasing number of life-threatening infections (candidiases), mainly due to the high resistance of these yeast-like fungi to antifungal drugs and oxidative stress. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) was found to alleviate stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, thiamine influence on defense systems in pathogenic fungi has never been investigated. The current work was aimed to elucidate the role of thiamine in stress reactions of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis, subjected to hydrogen peroxide treatment. As compared to S. cerevisiae, Candida strains exposed to oxidative stress showed: (i) a much higher dependence on exogenous thiamine; (ii) an increased demand for thiamine diphosphate (TDP) and TDP-dependent enzyme, transketolase; (iii) no changes in gene expression of selected stress markers - superoxide dismutase and catalase - depending on thiamine availability in medium; (iv) a similar decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the presence of thiamine. Moreover, the addition of therapeutic doses of thiamine to yeast culture medium revealed differences in its accumulation between various Candida species. The current findings implicate that the protective action of thiamine observed in S. cerevisiae differs significantly form that in pathogenic Candida strains, both in terms of the cofactor functions of TDP and the effects on fungal defense systems. PMID:26284264

  17. Person-to-person transfer of Candida albicans in the spacecraft environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Magee, B. B.; Mishra, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the exchange of Candida albicans among crew members during 10 Space Shuttle missions. Throat, nasal, urine and faecal specimens were collected from 61 crew members twice before and once after space flights ranging from 7 to 10 days in duration; crews consisted of groups of five, six or seven men and women. Candida albicans was isolated at least once from 20 of the 61 subjects (33%). Candida strains were identified by restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) after digestion by the endonucleases EcoRI and HinfI; further discrimination was gained by Southern blot hybridization with the C. albicans repeat fragment 27A. Eighteen of the 20 Candida-positive crew members carried different strains of C. albicans in the specimens collected. Possible transfer of C. albicans between members of the same crew was demonstrated only once in the 10 missions studied. We conclude that the transfer of C. albicans among crew members during Space Shuttle flights is less frequent than had been predicted from earlier reports.

  18. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov. and Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov., two ascomycetous yeasts from flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Anne C; Morais, Camila G; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Luiz H; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated from nectar of flower bracts of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae) collected in a Cerrado ecosystem in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil. Wickerhamiella pagnoccae sp. nov., which is closely related to Candida jalapaonensis, is heterothallic and produces one spheroid ascospore per ascus. Candida tocantinsensis sp. nov. belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and its nearest relative is Candida ubatubensis, but the sequence identity (%) in the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene is low. The type strain of W. pagnoccae is UFMG-F18C1(T) ( = CBS 12178(T) = NRRL Y-48735(T)) and the type strain of C. tocantinsensis is UFMG-F16D1(T) ( = CBS 12177(T) = NRRL Y-48734(T)). PMID:21478396

  19. Metal Ions May Suppress or Enhance Cellular Differentiation in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis Biofilms▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Joe J.; Ceri, Howard; Yerly, Jerome; Rabiei, Maryam; Hu, Yaoping; Martinuzzi, Robert; Turner, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are polymorphic fungi that develop antimicrobial-resistant biofilm communities that are characterized by multiple cell morphotypes. This study investigated cell type interconversion and drug and metal resistance as well as community organization in biofilms of these microorganisms that were exposed to metal ions. To study this, Candida biofilms were grown either in microtiter plates containing gradient arrays of metal ions or in the Calgary Biofilm Devi...

  20. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  1. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  2. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  3. Biotechnological production of xylitol with Candida yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a biotechnological production process for xylitol. The xylitol production characteristics of Candida millerii, Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis were compared. C. tropicalis was the best xylitol producer. A volumetric productivity of 5.7 g xylitol L-1 h-1 was achieved with 69 % yield from D-xylose on a mineral medium with a modified repeated fed batch production method. The xylitol production mechanism was confirmed by chemostat cultivation stu...

  4. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. PMID:27261732

  5. Candida glabrata among Candida spp. from environmental health practitioners of a Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Savastano; Elisa de Oliveira Silva; Lindyanne Lemos Gonçalves; Jéssica Maria Nery; Naiara Chaves Silva; Amanda Latercia Tranches Dias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of the species Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida was evaluated in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital from the environment and health practitioners. In a 12-month period we had a total positivity of 19.65% of Candida spp. The most recurring non-albicans Candida species was C. glabrata (37.62%), generally considered a species of low virulence, but with a higher mortality rate than C. albicans. Subsequently, C. parapsilosis (25.74%) and C. tropicalis (16.86%) were the s...

  6. Development and evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test using a monoclonal antibody to identify Candida dubliniensis colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cell component extraction suggested that the specific epitope probably resides on a protein moiety absent from C. albicans. However, we failed to identify the target protein by Western blotting, owing to its sensitivity to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate. MAb 12F7-F2 was further used to develop a commercial latex agglutination test to identify C. dubliniensis colonies (Bichro-dubli Fumouze test; Fumouze Diagnostics). The test was validated on yeast strains previously identified by PCR and on fresh clinical isolates; these included 46 C. dubliniensis isolates, 45 C. albicans isolates, and other yeast species. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose, CHROMagar Candida, and CandiSelect media and 97.8% sensitivity for C. dubliniensis grown on Candida ID medium. The test is rapid (5 min) and easy to use and may be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:16390961

  7. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  8. Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.

  9. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  10. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  11. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole. (orig.)

  12. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  13. Doxorubicin induces drug efflux pumps in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofla, Grzegorz; Turner, Vincent; Schulz, Bettina; Storch, Ulrike; Froelich, Daniela; Rognon, Bénédicte; Coste, Alix T; Sanglard, Dominique; Ruhnke, Markus

    2011-02-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important opportunistic fungal pathogens. It can cause serious fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients, including those with cancer. Treatment failures due to the emergence of drug-resistant C. albicans strains have become a serious clinical problem. Resistance incidents were often mediated by fungal efflux pumps which are closely related to the human ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is often overexpressed in cancer cells and confers resistance to many cytotoxic drugs. We examined whether cytotoxic drugs commonly used for cancer treatment (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) could alter the expression of genes responsible for the development of fluconazole resistance in Candida cells in the way they can influence homologous genes in cancer cell lines. ABC transporters (CDR1 and CDR2) and other resistance genes (MDR1 and ERG11) were tested by real-time PCR for their expression in C. albicans cells at the mRNA level after induction by antineoplastic drugs. The results were confirmed by a lacZ gene reporter system and verified at the protein level using GFP and immunoblotting. We showed that doxorubicin is a potent inducer of CDR1/CDR2 expression in C. albicans at both the mRNA and protein level and thus causes an increase in fluconazole MIC values. However, cyclophosphamide, which is not a substrate of human P-gp, did not induce ABC transporter expression in C. albicans. Neither doxorubicin nor cyclophosphamide could influence the expression of the other resistance genes (MDR1 and ERG11). The induction of CDR1/CDR2 by doxorubicin in C. albicans and the resulting alteration of antifungal susceptibility might be of clinical relevance for the antifungal treatment of Candida infections occurring after anticancer chemotherapy with doxorubicin. PMID:20818920

  14. Calcineurin signaling and membrane lipid homeostasis regulates iron mediated multidrug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hameed

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that iron deprivation enhances drug susceptibility of Candida albicans by increasing membrane fluidity which correlated with the lower expression of ERG11 transcript and ergosterol levels. The iron restriction dependent membrane perturbations led to an increase in passive diffusion and drug susceptibility. The mechanisms underlying iron homeostasis and multidrug resistance (MDR, however, are not yet resolved. To evaluate the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS based lipidome analyses of iron deprived Candida cells to examine the new cellular circuitry of the MDR of this pathogen. Our transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and iron homeostasis. Among the several categories of iron deprivation responsive genes, the down regulation of calcineurin signaling genes including HSP90, CMP1 and CRZ1 was noteworthy. Interestingly, iron deprived Candida cells as well as iron acquisition defective mutants phenocopied molecular chaperone HSP90 and calcineurin mutants and thus were sensitive to alkaline pH, salinity and membrane perturbations. In contrast, sensitivity to above stresses did not change in iron deprived DSY2146 strain with a hyperactive allele of calcineurin. Although, iron deprivation phenocopied compromised HSP90 and calcineurin, it was independent of protein kinase C signaling cascade. Notably, the phenotypes associated with iron deprivation in genetically impaired calcineurin and HSP90 could be reversed with iron supplementation. The observed down regulation of ergosterol (ERG1, ERG2, ERG11 and ERG25 and sphingolipid biosynthesis (AUR1 and SCS7 genes followed by lipidome analysis confirmed that iron deprivation not only disrupted ergosterol biosynthesis, but it also affected sphingolipid homeostasis in Candida cells. These lipid compositional changes suggested extensive remodeling of the membranes in iron

  15. Calcineurin signaling and membrane lipid homeostasis regulates iron mediated multidrug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Saif; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Singh, Ashutosh; Goswami, Shyamal K; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that iron deprivation enhances drug susceptibility of Candida albicans by increasing membrane fluidity which correlated with the lower expression of ERG11 transcript and ergosterol levels. The iron restriction dependent membrane perturbations led to an increase in passive diffusion and drug susceptibility. The mechanisms underlying iron homeostasis and multidrug resistance (MDR), however, are not yet resolved. To evaluate the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) based lipidome analyses of iron deprived Candida cells to examine the new cellular circuitry of the MDR of this pathogen. Our transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and iron homeostasis. Among the several categories of iron deprivation responsive genes, the down regulation of calcineurin signaling genes including HSP90, CMP1 and CRZ1 was noteworthy. Interestingly, iron deprived Candida cells as well as iron acquisition defective mutants phenocopied molecular chaperone HSP90 and calcineurin mutants and thus were sensitive to alkaline pH, salinity and membrane perturbations. In contrast, sensitivity to above stresses did not change in iron deprived DSY2146 strain with a hyperactive allele of calcineurin. Although, iron deprivation phenocopied compromised HSP90 and calcineurin, it was independent of protein kinase C signaling cascade. Notably, the phenotypes associated with iron deprivation in genetically impaired calcineurin and HSP90 could be reversed with iron supplementation. The observed down regulation of ergosterol (ERG1, ERG2, ERG11 and ERG25) and sphingolipid biosynthesis (AUR1 and SCS7) genes followed by lipidome analysis confirmed that iron deprivation not only disrupted ergosterol biosynthesis, but it also affected sphingolipid homeostasis in Candida cells. These lipid compositional changes suggested extensive remodeling of the membranes in iron deprived Candida

  16. Sequence resources at the Candida Genome Database

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Shah, Prachi; Binkley, Gail; Lane, Christopher; Miyasato, Stuart R.; SHERLOCK, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, ) contains a curated collection of genomic information and community resources for researchers who are interested in the molecular biology of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. With the recent release of a new assembly of the C.albicans genome, Assembly 20, C.albicans genomics has entered a new era. Although the C.albicans genome assembly continues to undergo refinement, multiple assemblies and gene nomenclatures will remain in widespread use by the...

  17. Candida Sepsis Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Potasman; Roni Gonen; Alona Paz

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of invasive devices and broad spectrum antibiotics has increased the rate of candidal superinfections.Candida sepsis associated with pregnancy is rare. Candida sepsis following chorionic villi sampling (CVS) has never been reported. Case: A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented with signs of sepsis one day after undergoing transcervical CVS. Blood culture and curettage material yielded C. albicans. She was treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 4 weeks and completely ...

  18. Oral Candida infections--a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake L; Nair R

    1995-01-01

    Candida species are the commonest agents of oral mycoses. They cause a variety of diseases including the new variant, erythematous candidosis, which is frequently described in HIV infection. Due to these and other reasons the classification of oral candidosis has been recently revised, and further more new therapeutic regimes have been described. Hence in this article an overview of oral Candida infections is presented with special emphasis on current concepts related to classification and tr...

  19. Characterization of Mucosal Candida albicans Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Kashleva, Helena; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Diaz, Patricia; Vasilakos, John

    2009-01-01

    C. albicans triggers recurrent infections of the alimentary tract mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Although the ability of C. albicans to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces has been well documented in recent years, no information exists on biofilms that form directly on mucosal surfaces. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure and composition of Candida biofilms forming on the oral mucosa. We found that oral Candida biofilms consist of yeast, hyphae, and commens...

  20. Candida lusitaniae as an Unusual Cause of Recurrent Vaginitis and its Successful Treatment With Intravaginal Boric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Neil S.; Margie Morgan; Nichols, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing use of short-course antifungal therapies in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis may enable the emergence of less-common, more resistant yeast strains as vaginal pathogens. We report the case of a patient with chronically symptomatic and repeatedly treated vaginal candidiasis whose infection was attributable to Candida lusitaniae, a previously unreported cause of candidal vaginitis .

  1. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...... number of invasive infections in Denmark....

  2. DNA content, kinetic complexity, and the ploidy question in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggsby, W.S.; Torres-Bauza, L.J.; Wills, J.W.; Townes, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that is pathogenic for humans. No sexual cycle has been reported for this fungus, and earlier reports have differed on whether typical strains of C. albicans are haploid or diploid. Previous estimates of the DNA content of C. albicans varied by one order of magnitude. The authors used three independent methods to measure the kinetic complexity of the single-copy DNA from a typical strain of C. albicans (strain H317) to determine the DNA content per haploid genote; they obtained values of 15 and 20 fg per cell by using S1 nuclease and hydroxyapatite assays, respectively. Optical assays for DNA reassociation kinetics, although not definitive in themselves, yielded values in this range. Chemical measurements of the DNA content of several typical strains, including strain H317, yielded values clustered about a mean of 37 fg per cell. They concluded that these strains are diploid.

  3. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  4. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  5. Prostaglandin E2 from Candida albicans Stimulates the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Jan; Geginat, Gernot; Tammer, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans interact synergistically in dual species biofilms resulting in enhanced mortality in animal models. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the current study was to test possible candidate molecules which might mediate this synergistic interaction in an in vitro model of mixed biofilms, such as farnesol, tyrosol and prostaglandin (PG) E2. In mono-microbial and dual biofilms of C.albicans wild type strains PGE...

  6. Plants used in folk medicine: the potential of their hydromethanolic extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, opportunistic fungal infections are considered a serious problem regarding public health. Despite the advances towards the synthesis of new antifungal agents, an increasing incidence of drug-resistant microorganisms has been observed. In this sense, other alternatives are necessary. In the present work, the antifungal activity of extracts from ten different plants, commonly used in folk medicine, were evaluated against nineteen Candida strains, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C...

  7. Demonstration and solubilization of antigens expressed primarily on the surfaces of Candida albicans germ tubes.

    OpenAIRE

    Smail, E H; J. M. Jones

    1984-01-01

    Antisera against mycelial-phase, but not yeast-phase, Candida albicans absorbed with yeast-phase organisms preferentially stained germ tube segments of several strains of mycelial-phase C. albicans by the indirect fluorescent-antibody staining technique. Germ tube segment antigens were not found in significant amounts on blastospore segments or on yeast-phase organisms. Absorption of the mycelial-phase reference sera with yeast-phase C. stellatoidea, but not with C. tropicalis, C. guillermond...

  8. Shuttle vectors for facile gap repair cloning and integration into a neutral locus in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Zacchi, Lucia F.; McClellan, Mark; Matter, Kathleen; Berman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. The current techniques used to construct C. albicans strains require integration of exogenous DNA at ectopic locations, which can exert position effects on gene expression that can confound the interpretation of data from critical experiments such as virulence assays. We have identified a large intergenic region, NEUT5L, which facilitates the integration and expression of ectopic genes. To construct and integrate inserts int...

  9. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by ...

  10. Differential adherence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic Candida albicans yeast cells to mouse tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; Brawner, D L; Riesselman, M H; Jutila, M A; Cutler, J E

    1991-01-01

    Using an ex vivo binding assay, we previously demonstrated that yeast cells grown at 37 degrees C display binding specificity in mouse spleen, lymph node, and kidney tissues. In spleen and lymph node tissues, binding was predominantly in regions rich in macrophages. Here, we tested the possibility that hydrophobic and hydrophilic cells bind differentially to host tissues. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic yeast cells of four Candida albicans strains were incubated for 15 min at 4 degrees C with cry...

  11. Formation of Azole-Resistant Candida albicans by Mutation of Sterol 14-Demethylase P450

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Kentaro; Tsuchimori, Noboru; Okonogi, Kenji; Perfect, John R.; Gotoh, Osamu; Yoshida, Yuzo

    1999-01-01

    The sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51) of a fluconazole-resistant isolate of Candida albicans, DUMC136, showed reduced susceptibility to this azole but with little change in its catalytic activity. Twelve nucleotide substitutions, resulting in four amino acid changes, were identified in the DUMC136 CYP51 gene in comparison with a reported CYP51 sequence from a wild-type, fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans strain. Seven of these substitutions, including all of those causing amino acid changes...

  12. Purification and characterization of the anti-Candida toxin of Pichia anomala WC 65.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, A D; Abdelal, A T; Ahearn, D G

    1989-01-01

    Pichia anomala WC 65 secretes a toxin that is inhibitory to a variety of yeasts, including strains of the animal pathogen Candida albicans. The toxin was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration, ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with a Mono Q column, and gel permeation chromatography with a Superose 12 column. The toxin had a molecular weight of 83,300 as determined by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gels and a molecular weight of 85,290 a...

  13. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto; Cledir Santos; Nelson Lima; Paula Sampaio; Célia Pais; Rejane P. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classica...

  14. Imaging morphogenesis of Candida albicans during infection in a live animal

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Soumya; Dolan, Kristy; Foster, Thomas H.; Wellington, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that requires an intact host immune response to prevent disease. Thus, studying host-pathogen interactions is critical to understanding and preventing this disease. We report a new model infection system in which ongoing C. albicans infections can be imaged at high spatial resolution in the ears of living mice. Intradermal inoculation into mouse ears with a C. albicans strain expressing green fluorescent protein results in systemicC. ...

  15. Antifungal activities of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. bark extracts against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara Sitapha; KPOROU KOUASSI ELISEE; Djaman Allico Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous and hydroacoholic extracts from bark of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae). In vitro antifungal activity of all the extracts was done by agar slant double dilution method. Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus clinically important strains were used for the study. ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. Antifungal activity was determinated by evaluating of antifung...

  16. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-08-01

    identified (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. The objective of this work was to evaluate frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of diabetic patients taken care in the service of endocrinology of the University Hospital Walter Cantídio of the Federal University of the Ceará. Samples had been collected of 48 diabetic patients, men and women, with various situations of glicemic control. Clinical materials had been collected with aid of swab and harvested in plates of Petri contend Sabouraud agar dextrose with cloranfenicol and incubated to 37°C. The grown were identified by the used classic tests in mycology. In the following, these Candida strains were submitted to tests to detect phospholipase and proteinase enzymes. Of these, 15 samples (31,35% presented positive culture for the genera Candida. The species more frequent was C. albicans with 80%, followed by C. tropicalis (13.3% and C. guilliermondii (6.7%. Asfor the research on the enzymatic activity of Candida sp. it was observed that 86.6% presented activity of proteinase and 80% of phospholipase. It was concluded with these results that C. albicans is more frequent and that Candida spp. isolated species have strong enzymatic activity.

  17. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  18. 子宫内膜炎患牛子宫黏液内念珠菌的分离及体外溶血活性鉴定%Identification of Candida Species and the Hemolytic Activity Isolated from Endometritis Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 郭梦尧; 张乃生; 王国卿

    2011-01-01

    本研究通过API20CAUX系统对从子宫内膜炎患牛子宫内黏液中分离到的183株念珠菌进行鉴定.结果显示克鲁斯念珠菌最多,为33.9%,其次是皱褶念珠菌为17.5%,乳酒念珠菌为13.1%,白色念珠菌为11.5%及热带念珠菌为8.7%.分离中不常见的有假丝酵母为5.5%,近平滑念珠菌为4.4%,吉利蒙念珠菌为3.3%,著名念珠菌为1.1%和光滑念珠菌为1.1%.此外,还对所分离到的念珠菌进行体外溶血活性检测,结果显示克鲁斯念珠菌、乳酒念珠菌、白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、涎沫假丝念珠菌和光滑念珠菌在接种后48 h后显示α和β溶血;皱褶念珠菌、吉利蒙念珠菌、著名念珠菌只显示α溶血;在孵育72 h后,近平滑念珠菌不显示任何溶血活性.涎沫假丝酵母、白色念珠菌和乳酒念珠菌的β溶血活性比其他菌株高.本研究为临床牛真菌性子宫内膜炎的防治及发病机理的研究奠定了基础.%Candida stain is a conditional pathomycete that could be isolated from the bovine with the disease of endoraetri-tis. The 183 Candida strains were isolated from the uterus mucus of bovine with disease endometritis were used to identified at the level of generic by API20CAUX. The most commonly could be isolated were Candida krusei which accounted for 33. 9%, followed by Candida rugosa were 17. 5%, and the Candida kefyr, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis were 13. 1%, 11.5%, 8. 7%. The seldom could be isolated were Candida zeylanoides, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondi, Candida fanata , Candida glabrata were 5. 5% , 4. 4% , 3. 3% , 1.1%, 1. 1%. In addition, we had also tested the active of hemolyzation in vitro of the Candida stain. Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , Candida zeylanoides and Candida glabrata display α and β haemolysis post inoculation 48 h. Candida rugosa , Candida guilliermondi , Candida fanata only display α haemolysis, Candida

  19. Candida albicans Als3p is required for wild-type biofilm formation on silicone elastomer surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Daniels, Karla J.; Oh, Soon-Hwan; GREEN, CLAYTON B.; Yeater, Kathleen M; Soll, David R.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans ALS3 encodes a large cell-surface glycoprotein that has adhesive properties. Immunostaining of cultured C. albicans germ tubes showed that Als3p is distributed diffusely across the germ tube surface. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of model catheter biofilms grown using a PALS3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strain showed GFP production in hyphae throughout the biofilm structure while biofilms grown using a PTPI1-GFP reporter strain showed GFP in both hyphae an...

  20. Anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias de Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the anti-Candida activity and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon. For this, tests were conducted to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and the action of C. zeylanicum EO on fungal cell wall of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei strains. The composition of the was analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Significant antifungal activity of the EO was observed on the strains tested, with 87.5% and 62.5% of them sensitive, respectively at a MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL. In the presence of sorbitol, the MIC was 625 µg/mL against all the strains, showing a possible action of the EO on fungal cell wall. Eugenol (73.27% and trans-β-caryophyllene (5.38% were found in higher concentrations. The results indicated anti-Candida activity of the EO analyzed and suggested that it occurred due to the action on fungal cell wall.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility analysis of berberine, baicalin, eugenol and curcumin on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianhua; Wen Hai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the antifungal effects of Chinese herb monomers, i.e. berberine, baicalin, eugenol and curcumin, on Candida albicans. Methods: After Candida albicans strain Y01-09 was incubated for 48 h in YEPD broth which contained different concentrations of Chinese herb components, the cell cycle, fluorescent intensity and the size of cell volume were detected by flow cytometry. Results: The 4 Chinese herb monomers could affect the cell cycle of Candida albicans in different ranges. The ratio of cells in S-G2-M period decreased as the agents concentration increased, indicating that the cell division was inhibited. The fluorescent intensity of Candida albicans cells became weaker after being incubated, which reflected the loss of DNA fragments. The higher the concentration was, the weaker the fluorescent intensity became. The cell size, cell diopter and particle size changed much as the agents concentration increased. Conclusion: Chinese herb monomers play the antifungal role in inhibiting cell division. FCM could be used to determine the susceptibility of antifungal agents.

  2. [Emergence of Candida parapsilosis candidemia at Cochin hospital. Characterization of isolates and search for risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, A; Baixench, M-T; Taieb, F; Champagnac, C; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2011-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a normal saprophyte of the skin, characterized by their affinity for catheters. This species has, in vitro, a level of sensitivity against the echinocandins, significantly lower than that observed with other Candida species. Recently, new species: Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, phenotypically identical to C. parapsilosis, have been identified by molecular biology. From 2003 to 2007, in the Cochin hospital, the proportion of C. parapsilosis among non-albicans species isolated from blood cultures increased from 17 (3/18) to 38% (5/13). To understand the reasons for this emergence, we retrospectively characterized isolates, conducted a case-control and researched a link between the emergence and introduction of caspofungin in our hospital. We analysed data from 26 patients who had candidemia with C. parapsilosis. Genotypic analysis of isolates has not identified the new species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. The case-control study showed a broad-spectrum antibiotics was significantly more frequent for candidemia with C. parapsilosis compared to C. albicans (52 versus 26%, P=0.04) as a previous treatment with caspofungin (11 versus 0%, P=0.04). The introduction of caspofungin is contemporary with the emergence of candidemia with C. parapsilosis with a tendency to be related to its level of consumption in the ICU. Our results should encourage biologists to closely monitor the frequency and level of sensitivity of strains of C. parapsilosis isolated in hospital. PMID:20889268

  3. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Dai; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Wu, Wen-Xiang; Bai, Hui-Hui; Dong, Han-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years. Methods: Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document. SPSS software (version 14.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis, involving statistical description and Chi-square test. Results: The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans, 80.5% (n = 1775) followed by C. glabrata, 18.1% (n = 400). Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (treatment of VVC at present. The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time. PMID:27174323

  4. Promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral Candida biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Marion; Guerineau, Amandine; Boudesocque, Leslie; Costa, Damien; Bazinet, Laurent; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Imbert, Christine

    2014-04-01

    In the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) and two other red fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Malpighia punicifolia L.) were assessed on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata yeasts. When added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against Candida spp. when used at low concentrations. In addition, the pretreatment of surfaces with this extract induced an anti-adhesion activity mainly against C. glabrata yeasts and an antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. This activity was dependent on concentration, species, and strain. A phytochemical investigation bioguided by anti-adhesion tests against the two Candida species was carried out on crude cranberry juice to determine the active fractions. Three subfractions enriched in proanthocyanidins showed an anti-adhesion activity at low concentrations. This study investigated for the first time the interest of crude extracts of cranberry and cranberry juice fractions to prevent biofilms of C. glabrata. It highlighted the potency of consuming this fruit and using it as a source of anti-adhesion agents. PMID:24623607

  5. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais sobre espécies de Candida Antifungal activity from essential oils on Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igara de Oliveira Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase apresenta-se como uma infecção fúngica superficial ou profunda causada por leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida, sendo considerada a principal infecção micótica em ambiente nosocomial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a concentração inibitória mínima - CIM do óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth e de Rosmarinus officinialis L. sobre cepas de Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis. Os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em meio sólido. Os óleos essenciais de C. zeylanicum e P. boldus mostraram os mais destacáveis resultados, visto que inibiram o crescimento de 58% das cepas ensaiadas e apresentaram CIM de 4%.Candidiasis occurs as a superficial or profound fungal infection caused by yeasts belonging to the Candida genus. This infectious has been considered the main mycotic infection in the nosocomial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Citrus limon Risso, Eucalyptus citriodora HK, Eugenia uniflora L., Peumus boldus Benth and Rosmarinus officinialis L. essential oils against Candida albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea e C. tropicalis strains. The antifungal activity assays were carried out by solid medium diffusion technique. C. zeylanicum and P. boldus essential oils showed the most prominent results which inhibited the growth of 58% of the assayed yeasts strains and presented MIC of 4%.

  6. Levels of (1→3-β-D-glucan, Candida mannan and Candida DNA in serum samples of pediatric cancer patients colonized with Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zia U

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance cultures may be helpful in identifying patients at increased risk of developing invasive candidiasis. However, only scant information exists on the effect of Candida colonization on serum levels of diagnostic biomarkers. This prospective surveillance study determined the extent of Candida colonization among pediatric cancer patients and its possible impact on serum levels of (1-3-β-D-glucan (BDG, Candida mannan and Candida DNA. Methods A total of 1075 swabs originating from oropharynx (n = 294, nostrils (n = 600, rectum (n = 28, groin (n = 50, ear (n = 54, and axilla (n = 49 of 63 pediatric cancer patients were cultured for the isolation of Candida spp. Patients yielding Candida spp. from any sites were considered as colonized. Serum samples were collected from patients at the time of first surveillance culture for detection of BDG by Fungitell kit and Candida mannan by Platelia Candida Ag. Candida DNA was detected by using panfungal primers and identification was carried out by using species-specific primers and DNA sequencing. Results Seventy-five (7.6% swab cultures from 35 (55.5% patients yielded Candida spp. These isolates included C. albicans (n = 62, C. dubliniensis (n = 8, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (n = 2 each and C. krusei (n = 1. Eleven patients were colonized at three or more sites. Eight of 36 serum samples from 6 colonized patients yielded BDG values higher than the currently recommended cut-off value of ≥80 pg/ml. However, none of the serum samples yielded Candida mannan levels ≥0.5 ng/ml and PCR test for Candida DNA was also negative in all the serum samples of colonized patients. During the study period, only two colonized patients subsequently developed candidemia due to C. tropicalis. Besides positive blood cultures, C. tropicalis DNA, BDG and Candida mannan were also detected in serum samples of both the patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that while mucosal

  7. Analysis of clinical distribution and drug susceptivity of Candida infection%院内念珠菌感染的药敏分析及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振楠; 刘晓民; 马雨霞; 陈晶莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand and compare the clinical distribution and drug susceptivity of Candida albicans and non-al-bicans Candida. Methods The sources and distribution of 411 strains of Candidas were analyzed. The results of drug susceptivity and risk factors of Candida albicans and Non-albicans Candida were compared. Results Most specimens of the 411 strains of Candidas were from sputum. ICU had the highest separate rate. Most patients infected with Candidas were complicated with respiratory diseases. The independent risk factors included patients older than 65 years, invasive operations and drug usage. Candida was most sensitive to amphoteri-cin B. Candida albicans showed a higher sensitivity to fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole azole and lower resistance rates to fluconazole and itraconazole than non-Candida albicans did. Conclusion The effective way to reduce the generation of drug-resistant strains is to strengthen the monitoring to Candida resistance.%目的 了解并对比白色念珠菌与非白色念珠菌的临床分布、药敏情况.方法 分析411株念珠菌的来源、科室分布,对比白色念珠菌与非白色念珠菌的药敏结果、危险因素等.结果 411株念珠菌的标本以痰液最多;ICU分离率最高;呼吸系统疾病最多;年龄≥65岁及侵袭性操作、药物使用,分别为感染白色念珠菌与非白色念珠菌的独立危险因素;念珠菌对两性霉素B最敏感;白色念珠菌对氟康唑、氟胞嘧啶、伊曲康唑、伏立康唑敏感性高于非白色念珠菌,对氟康唑、伊曲康唑的耐药率低于非白色念珠菌.结论 加强对念珠菌耐药性的监测有助于减少耐药菌株的产生.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Candida from the Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Shashanka Rajappa; Smitha Byadarahally Raju

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques are available for the isolation of Candida within the oral cavity. Such methods play an important role in the diagnosis and management of oral candidosis. The growing importance of Candida is in part related to the emergence of HIV infection and the more widespread use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Along with the Candida albicans there has been a greater recognition of the importance of the nonalbicans Candida species in oral candidosis. Identification of infecting str...

  9. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Deorukhkar, Sachin C.; Santosh Saini; Stephen Mathew

    2014-01-01

    The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species d...

  10. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a bio...

  11. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Cosam C; Ngassapa Olipa D; Matee Mecky IN; Runyoro Deborah KB; Mbwambo Zakaria H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans has become resistant to the already limited, toxic and expensive anti-Candida agents available in the market. These factors necessitate the search for new anti-fungal agents. Methods Sixty-three plant extracts, from 56 Tanzanian plant species obtained through the literature and interviews with traditional healers, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity. Aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for anti-Candida activity by bioautography agar overlay meth...

  12. Coaggregation of Streptococcus sanguis and other streptococci with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, H F; Lala, H C; Shepherd, M G

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen strains of viridans group streptococci and two strains of other streptococci were tested for coaggregation with Candida albicans. Streptococcus sanguis strains generally exhibited low levels of adherence to 28 degrees C-grown exponential-phase yeast cells, but starvation of yeast cells for glucose at 37 degrees C (or at 28 degrees C) increased their coaggregating activity with these streptococci by at least tenfold. This was a property common to four C. albicans strains tested, two of which were able to form mycelia (6406 and MEN) and two of which were not (MM2002 and CA2). The expression of the coaggregation adhesin during yeast cell starvation was inhibited by addition of trichodermin or amphotericin B. The strains of S. sanguis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus oralis tested for coaggregating activity encompassed a diverse range of physiological and morphological types, yet all exhibited saturable coaggregation with starved C. albicans cells. There was no correlation of cell surface hydrophobicity, of either yeast or streptococcal cells, with their abilities to coaggregate. Strains of Streptococcus anginosus also coaggregated with starved yeast cells; Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus pyogenes coaggregated to a lesser degree with C. albicans, and the coaggregation with S. pyogenes was not promoted by yeast cell starvation; Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis did not coaggregate with yeast. The coaggregation reactions of S. sanguis and S. gordonii with C. albicans were inhibited by EDTA and by heat or protease treatment of the yeast cells and were not reversible by the addition of lactose or other simple sugars. These observations extend the range of intergeneric coaggregations that are known to occur between oral microbes and suggest that coaggregations of C. albicans with viridans group streptococci may be important for colonization of oral surfaces by the yeast. PMID:2182544

  13. Comparison Between Virulence Factors of Candida albicans and Non-Albicans Species of Candida Isolated from Genitourinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi,; Jacob, Shani; D’Souza, Diney

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida spp. is frequently isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and catheter associated UTI. C.albicans is the most frequently isolated species but non-albicans species of candida are gaining clinical significance.

  14. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  15. Upc2p-associated differential protein expression in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehamer, Christopher F; Cummings, Edwin D; Hilliard, George M; Morschhäuser, Joachim; David Rogers, Phillip

    2009-10-01

    The gain-of-function mutation G648D in UPC2 causes ERG11 up-regulation and increased fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans. In this study, we performed 2-DE and PMF to identify proteomic alterations in an ERG11-overexpressing fluconazole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolate compared with its fluconazole-susceptible parent strain. We identified 23 differentially expressed proteins, and among them, seven became differentially expressed in a C. albicans wild-type strain after the introduction of a UPC2 allele carrying this mutation. These Upc2p-regulated proteins may contribute to fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. PMID:19750515

  16. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  17. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  18. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  19. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  20. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show

  1. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  2. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...... resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  3. Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Biomass, Metabolic Activity and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sónia; Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    According to epidemiological data, Candida tropicalis has been related to urinary tract infections and haematological malignancy. Several virulence factors seem to be responsible for C. tropicalis infections, for example: their ability to adhere and to form biofilms onto different indwelling medical devices; their capacity to adhere, invade and damage host human tissues due to enzymes production such as proteinases. The main aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis biofilms of different ages (24-120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their ability to express aspartyl proteinase (SAPT) genes. The reference strain C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and two C. tropicalis isolates from urine were used. Biofilms were evaluated in terms of culturable cells by colony-forming units enumeration; total biofilm biomass was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method; metabolic activity was evaluated by XTT assay; and SAPT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. All strains of C. tropicalis were able to form biofilms in AU, although with differences between strains. Candida tropicalis biofilms showed a decrease in terms of the number of culturable cells from 48 to 72 h. Generally, SAPT3 was highly expressed. C. tropicalis strains assayed were able to form biofilms in the presence of AU although in a strain- and time-dependent way, and SAPT genes are expressed during C. tropicalis biofilm formation. PMID:26572148

  4. Candida albicans actively modulates intracellular membrane trafficking in mouse macrophage phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arenas, Elena; Bleck, Christopher K E; Nombela, César; Gil, Concha; Griffiths, Gareth; Diez-Orejas, Rosalía

    2009-04-01

    The intracellular trafficking/survival strategies of the opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans are poorly understood. Here we investigated the infection of RAW264.7 macrophages with a virulent wild-type (WT) filamentous C. albicans strain and a hyphal signalling-defective mutant (efg1Delta/cph1Delta). A comparative analysis of the acquisition by phagosomes of actin, and of early/late endocytic organelles markers of the different fungal strains was performed and related to Candida's survival inside macrophages. Our results show that both fungal strains have evolved a similar mechanism to subvert the 'lysosomal' system, as seen by the inhibition of the phagosome fusion with compartments enriched in the lysobisphosphatidic acid and the vATPase, and thereby the acquisition of a low pH from the outset of infection. Besides, the virulent WT strain displayed additional specific survival strategies to prevent its targeting to compartmentsdisplaying late endosomal/lysosomal features, such as induction of active recycling out of phagosomes of the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1, the lysosomal protease cathepsin D and preinternalized colloidal gold. Finally, both virulent and efg1Delta/cph1Delta mutant fungal strains actively suppressed the production of macrophage nitric oxide (NO), although their cell wall extracts were potent inducers of NO. PMID:19134116

  5. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of action of herbal antifungal alkaloid berberine, in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiveeni Dhamgaye

    Full Text Available Candida albicans causes superficial to systemic infections in immuno-compromised individuals. The concomitant use of fungistatic drugs and the lack of cidal drugs frequently result in strains that could withstand commonly used antifungals, and display multidrug resistance (MDR. In search of novel fungicidals, in this study, we have explored a plant alkaloid berberine (BER for its antifungal potential. For this, we screened an in-house transcription factor (TF mutant library of C. albicans strains towards their susceptibility to BER. Our screen of TF mutant strains identified a heat shock factor (HSF1, which has a central role in thermal adaptation, to be most responsive to BER treatment. Interestingly, HSF1 mutant was not only highly susceptible to BER but also displayed collateral susceptibility towards drugs targeting cell wall (CW and ergosterol biosynthesis. Notably, BER treatment alone could affect the CW integrity as was evident from the growth retardation of MAP kinase and calcineurin pathway null mutant strains and transmission electron microscopy. However, unlike BER, HSF1 effect on CW appeared to be independent of MAP kinase and Calcineurin pathway genes. Additionally, unlike hsf1 null strain, BER treatment of Candida cells resulted in dysfunctional mitochondria, which was evident from its slow growth in non-fermentative carbon source and poor labeling with mitochondrial membrane potential sensitive probe. This phenotype was reinforced with an enhanced ROS levels coinciding with the up-regulated oxidative stress genes in BER-treated cells. Together, our study not only describes the molecular mechanism of BER fungicidal activity but also unravels a new role of evolutionary conserved HSF1, in MDR of Candida.

  7. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  8. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  9. The fungus Candida albicans tolerates ambiguity at multiple codons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Salvador Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions 3% of leucine and 97% of serine are incorporated at CUG sites on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1 gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.

  10. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

  11. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  12. Primary Screening of 10 - Hydroxy - 2 - Decenoic Acid Productive Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, eleven strains, which vere screened strictly from raw royal.jelly, soil and honeycomb etc. by means of dilution plate and spread plate methods, were cultured at 28°C for60 h with shaking. To determine whether they could yield 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid during fermentation, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were used. The results showed that the strains BH002 and BH004. were both identified as Crvtococcaceae. where BH002 was primarily classified into Candida for possessing the abilities. The 10-HDA productivity of Candida BH002 and that of BH004 were 0.327% and 0.2648% respectively.

  13. The Candida Genome Database (CGD), a community resource for Candida albicans gene and protein information

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Lane, Christopher; Miyasato, Stuart R.; SHERLOCK, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD) is a new database that contains genomic information about the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. CGD is a public resource for the research community that is interested in the molecular biology of this fungus. CGD curators are in the process of combing the scientific literature to collect all C.albicans gene names and aliases; to assign gene ontology terms that describe the molecular function, biological process, and subcellular localization of ea...

  14. Silver colloidal nanoparticles : antifungal effect against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, D. R.; Gorup, L. F.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Negri, M.; E. R. Camargo; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, D. B.; Henriques, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applie...

  15. Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Minagi, S; Miyake, Y; Inagaki, K; Tsuru, H; Suginaka, H

    1985-01-01

    The effects of hydrophobicities of substrate surfaces on microbial adherence were examined by using Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis and 21 denture base resin materials. With increasing surface free energy of resin plates, increasing adherence of C. albicans and decreasing adherence of C. tropicalis were observed. The surface free energy of C. albicans is higher than that of all resin material surfaces, and C. tropicalis has surface free energy lower than that of all materials used. In...

  16. Production of anti-Candida antibodies in mice with gut colonization of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuo Ono; Osamu Koshio; Nobuo Suegara; Tatsuo Ikeda; Kayoko Wada; Masayasu Mitsuya; Hiroko Ishibashi; Shigeru Abe; Shigeru Tansho; Hideyo Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Production of antibodies that are specific for allergens is an important pathological process in inflammatory allergic diseases. These contain the antibodies against antigens of Candida albicans, one of the normal microbial flora in an intestinal tract. We studied the effects of the prednisolone administration on the production of anti-Candida antibodies in the gastrointestinally C. albicans-colonized mice. METHODS AND MATERIALS: BALB/c mice, treated with antibacterial antibiotics...

  17. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C.; Sullivan, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisa...

  18. Perbedaan Efek Ekstrak Jintan Hitam terhadap Candida albicans Denture Stomatitis dan Candida albicans (ATCC® 10231™)

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Jintan hitam mempunyai efek fungistatis dan fungisidal. Hal ini disebabkan adanya senyawa berupa timokuinon, timol, dan karvakrol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui berapa konsentrasi Kadar Hambat Minimum (KHM) dan Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM) dari ekstrak jintan hitam terhadap Candida albicans denture stomatitis dan Candida albicans (ATCC® 10231™), serta untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat perbedaan efek ekstrak jintan hitam terhadap kedua jenis fungi tersebut. Jenis penelitian eksperiment...

  19. Comparison of the Hydrophobic Properties of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, Kevin C.; Wu, Jean G.; Masuoka, James

    2001-01-01

    Although Candida dubliniensis is a close genetic relative of Candida albicans, it colonizes and infects fewer sites. Nearly all instances of candidiasis caused by C. dubliniensis are restricted to the oral cavity. As cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) influences virulence of C. albicans, CSH properties of C. dubliniensis were investigated and compared to C. albicans. Growth temperature is one factor which affects the CSH status of stationary-phase C. albicans. However, C. dubliniensis, similar...

  20. Influence of growth conditions on cell surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; Plotkin, B. J.; Klimas, D M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cultural conditions on cell surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata was tested. C. albicans cells grown at room temperature were more hydrophobic than cells grown at 37 degrees C. No consistent pattern was observed with C. glabrata. Relative hydrophobicity was found to vary with the growth phase and growth medium for both species. The implications for pathogenesis studies are discussed.

  1. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Andrew P; Gamble, John A.; Yeomans, Tim; Moran, Gary P.; Saunders, David; Harris, David; Aslett, Martin; Barrell, Jamie F.; Butler, Geraldine; Citiulo, Francesco; Coleman, David C.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Goodwin, Tim J.; Quail, Michael A.; McQuillan, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the ...

  2. [Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the identification of Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Harun; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Özmerdiven, Gülşah Ece; Sağlam, Sezcan; Ener, Beyza

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are one of the major causes of nosocomial infections and are the fourth most common agent involved in bloodstream infections. The impact of non-albicans Candida species is increasing, however C.albicans is still the most common species. Since the antifungal susceptibility pattern among Candida spp. may be different, rapid diagnosis and identification of non-albicans Candida spp. are important for the determination of antifungal agents that will be used for treatment. The aim of the study was to describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) assay that rapidly detects, identifies and quantitates Candida species from blood culture samples. A total of 50 consecutive positive blood culture bottles (BACTEC, Beckton Dickinson, USA) identified at our laboratory between June-November 2013, were included in the study. Reference strains of Candida spp. (C.albicans ATCC 10231, C.glabrata ATCC 90030, C.tropicalis ATCC 1021, C.krusei ATCC 6258, C.parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. dubliniensis CD36) grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar were used for quality control. BACTEC bottles that were positive for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were also studied to search the cross-reactivity. A commercial kit (Zymo Research, USA) was used for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR was performed on LightCycler 480 (Roche, Germany) with primers and probes specific for 18S rRNA of Candida species. Twenty microlitres of the reaction mix contained 2 μl of extracted DNA, 2 μl of LightCycler Fast Start DNA Master Probe (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 2 μl of MgCl(2) (5 mmol), 2 μl of 10x PCR buffer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 0.5 μl of each primer (0.01 nmol/μl) and 1 μl of each probe (0.1 μmol/μl) (TibMolBiol, Germany). Amplification was performed using the following conditions; 95°C for 10 mins and 50 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 10 secs, annealing at 62°C for 10 secs and polymerisation at 72°C for 20 secs. A melting curve was

  3. Structure-based specificity mapping of secreted aspartic proteases of Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis using peptidomimetic inhibitors and homology modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majer, F.; Pavlíčková, Libuše; Majer, P.; Hradilek, Martin; Dolejší, Elena; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 387, č. 9 (2006), s. 1247-1254. ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/04/0432; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida albicans * Candida parapsilosis * Candida inhibitors * secreted aspartic protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2006

  4. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  5. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Greenspoon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis.

  6. Intracellular aspartic protease of Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Václava; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    Mátraháza : -, 2007. s. 43. [Alexander Von Humboldt Workshop on Structure Based Approaches Towards Disease Control. 22.05.2007-27.05.2007, Mátraháza] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * intracellular * aspartic protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Intracellular aspartic protease ACP of Candida albicans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Václava; Dolejší, Elena; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    Patras : University of Patras, 2007. s. 306. [General Meeting of the International Proteolysis Society /5./. 20.10.2007-24.10.2007, Patras] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida albicans * ACP Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  8. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... citric acid produced conforms to the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), under... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. Description of Teunomyces gen. nov. for the Candida kruisii clade, Suhomyces gen. nov. for the Candida tanzawaensis clade and Suhomyces kilbournensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J; Blackwell, Meredith

    2016-08-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown that species of the Candida kruisii clade and species of the C. tanzawaensis clade represent phylogenetically circumscribed genera, which are described as Teunomyces gen. nov., type species T kruisii, and Suhomyces gen. nov., type species S tanzawaensis Many of the species are distributed worldwide and they are often isolated from fungus-feeding insects and their habitats. Included is the description of S. kilbournensis (type strain NRRL Y-17864, CBS 14276), a species found almost exclusively on maize kernels (Zea mays) in IL, USA. PMID:27188882

  10. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.;

    2012-01-01

    ) through a segmental duplication which covered the centromeric region, and (ii) by a translocation event moving a larger chromosome arm to another chromosome that leaves the centromere part with the shorter arm. The first type of mini-chromosomes carrying duplicated genes exhibited mitotic instability......We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini-chromosomes......, which were smaller than 0.5 Mb. Regarding the year, patient and hospital, C. glabrata strains had independent origin and the analyzed mini-chromosomes were struc- turally not related to each other (i.e., they contained different sets o genes). We inferred two mechanisms involved in their origin: (i...

  11. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  12. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 μg mL-1. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  13. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  14. Secretion and filamentation are mediated by the Candida albicans t-SNAREs Sso2p and Sec9p

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Stella M.; Rane, Hallie S.; Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Lee, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    To study the role of late secretion in Candida albicans pathogenesis, we created conditional mutant C. albicans strains in which the t-SNARE-encoding genes SSO2 or SEC9 were placed under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. In repressing conditions, C. albicans tetR-SSO2 and tetR-SEC9 mutant strains were defective in cytokinesis and secretion of aspartyl proteases and lipases. The mutant strains also exhibited a defect in filamentation compared to controls, and thus we followed t...

  15. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  16. Mechanisms of azole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida glabrata in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Naumiuk, Łukasz; Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Candida glabrata is currently ranked as the second most frequently isolated aetiological agent of human fungal infections, next only to Candida albicans. In comparison with C. albicans, C. glabrata shows lower susceptibility to azoles, the most common agents used in treatment of fungal infections. Interestingly, the mechanisms of resistance to azole agents in C. albicans have been much better investigated than those in C. glabrata. The aim of the presented study was to determine the mechanisms of resistance to azoles in 81 C. glabrata clinical isolates from three different hospitals in Poland. The investigation was carried out with a Sensititre Yeast One test and revealed that 18 strains were resistant to fluconazole, and 15 were cross-resistant to all other azoles tested (voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole). One isolate resistant to fluconazole was cross-resistant to voriconazole, and resistance to voriconazole only was observed in six other isolates. All strains were found to be susceptible to echinocandins and amphotericin B, and five were classified as resistant to 5-fluorocytosine. The sequence of the ERG11 gene encoding lanosterol 14-α demethylase (the molecular target of azoles) of 41 isolates, including all strains resistant to fluconazole and three resistant only to voriconazole, was determined, and no amino acid substitutions were found. Real-time PCR studies revealed that 13 of 15 azole-resistant strains showed upregulation of the CDR1 gene encoding the efflux pump. No upregulation of expression of the CDR2 or ERG11 gene was observed. PMID:25818698

  17. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Natalia F; Martinez, Rafael C R; Gomes, Bruna C; Nomizo, Auro; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2010-01-01

    Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, co-aggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation) and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of co-aggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l), followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l), L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l), and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l). All isolates produced H2O2, but the highest levels (3 - 10 mg/l) were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use. PMID:24031455

  18. Vaginal lactobacilli as potential probiotics against Candida spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia F. Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections affect millions of people every year worldwide. The treatment of these diseases usually requires the use of antimicrobial agents, and more recently, the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB cultures for the management of vaginal infections has been extensively studied. In this work, 11 vaginal lactobacilli isolates, previously obtained from healthy patients, were studied to screen microorganisms with probiotic properties against Candida spp. The LAB were tested for their ability of auto-aggregation, coaggregation with C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial cells and production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All lactobacilli isolates tested were able to auto-aggregate (ranging from 25.3% to 75.4% assessed at 4 hours of incubation and to co-aggregate with the four Candida species into different degrees; among them L. crispatus showed the highest scores of coaggregation. The highest amount of lactic acid was produced by L. salivarius (13.9 g/l, followed by L. johnsonii (6.5 g/l, L. acidophilus (5.5 g/l, and L. jensenii (5.4 g/l. All isolates produced H2O2 , but the highest levels (3 -10 mg/l were observed for L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, and L. vaginalis. Only L. agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii and L. ruminus were able to adhere to epithelial Caco-2 cells. Among the isolates evaluated, L agilis, L. jensenii, L. johnsonii, and L. ruminus exhibited simultaneously several desirable properties as potential probiotic strains justifying future studies to evaluate their technological properties in different pharmaceutical preparations for human use.

  19. 念珠菌性阴道炎菌种鉴定与其耐药性分析%Bacterial identification and drug resistance analysis of candida vaginitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海玲; 王旭明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the results of bacterial identification and drug resistance analysis of candida vaginitis, provide reference for rational choice of antifungal drugs during clinical treatment. Methods: Routine fungal culture and strain isolation were carried out, VITEK32 microbiological analyzer and YBC identification card were used for automatic detection and determination, ATB FUNGUS test bar was used for drug sensitive detection of nystatin, amphotercin B, 5 - flucytosine, ketoconazole, econazole and miconazole. Results: 311 candida strains were detected, 5 kinds of candida were determined, including 240 candida albicans strains, accounting for 77. 17%; 32 candida glabrata strains, accounting for 10. 28%; 27 candida tropicalis strains, accounting for 8.68%; 7 candida guilliermondii strains, accounting for 2. 25%; 5 candida krusei strains, accounting for 1.6%. The results of drug sensitive detection showed that the inhibitory effects of nystatin and amphotercin B on candida were stronger, the drug resistance rates were lower, the percentages were 6. 10% and 7. 71%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans is a major pathogen of colpomycosis, the drug resistances of different kinds of candida to different drugs vary, drug resistance test of candida, rational choice of antifungal drugs and scientific treatment should be paid more attention to in clinic.%目的:探讨念珠菌性阴道炎菌种的鉴定结果及其耐药性,为临床治疗合理选用抗真菌药物提供参考.方法:常规霉菌培养、分离菌株,采用生物梅里埃公司VITEK32微生物分析仪及YBC鉴定卡全自动检测鉴定,药敏采用生物梅里埃ATBFUNGUS试验条对制霉菌素、两性霉素B、5-氟胞嘧啶、酮康唑、益康唑、咪康唑6种药物进行药敏检测.结果:检出311株念珠菌,鉴定出5种念珠菌,其中白色念珠菌240株占77.17%,光滑球拟酵母32株占10.28%,热带念珠菌27株占8.68%,季也蒙念珠菌7株占2.25%,

  20. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilmin vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50of CAS and FLU against singleCandida spp.and mixedCandida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicansandC. glabratamixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages ofCandidabiofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (P< .05) but not different when CAS at 0.5 MIC combined with FLU at 0.25 or 0.5MIC, compared to CAS treatment alone. Structural analyses revealed that CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms showed less hyphae and blastospores with some aberrant cells compared to control group. Although it was evident that a greater CFU ofCandida glabratawere demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, ofCandida albicansandCandida glabratamixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent. PMID:26768371

  1. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:26400863

  2. Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Ashtiani, M T; Sadeghi, R H; Yadegari, M H

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents has been described. As fluconazole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates that constitutively over-express ERG11 have been identified in previous studies, the aim of this study is to investigate this molecular mechanism involved in fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Fluconazole susceptibility testing was carried out on clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from hospitalised children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to differentiate Candida spp. The resistant C. albicans isolates were subjected to RT-qPCR using primers that identify ERG11 gene expression. Of the 142 Candida spp. isolates studied, C. albicans was the most predominant isolate, occurring in 68.3% (97/142) of the patients. According to the CLSI method, the majority of the C. albicans isolates (91.7%, 89/97), categorised as susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤8 μg/mL), five isolates were considered resistant (MIC ≤64 μg/mL) and three had dose-dependent susceptibility (MIC = 8.16-32 μg/mL). The ERG11 gene in the five fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates was upregulated 4.15-5.84-fold relative to the ATCC 10231 control strain. In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended. PMID:25906488

  3. Identification and typing of the emerging pathogen Candida auris by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Victoria; Mailler, Sandrine; Chetry, Marion; Vidal, Céline; Durand, Géraldine; van Belkum, Alex; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-08-01

    Candida auris is an emerging antifungal resistant yeast species causing nosocomial and invasive infections, emphasising the need of improved diagnostics and epidemiological typing methods. We show that MALDI-TOF VITEK-MS followed by amplified length polymorphisms allows for accurate species identification and subsequent epidemiological characterisation of strains encountered during potential outbreaks. PMID:27292939

  4. Host factors do not influence the colonization or infection by fluconazole resistant Candida species in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yu-Huai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nosocomial yeast infections have significantly increased during the past two decades in industrialized countries, including Taiwan. This has been associated with the emergence of resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal drugs. The medical records of 88 patients, colonized or infected with Candida species, from nine of the 22 hospitals that provided clinical isolates to the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY program in 1999 were reviewed. A total of 35 patients contributed fluconazole resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ≧ 64 mg/l], while the remaining 53 patients contributed susceptible ones (MICs ≦ 8 mg/l. Fluconazole resistance was more frequent among isolates of Candida tropicalis (46.5% than either C. albicans (36.8% or C. glabrata (30.8%. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics or underlying diseases among patients contributing strains different in drug susceptibility.

  5. Analysis of drug sensitivity of candida to antifungal drugs in 152 infected patients%152例临床念珠菌感染药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚琳琳; 张群智; 李芳芹

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解医院念珠菌感染药敏情况,为临床合理用药提供实验依据.方法 从临床标本中分离培养念珠菌,进行鉴定和药敏试验.结果 1 538份临床标本中分离出念珠菌152株(9.88%);其中,白色念珠菌111株(73.03%),克柔氏念珠菌31例(20.39%),其他10(6.58%).白色念珠菌时常用抗真菌药物敏感性均较高(伊曲康唑除外),而克柔氏念珠菌则对常用抗真菌药物均有较高的敏感率.结论 白色念珠菌和克柔氏念珠菌对临床一线抗真菌药氟康哇存在耐药株,应重视对高危人群进行微生物学检测和药敏试验.%Aim To investigate drug sensitivity of candida to antibiotics in patients with candida infection.Methods Candida were isolated and cultured from clinical 152 and drug sensitivity of candida to antifungal was conducted and the results were analyzed.Results A total of 152 (9.88%)candida strains were isolated from 1 538 samples,including 111 (73.03%)Candida albicans and 31 (20.39%)Candida krusei.Candida albicans showed higher sensitive rates to conventional antifungal drugs except itraconazole.However,Candida krusei showed higher sensitive rates to antifungal agents.Conclusion Candida albicans and Candida krusei showed resistances to clinical first-line antffuangal drugs such as fluconazole.Thus srug sensitivity tests be carried out to guide clinical treatment of the infections

  6. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis. PMID:25480879

  7. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Thomas J Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and...

  8. Crystal violet staining to quantity Candida adhesion to epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, M.; Gonçalves, Vera M.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of adhesion capability are essential to characterise the virulence of Candida species. However, the assessment of adhesion by traditional methods is timeconsuming. The aim of the present study is the development of a simple methodology using crystal violet staining to quantify in vitro adhesion of different Candida species to epithelial cells. The experiments are performed using Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), C. glabrata (ATCC 2001), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) and C. tropic...

  9. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho; Alice Becker Teixeira; Otávio Silveira Santos; Ricardo Flores Cazanova; Carlos Alexandre Sanchez Ferreira; Karen Cherubini; Sílvia Dias de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production,...

  10. Candida bracarensis Bloodstream Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Thomas A.; McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E.; Zhang, Sean X.

    2010-01-01

    Candida bracarensis is a recently described Candida species which is phenotypically similar to Candida glabrata. A case of C. bracarensis bloodstream infection in a bone marrow transplant patient is described and confirms this organism as an opportunistic human pathogen. The organism can be distinguished from C. glabrata by its white color on CHROMagar and by DNA sequence analysis using D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers.

  11. Activity of phenolic compounds from plant origin against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and other Candida species have been highly associated with several opportunistic fungal infections. Their ability to develop host infections is incited by different determinants, being virulence factors the most highlighted. Molecular targets of the antifungal drugs are crucial components for determination of yeast survival. Ergosterol, nucleic acids and glucan are the most studied molecular targets to destroy Candida species, being considered the basis of the development of ...

  12. Roles of Candida albicans Sfl1 in Hyphal Development▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yandong; Su, Chang; Mao, Xuming; Cao, Fang; Chen, Jiangye

    2007-01-01

    The ability to switch between different morphological forms is an important feature of Candida albicans and is relevant to its pathogenesis. Many conserved positive and negative transcription factors are involved in morphogenetic regulation of the two dimorphic fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In S. cerevisiae, the transcriptional repressor Sfl1 and the activator Flo8 function antagonistically in invasive and filamentous growth. We have previously reported that Candida alb...

  13. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is conside...

  14. Rat Indwelling Urinary Catheter Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Brooks, Erin G.; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-a...

  15. Investigative Methods for Studying the Adhesion and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Candida Species: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ellepola, Arjuna N. B.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2011-01-01

    Candidal infections are common opportunistic infections in the compromized and manifest both as super? cial and systemic diseases. The super?ficial infections are by far the commonest form of the disease. Although Candida albicans is the most common Candida species isolated from humans and is responsible for the majority of super? cial yeast infections, non-albicans species such as Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are regularly isolated but to a le...

  16. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  17. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  18. Effects of Aspirin and Other Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Biofilms and Planktonic Cells of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Alem, Mohammed A. S.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandins are now known to be produced by Candida albicans and may play an important role in fungal colonization. Their synthesis in mammalian cells is decreased by inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes required for prostaglandin formation. In the present study, a catheter disk model system was used to investigate the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (all cyclooxygenase inhibitors) on biofilm formation by three strains of C. albicans. Seven of nine drugs tested at a ...

  19. Inducible and Constitutive Activation of Two Polymorphic Promoter Alleles of the Candida albicans Multidrug Efflux Pump MDR1

    OpenAIRE

    Sasse, Christoph; Schillig, Rebecca; Reimund, Alexandra; Merk, Julia; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump MDR1 confers resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole on Candida albicans. It has been reported that two types of MDR1 promoters exist in C. albicans and that homozygosity for the allele with higher activity may promote fluconazole resistance. We found that the two MDR1 promoter alleles in strain SC5314 were equally well activated by inducing chemicals or hyperactive forms of the transcription factors Mrr1 and Cap1, which control MDR1 expressio...

  20. Discovering the Secrets of the Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence (ALS) Gene Family—a Sticky Pursuit

    OpenAIRE

    HOYER, LOIS L.; GREEN, CLAYTON B.; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    The Agglutinin-Like Sequence (ALS) family of Candida albicans includes eight genes that encode large cell-surface glycoproteins. The high degree of sequence relatedness between the ALS genes and the tremendous allelic variability often present in the same C. albicans strain complicated definition and characterization of the gene family. The main hypothesis driving ALS family research is that the genes encode adhesins, primarily involved in host-pathogen interactions. Although adhesive functio...

  1. Candida albicans heme oxygenase and its product CO contribute to pathogenesis of candidemia and alter systemic chemokine and cytokine expression

    OpenAIRE

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Roberts, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian heme oxygenases play important roles in immune regulation by producing immunosuppressive CO. The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans encodes a heme oxygenase, Hmx1, that is specifically induced by the host protein hemoglobin, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of disseminated bloodstream infections. We show that exposing mice to therapeutic levels of CO increases C. albicans virulence, whereas a HMX1 null strain has decreased virulence in murine disseminated candidiasis. Levels of ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. on Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    RBA Almeida; G Akisue; LML Cardoso; JC Junqueira; AO C Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants with fungicide action, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. on strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. with planktonic and biofilm growth. To study the micro-organisms in planktonic cells, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were deter...

  3. Modeling of Growth of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida milleri in Response to Process Parameters of Sourdough Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gänzle, Michael G.; Ehmann, Michaela; Hammes, Walter P.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the ecological factors pH, temperature, ionic strength, and lactate, acetate, and ethanol levels on Candida milleri and two strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, organisms representative of the microflora of sourdough. A mathematical model describing the single and combined effects of these factors on the growth of these organisms was established in accordance with the following criteria: quality of fit, biological significance of the parameters, and applica...

  4. Comparative transcript profiling of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis identifies SFL2, a C. albicans gene required for virulence in a reconstituted epithelial infection model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spiering, Martin J

    2010-02-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are closely related species displaying differences in virulence and genome content, therefore providing potential opportunities to identify novel C. albicans virulence genes. C. albicans gene arrays were used for comparative analysis of global gene expression in the two species in reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE). C. albicans (SC5314) showed upregulation of hypha-specific and virulence genes within 30 min postinoculation, coinciding with rapid induction of filamentation and increased RHE damage. C. dubliniensis (CD36) showed no detectable upregulation of hypha-specific genes, grew as yeast, and caused limited RHE damage. Several genes absent or highly divergent in C. dubliniensis were upregulated in C. albicans. One such gene, SFL2 (orf19.3969), encoding a putative heat shock factor, was deleted in C. albicans. DeltaDeltasfl2 cells failed to filament under a range of hypha-inducing conditions and exhibited greatly reduced RHE damage, reversed by reintroduction of SFL2 into the DeltaDeltasfl2 strain. Moreover, SFL2 overexpression in C. albicans triggered hyphal morphogenesis. Although SFL2 deletion had no apparent effect on host survival in the murine model of systemic infection, DeltaDeltasfl2 strain-infected kidney tissues contained only yeast cells. These results suggest a role for SFL2 in morphogenesis and an indirect role in C. albicans pathogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  5. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections. PMID:27330531

  6. Azole-carbodithioate hybrids as vaginal anti-Candida contraceptive agents: design, synthesis and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Vikash; Sarswat, Amit; Jangir, Santosh; Bala, Veenu; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Pandey, Atindra K; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Shukla, Praveen K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2013-01-01

    Azole and carbodithioate hybrids were synthesized as alkyl 1H-azole-1-carbodithioates (7-27) and evaluated for spermicidal/microbicidal activities against human sperm, Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida species. Seventeen compounds (7-14, 16-18 and 20-25) showed spermicidal activity at MEC 1.0% (w/v) and permanently immobilized 100% normal human spermatozoa within ∼30 s. Seventeen compounds (7-11, 13-18 and 20-25) exhibited anti-Candida activity (IC50 1.26-47.69 μg/mL). All compounds were devoid of bactericidal activity against four bacterial strains (50.00 μg/mL) and antiprotozoal activity against Trichomonas vaginalis (200.00 μg/mL). Four promising compounds (10, 17, 20 and 22) have better safety profile as compared to Nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Docking study was done to visualize the possible interaction of designed scaffold with prospective receptor (Cyp51) of Candida albicans. PMID:24140949

  7. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Godoy

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  8. Proinflammatory Chemokines during Candida albicans Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Hua, Xia; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotactic cytokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes into infected tissues. This study investigated the profile of chemokines during experimental Candida albicans keratitis and determined the effects of chemokine inhibition on leukocyte infiltration and fungal growth during murine keratomycosis. Scarified corneas of BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with C. albicans and monitored daily over one week for fungal keratitis. After a gene microarray for murine chemokines compared infect...

  9. Tetracycline Effects on Candida Albicans Virulence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Logan McCool; Hanh Mai; Michael Essmann; Bryan Larsen

    2008-01-01

    Object. To determine if tetracycline, previously reported to increase the probability of developing symptomatic vaginal yeast infections, has a direct effect on Candida albicans growth or induction of virulent phenotypes. Method. In vitro, clinical isolates of yeast were cultivated with sublethal concentrations of tetracycline and yeast cell counts, hyphal formation, drug efflux pump activity, biofilm production, and hemolysin production were determined by previously reported methods. Resul...

  10. Pharmacotherapy of Candida Infections with Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Espinel-Ingroff; Emilia Canton; Estrella Martin-Mazuelos; Javier Pemán

    2009-01-01

    The classic recommended antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive Candida infections were amphotericin B, a lipid formulation of amphotericin B and fluconazole in both neutropenic or nonneutropenic patients as either primary or alternative therapies. Voriconazole has been recommended when additional coverage for filamentous fungi is needed (e.g. neutropenic patients). More recently and based on well designed comparative clinical trials, the three echinocandins, caspofungin, anidulafungi...

  11. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspoon, Jeffrey S.; Seth Kivnick

    1993-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis. Case: The immunocompetent primigravida developed progressive nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and a 4.1 kg weight loss during the second trimester...

  12. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    OpenAIRE

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile ...

  13. Laminin receptors on Candida albicans germ tubes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchara, J P; Tronchin, G; Annaix, V; Robert, R; Senet, J M

    1990-01-01

    Recent evidence for the role of laminin in cell adhesion and in the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections has led us to investigate the existence of receptors for this extracellular matrix component in Candida albicans. At first, immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of laminin-binding sites at the surface of germ tubes. Electron microscopy confirmed this result and permitted precise localization of the binding sites on the outermost fibrillar layer of the germ tube cell wall. B...

  14. Vacuolar trafficking and Candida albicans pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Glen E.

    2011-01-01

    The vacuole is likely to play a variety of roles in supporting host colonization and infection by pathogenic species of fungi. In the human pathogen Candida albicans, the vacuole undergoes dynamic morphological shifts during the production of the tissue invasive hyphal form, and this organelle is required for virulence. Recent efforts in my lab have focused on defining which vacuolar trafficking pathways are required for C. albicans hyphal growth and pathogenesis. Our results indicate that th...

  15. Milestones in Candida albicans Gene Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, Dhanushki P.; Hanes, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, candidemia is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections and is estimated to cause 10,000 deaths per year. The species Candida albicans is responsible for the majority of these cases. As C. albicans is capable of developing resistance against the currently available drugs, understanding the molecular basis of drug resistance, finding new cellular targets, and further understanding the overall mechanism of C. albicans pathogenesis are important goals. To study th...

  16. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  17. Candida albicans Biofilm-Defective Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mathias L.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Bruno, Vincent M; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2005-01-01

    Biofilm formation plays a key role in the life cycles and subsistence of many microorganisms. For the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, biofilm development is arguably a virulence trait, because medical implants that serve as biofilm substrates are significant risk factors for infection. The development of C. albicans biofilms in vitro proceeds through an early phase, in which yeast cells populate a substrate, an intermediate phase, in which pseudohyphal and hyphal cell types are produc...

  18. Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Taff, Heather T.; Mitchell, Kaitlin F.; Edward, Jessica A; Andes, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involvin...

  19. White-opaque switching in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    The human commensal yeast Candida albicans undergoes an epigenetic switch between two distinct types of cells, referred to as white and opaque. These two cell types differ in many respects, including their cell and colony morphologies, their metabolic states, their mating behaviors, their preferred niches in the host, and their interactions with the host immune system. Each of the two cell types is heritable for many generations and switching between them appears stochastic; however, environm...

  20. DIARE YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH CANDIDA PADA ANAK DI UJUNG PANDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asaad Maidin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp were isolated from 18 out of 38 (47,4 % children under five years with acute diarrhoea and from 10 out of35 (28,6% children under five years without diarrhoea. Statistical tests showed no difference between the presence of Candida species and the occurence of diarrhoea of the two groups of children (p >0,05. Mycelia were isolated from one diarrhoeal patient (1/387 or 2,63%. From the diarrhoeal patients, the Candida species found, were Candida albicans 61,1% (11/18, Candida parapsilosis 5,6% (1/18, Candida pseudotropicalis 22,2%(4/18, and Candida tropicalis 11,1 %(2/18. While from the non diarrhoeal patients 30% (3/10 were Candida Albicans, 20% (2/10 were Can­dida pseudotropicalis, and 50%(5/10 were Candida tropicalis. Bacterial identification of rectal swabs from diarrhoeal patients showed that 2,63% (1/38 had Vibrio Cholera 2,63% had Shigella, 94,7% (36/38 had E. coli, 21,1% (8/38 had Proteus sp, 7,9% (3/38 had Providentia, and 2,6 % (1/38 had Arizona. The clinical symptoms of the diarrhoeal patients were 97,4% had watery diarrhoea, 63,2% de­fecated more than 10 times, and 78,9% had vomiting.

  1. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  2. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au3+ or Ag+, even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C0), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C0) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  3. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  4. In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Fiore, Cristina; Armanini, Decio; Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio

    2009-04-01

    Compounds derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root have been used widely for centuries for their numerous therapeutic properties. The present study aimed to test the in vitro activity against Candida albicans strains of the compound 18-beta glycyrrhetinic acid (18-beta GA), derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza species. This antimicrobial activity was assessed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method on C. albicans strains that were isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). The in vitro growth of the C. albicans strains was markedly reduced, in a pH-dependent manner, by relatively low doses (6.2 microg/mL) of 18-beta GA. The results demonstrate that 18-beta GA is a promising biological alternative for the topical treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). PMID:19067381

  5. The Siderophore Iron Transporter of Candida albicans (Sit1p/Arn1p) Mediates Uptake of Ferrichrome-Type Siderophores and Is Required for Epithelial Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Petra; Gerads, Michaela; Schaller, Martin; Dromer, Francoise; Winkelmann, Günther; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2002-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans contains a close homologue of yeast siderophore transporters, designated Sit1p/Arn1p. We have characterized the function of SIT1 in C. albicans by constructing sit1 deletion strains and testing their virulence and ability to utilize a range of siderophores and other iron complexes. sit1 mutant strains are defective in the uptake of ferrichrome-type siderophores including ferricrocin, ferrichrysin, ferrirubin, coprogen, and triacetylfusarinine C. A mu...

  6. Candida queiroziae sp. nov., a cellobiose-fermenting yeast species isolated from rotting wood in Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata O; Cadete, Raquel M; Badotti, Fernanda; Mouro, Adriane; Wallheim, Daniela O; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2011-03-01

    Eight strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from rotting wood and wood-boring insects in Atlantic Rain Forest ecosystems in Brazil. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the yeast belongs to the Scheffersomyces clade and that it is related to Candida lignicola and Candida coipomoensis. The new species was isolated from rotting wood of three different localities and a wood-boring insect suggesting that these substrates are its ecological niche. This new yeast species is able to assimilate cellobiose and other compounds related to rotting wood. Strong fermentation of cellobiose in Durham tubes was observed for the strains of this new yeast. The new species produced an intracellular β-glucosidase responsible for cellobiose hydrolysis. The novel species, Candida queiroziae sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of C. queiroziae is UFMG-CLM 5.1(T) (=CBS 11853(T) = NRRL Y-48722(T)). PMID:21136162

  7. Streptococcus gordonii glucosyltransferase promotes biofilm interactions with Candida albicans

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    Austin Ricker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans co-aggregates with Streptococcus gordonii to form biofilms and their interactions in mucosal biofilms may lead to pathogenic synergy. Although the functions of glucosyltransferases (Gtf of Mutans streptococci have been well characterized, the biological roles of these enzymes in commensal oral streptococci, such as S. gordonii, in oral biofilm communities are less clear. Objective: The objective of this work was to explore the role of GtfG, the single Gtf enzyme of S. gordonii, in biofilm interactions with C. albicans. Design: Biofilms were grown under salivary flow in flow cells in vitro, or under static conditions in 96 well plates. A panel of isogenic S. gordonii CH1 gtfG mutants and complemented strains were co-inoculated with C. albicans strain SC5314 to form mixed biofilms. Biofilm accretion and binding interactions between the two organisms were tested. Biofilms were quantified using confocal microscopy or the crystal violet assay. Results: The presence of GtfG enhanced dual biofilm accretion, and sucrose supplementation further augmented dual biofilm formation, pointing to a role of newly synthesized glucans. GtfG also promoted binding to C. albicans preformed biofilms. Soluble α-1,6-glucans played a role in these interactions since: 1 a strain producing only soluble glucans (CH107 formed robust dual biofilms under conditions of salivary flow; and 2 the dual biofilm was susceptible to enzymatic breakdown by dextranase which specifically degrades soluble α-1,6-glucans. Conclusion: Our work identified a novel molecular mechanism for C. albicans and S. gordonii biofilm interactions, mediated by GtfG. This protein promotes early biofilm binding of S. gordonii to C. albicans which leads to increased accretion of streptococcal cells in mixed biofilms. We also showed that soluble glucans, with α-1,6-linkages, promoted inter-generic adhesive interactions.

  8. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath Lynn L; Floyd Karon L; Beckius Miriam L; Hospenthal Duane R; Murray Clinton K

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC) species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glab...

  9. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Suhail; Khan Ziauddin; Asadzadeh Mohammad; Theyyathel Ajmal; Chandy Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. W...

  10. Fibronectin-, vitronectin- and laminin-binding proteins at the cell walls of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis pathogenic yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Kozik, Andrzej; Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Zajac, Dorota; Bochenska, Oliwia; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Candida parapsilosis and C. tropicalis increasingly compete with C. albicans—the most common fungal pathogen in humans—as causative agents of severe candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to C. albicans, the pathogenic mechanisms of these two non-albicans Candida species are poorly understood. Adhesion of Candida yeast to host cells and the extracellular matrix is critical for fungal invasion of hosts. Methods The fungal proteins involved in interactions with extrac...

  11. Ibuprofen reverts antifungal resistance on Candida albicans showing overexpression of CDR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Elisabete; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Dias, Ana Silva; Guerra, José; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2009-06-01

    Several mechanisms may be associated with Candida albicans resistance to azoles. Ibuprofen was described as being able to revert resistance related to efflux activity in Candida. The aim of this study was to uncover the molecular base of antifungal resistance in C. albicans clinical strains that could be reverted by ibuprofen. Sixty-two clinical isolates and five control strains of C. albicans were studied: the azole susceptibility phenotype was determined according to the Clinical Laboratory for Standards Institute, M27-A2 protocol and minimal inhibitory concentration values were recalculated with ibuprofen (100 microg mL(-1)); synergistic studies between fluconazole and FK506, a Cdr1p inhibitor, were performed using an agar disk diffusion assay and were compared with ibuprofen results. Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, with and without ibuprofen, regarding CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, encoding for efflux pumps, and ERG11, encoding for azole target protein. A correlation between susceptibility phenotype and resistance gene expression profiles was determined. Ibuprofen and FK506 showed a clear synergistic effect when combined with fluconazole. Resistant isolates reverting to susceptible after incubation with ibuprofen showed CDR1 and CDR2 overexpression especially of the latter. Conversely, strains that did not revert displayed a remarkable increase in ERG11 expression along with CDR genes. Ibuprofen did not alter resistance gene expression significantly (P>0.05), probably acting as a Cdrp blocker. PMID:19416368

  12. Atividade enzimática, produção de slime e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida sp Enzymatic activity, slime production and antifungal agent sensitivity of Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Otero Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A habilidade de Candida spp secretar enzimas extracelulares e slime tem sido associada como fatores de patogenicidade. Do total de 37 cepas de Candida sp, 100% foram produtoras de proteinase, 83,8% fosfolipase, 64,9% slime e 100% sensíveis ao fluconazol e itraconazol. Foram encontradas 17 tipagens (enzima/slime. Esta metodologia apresentou um bom índice discriminatório (D=0,93 podendo ser utilizado na caracterização fenotípica das leveduras.Abilith of Candida spp to secrete extracellular enzymes and slime has been associated as pathogenicity factors. Out of a total of 37 strains of Candida sp, 100% were proteinase producers, 83.8% were phospholipase producers, 64.9% were slime producers and 100% were sensitive to fluconazole and itraconazole. Seventeen typings (enzymes/slime were found. This methodology presented a good discrimination rate (D = 0.93 and could be used for phenotypic characterization of yeasts.

  13. SLA2 mutations cause SWE1-mediated cell cycle phenotypes in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Cheryl A.; Leonard, Michelle D.; Finley, Kenneth R.; Christensen, Leah; McClellan, Mark; Abbey, Darren; Kurischko, Cornelia; Bensen, Eric; Tzafrir, Iris; Kauffman, Sarah; Becker, Jeff; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The early endocytic patch protein Sla2 is important for morphogenesis and growth rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, but the mechanism that connects these processes is not clear. Here we report that growth defects in cells lacking CaSLA2 or ScSLA2 are associated with a cell cycle delay that is influenced by Swe1, a morphogenesis checkpoint kinase. To establish how Swe1 monitors Sla2 function, we compared actin organization and cell cycle dynamics in strains lacking other c...

  14. Candida coquimbonensis sp. nov., a link between Australian and Nearctic/Neotropical Phaffomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Gianluigi; Antonielli, Livio; Corte, Laura; Roscini, Luca; Ganter, Philip F

    2012-12-01

    A novel species of ascomycetous yeast, Candida coquimbonensis sp. nov., from the necrotic tissue of cacti in Chile and Australia is described. C. coquimbonensis sp. nov. is closely related and phenotypically similar to Phaffomyces opuntiae. There is no overlap in the geographical distribution between C. coquimbonensis and any species in the Phaffomyces clade. However, this is the first member of the clade to be collected in both native (Chile) and non-native (Australia) cactus habitats. The type strain of C. coquimbonensis sp. nov. is TSU 00-206.4B(T) ( = CBS 12348(T) = USCFST 12-103(T)). PMID:22729024

  15. Acid Lipase from Candida viswanathii: Production, Biochemical Properties, and Potential Application

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Fernando Almeida; Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo; Eleonora Cano Carmona

    2013-01-01

    Influences of environmental variables and emulsifiers on lipase production of a Candida viswanathii strain were investigated. The highest lipase activity (101.1 U) was observed at 210 rpm, pH 6.0, and 27.5°C. Other fermentation parameters analyzed showed considerable rates of biomass yield (Y L/S = 1.381 g/g), lipase yield (Y L/S = 6.892 U/g), and biomass productivity (P X = 0.282 g/h). Addition of soybean lecithin increased lipase production in 1.45-fold, presenting lipase yield (Y L/S ) of ...

  16. Removal of gaseous toluene using immobilized Candida tropicalis in a fluidized bed bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zubair; Song, JiHyeon

    2011-01-01

    A pure yeast strain Candida tropicalis was immobilized on the matrix of powdered activated carbon, sodium alginate, and polyethylene glycol (PSP beads). The immobilized beads were used as fluidized material in a bioreactor to remove toluene from gaseous stream. Applied toluene loadings were 15.4 and 29.8 g/m3 h in Step 1 and Step 2, respectively, and toluene removal was found above 95% during the entire operation. A continuous pH decline was observed and pH of the suspension was just above 6 ...

  17. Evaluation of Candida Colonization and Specific Humoral Responses against Candida albicans in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari Javad; Mehdi Taheri Sarvtin; Mohammad Taghi Hedayati; Zohreh Hajheydari; Jamshid Yazdani; Tahereh Shokohi 2

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the candidal colonization and specific humoral responses against Candida albicans in patients with atopic dermatitis. One hundred patients with atopic dermatitis and 50 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Skin and oral specimens from all participants were cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. Isolated yeasts were identified by using the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. ELISA was used for detection of IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodie...

  18. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

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    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  19. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

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    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Essential Oils against Candida Species Isolated from Blood Stream Infection

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    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is a part of normal microflora of human body and exists as an opportunistic pathogen as it attacks immunocompromised patients. Aims and Objectives: Candida is the most commonly isolated organism from blood stream infections. Fluconazole is the major antifungal drug used for treatment of Candida. Resistance to fluconazole has been increasing in recent years so there should be search of some other alternative. To find out these alternatives, anti candidial activity of some natural essential oils was studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine Candida strains isolated from blood stream infections were collected from National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (N.C.C.P.F. P.G.I.M.E.R Chandigarh India and the antifungal activity of some natural essential oils such as lemongrass oil, coconut oil, almond oil and clove oil was checked by using agar diffusion method. Result: All oils have shown a significantly anti-candidal activity. However, the antifungal activity was maximum in lemongrass oil. Conclusion: Our study may help to design new chemotherapeutic strategies against Candidal infections.

  1. In-Vitro Cytokine Induction and Neutrophil Respiratory Burst Activity by Candida Isolates from HIV Seropositive Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

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    Mayuri Rani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of host defense against candidiasis and role of cell mediated immunity in host defense has been the subject of many studies. Increased expression of virulence factors in candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC has also been reported. We conducted an experiment to study the difference in T helper type 2 (Th2 and T helper type 1 (Th1 responses and neutrophil respiratory burst responses, of naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC’s and neutrophils respectively, by using Candida isolates from study and control groups as stimulus. Thirty HIV seropositive patients with clinical evidence of OPC and thirty healthy volunteers were studied. IL-10 release was uniformly low at all concentrations of Candida albicans antigen isolated from healthy controls as compared to when C. albicans isolated from HIV seropositive patients was used as antigenic stimulus. Mean IFN-ᵧ concentration was highest when C.albicans, isolated from healthy carriers was used as antigenic stimulus for PBMCs. The observations highlight a significant IL-10 dominance, which may be an indicator of the fine tuning of host immune system towards a chronic progressive disease condition,indicating the pathogenic potential of select Candida strains.

  2. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal Enzymotiping of species of the genus Candida isolated from the oral cavity

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    Regina Celia Candido

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.The production of phospholipase and proteinase exoenzymes was evaluated in seventy nine samples of Candida isolated from the oral cavity of patients with oral lesions characteristic of candidosis and from individuals presenting a clinically normal mouth, attended at the University of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto USP. Among the strains of C. albicans isolated from oral lesions, the phospholipase and proteinase were detected in 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively. C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis produced only proteinase. Regarding the isolated strains from niches without lesions, out of a total of 32 C. albicans, 71.9% presented phospholipase and 68.7% proteinase. C. tropicalis only presented the enzyme proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii and Candida spp did not present any of the exoenzymes. Among the samples of C. albicans from both groups, the enzymotype 22 (positive phospholipase and proteinase weakly positive, was prevalent

  3. First description of Candida nivariensis in Brazil: antifungal susceptibility profile and potential virulence attributes

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    Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile and the production of potential virulence attributes in a clinical strain of Candida nivariensis for the first time in Brazil, as identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2 domains of the 28S of the rDNA. For comparative purposes, tests were also performed with reference strains. All strains presented low planktonic minimal inhibitory concentrations (PMICs to amphotericin B (AMB, caspofungin (CAS, and voriconazole. However, our strain showed elevated planktonic MICs to posaconazole (POS and itraconazole, in addition to fluconazole resistance. Adherence to inert surfaces was conducted onto glass and polystyrene. The biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility on biofilm-growing cells were evaluated by crystal violet staining and a XTT reduction assay. All fungal strains were able to bind both tested surfaces and form biofilm, with a binding preference to polystyrene (p < 0.001. AMB promoted significant reductions (≈50% in biofilm production by our C. nivariensis strain using both methodologies. This reduction was also observed for CAS and POS, but only in the XTT assay. All strains were excellent protease producers and moderate phytase producers, but lipases were not detected. This study reinforces the pathogenic potential of C. nivariensis and its possible resistance profile to the azolic drugs generally used for candidiasis management.

  4. Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

    2014-07-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

  5. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  6. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, osteomyelitis was present in 30% of cases. Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion.  Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite antifungal therapy. PMID:26858961

  7. Preparation of Candida albicans Biofilms for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Taff, Heather T.; Andes, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy is a form of microscopy that allows for imaging of distinct portions of an individual cell. For Candida albicans biofilms, it is often used to visualize the cell walls of fixed samples of yeast and hyphae. This protocol describes how to grow, harvest, and fix Candida albicans biofilms in preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  8. Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Anke; Krüger, Monika; SCHMID, JAN

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection.

  9. A Rare Cause of Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: Candida Duodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ižntestinal bowel lesions caused by Candida species are uncommon. These lesions may be  plaques or ulcers form. In this article, We presented endoscopic images  Candida duodenitis as a cause of persistent nausea, vomiting in a lung cancer patient treated with chemotherapy.  

  10. A Rare Cause of Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: Candida Duodenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal bowel lesions caused by Candida species are uncommon. These lesions may be  plaques or ulcers form. In this article, We presented endoscopic images  Candida duodenitis as a cause of persistent nausea, vomiting in a lung cancer patient treated with chemotherapy.  

  11. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  12. Purification of actin from Candida albicans and comparison with the Candida 48,000-Mr protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiss, E.; Buckley, H R

    1987-01-01

    Actin was purified from Candida albicans cells by affinity chromatography by DNase-Sepharose and was recognized by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody directed against chick muscle actin. The C. albicans 48-kilodalton protein recognized by sera from patients with invasive candidiasis was shown by DEAE chromatography and immunoblotting not to be identical with the purified C. albicans actin.

  13. Risk factors for pulmonary fungous infection caused by candida albicans versus non-albicans candida species%肺部白色念珠菌与非白色念珠菌感染危险因素的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄睿; 辛建保

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨肺部白色念珠菌与非白色念珠菌感染危险因素的差异.方法 对近5年我院176例侵袭性肺部真菌感染病例进行回顾性分析.结果 176例患者感染白色念珠菌120株(60.3%),非白色念珠菌79株(39.7%).除神经系统疾病分布倾向于非白色念珠菌组外,其他各系统疾病两组间分布比较无明显差异.年龄≥65岁患者趋向于感染白色念珠菌,年龄<65岁,入住ICU,接受各种医源性操作(气管插管/切开,机械通气,留置导尿管)的患者则趋向于感染非白色念珠菌.年龄≥65岁为白色念珠菌感染的独立危险因素,非白色念珠菌感染的危险因素为留置导尿管.结论 肺部白色念珠菌与非白色念珠菌感染危险因素的不同,有助于预防性抗真菌治疗药物的选择.%Objective This study we sought to identify differences in risk factors of invasive pulmonary fungous infection caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans candida species.Methods A retrospective chart review was conduct which including 176 patients with invasive pulmonary fungous infection during 2003-2005 in Wuhan Union Hospital.Results There were 176 patients to be infected with 120 strains of Candida albicans (60.3%) and 79 strains of non-albicans candida(39.7%).Except the nervous system disease,there was no significant different distribution of other underlaying diseases between the two groups.Patients whose age≥65 years were more likely to be infected with Candida albicans,while age<65years,in the intensive unit care and accept iatrogenic operations(tracheal intubation/incision, anical ventilation,urethral catheter in) were more likely to have non-albicans candida species infection.Multiple regression analysis showed the significant risk factor for Candida albicans was age≥65 years,and urethral catheter in was the significant risk factor for non-albicans candida species.Conclution The different in the risk factors between Candida albicans and non

  14. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans MKC1 mutants: a role for mitogen-activated protein kinase in pathogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Diez-Orejas, R.; Molero, G; Navarro-García, F; Pla, J; Nombela, C.; Sanchez-Pérez, M

    1997-01-01

    Deletion of the Candida albicans mitogen-activated protein kinase MKC1 gene gave rise to viable cells whose cell integrity was affected (F. Navarro-García, M. Sánchez, J. Pla, and C. Nombela, Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:2197-2206, 1995). In an experimental infection system using a murine model, the C. albicans mkc1 delta/mkc1 delta strain was found to be less pathogenic than the parental strain, as show the different time of survival, percentage of mortality, fungal load in the most representative or...

  15. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  16. A cluster of Candida krusei infections in a haematological unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuopio-Varkila Jaana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida krusei infections are associated with high mortality. In order to explore ways to prevent these infections, we investigated potential routes for nosocomial spread and possible clonality of C. krusei in a haematological unit which had experienced an unusually high incidence of cases. Methods We searched for C. krusei contamination of the hospital environment and determined the level of colonization in patients and health care workers. We also analyzed the possible association between exposure to prophylactic antifungals or chemotherapeutic agents and occurrence of C. krusei. The C. krusei isolates found were genotyped by pulsed-field electrophoresis method in order to determine possible relatedness of the cases. Results Twelve patients with invasive C. krusei infection and ten patients with potentially significant infection or mucosal colonization were documented within nine months. We were unable to identify any exogenic source of infection or colonization. Genetic analysis of the isolates showed little evidence of clonal transmission of C. krusei strains between the patients. Instead, each patient was colonized or infected by several different closely related genotypes. No association between medications and occurrence of C. krusei was found. Conclusion Little evidence of nosocomial spread of a single C. krusei clone was found. The outbreak may have been controlled by cessation of prophylactic antifungals and by intensifying infection control measures, e.g. hand hygiene and cohorting of the patients, although no clear association with these factors was demonstrated.

  17. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  18. Baicalein induces programmed cell death in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bao-Di; Cao, Ying-Ying; Huang, Shan; Xu, Yong-Gang; Gao, Ping-Hui; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence has revealed the occurrence of an apoptotic phenotype in Candida albicans that is inducible with environmental stresses such as acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and amphotericin B. In the present study, we found that the Chinese herbal medicine Baicalein (BE), which was one of the skullcapflavones, can induce apoptosis in C. albicans. The apoptotic effects of BE were detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and DAPI, and it was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. After exposure to 4 microg/ml BE for 12 h, about 10% of C. albicans cells were apoptotic. Both the increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulation of some redox-related genes (CAP1, SOD2, TRR1) were observed. Furthermore, we compared the survivals of CAP1 deleted, wild-type, and overexpressed strains and found that Cap1p attenuated BE-initiated cell death, which was coherent with a higher mRNA level of the CAP1 gene. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential of C. albicans cells changed significantly ( palbicans cells, and the apoptosis was associated with the breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:19734718

  19. AI-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang W. Bachtiar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2, synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.

  20. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in clinical Candida species isolated from Tunisian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouzi, Jamel; Parker, Josie E; Vale-Silva, Luis A; Coste, Alix; Ischer, Françoise; Kelly, Steve; Manai, Mohamed; Sanglard, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    Antifungal resistance of Candida species is a clinical problem in the management of diseases caused by these pathogens. In this study we identified from a collection of 423 clinical samples taken from Tunisian hospitals two clinical Candida species (Candida albicans JEY355 and Candida tropicalis JEY162) with decreased susceptibility to azoles and polyenes. For JEY355, the fluconazole (FLC) MIC was 8 μg/ml. Azole resistance in C. albicans JEY355 was mainly caused by overexpression of a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, Mdr1. The regulator of Mdr1, MRR1, contained a yet-unknown gain-of-function mutation (V877F) causing MDR1 overexpression. The C. tropicalis JEY162 isolate demonstrated cross-resistance between FLC (MIC > 128 μg/ml), voriconazole (MIC > 16 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC > 32 μg/ml). Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that ergosterol was undetectable in JEY162 and that it accumulated 14α-methyl fecosterol, thus indicating a perturbation in the function of at least two main ergosterol biosynthesis proteins (Erg11 and Erg3). Sequence analyses of C. tropicalis ERG11 (CtERG11) and CtERG3 from JEY162 revealed a deletion of 132 nucleotides and a single amino acid substitution (S258F), respectively. These two alleles were demonstrated to be nonfunctional and thus are consistent with previous studies showing that ERG11 mutants can only survive in combination with other ERG3 mutations. CtERG3 and CtERG11 wild-type alleles were replaced by the defective genes in a wild-type C. tropicalis strain, resulting in a drug resistance phenotype identical to that of JEY162. This genetic evidence demonstrated that CtERG3 and CtERG11 mutations participated in drug resistance. During reconstitution of the drug resistance in C. tropicalis, a strain was obtained harboring only defective Cterg11 allele and containing as a major sterol the toxic metabolite 14α-methyl-ergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3α,6β-diol, suggesting

  2. Biochemical characterization of an anti-Candida factor produced by Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekh Raeesh M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because Candida albicans is resistant to several antifungal antibiotics, there is a need to identify other less toxic natural products, particularly antimicrobial proteins, peptides or bacteriocin like inhibitory substances. An attempt has been made to purify and characterise an anti-Candida compound produced by Enterococcus faecalis. Results An anti-Candida protein (ACP produced by E. faecalis active against 8 C. albicans strains was characterised and partially purified. The ACP showed a broad-spectrum activity against multidrug resistant C. albicans MTCC 183, MTCC 7315, MTCC 3958, NCIM 3557, NCIM 3471 and DI. It was completely inactivated by treatment with proteinase K and partially by pronase E. The ACP retained biological stability after heat-treatment at 90°C for 20 min, maintained activity over a pH range 6–10, and remained active after treatment with α-amylase, lipase, organic solvents, and detergents. The antimicrobial activity of the E. faecalis strain was found exclusively in the extracellular filtrate produced in the late logarithmic growth phase. The highest activity (1600 AU mL-1 against C. albicans MTCC 183 was recorded at 48 h of incubation, and activity decreased thereafter. The peptide showed very low haemagglutination and haemolytic activities against human red blood cells. The antimicrobial substance was purified by salt-fractionation and chromatography. Partially purified ACP had a molecular weight of approximately 43 KDa in Tricine-PAGE analysis. The 12 amino acid N terminal sequence was obtained by Edman degradation. The peptide was de novo sequenced by ESI-MS, and the deduced combined sequence when compared to other bacteriocins and antimicrobial peptide had no significant sequence similarity. Conclusions The inhibitory activity of the test strain is due to the synthesis of an antimicrobial protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a promising non-haemolytic anti-Candida

  3. The identification of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients with PCR and determination of antifungal resistance genes with RFLP and sequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yeğenoğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate PCRtechnique and antifungal resistance genes with RFLP andsequencing analysis in Candida species isolated fromclinical specimens of immune-compromised patients.Materials and methods: Clinical samples (96 bronchoalveolarlavages, 56 biopsy-abscess, 8 blood specimens,15 peritoneal fluid specimens, 15 pleural fluid, 5 cerebrospinalfluid and 5 pericard fluid specimens from 200 immunosuppressedpatients were studied by conventionaland molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility testingwas performed by the E-test method. Firstly, fungal DNAwas isolated from specimens, and then the resultantproducts are defined with multiplex PCR. Antifungal resistanceand resistance genes were established by E-testand RFLP analysis.Results: Thirty of 200 samples (15% were culture positive[20 Candida albicans (67%, five Candida parapsilosis(17%, five Candida tropicalis (17%], and 170 ofsamples were found culture negative (85%. PCR with theuniversal primers detected fungal DNA in all 30 culturepositive samples. One strain was determined as resistant;2 strains were dose dependent susceptible and 27 strainswere sensitive to fluconazole by E-test. The resistancegene (ERG11 was detected by BamHI and SalI enzymesrevealed fluconazole resistance in one of C.albicansstrains. The identification was successful in Candida dubliniensis(950 bp and Candida krusei (360 bp with multiplexPCR. D132E and E216D mutations were detected insequencing of ERG 11 gene of this isolate and comparedwith reference gene in GenBank by clustal analysis.Conclusion: The molecular test methods supplies correcttherapy rather early in immunosuppressive patientstherefore it is important for the survival.

  4. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  5. Separation and Identification of Candida Albicans for Canine Surgical Infection%犬外科感染中白色念珠菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向彩; 刘凌颖; 马明

    2015-01-01

    Canine surgical infections ,mainly caused by Gramənegative bacteria and Graməpositive bacteria ,are showing an in‐creasing trend that mixed with Candida ,mold and other fungal.In this study ,there are 18 pet dogs of surgical wound infection in Candida albicans were isolated and identified .The results showed that :5 strains of Candida albicans were separated from 18 sam‐ples ,Candida albicans isolation rate was 27 .8% ,thus it can be seen that Candida albicans infection account for certain of dogs sur‐gical infection ,for the future to provide an important reference for surgical diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infection .%犬外科感染多以革兰氏阴性菌、革兰氏阳性菌混合感染为主,但近年来混有念珠菌、霉菌等真菌感染的病例呈增多趋势。文章对18例外科感染宠物犬创口中可能存在的白色念珠菌进行了分离鉴定,结果表明,18株样本中分离到白色念珠菌5株,分离率达27•8%,说明白色念珠菌在犬外科感染中占有一定比例。

  6. Pharmacotherapy of Candida Infections with Echinocandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Espinel-Ingroff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic recommended antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive Candida infections were amphotericin B, a lipid formulation of amphotericin B and fluconazole in both neutropenic or nonneutropenic patients as either primary or alternative therapies. Voriconazole has been recommended when additional coverage for filamentous fungi is needed (e.g. neutropenic patients. More recently and based on well designed comparative clinical trials, the three echinocandins, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin have been added as primary or alternative therapies especially for critically ill or neutropenic patients. In general, the echinocandins are most useful when patients have previously been exposed to an azole or are unstable.

  7. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  8. A Candida albicans PeptideAtlas

    OpenAIRE

    Vialas, Vital; Sun, Zhi; Loureiro y Penha, Carla Verónica; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Monteoliva, Lucía; Deutsch, Eric W.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L.; Gil, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans public proteomic datasets, though growing steadily in the last few years, still have a very limited presence in online repositories. We report here the creation of a C. albicans PeptideAtlas comprising near 22,000 distinct peptides at a 0.24% False Discovery Rate (FDR) that account for over 2500 canonical proteins at a 1.2% FDR. Based on data from 16 experiments, we attained coverage of 41% of the C. albicans open reading frame sequences (ORFs) in the database used for the se...

  9. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  10. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Yousef Salameh; Kamel Adwan

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E.elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients.

  11. Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Bharucha, Nikë; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is an effective method for generating large sets of random mutations in target DNA, with applicability toward numerous types of genetic screens in prokaryotes, single-celled eukaryotes, and metazoans alike. Relative to methods of random mutagenesis by chemical/UV treatment, transposon insertions can be easily identified in mutants with phenotypes of interest. The construction of transposon insertion mutants is also less labor-intensive on a genome-wide scale than methods for targeted gene replacement, although transposon insertions are not precisely targeted to a specific residue, and thus coverage of the target DNA can be problematic. The collective advantages of transposon mutagenesis have been well demonstrated in studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, as transposon mutagenesis has been used extensively for phenotypic screens in both yeasts. Consequently, we present here protocols for the generation and utilization of transposon-insertion DNA libraries in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. Specifically, we present methods for the large-scale introduction of transposon insertion alleles in a desired strain of S. cerevisiae. Methods are also presented for transposon mutagenesis of C. albicans, encompassing both the construction of the plasmid-based transposon-mutagenized DNA library and its introduction into a desired strain of Candida. In total, these methods provide the necessary information to implement transposon mutagenesis in yeast, enabling the construction of large sets of identifiable gene disruption mutations, with particular utility for phenotypic screening in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:21815095

  12. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Gheniffer; Vicente, Vania Aparecida; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Muro, Marisol Dominguez; Pinheiro, Rosangela Lameira; Ferrari, Carolina; Herkert, Patricia Fernanda; Takimura, Marcos; Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15-25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile. PMID:26991298

  13. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  14. Construction and fed-batch cultivation of Candida famata with enhanced riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Lyzak, Oleksy; Yatsyshyn, Valentyna; Kluz, Maciej; Sibirny, Vladimir; Puchalski, Czeslaw; Sibirny, Andriy

    2014-02-20

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential nutrition component serving as a precursor of coenzymes FMN and FAD that are involved mostly in reactions of oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin is produced in commercial scale and is used in feed and food industries, and in medicine. The yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so called "flavinogenic yeasts" which overproduce riboflavin under iron limitation. Three genes SEF1, RIB1 and RIB7 coding for a putative transcription factor, GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthase, respectively were simultaneously overexpressed in the background of a non-reverting riboflavin producing mutant AF-4, obtained earlier in our laboratory using methods of classical selection (Dmytruk et al. (2011), Metabolic Engineering 13, 82-88). Cultivation conditions of the constructed strain were optimized for shake-flasks and bioreactor cultivations. The constructed strain accumulated up to 16.4g/L of riboflavin in optimized medium in a 7L laboratory bioreactor during fed-batch fermentation. PMID:24361297

  15. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zielińska Jurek, Anna; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

  16. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  17. Analysis of Candida infections and drug sensitivity in intensive care unit%重症监护病房念珠菌感染情况及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾磊; 郁慧杰; 陆锦琪; 马燮峰; 刘宇婷; 张玉琦; 蔡莹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution of Candida infection and drug tolerance in intensive care unit(ICU). Methods A retrospective study was conducted. The critical patients admitted from January 2011 to December 2013 in ICU of the First Hospital of Jiaxing in Zhejiang Province were enrolled,and their clinical data with positive Candida culture and drug susceptibility results in specimens of sputum,urine,blood,ascites,bile, etc were collected. In the study of these 3 years in ICU,the situation of Candida infection,the distribution of positive specimen,the condition of distribution of different strains of Candida,and the Candida tolerance to antifungal drugs were analyzed. Results From 2011 to 2013,2 412 times of patients(including one patient had admitted into ICU for more than one time)were admitted into ICU in which 407 cases were of Candida infection(16.9%),and the rate of Candida infection was rising gradually in the 3 years〔2011 to 2013 Candida positive rates were 13.4%(77/573), 16.1%(146/907),19.7%(184/932)〕,the difference being statistically significant(P<0.01). In the 407 strains of Candida,166 strains(40.8%)were isolated from sputum,157(38.6%)from urine,53 strains(13.0%)ascites, 13 strains(3.1%)blood,11 strains(2.7%)bile,7 strains(1.7%)from other specimens. The strain distribution of Candida was mainly as follows:Candida albicans(174 strains),Candida glabrata(131 strains),Candida tropicalis (83 strains),Candida parapailosis(5 strains),Candida krusei(12 strains),and 2 strains of rare Candida portugal and Lipolztica. From 2011 to 2013,the highest tolerance of Candida albicans,Candida glabrata,Candida tropicalis to fluconazole,itraconazole,Fushita Yasu and other antifungal drugs was in 2013,and the lowest was in 2012,the rates of tolerance of the above 3 strains of Candida to amphotericin B being 0,to itraconazole being the highest(10.9%, 27.8%,9.6%,respectively),to Fushita Yasu the secondary(6.6%,11.0%,0,respectively)and to fluconazole the last(4

  18. Analysis of Candida infections and drug sensitivity in intensive care unit%重症监护病房念珠菌感染情况及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾磊; 郁慧杰; 陆锦琪; 马燮峰; 刘宇婷; 张玉琦; 蔡莹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution of Candida infection and drug tolerance in intensive care unit(ICU). Methods A retrospective study was conducted. The critical patients admitted from January 2011 to December 2013 in ICU of the First Hospital of Jiaxing in Zhejiang Province were enrolled,and their clinical data with positive Candida culture and drug susceptibility results in specimens of sputum,urine,blood,ascites,bile, etc were collected. In the study of these 3 years in ICU,the situation of Candida infection,the distribution of positive specimen,the condition of distribution of different strains of Candida,and the Candida tolerance to antifungal drugs were analyzed. Results From 2011 to 2013,2 412 times of patients(including one patient had admitted into ICU for more than one time)were admitted into ICU in which 407 cases were of Candida infection(16.9%),and the rate of Candida infection was rising gradually in the 3 years〔2011 to 2013 Candida positive rates were 13.4%(77/573), 16.1%(146/907),19.7%(184/932)〕,the difference being statistically significant(P<0.01). In the 407 strains of Candida,166 strains(40.8%)were isolated from sputum,157(38.6%)from urine,53 strains(13.0%)ascites, 13 strains(3.1%)blood,11 strains(2.7%)bile,7 strains(1.7%)from other specimens. The strain distribution of Candida was mainly as follows:Candida albicans(174 strains),Candida glabrata(131 strains),Candida tropicalis (83 strains),Candida parapailosis(5 strains),Candida krusei(12 strains),and 2 strains of rare Candida portugal and Lipolztica. From 2011 to 2013,the highest tolerance of Candida albicans,Candida glabrata,Candida tropicalis to fluconazole,itraconazole,Fushita Yasu and other antifungal drugs was in 2013,and the lowest was in 2012,the rates of tolerance of the above 3 strains of Candida to amphotericin B being 0,to itraconazole being the highest(10.9%, 27.8%,9.6%,respectively),to Fushita Yasu the secondary(6.6%,11.0%,0,respectively)and to fluconazole the last(4

  19. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  20. Quick Detection of FKS1 Mutations Responsible for Clinical Echinocandin Resistance in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudiuk, Catiana; Gamarra, Soledad; Jimenez-Ortigosa, Cristina; Leonardelli, Florencia; Macedo, Daiana; Perlin, David S; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2015-07-01

    A rapid molecular-based assay for the detection of the Candida albicans FKS1 gene mutations responsible for resistance to echinocandin drugs was designed and evaluated. The assay consisted of a multiplexed PCR set of 5 tubes able to detect the most commonly described resistance mechanism, including FKS1 hot spot 1 and hot spot 2 mutations. The performance and specificity of the assay was evaluated using a double-blinded panel of 50 C. albicans strains. The assay showed a sensitivity of 96% and was able to detect all homozygous mutants included in the collection of strains, demonstrating that it is a robust, quick, and labor-saving method that is suitable for a routine clinical diagnostic laboratory. PMID:25878347

  1. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  2. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  3. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  4. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida. PMID:26214300

  5. Candida parapsilosis Resistance to Fluconazole: Molecular Mechanisms and In Vivo Impact in Infected Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Carolina R; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Pinhati, Henrique M S; Siqueira, Ricardo A; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2015-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the main non-albicans Candida species isolated from patients in Latin America. Mutations in the ERG11 gene and overexpression of membrane transporter proteins have been linked to fluconazole resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis isolated from critically ill patients. The identities of the nine collected C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level were confirmed through molecular identification with a TaqMan qPCR assay. The clonal origin of the strains was checked by microsatellite typing. The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to confirm in vitro resistance. We assessed the presence of ERG11 mutations, as well as the expression of ERG11 and two additional genes that contribute to antifungal resistance (CDR1 and MDR1), by using real-time quantitative PCR. All of the C. parapsilosis (sensu stricto) isolates tested exhibited fluconazole MICs between 8 and 16 μg/ml. The in vitro data were confirmed by the failure of fluconazole in the treatment of G. mellonella infected with fluconazole-resistant strains of C. parapsilosis. Sequencing of the ERG11 gene revealed a common mutation leading to a Y132F amino acid substitution in all of the isolates, a finding consistent with their clonal origin. After fluconazole exposure, overexpression was noted for ERG11, CDR1, and MDR1 in 9/9, 9/9, and 2/9 strains, respectively. We demonstrated that a combination of molecular mechanisms, including the presence of point mutations in the ERG11 gene, overexpression of ERG11, and genes encoding efflux pumps, are involved in fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis. PMID:26259795

  6. Effects of near-infrared laser radiation on the survival and inflammatory potential of Candida spp. involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, A M; Rizzetto, L; Castronovo, G; Perissi, E; Tanturli, M; Cozzolino, F; Cavalieri, D; Fusi, F; Cialdai, F; Vignali, L; Torcia, M G; Monici, M

    2015-10-01

    Candida spp. usually colonize ulcerative lesions of atrophic mucosa in patients with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis inducing severe inflammation. The spread of antifungal-resistant strains strongly encouraged the search of complementary or alternative therapeutic strategies to cure inflamed mucosa. In this paper, we studied the effects of a near-infrared (NIR) laser system with dual-wavelength emission (808 nm + 904 nm) on the survival and inflammatory potential of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. Laser treatment was performed with a Multiwave Locked System laser. Survival and apoptosis of fungal strains were evaluated by colony-forming units (CFU) counting and annexin V staining. Cytokine production was evaluated by ImmunoPlex array. Laser treatment significantly affected the survival of Candida spp. by inducing apoptosis and induced a lower production of inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells compared to untreated fungi. No differences in the survival and inflammatory potential were recorded in treated or untreated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, used as the control non-pathogenic microorganism. Laser treatment altered the survival and inflammatory potential of pathogenic Candida spp. These data provide experimental support to the use of NIR laser radiation as a co-adjuvant of antifungal therapy in patients with oral mucositis (OM) complicated by Candida infections. PMID:26173694

  7. Using PCR to Compare the Expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 in Candida Albicans Isolates Resistant and Susceptible to Fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ariana (MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: More Candida albicans strains are reported resistant to fluconazole in patients with AIDS, cancer and organ recipients. Fluconazole resistance can be attributed to changes in pathways of sterol biosynthesis, mutation in or overexpression of ERG11 and the expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1. This study aimed to compare the expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 in C. albicans resistant and susceptible to fluconazole. Methods: MIC testing for fluconazole was performed on C. albicans isolates isolated from patients with oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine resistant and susceptible strains. Then real time PCR was performed on the resistant and susceptible isolates and the expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 was compared in C. albicans. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans isolates, 20 susceptible isolates, 12 semi-susceptible isolates and 14 resistant isolates were identified by MIC. After real time PCR was performed, Candida albicans isolates susceptible to fluconazole showed moderate expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes, while resistant isolates showed slight or no expression. Conclusion: Increased expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 had less and insignificant role in resistance to fluconazole. Keywords: Candida Albicans, Gene Expression, Real time PCR method

  8. Development of a membrane based detection of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Catarina Guerreiro Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica , apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Candida é uma família de fungos, normalmente, presente na flora gastrointestinal, nos orgãos genitais, no sistema respiratório e na pele de pessoas saudáveis e, até determinada quantidade, não trazem nenhum risco. Apenas 17 espécies de Candida podem ser consideradas como patogénicas para o ser humano e, dentro deste grupo, Candida albicans é a esp...

  9. Sunflower seed husk agar: A new medium for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A sunflower ( Helianthus annuus seed husk agar medium has been developed and evaluated for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on the basis of colony morphology and chlamydospore production. All C. dubliniensis isolates (n=40 produced rough colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores whereas 101 of 105 (96.2% C. albicans isolates produced smooth colonies with no evidence of chlamydospore production. Since this medium is free from oil droplets, chlamydospores can be examined with greater clarity by Dalmau plate technique. This medium provides a simple and cost-effective tool for the presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans and is particularly suited for clinical microbiology laboratories where biochemical or molecular methods for the differentiation of these two species are not available.

  10. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  11. Investigation into candida infection status and drug resistance%假丝酵母菌属医院感染与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海波; 孔德勇; 陈文莉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨假丝酵母菌属医院感染现状及耐药性,为临床医师合理用药提供科学依据.方法 用显色培养基和API真菌鉴定条鉴定真菌,按照进行操作.结果 102株假丝酵母菌属主要分布于重症监护病房(ICU)、内科、外科及肿瘤病区,分别占50.0%、23.5%、15.7%及10.8%;102株假丝酵母菌属中,白色假丝酵母菌占59.8%、光滑假丝酵母菌占19.6%;假丝酵母菌属对4种抗菌药物耐药率最高的是氟康唑,伊曲康唑次之,两性霉素B和5-氟胞嘧啶耐药率较低,白色假丝酵母菌对4种药物的耐药率分别为50.8%、36.1%、8.2%和1.6%.结论 假丝酵母菌属的耐药性已十分严重,应加强监测、预防与控制.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the infection status and drug-resistance of candida in nosocomial infections to provide the scientific bases for the clinical application of the antibiotics. METHODS Candida were cultured and identified according to the National Clinical Laboratory Operation Rules. The drug-sensitivity testing was performed by APL RESULTS A total of 102 strains of Candida were mainly isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) (50. 0%), department of internal medicine(23. 5%), department of surgery(15. 7%) and department of tumor(10. 8%). Among 102 strains of candida, Candida albicans accounted for 59.8% and Candida glabrata accounted for 19. 6%. The drug resistance rates of Candida species to 5-fluorocytosine, amphotericine B,itraconazole and fluconazole were 50. 8 %, 36. 1 %, 8. 2% and 1. 6 %, respectively. CONCLUSION Drug resistance status of Candida is very serious. Hospital should strengthen the monitoring, prevention and controlling of it.

  12. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation betwee...

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Boutheina Gargouri; Najla Mhiri; Fatma Karray; Fathi Aloui; Sami Sayadi

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, ...

  14. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  15. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  16. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc;

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...... is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We...... revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On...

  17. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  18. Candida dubliniensis in children´s dental plaque

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, F.; Holá, V.; Kukletová, M.; Zacková, L.; Kuklová, J.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 58. [International Congress of Mycology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Keywords : Candida dubliniensis * dental plaque * CIEF Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Activation of isoenzyme Sapp 1p from Candida parapsilosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jiří; Dlouhá, Helena; Maloň, Petr; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    Budapest : -, 2005. s. 15. [EMBO/HHMI. 07.02.2005-09.02.2005, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * aspartic proteases * processing and self-processing Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  20. Candida infection of vulvovagina and its drug-resistance%外阴阴道念珠菌感染及其耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海英; 周惠娜; 史剑雷; 承晓京

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vulvovaginal infection with Candida and its drug-resistance. Methods A total of 1107 samples was retrospectively analyzed, of which 258 Candida positive strains were identified by CHROM agar Candida and the tests of sensibility to 5-fluorocytosine,flueonazol, amphotericin B, nystatin, miconazole and clotrimazole were performed by Rosco disk difusion method. Results Of 1107 clinical samples,258 samples(23. 3%) were positive for Candidas. In the positive samples, Candida albicans accounted for 82. 6%, Candida glabrata 6. 6%, Candida tropicalis 3. 5%,candida krusei 2. 3% and the other Candidas 5. 0%,respectively. The results of the tests of sensibility to drugs showed that Candida was more sensitive to nystatin,amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine with the sensitive rates of 97. 3%, 93. 0% and 88. 0%, respectively, and had higher drug-resistance to miconazole and fluconazol with the drug-resistant rates of 50. 4% and 43. 8 %, respectively. Conclusion Various Candidas have diferent sensibility to drugs. Identification of Candidas and sensibility tests of Candidas to drugs should be performed before the treatment%目的 了解女性外阴阴道真菌种类及其对药物的敏感性.方法 回顾性分析1107例标本,对其中的258例阳性标本的菌株用科玛嘉念珠菌显色培养基鉴定,用Rosco纸片法对5-氟胞嘧啶、氟康唑、两性霉素B、制霉菌素、咪康唑、克霉唑进行体外药物敏感性试验.结果 1107例临床标本共检出念株菌258株,阳性率为23.3%.其中,白念珠菌占82.6%,光滑念珠菌占6.6%,热带念珠菌占3.5%,克柔念珠菌占2.3%,其他念珠菌占5.0%.念珠菌对制霉菌素、两性霉素B和5-氟胞嘧啶的敏感性较高,分别为97.3%、93.0%和88.0%;对咪康唑和氟康唑的耐药率较高,分别为50.4%和43.8%.结论 不同菌种对药物的敏感性不同;对外阴阴道感染的念珠菌进行菌种鉴定和药敏试验对临床治疗有重要意义.

  1. Increased expression of keratinase and other peptidases by Candida parapsilosis mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Duarte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Keratinases are enzymes of great importance involved in pathogenic processes of some fungi. They also have a widespread ecological role since they are responsible for the degradation and recycling of keratin. On the one hand, studying them furthers our knowledge of pathogenicity mechanisms, which has important implications for human health, and on the other hand, understanding their ecological role in keratin recycling has biotechnological potential. Here, a wild-type keratinolytic Candida parapsilosis strain isolated from a poultry farm was treated with ethyl methanesulfonate in order to generate mutants with increased keratinase activity. Mutants were then cultured on media with keratin extracted from chicken feathers as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon. Approximately 500 mutants were screened and compared with the described keratinolytic wild type. Three strains, H36, I7 and J5, showed enhanced keratinase activity. The wild-type strain produced 80 U/mL of keratinolytic activity, strain H36 produced 110 U/mL, strain I7, 130 U/mL, and strain J5, 140 U/mL. A 70% increase in enzyme activity was recorded for strain J5. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by zymograms with proteic substrates. A peptidase migrating at 100 kDa was detected with keratin, bovine serum albumin and casein. In addition, a peptidase with a molecular mass of 50 kDa was observed with casein in the wild-type strain and in mutants H36 and J5. Gelatinase activity was detected at 60 kDa. A single band of 35 kDa was found in wild-type C. parapsilosis and in mutants with hemoglobin substrate.

  2. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  3. Biofilm formation among Candida albicans isolated from vagina

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital with a purpose to demonstrate the biofilm forming abilities of C. albicans isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and asymptomatic carriers.Material and Methods: C. albicans was isolated and identified by standard laboratory techniques. Biofilm formation in vitro was tested using the 96 well microtitre plate method with crystal violet staining.Results: Overall rate of Candida isolation in study subjects was 40%. Candida i...

  4. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  5. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  6. Successful management of presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis with oral voriconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Biju, Raju; Sushil, Daniel; Georgy, Nainan K

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis is most commonly caused by Candida species and usually occurs in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, attains therapeutically significant concentrations in the vitreous cavity after systemic administration. We report, the successful management of presumed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis in a patient with multiple diseases and unstable systemic status with...

  7. Candida glabrata infection following total hip arthroplasty: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yun; Yue, Chen; Huang, Zeyu; Pei, Fuxing

    2013-01-01

    Candida glabrata infection following total hip arthroplasty is rare and, due to the insufficiency of standardized clinical and evidence-based guidelines, there is no appropriate therapeutic schedule. The present study reports the case of a 44-year-old patient with Candida glabrata infection following a total hip arthroplasty. The patient was successfully treated by administration of intravenous and oral voriconazole without removal of the prosthesis. This case illustrates the significance of ...

  8. The Detection of Candida Species in Patients with Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of Candida on halitosis, the carrier state of Candida was examined in patients who made a visit with a chief complaint of halitosis. Methods. Subjects were 123 patients (42 males and 81 females) who visited our clinic, with a chief complaint of halitosis. Their average age was 45.8 years. To examine halitosis, an organoleptic test was conducted, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by gas chromatography. Tongue-coating samples collected at the initial visi...

  9. Candida glabrata : a review of its features and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal and vaginal tracts, and are responsible for several clinical manifestations, from mucocutaneous overgrowth to bloodstream infections. Once believed to be non-pathogenic, Candida glabrata was rapidly blamable for many human diseases. Year after year, these pathological circumstances are more recurrent and problematic to treat, especially when patients reveal any level of immunosuppression. These difficultie...

  10. Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Geraldine; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Lin, Michael F.; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Munro, Carol A; Rheinbay, Esther; Grabherr, Manfred; Forche, Anja; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Agrafioti, Ino; Arnaud, Martha B.; Bates, Steven; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Brunke, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. We report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and nonpathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted, and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key compo...

  11. Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases in Virulence and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Naglik, Julian R.; Challacombe, Stephen J; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Extracellular proteolytic activity plays a central role in Candida pathogenicity and is produced by a family of 10 secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap proteins). Although the consequences of proteinase secretion during human infections is not precisely known,...

  12. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    David W. Williams; Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Wei, Xiao-qing; Alves, Carlos T.; Wise, Matt P; Wilson, Melanie J.; Michael A. O. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exis...

  13. Characterization of Candida isolates from pediatric burn patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, A N; Odds, F.C.; Basatia, B K; Holder, I A

    1988-01-01

    To provide more detailed information about Candida epidemiology and pathogenesis in pediatric burn patients, Candida isolates from 113 patients collected over 3 years were identified at the species level and the serotypes and biotypes of the C. albicans isolates were determined. A total of 85% of the patients were colonized or infected by C. albicans, 18% by C. tropicalis, and 11% by C. parapsilosis. Although colonization or infection often was found at multiple sites and times, 87% of the pa...

  14. Functional diversity of complex I subunits in Candida albicans mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; She, Xiaodong; Calderone, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Our interest in the mitochondria of Candida albicans has progressed to the identification of several proteins that are critical to complex I (CI) activity. We speculated that there should be major functional differences at the protein level between mammalian and fungal mitochondria CI. In our pursuit of this idea, we were helped by published data of CI subunit proteins from a broad diversity of species that included two subunit proteins that are not found in mammals. These subunit proteins have been designated as Nuo1p and Nuo2p (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases). Since functional assignments of both C. albicans proteins were unknown, other than having a putative NADH-oxidoreductase activity, we constructed knock-out strains that could be compared to parental cells. The relevance of our research relates to the critical roles of both proteins in cell biology and pathogenesis and their absence in mammals. These features suggest they may be exploited in antifungal drug discovery. Initially, we characterized Goa1p that apparently regulates CI activity but is not a CI subunit protein. We have used the goa1∆ for comparisons to Nuo1p and Nuo2p. We have demonstrated the critical role of these proteins in maintaining CI activities, virulence, and prolonging life span. More recently, transcriptional profiling of the three mutants and an ndh51∆ (protein is a highly conserved CI subunit) has revealed that there are overlapping yet also different functional assignments that suggest subunit specificity. The differences and similarities of each are described below along with our hypotheses to explain these data. Our conclusion and perspective is that the C. albicans CI subunit proteins are highly conserved except for two that define non-mammalian functions. PMID:26373419

  15. Mitochondrial two-component signaling systems in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrianos, John; Berkow, Elizabeth L; Desai, Chirayu; Pandey, Alok; Batish, Mona; Rabadi, Marissa J; Barker, Katherine S; Pain, Debkumar; Rogers, P David; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Chauhan, Neeraj

    2013-06-01

    Two-component signal transduction pathways are one of the primary means by which microorganisms respond to environmental signals. These signaling cascades originated in prokaryotes and were inherited by eukaryotes via endosymbiotic lateral gene transfer from ancestral cyanobacteria. We report here that the nuclear genome of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans contains elements of a two-component signaling pathway that seem to be targeted to the mitochondria. The C. albicans two-component response regulator protein Srr1 (stress response regulator 1) contains a mitochondrial targeting sequence at the N terminus, and fluorescence microscopy reveals mitochondrial localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged Srr1. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis indicates that C. albicans Srr1 is more closely related to histidine kinases and response regulators found in marine bacteria than are other two-component proteins present in the fungi. These data suggest conservation of this protein during the evolutionary transition from endosymbiont to a subcellular organelle. We used microarray analysis to determine whether the phenotypes observed with a srr1Δ/Δ mutant could be correlated with gene transcriptional changes. The expression of mitochondrial genes was altered in the srr1Δ/Δ null mutant in comparison to their expression in the wild type. Furthermore, apoptosis increased significantly in the srr1Δ/Δ mutant strain compared to the level of apoptosis in the wild type, suggesting the activation of a mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic cell death pathway in the srr1Δ/Δ mutant. Collectively, this study shows for the first time that a lower eukaryote like C. albicans possesses a two-component response regulator protein that has survived in mitochondria and regulates a subset of genes whose functions are associated with the oxidative stress response and programmed cell death (apoptosis). PMID:23584995

  16. Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity Diferenças na produção de exoenzimas e habilidade de aderência entre isolados de espécies de Candida provenientes do cateter, sangue e cavidade bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1% and 55.9% of Candida albicans and 69.8% and 37.7% of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a c

  17. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline Viviane Marques das Neves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2 was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 µg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 µg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 µg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 µg/mL for bacteria and 32 µg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 µg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis.

  18. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Michelline Viviane Marques; da Silva, Tânia Maria Sarmento; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; da Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Oliveira, Eduardo de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2) was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 μg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 μg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 μg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 μg/mL for bacteria and 32 μg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 μg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 μg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis. PMID:26887239

  19. ERG11 mutations and expression of resistance genes in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghao; Sheng, Fang; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Lamei; Li, Chunyang

    2015-11-01

    Azole resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans poses significant challenges for its antibiotic treatment. The conformational change of the target enzyme 14 alpha-demethylase (Erg11p) due to ERG11 gene mutations is one of the mechanisms resulting in the azole resistance. ERG11 of 23 isolates (8 susceptible and 15 resistant) and 6 standard strains of Candida albicans were amplified and sequenced. Nineteen missense mutations were detected. Two mutations, G487T (A114S) and T916C (Y257H), coexisted exclusively in 14 fluconazole-resistant isolates. To identify the resistance mechanisms in the isolates with G487T and T916C mutations, we compared the expression of 5 resistance-related genes in the 14 azole-resistant isolates with those in the susceptible type strain ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae AD/CDR1 and AD/CDR2. The tested values of mRNA transcription of CDR1 and CDR2 were higher than that of control strain, while the semi-quantified Cdr1p values were not higher in all of the 14 resistant isolates. And the data analyzed with t test suggest that both of the differences are significant (P ERG11, MDR1, and FLU1 varied in these isolates. These data suggested that overexpression of the five genes might not be the reason of resistance in the 14 isolates with G487T and T916C, especially in the 5 isolates (GZ09, GZ15, GZ16, GZ58, and 4263) in which neither translation of Cdr1p/Cdr2p nor transcription of ERG11, MDR1, or FLU1 was detected up-regulated. The results suggest that Erg11p conformational change due to the point mutations is most likely responsible for the azole resistance in these isolates. PMID:26349561

  20. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Miličević Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific

  1. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Agda Lima; Antônio Olavo Cardoso JORGE; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Célia Regina Gonçalves e Silva; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from...

  2. Natural extracts from wild flowers used in Portuguese folk medicine like a new antifungal agents against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Carlos; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia Carina; Oliveira, Rosário; Henriques, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of opportunistic fungal infections has been increasing dramatically over the recent decades mainly due to the boom of the AIDS epidemic, increasing number of immunocompromised patients and the commonly use of indwelling medical devices. Although Candida albicans has been regarded as the most common causative agent of fungal infection in humans, nowadays other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis, are e...

  3. Application of DNA microarray in the identification of Candida spp. and mutations of ERG11 gene resulting in fluconazole resistance%DNA芯片鉴定念珠菌种和氟康唑耐药基因ERG11突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永豪; 王克玉; 李颖; 陈腊梅; 苏英; 孙青; 李春阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立DNA芯片技术鉴定念珠菌种和氟康唑耐药基因ERG11突变.方法 根据6种常见念珠菌内转录间隔(ITS2)区种特异性序列和白念珠菌ERG11基因中已证实可导致对氟康唑耐药的6种突变序列设计探针,制备DNA芯片,鉴定12条50 bp的念珠菌种特异性序列和ERG11突变序列及34株念珠菌(其中白念珠菌29株,热带念珠菌、光滑念珠菌、都柏林念珠菌、近平滑念珠菌和克柔念珠菌各1株).结果 ①芯片玤确鉴定12条人工合成序列;②正确鉴定34株试验菌株的菌种;③正确鉴定29株白念珠菌ERG11基因中可致耐药的已知突变.敏感性和特异性均为100%.结论 用DNA芯片进行念珠菌菌种鉴定和自念珠菌ERG11突变筛查,结果可靠.%Objective To investigate the performance of DNA microarray in identifying 6 common Candida spp. and validating ERG11 mutations resulting in fluconazolc-resistance in Candida albicans. Methods Oligonucleotide probes were designed and synthesized targeting the species-specific sequence in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei, as well as 6 sequences embracing the following mutations respectively in ERG11 gene leading to fluconazole-resistance, i.c., T541C, A 1090G, C1361T, G1537A, G1547A, and T1559C, then arranged onto a chip. Twelve 50-base-pair oligonucleotides were artificially synthesized based on the above specific sequences, and utilized to hybridize with the DNA microarray. Thirty-lbur Candida strains, including 29 C. albicans, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida glabrata,1 Candida dubliniensis, 1 Candida parapsilosis and 1 Candida krusei, were detected with microarray. Genomic DNA was extracted from these tested strains and underwent multiple PCR for the amplification of ITS2 region and ERGI 1 gene. Sequencing was performed to analyze the sequence of ERG11 in 29 strains

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Prabha Tyagi; Dakshita Joy Sinha; Paridhi Garg; Udai Pratap Singh; Chandrakar Chaman Mishra; Rajni Nagpal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem) etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extra...

  5. The Transcription Factor Mrr1p Controls Expression of the MDR1 Efflux Pump and Mediates Multidrug Resistance in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Morschhäuser; Katherine S. Barker; Liu, Teresa T.; Julia BlaB-Warmuth; Ramin Homayouni; P David Rogers

    2007-01-01

    Constitutive overexpression of the MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to fluconazole and other toxic compounds in clinical Candida albicans strains, but the mechanism of MDR1 upregulation has not been resolved. By genome-wide gene expression analysis we have identified a zinc cluster transcription factor, designated as MRR1 (multidrug resistance regulator), that was coordinately upregu...

  6. Multi-Step Pathogenesis and Induction of Local Immune Response by Systemic Candida Albicans Infection in an Intravenous Challenge Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Voon-Kin Chin; Kuan-Jeang Foong; Abdullah Maha; Basir Rusliza; Mohtarrudin Norhafizah; Pei Pei Chong

    2014-01-01

    Different murine species differ in their susceptibility to systemic infection with Candida albicans, giving rise to varied host immune responses, and this is compounded by variations in virulence of the different yeast strains used. Hence, this study was aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of a clinical C. albicans isolate (HVS6360) in a murine intravenous challenge model by examining the different parameters which included the counts of red blood cells and associated components as well as ...

  7. Δ12-Fatty Acid Desaturase from Candida parapsilosis Is a Multifunctional Desaturase Producing a Range of Polyunsaturated and Hydroxylated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Δ12-, Δ15- and multifunctional membrane fatty acid desaturases (FADs) have been identified in fungi, revealing great variability in the enzymatic specificities of FADs involved in biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report gene isolation and characterization of novel Δ12/Δ15- and Δ15-FADs named CpFad2 and CpFad3, respectively, from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. Overexpression of CpFad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains supplement...

  8. Effect of the crude extract of Eugenia uniflora in morphogenesis and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in Candida albicans from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; de Brito Lemos, Vitor Luiz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzisnki, Terezinha Inês Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. Yeasts virulence factors contribute for both the maintenance of colonizing strains in addition to damage and cause tissue invasion, thus the establishment of infection occurs. The limited arsenal of antifungal drugs for the treatment of candidiasis turn the investigation of natural products mandatory for the discovery of new targets for antifungal drug development. Therefore, ...

  9. Antifungal Activity and Action Mechanism of Histatin 5-Halocidin Hybrid Peptides against Candida ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhye Han

    Full Text Available The candidacidal activity of histatin 5 is initiated through cell wall binding, followed by translocation and intracellular targeting, while the halocidin peptide exerts its activity by attacking the Candida cell membrane. To improve antimicrobial activities and to understand the killing mechanism of two peptides, six hybrid peptides were designed by conjugating histatin 5 and halocidin. A comparative approach was established to study the activity, salt tolerance, cell wall glucan binding assay, cytotoxicity, generation of ROS and killing kinetics. CD spectrometry was conducted to evaluate secondary structures of these hybrid peptides. Furthermore the cellular localization of hybrid peptides was investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Of the six hybrid congeners, di-PH2, di-WP2 and HHP1 had stronger activities than other hybrid peptides against all tested Candida strains. The MIC values of these peptides were 1-2, 2-4 and 2-4 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, none of the hybrid peptides was cytotoxic in the hemolytic assay and cell-based cytotoxicity assay. Confocal laser microscopy showed that di-PH2 and HHP1 were translocated into cytoplasm whereas di-WP2 was accumulated on surface of C. albicans to exert their candidacidal activity. All translocated peptides (Hst 5, P113, di-PH2 were capable of generating intracellular ROS except HHP1. Additionally, the KFH residues at C-terminal end of these peptides were assumed for core sequence for active translocation.

  10. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  11. Candida utilis and Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii: yeast relatives with expanding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerth, Christoph; Tielker, Denis; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Candida utilis is used as a food additive and as a host for heterologous gene expression to produce various metabolites and proteins. Reliable protocols for intracellular production of recombinant proteins are available for C. utilis and have now been expanded to secrete proteins into the growth medium or to achieve surface display by linkage to a cell wall protein. A recombinant C. utilis strain was recently shown to induce oral tolerance in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis suggesting future applications in autoimmune therapy. Whole genome sequencing of C. utilis and its presumed parent Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii demonstrated different ploidy but high sequence identity, consistent with identical recombinant technologies for both yeasts. C. jadinii was recently described as an antagonist to the important human fungal pathogen Candida albicans suggesting its use as a probiotic agent. The review summarizes the status of recombinant protein production in C. utilis, as well as current and future biotechnological and medical applications of C. utilis and C. jadinii. PMID:27357226

  12. Efficient Mating-Type Switching in Candida glabrata Induces Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnard, Stéphanie; Zhou Li, Youfang; Arnaise, Sylvie; Sequeira, Gregory; Raffoux, Xavier; Enache-Angoulvant, Adela; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Fairhead, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an apparently asexual haploid yeast that is phylogenetically closer to Saccharomyces cerevisiae than to Candida albicans. Its genome contains three MAT-like cassettes, MAT, which encodes either MATa or MATalpha information in different strains, and the additional loci, HML and HMR. The genome also contains an HO gene homolog, but this yeast has never been shown to switch mating-types spontaneously, as S. cerevisiae does. We have recently sequenced the genomes of the five species that, together with C. glabrata, make up the Nakaseomyces clade. All contain MAT-like cassettes and an HO gene homolog. In this work, we express the HO gene of all Nakaseomyces and of S. cerevisiae in C. glabrata. All can induce mating-type switching, but, despite the larger phylogenetic distance, the most efficient endonuclease is the one from S. cerevisiae. Efficient mating-type switching in C. glabrata is accompanied by a high cell mortality, and sometimes results in conversion of the additional cassette HML. Mortality probably results from the cutting of the HO recognition sites that are present, in HML and possibly HMR, contrary to what happens naturally in S. cerevisiae. This has implications in the life-cycle of C. glabrata, as we show that efficient MAT switching is lethal for most cells, induces chromosomal rearrangements in survivors, and that the endogenous HO is probably rarely active indeed. PMID:26491872

  13. Anti-Candida activity of geraniol involves disruption of cell membrane integrity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y; Khan, L A; Manzoor, N

    2016-09-01

    Candidiasis is a major problem in immunocompromised patients. Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, is a major health concern today as conventional drugs are highly toxic with undesirable side effects. Their fungistatic nature is responsible for drug resistance in continuously evolving strains. Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene alcohol, is a component of several plant essential oils. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the antifungal activity of geraniol at the cell membrane level in three Candida species. With an MIC of 30-130μg/mL, this natural compound was fungicidal at concentrations 2×MIC. There was complete suppression of fungal growth at MIC values (growth curves) and encouragingly geraniol is non-toxic even at the concentrations approaching 5×MIC (hemolysis assay). Exposed cells showed altered morphology, wherein the cells appeared either broken or shrivelled up (SEM studies). Significant reduction was seen in ergosterol levels at sub-MIC and glucose-induced H(+) efflux at concentrations>MIC values. Our results suggest that geraniol disrupts cell membrane integrity by interfering with ergosterol biosynthesis and inhibiting the very crucial PM-ATPase. It may hence be used in the management and treatment of both superficial and invasive candidiasis but further studies are required to elaborate its mode of action. PMID:27554866

  14. DNA fingerprinting elicited evolutionary trend of oral Candida tropicalis isolates from diverse geographic locales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassanayake R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study molecular profiles of oral Candida tropicalis isolates from five different geographic locales to determine the molecular diversity, clonality and evolutionary trends of this opportunistic pathogen. Methods: A total of 36 strains from five countries (China, Canada, Scotland, Japan and Tanzania were genotyped by PCR fingerprinting with 11 separate primers. Of these, primers RSG9, RSG8, T3B and RSD12 generated complex fingerprinting patterns. Results: Three significantly dissimilar profiles were derived from the primer T3B and particularly focused on tDNA suggested the prevalence of genetic subtypes within the species. Comparison of tDNA and rDNA (RSD12 fingerprints of C. tropicalis suggested that rDNA is much more heterogeneous than the relatively distinct tDNA. Further analysis of similarity coefficient (SAB of gel profiles derived from computer-generated dendrograms indicated some degree of similarity in isolates from five-disparate geographic locales as well as the presence of unique isotypes in each region. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the evolutionary divergence of distinct genetic subgroups within Candida tropicalis .

  15. Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg-1 in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC50s of 18 mg kg-1was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. - Research highlights: → Avoidance cup test using Folsomia candida detects Cu independently of concentration. → Improved avoidance Petri dish test detects Cu in soil in function of concentration. → Cu voidance tests had similar EC50 values whether conducted with or without light. → Combining Cu avoidance test trials in OECD soil reduced the variability of results. - Improved avoidance tests having an EC50 value similar to the background Cu concentration in uncontaminated agricultural soils can distinguish Cu contaminated and Cu free OECD soil.

  16. Isolates from hospital environments are the most virulent of the Candida parapsilosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Raquel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis is frequently isolated from hospital environments, like air and surfaces, and causes serious nosocomial infections. Molecular studies provided evidence of great genetic diversity within the C. parapsilosis species complex but, despite their growing importance as pathogens, little is known about their potential to cause disease, particularly their interactions with phagocytes. In this study, clinical and environmental C. parapsilosis isolates, and strains of the related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were assayed for their ability to induce macrophage cytotocixity and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, to produce pseudo-hyphae and to secrete hydrolytic enzymes. Results Environmental C. parapsilosis isolates caused a statistically significant (p = 0.0002 higher cell damage compared with the clinical strains, while C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were less cytotoxic. On the other hand, clinical isolates induced a higher TNF-α production compared with environmental strains (p C. orthopsilosis strains was similar to the obtained with C. parapsilosis environmental isolates, it was lower for C. metapsilosis strains. No correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation or proteolytic enzymes secretion and macrophage death was detected (p > 0.05. However, a positive correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation and TNF-α secretion was observed (p = 0.0119. Conclusions We show that environmental C. parapsilosis strains are more resistant to phagocytic host defences than bloodstream isolates, being potentially more deleterious in the course of infection than strains from a clinical source. Thus, active environmental surveillance and application of strict cleaning procedures should be implemented in order to prevent cross-infection and hospital outbreaks.

  17. Analysis of genital Candida albicans infection by rapid microsatellite markers genotyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-min; MEI Xing-yu; GAO Fei; HUO Ke-ke; SHEN Liang-liang; QIN Hai-hong; WU Zhou-wei; ZHENG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection, often occurring in genital candidiasis, has increased dramatically recently. Developing an efficient C. albicans typing method may contribute to understanding its epidemiological characteristics and guiding efficient treatment. We used rapid microsatellite genotyping assay for interstrain differentiation of C. albicans isolates and explored some characteristics of its spread.Methods DNA was extracted from C. albicans isolates from gentalia, recta and mouths of 39 female cases and 27 male cases of genital candidiasis. Three fluorescent primers for the microsatellite markers in conserved genes (CDC3, EF3and HIS3) of C. albicans were used to amplify the isolates DNA by PCR. Fluorescent signals were read with an automatic sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan software.Results Analysis of the three microsatellites markers showed 18 gene allelic associations in genital C. albicans infected patients: 10 allelic associations in female and 11 allelic associations in male, of which 3 allelic associations shared by both genders covered 71% of infections. The most dominant allele association of pathogenic strains for both genders was 116:124, 122:131,160:200 that covered about 50% of infection. Gentalia and recta shared the same strains in 80%of female patients, but in only 3.8% of male patients. There were 2.7% female patients, but no males, with same strain in both gentalia and mouths. Five of seven genital C. albicans infected couples had the same allelic associations of which 4were the dominant pathogenic C. albicans susceptible for both genders.Conclusions The predominant allelic association of the pathogenic strain in genital C. albicans infection is 116:124,122:131, 160:200. Vaginal pathogenic strains are probably maintained from the rectal reservoir. Pathogenic strains of male patients are probably from frequent sexual intercourse. The aggressiveness of some strains varies with gender.

  18. The stepwise acquisition of fluconazole resistance mutations causes a gradual loss of fitness in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Christoph; Dunkel, Nico; Schäfer, Tina; Schneider, Sabrina; Dierolf, Franziska; Ohlsen, Knut; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance is often caused by gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factors Mrr1, Tac1 and Upc2, which result in constitutive overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps and ergosterol biosynthesis genes respectively. It is not known how the permanently changed gene expression program in resistant strains affects their fitness in the absence of drug selection pressure. We have systematically investigated the effects of activating mutations in Mrr1, Tac1 and Upc2, individually and in all possible combinations, on the degree of fluconazole resistance and on the fitness of C. albicans in an isogenic strain background. All combinations of different resistance mechanisms resulted in a stepwise increase in drug resistance, culminating in 500-fold increased fluconazole resistance in strains possessing mutations in the three transcription factors and an additional resistance mutation in the drug target enzyme Erg11. The acquisition of resistance mutations was associated with reduced fitness under non-selective conditions in vitro as well as in vivo during colonization of a mammalian host. Therefore, without compensatory mutations, the inability to appropriately regulate gene expression results in a loss of competitive fitness of drug-resistant C. albicans strains. PMID:22924823

  19. Biodegradation of aniline by Candida tropicalis AN1 isolated from aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhan Wang; Guanyu Zheng; Shimei Wang; Dewei Zhang; Lixiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Aniline-degrading microbes were cultivated and acclimated with the initial activated sludge collected from a chemical wastewater treatment plant.During the acclimation processes,aerobic granular sludge being able to effectively degrade aniline was successfully formed,from which a preponderant bacterial strain was isolated and named as ANi.Effects of factors including pH,temperature,and second carbon/nitrogen source on the biodegradation of aniline were investigated.Results showed that the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1 were at pH 7.0 and 28-35°C.At the optimal pH and temperature,the biodegradation rate of aniline could reach as high as 17.8 mg/(L.hr) when the initial aniline concentration was 400 mg/L.Further studies revealed that the addition of 1 g/L glucose or ammonium chloride as a second carbon or nitrogen source could slightly enhance the biodegradation efficiency from 93.0% to 95.1%-98.5%.However,even more addition of glucose or ammonium could not further enhance the biodegradation process but delayed the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1.Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 26S rDNA sequences,the strain AN1 was identified as Candida tropicalis.

  20. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of homeopathic Candida albicans solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida spp is naturally found in humans’ flora of skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and, in general, up to 75% of the population does not have any symptom [1]. However, oral candidiasis is very common among HIV patients and patients undergoing chemotherapy. The treatment of oral candidiasis is necessary once the disease causes discomfort and dysphagia, resulting in poor nutrition, slow recovery, and prolonged hospital stay [2,3]. Preliminary results obtained by our group with a new biotherapic prepared from Candida albicans (Candida 30x showed a great potential to reduce the candida yeast adhesion rate when the epithelial cells were pre-treated. This study is currently being developed with the evaluation of mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of several homeopathic solutions. Aims: The goal of this study was to assess the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of different homeopathic potencies of C. albicans. Methodology: One part of C. albicans yeast obtained from Brazilian patient’s blood [4] was diluted in 9 parts of sterile water. This sample was submitted to 100 mechanical succussions (approximately 3 Hz, using Autic® Brazilian machine, originating the first dilution (1x. Then, 1 ml of this solution was diluted in 9 ml of solvent, submitted to 100 succussions, obtaining 2x potency. This procedure was successively repeated to obtain 30x potency, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [5]. By the same technique, water vehicle was prepared until 30x to be used as control. All samples were prepared in sterile and aseptic conditions, using laminar flow cabinet, class II and were stored in the refrigerator (8ºC. The samples 1x, 6x, 12x, 18x, 24x and 30x of C. albicans and water 30x (vehicle control were analysed by: the Inductest, which assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a reflection of damage in DNA

  1. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the fungus Arthroderma fulvum and its antifungal activity against genera of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baiji; He, Dan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongyang; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find one or more fungal strains that could be utilized to biosynthesize antifungal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Using morphological and molecular methods, Arthroderma fulvum was identified as the most effective fungal strain for synthesizing AgNPs. The UV–visible range showed a single peak at 420 nm, which corresponded to the surface plasmon absorbance of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the biosynthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature with an average diameter of 15.5±2.5 nm. Numerous factors could potentially affect the process of biosynthesis, and the main factors are discussed here. Optimization results showed that substrate concentration of 1.5 mM, alkaline pH, reaction temperature of 55°C, and reaction time of 10 hours were the optimum conditions for AgNP biosynthesis. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed considerable activity against the tested fungal strains, including Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp., especially Candida spp. PMID:27217752

  2. Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA as a typing method for Candida albicans in epidemiological surveillance of a burn unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F; Lebreton, F; Bougnoux, M E; Paugam, A; Wassermann, D; Schlotterer, M; Tourte-Schaefer, C; Dupouy-Camet, J

    1995-01-01

    Burn patients are particularly exposed to deep-seated nosocomial infections caused by Candida species. Superficial carriage of C. albicans is a potential source of infection and dissemination, and typing methods could be useful to trace the different isolates. We report the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to type isolates of C. albicans in the Hôpital Cochin burn unit. This molecular typing method, which is based on PCR with arbitrary short primers, was evaluated on a panel of 32 C. albicans strains isolated from various anatomical sites of unrelated patients, and the strains showed 22 different patterns. Random amplified polymorphic DNA was then used in the epidemiological surveillance of the patients in the burn unit over a 9-month period. Seven patterns were identified among 84 isolates from 18 patients. One pattern (pattern A) corresponding to isolates from 7 of the 18 patients (68% of isolates) predominated throughout the 9-month study, while some strains with other profiles were isolated only once. Some profiles appeared to show a particular geographic pattern within the unit, suggesting transmission from room to room. These results underline the importance of fungal surveillance in such patients and the need to inform nursing staff of measures to prevent the spread of Candida spp. from patient to patient. PMID:7494029

  3. Medical treatment of a pacemaker endocarditis due to Candida albicans and to Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P M; Boissy, C; Gari-Toussaint, M; Foucher, R; Mondain, V; Vandenbos, F; le Fichoux, Y; Michiels, J F; Dellamonica, P

    2000-09-01

    We describe a case of pacemaker infection due to two fungal species: Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the intraventricular wires. Because of severe underlying diseases, surgery was believed to be contraindicated. The patient was treated using high dose of fluconazole, resulting in clinical improvement and negative blood cultures. However, 2 months later, the patient underwent a fatal stroke. At autopsy, a large vegetation was found only all along the wires. Postmortem culture of the infected material was positive for both C. albicans and C. glabrata. PMID:11023765

  4. Recognition of Candida albicans Als3 by the Germ Tube-Specific Monoclonal Antibody 3D9.3

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher, Bertrand; Marot-Leblond, Agnès; Billaud-Nail, Sandrine; OH, SOON-HWAN; Hoyer, Lois L.; Robert, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 3D9.3 (MAb 3D9.3) reacts with the surface of Candida albicans germ tubes and recognizes a protein epitope. We used a two-step chromatography procedure to purify and identify the antigen (3D9) from C. albicans strain 66396 germ tubes. MAb 3D9.3 recognized two intense protein bands at 140 and 180 kDa. A comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental mass spectrum peaks showed that both bands corresponded to Als3. This conclusion was supported by lack of reactivity...

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  6. Atividade antifúngica dos óleos essenciais de sassafrás (Ocotea odorifera Vell. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. sobre o gênero Candida Antifungal activity of Brazilian sassafras (Ocotea odorifera Vell. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils against the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar, in vitro, a atividade antifúngica dos óleos essenciais de Ocotea odorifera (Vellozo Rohwer (Sassafrás e Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Alecrim sobre cepas de Candida albicans e C. tropicalis, envolvidas com infecções da cavidade oral. Para tanto, 16 cepas de Candida de origem clínica e de referência foram utilizadas para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, utilizando a técnica da microdiluição. Miconazol e nistatina foram utilizados como controles positivos. Observou-se discreta atividade antifúngica de ambos os óleos, com CIM de 2,5 mg mL-1 para sassafrás e CIM de 5 mg mL-1 para alecrim em 68% e 81% das cepas avaliadas, respectivamente. Todas as cepas de Candida mostraram-se sensíveis ao miconazol e nistatina. A partir dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que os óleos essenciais de O. odorifera Vell. e R. officinalis L. apresentam fraca atividade sobre cepas de C. albicans e C. tropicalis envolvidas em infecções da cavidade oral.This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of essential oils from Ocotea odorifera Vell. (Brazilian sassafras and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary against Candida albicans and C. tropicalis strains, both involved in oral cavity infections. Thus, 16 Candida strains from clinical origin and standards were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, using the microdilution technique. Miconazole and nystatin were used as positive controls. A slight antifungal activity was observed for both oils, with 2.5 mg mL-1 MIC for Brazilian sassafras and 5 mg mL-1 MIC for rosemary in 68 and 81% strains, respectively. All Candida strains were sensitive to miconazole and nystatin. In conclusion, essential oils from O. odorifera Vell. and R. officinalis L. had weak activity against C. albicans and C. tropicalis strains involved in oral cavity infections.

  7. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  8. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

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    Vijay eKumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

  9. Proinflammatory chemokines during Candida albicans keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Hua, Xia; Wilhelmus, Kirk R

    2010-03-01

    Chemotactic cytokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes into infected tissues. This study investigated the profile of chemokines during experimental Candida albicans keratitis and determined the effects of chemokine inhibition on leukocyte infiltration and fungal growth during murine keratomycosis. Scarified corneas of BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with C. albicans and monitored daily over one week for fungal keratitis. After a gene microarray for murine chemokines compared infected corneas to controls, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining assessed chemokine expression in infected and mock-inoculated corneas. An anti-chemokine antibody was then administered subconjunctivally and evaluated for effects on clinical severity, corneal inflammation, fungal recovery, and cytokine expression. Of 33 chemokine genes examined by microarray, 6 CC chemokines and 6 CXC chemokines were significantly (Pamount of recoverable fungi was not significantly (P=0.4) affected. Anti-CCL3 treatment significantly (P=0.01) reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta in infected corneas. These results indicate that chemokines, especially the CC chemokine CCL3, play important roles in the acute inflammatory response to C. albicans corneal infection. PMID:20005222

  10. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  11. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia De Bernardis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs and antibody (Abs-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7 was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2 (PEV7, has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  12. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Krom, Bastiaan P; Meijering, Roelien A M; Peters, Brian M; Zhu, Jingsong; Scheper, Mark A; Harris, Megan L; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-06-01

    Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. In addition, we have shown that farnesol can trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells via the classical apoptotic pathways. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind farnesol cytotoxicity in C. albicans, the response to farnesol was investigated, using proteomic analysis. Global protein expression profiles demonstrated significant changes in protein expression resulting from farnesol exposure. Among the downregulated proteins were those involved in metabolism, glycolysis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial electron transport and the respiratory chain, whereas proteins involved in folding, protection against environmental and oxidative stress, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and apoptosis were upregulated. Cellular changes that accompany apoptosis (regulated cell death) were further analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and gene expression analysis. The results indicated reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial degradation, and positive terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the farnesol-exposed cells concurrent with increased expression of antioxidant-encoding and drug response genes. More importantly, the results demonstrated farnesol-induced upregulation of the caspase gene MCA1 and the intracellular presence of activated caspases. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that farnesol promotes apoptosis in C. albicans through caspase activation, implying an important physiological role for farnesol in the fungal cell life cycle with important implications for adaptation and survival. PMID:19364863

  13. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  14. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose) concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60-80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w) on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h(-1)). Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w), against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions. PMID:26295411

  15. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.;

    2009-01-01

    chromosomes were translocations of chromosomal arms. However, also larger segmental duplications were frequent and occasionally we observed novel chromosomes. Apparently, this yeast can generate a new chromosome by duplication of chromosome segments carrying a centromere and subsequently adding novel......In eukaryotes, the number and rough organization of chromosomes is well preserved within isolates of the same species. Novel chromosomes and loss of chromosomes are infrequent and usually associated with pathological events. Here, we analyzed 40 pathogenic isolates of a haploid and asexual yeast......, Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  16. Whole genome sequencing of emerging multidrug resistant Candida auris isolates in India demonstrates low genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C; Kumar, N; Pandey, R; Meis, J F; Chowdhary, A

    2016-09-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant yeast that causes nosocomial fungaemia and deep-seated infections. Notably, the emergence of this yeast is alarming as it exhibits resistance to azoles, amphotericin B and caspofungin, which may lead to clinical failure in patients. The multigene phylogeny and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing methods report the C. auris population as clonal. Here, using whole genome sequencing analysis, we decipher for the first time that C. auris strains from four Indian hospitals were highly related, suggesting clonal transmission. Further, all C. auris isolates originated from cases of fungaemia and were resistant to fluconazole (MIC >64 mg/L). PMID:27617098

  17. Imaging morphogenesis of Candida albicans during infection in a live animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Soumya; Dolan, Kristy; Foster, Thomas H.; Wellington, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that requires an intact host immune response to prevent disease. Thus, studying host-pathogen interactions is critical to understanding and preventing this disease. We report a new model infection system in which ongoing C. albicans infections can be imaged at high spatial resolution in the ears of living mice. Intradermal inoculation into mouse ears with a C. albicans strain expressing green fluorescent protein results in systemic C. albicans infection that can be imaged in vivo using confocal microscopy. We observed filamentous growth of the organism in vivo as well as formation of microabscesses. This model system will allow us to gain significant new information about C. albicans pathogenesis through studies of host-C. albicans interactions in the native environment.

  18. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60–80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h−1. Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w, against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  19. A new methanol assimilating yeast, Ogataea parapolymorpha, the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2011-10-01

    Ogataea parapolymorpha sp. n. (NRRL YB-1982, CBS 12304, type strain), the ascosporic state of Candida parapolymorpha, is described. The species appears homothallic, assimilates methanol as is typical of most Ogataea species and forms hat-shaped ascospores in asci that become deliquescent. O. parapolymorpha is closely related to Ogataea angusta and Ogataea polymorpha. The three species can be resolved from gene sequence analyses but are unresolved from fermentation and growth reactions that are typically used for yeast identification. On the basis of multiple isolates, O. angusta is known only from California, USA, in association with Drosophila and Aulacigaster flies, O. parapolymorpha is predominantly associated with insect frass from trees in the eastern USA but O. polymorpha has been isolated from various substrates in the USA, Brazil, Spain and Costa Rica. PMID:21671193

  20. Effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin enzyme solutions on Candida biofilm formed on acrylic resin plates

    OpenAIRE

    A Jafari Nodoushan; A Fallah Tafti; Emami, P; H Ashoori

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:     Background and Aim: Denture stomatitis results from colonization of oral Candida on the surface of denture acrylic base. To control this infection,Candida biofilm formation must be prevented using mechanical and chemical decontamination. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Amylase, Papaein and Pepsin solutions on removal of Candida Albicans plaques formed on acrylic resin plates.   Materials and Methods : In this experimental study Candida biofilm was ...