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Sample records for candida oleophila strain

  1. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a post...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1144 - Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila isolate I-182... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1144 Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Candida oleophila isolate I-182, when used as a post-harvest biological fungicide...

  3. Sequential application of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and Candida oleophila (isolate 13L) affects significantly Penicillum expansum growth and the infection degree in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2011-01-01

    The employment of biocontrol agents to restrain postharvest pathogens is an encouraging approach, although, efficacy and consistency are still below those of synthetic pesticides. Up to date, the 'integrated control strategy' seems to be the most promising way to overcome this gap. Here, we report the feasibility to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in apples by a 2 min, single or sequential, immersion in water with an antagonistic yeast (Candida oleophila, isolate '13L'), 2% NaHCO3 (SBC) or 1% CaCl2. The treatments were carried out, on appels cv 'Miali' either un-wounded, wounded or wound-pathogen inoculated and then stored at 2 degrees C for 30 d followed by a 6 d simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C or alternatively stored only for 7 d at 20 degrees C. As a general role, the best results were attained when CaCl2 was applied with the yeast or when preceded by the SBC treatment. When the wounding and inoculation took place 24 h before the treatment, the latter application sequence of the two salts was three times more effective compared to the treatment with the sole antagonist, and one time when performed 24 h after the treatment. Interestingly, apples immersed in the sole 2% SBC solution had the highest percentage of decay during storage and when inoculated before moving to the simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C.

  4. Comparison of the adhesion ability of Candida albicans strains to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of oral Candida albicans strains to adhere to Caco-2 and Hep-2 epithelial cells, to produce slime using Congo red and Safranin methods and to form a biofilm on polymethylmethacrylate. A total of 20 C. albicans strains were tested in the present work. The biofilm ...

  5. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of t...

  6. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-03-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of the variant cells as compared to the diameter of the parental 3153A strain showed a relationship similar to that of the diameters of haploid versus diploid S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that those strains may be representative of the imperfect stage of C. albicans.

  7. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida . Methods  By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida ( Candida albicans ; Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results  There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non- Candida albicans ( Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant ( p  Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. Interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms: Influence of the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosida, Thayse Yumi; Cavazana, Thamires Priscila; Henriques, Mariana; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The relationship among Candida species may be influenced by several factors. Thus, this study evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms, varying the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation. Biofilms were formed for 48 hours in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) or RPMI 1640, supplemented with 0%, 1% or 5% glucose. Each strain of C. albicans was combined with two strains of C. glabrata, generating four biofilm associations, which were quantified by colony-forming units (CFUs), total biomass and metabolic activity. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). For CFUs, all associations were classified as indifferent for biofilms formed in RPMI 1640, while for SDB the interactions were antagonistic for C. albicans and indifferent for C. glabrata. The association of reference strains resulted in a dual-species biofilm with biomass significantly higher than that observed for each single biofilm developed in SDB. The metabolic activity of dual-species biofilms did not significantly differ from that found for single ones, except for co-culture of the reference strains. Glucose supplementation and culture media had a significant influence on all parameters. In conclusion, the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation influenced the interactions between C. albicans and C. glabrata. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and Lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, T.; Kneist, S.; de Soet, J.J.; Kuhlisch, E.; Mauersberger, S.; Forster, A.; Klimm, W.

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed,

  10. [Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida strains isolated as nosocomial pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Ergünay, Koray; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Ardıç, Nurittin; Hoşbul, Tuğrul; Haznedaroğlu, Tunçer

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decade, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections and antifungal agents used to treat these infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections among patients in intensive care units. One of the main goals of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of infectious Candida species isolated in our hospital and accordingly supply data for hospital infection (HI) control. The other aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and practical applicability of traditional and molecular methods used to identify Candida isolates to the species level. A total of 77 Candida strains that were isolated from various clinical specimens of 60 hospitalized patients (29 male, 24 female; 7 were children) were included in the study. Fifty-seven (74%) of those isolates were defined as HI agents according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The most common Candida species identified as agents of HI were C.albicans (22; 38.6%), followed by C.tropicalis (14; 24.6%), C.parapsilosis (13; 22.8%), C.glabrata (7; 12.3%) and Candida spp. (1; 1.75%). It was determined that bloodstream (26; 45.6%) and urinary tract infections (24; 42.1%) were the most frequently encountered nosocomial infections caused by Candida species. In addition it was detected that the most frequent causative agent of bloodstream infections was C.parapsilosis (10; 38.5%) and of urinary tract infections was C.albicans (12; 50%). The evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of traditional phenotypic methods [germ tube formation, chlamydospore formation in corn meal agar, growth at 45°C, colony characteristics on CHROMagar Candida medium, carbohydrate assimilation properties detected by API ID 32C (BioMerieux, France) system] and some molecular techniques [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using ITS-1, ITS-3 and ITS 4 primers, PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), PCRRFLP

  11. Enhanced oxidative killing of azole-resistant Candida glabrata strains with ERG11 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, V L; Geber, A; Bennett, J E

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of genetically defined Candida glabrata strains to killing by H2O2 and neutrophils was assessed. Fluconazole-susceptible L5L and L5D strains demonstrated survival rates higher than those of two fluconazole-resistant strains lacking the ERG11 gene coding for 14 alpha-demethylase. Fluconazole resistance can occur by mechanisms which increase fungal susceptibility to oxidative killing by H2O2 and neutrophils. PMID:8807069

  12. Voice Prosthetic Biofilm Formation and Candida Morphogenic Conversions in Absence and Presence of Different Bacterial Strains and Species on Silicone-Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henny C.; Buijssen, Kevin J. D. A.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekatarina; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    Morphogenic conversion of Candida from a yeast to hyphal morphology plays a pivotal role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Both Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, in combination with a variety of different bacterial strains and species, appear in biofilms on silicone-rubber voice

  13. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  14. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of strains of Candida spp. Isolated from catheters in UHC of Oran (Algeria): Identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjelloul, M; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K

    2016-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Candida spp., and the vital prognosis often compromise for patients with Candida species make urgent the exact knowledge of their distribution worldwide and exhaust action antifungals currently used in clinical. That why we carry out an epidemiological study of Candida species and testing their susceptibility against two antifungals: amphotericin B and caspofungin. Samplings of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) were carried out from during 8months on the services of Internal medicine, Surgery A and Neonatology of Oran's University Hospital Center (UHC). The study of the susceptibility of Candida species to antifungal agents was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2008). From 300 samples, 25 yeasts were isolated. The rate of colonization PVC was 8.33% by Candida spp. The most isolated strains were Candida parapsilosis with 64% of cases, followed by Candida albicans (12%) then 8% for Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. However, only 4% of isolates were Candida famata or Candida lusitaniae. Furthermore all isolated strains were susceptible to amphotericin B with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.25 to 1μg/mL. MIC obtained with caspofungin vary from 0.0625 to 2μg/mL for all strains. Moreover, one strain of C. krusei is resistant to caspofungin with a MIC superior to 8μg/mL. All though caspofungin is at least as effective as amphotericin B, it is better tolerated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

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    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  17. [Antimycotic activity in vitro and in vivo of 5-fluorocytosine on pathogenic strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A L; Valenti, A; Costa, G; Calogero, F

    1976-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the 5 Fluoro Cytosine (5FC) activity on strains of Candida albicans and Criptococcus neoformans, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined; in vivo tests of pathogenicity on rabbit and mouse have been executed. The various findings obtained have shown a strong activity of the 5FC on strains of Candida and Criptococcus.

  18. Competitive Fitness of Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Candida albicans Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Christina; Hampe, Irene A I; Hertlein, Tobias; Ohlsen, Knut; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance is often caused by gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factors Mrr1 and Tac1, which result in constitutive overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps, and Upc2, which result in constitutive overexpression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes. However, the deregulated gene expression that is caused by hyperactive forms of these transcription factors also reduces the fitness of the cells in the absence of the drug. To investigate whether fluconazole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates have overcome the fitness costs of drug resistance, we assessed the relative fitness of C. albicans isolates containing resistance mutations in these transcription factors in competition with matched drug-susceptible isolates from the same patients. Most of the fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the corresponding drug-susceptible isolates when grown in rich medium without fluconazole. On the other hand, some resistant isolates with gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 did not exhibit reduced fitness under these conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, three out of four tested fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates did not exhibit a significant fitness defect. However, all four fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the matched susceptible isolates in a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, demonstrating that the effects of drug resistance on in vivo fitness depend on the host niche. Collectively, our results indicate that the fitness costs of drug resistance in C. albicans are not easily remediated, especially when proper control of gene expression is required for successful adaptation to life within a mammalian host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. [Identification of Candida dubliniensis strains using heat tolerance tests, morphological characteristics and molecular methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Sevtap; Darka, Ozge; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Günalp, Ayfer

    2003-01-01

    Described in 1995, Candida dubliniensis is a novel Candida species closely related to Candida albicans due primarily to its ability to produce germ tube and chlamydospores. Given these phenotypic similarities between the two species, C. dubliniensis cannot be readily distinguished from Candida albicans by routine laboratory work-up. We explored the frequency of isolation of C. dubliniensis among 213 strains previously defined as C. albicans based on their ability to produce germ tube. The test isolates were initially examined for their morphological features on cornmeal tween 80 agar, inability to grow at 45 degrees C, and the biochemical assimilation profile (ID 32C system, bioMerieux, France). Among all, 2 (0.9%) of the isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis based on the production of numerous chlamydospores in chains on cornmeal tween 80 agar and the lack of growth at 45 degrees C. The assimilation profile of these isolates was found to be in accordance with this identification. In an effort to confirm the identification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies were carried out by using the C. dubliniensis specific primer set, DUBF and DUBR. Both of the isolates yielded C. dubliniensis-specific 288 base pair amplification products, confirming the previous identification obtained with the initial screening tests. The isolates were found to be susceptible to fluconazole and itraconazole, and generated amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.5-1 microgram/ml by NCCLS M27-A2 microdilution method. These data suggest that the isolation rate of C. dubliniensis among our clinical isolates is low. The morphological features on cornmeal tween 80 agar and the lack of ability to grow at 45 degrees C appear as reliable, cheap, and practical screening tests in initial identification of C. dubliniensis among germ tube-producing Candida strains.

  20. Treatment with some anti-inflammatory drugs reduces germ tube formation in Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.

  1. PCR melting profile (PCR MP - a new tool for differentiation of Candida albicans strains

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    Nowak Magdalena

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this method for intra-species differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Methods In total 123 Candida albicans strains (including 7 reference, 11 clinical unrelated, and 105 isolates from patients of two hospitals in Poland were examined using three genotyping methods: PCR MP, macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques. Results The genotyping results of the PCR MP were compared with results from REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques giving 27, 26 and 25 unique types, respectively. The results showed that the PCR MP technique has at least the same discriminatory power as REA-PFGE and RAPD. Conclusion Data presented here show for the first time the evaluation of PCR MP technique for candidial strains differentiation and we propose that this can be used as a relatively simple and cheap technique for epidemiological studies in short period of time in hospital.

  2. Utilization of Candida berkhout strains in the production of yeasts and ethyl alcohol from sulfite waste liquor and molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewska, H

    1962-01-01

    A single strain of Candida tropicalis was used to produce EtOH and fodder yeast from pasteurized, neutralized sulfite liquor containing 3.5% reducing substances and supplemented with NH/sub 3/ and P salts, or from molasses containing 150 g sucrose per l. After 48 hours sugar utilization by Candida was 87.7% and EtOH yield 56.1%; Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave 94.8 and 64.6 to 65.2%, respectively. After 72 hours sugar utilization and EtOH yield by Candida was 94.9 and 60.4% respectively.

  3. Particular Candida albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients, identified by multilocus sequence typing.

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    Yan-Bing Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a human commensal that is also responsible for chronic gastritis and peptic ulcerous disease. Little is known about the genetic profiles of the C. albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, diversity, and genetic profiles among C. albicans isolates recovered from natural colonization of the digestive tract in the dyspeptic patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Oral swab samples (n = 111 and gastric mucosa samples (n = 102 were obtained from a group of patients who presented dyspeptic symptoms or ulcer complaints. Oral swab samples (n = 162 were also obtained from healthy volunteers. C. albicans isolates were characterized and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. The prevalence of Candida spp. in the oral samples was not significantly different between the dyspeptic group and the healthy group (36.0%, 40/111 vs. 29.6%, 48/162; P > 0.05. However, there were significant differences between the groups in the distribution of species isolated and the genotypes of the C. albicans isolates. C. albicans was isolated from 97.8% of the Candida-positive subjects in the dyspeptic group, but from only 56.3% in the healthy group (P < 0.001. DST1593 was the dominant C. albicans genotype from the digestive tract of the dyspeptic group (60%, 27/45, but not the healthy group (14.8%, 4/27 (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a possible link between particular C. albicans strain genotypes and the host microenvironment. Positivity for particular C. albicans genotypes could signify susceptibility to dyspepsia.

  4. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone against Candida strains

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    Monika Staniszewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone (compound 4. The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of β-chloro β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of sixty three clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species towards compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 µg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG, was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (strain 90028 exhibited no defects in hyphal growth on Caco-2 monolayer under compound 4 influence at MIC= 16 µg/mL. The MIC values of compound 4 against C. albicans 90028, in medium with sorbitol did not suggest that compound 4 acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall synthesis. Our findings with compound 4 suggest a general strategy for antifungal agent development that might be useful in limiting the emergence of resistance in Candida strains.

  5. INVERTASE FROM A CANDIDA STELLATA STRAIN ISOLATED FROM GRAPE: PRODUCTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

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    Cristiane Abe Gargel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Invertases are enzymes which hydrolyze the sucrose and are widely employed in food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the screening of autochthonous grape yeasts from Brazil was carried out in order to investigate their invertase production potential. Yeasts belonging to Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Sporidiobolus, Issatchenkia, Candida, Cryptococcus and Pichia genera were analyzed by submerged fermentation (SbmF using sucrose as substrate. Among them, Candida stellata strain (N5 strain was selected as the best producer (10.6 U/ml after 48 hours of SbmF. This invertase showed optimal activity at pH 3.0 and 55°C, demonstrating appropriate characters for application in several industrial processes, which includes high temperatures and acid pHs. In addition, this invertase extract presented tolerance to low concentrations of ethanol, suggesting that it could also be suitable for application at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation. These data provide promising prospects of the use of this new invertase in food and ethanol industry.

  6. The differences in the isoelectric points of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Kubesova, Anna; Pavlik, Tomas; Votava, Miroslav

    2010-03-01

    The isoelectric points of 39 Candida parapsilosis strains were determined by means of capillary isoelectric focusing. The value of the isoelectric point corresponded well with cell surface hydrophobicity, as well as with the ability to form biofilm in these yeasts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and identification of a Candida digboiensis strain from an extreme acid mine drainage of the Lignite Mine, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh J; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2009-12-01

    An extremely acidic mine drainage (AMD) water sample was collected in 1998 and 2008 from Panandhro lignite mine, Gujarat, India. The yeast isolated from this sample was identified using mini API identification system, as a member of genus Candida. The major cellular fatty acids detected by FAME from the isolate are C(16:0) and C(18:2) (cis 9,12)/C(18:0alpha) as 25.23 and 19.5%, respectively. The isolate was identified as Candida digboiensis by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis and designated as Candida digboiensis SRDyeast1. Phylogenetic analysis using D1/D2 variable domains showed that the closest relative of this strain is Candida blankii with 3% divergence. This organism has been reported for the first time from the lignite mine AMD sample, and for cellular fatty acid analysis. This yeast is able to survive in the AMD sample preserved at 10-42 degrees C temperature since last 10 years along with iron oxidizing microorganisms. It can grow in the presence of 40% glucose, 10% NaCl and in the pH range of 1 to 10. The isolate is capable of producing enzymes like protease and lipase. This isolate differs from the type strain Candida digboiensis in as many as six physiological and metabolic characteristics.

  8. Spontaneous and UV-induced variations in the activity of biomass synthesis in Candida utilis haploid and diploid strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, T.F.; Lin'kova, M.A.; Lobacheva, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Candida utilis diploid strains have greater variations induced by UV irradiation in the activity of biomass synthesis as compared with the parent haploid culture. Clones with an activity of the synthesis greater that the mean population one appear more frequently in the diploid strains. Mathematical analysis has confirmed the significance of the results and the hypothesis according to which the frequency of variants more active in biomass synthesis rises after the action of UV

  9. Outbreak of candidemia caused by fluconazole resistant Candida parapsilosis strains in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhati, Henrique Marconi Sampaio; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Souza, Ana Carolina Remondi; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; Damasceno, Camila Maria Gomes; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-08-20

    Candidemia is an increasing problem in tertiary care hospitals worldwide. Here, we report the first outbreak of candidemia caused by fluconazole-resistant C. parapsilosis (FRCP) strains in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of clinical and microbiological data of all candidemic episodes diagnosed from July 2011 to February 2012 in a 200-bed tertiary care hospital. Initial yeast identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the VITEK 2 - System. Isolates of Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole were sent to a reference laboratory (LEMI-UNIFESP) for further molecular identification and confirmation of resistance by CLSI microdilution test. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with FRCP infection. We identified a total of 40 critically ill patients with candidemia (15 women) with a median age of 70 years. The incidence of candidemia was 6 cases/1,000 patients admissions, including 28 cases (70 %) of infection with C. parapsilosis, 21 of which (75 %) were resistant to fluconazole. In only 19 % of FRCP candidemia cases had fluconazole been used previously. The results of our study indicated that diabetes is a risk factor for FRCP candidemia (p = 0.002). Overall, mortality from candidemia was 45 %, and mortality from episodes of FRCP infections was 42.9 %. The clustering of incident cases in the ICU and molecular typing of strains suggest horizontal transmission of FRCP. Accurate vigilant monitoring for new nosocomial strains of FRCP is required.

  10. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  11. Clinical strains of Lactobacillus reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans and protect Galleria mellonella against experimental candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Dos Santos Velloso, Marisol; Figueiredo, Lívia Mara Alves; Martins, Carolina Pistille; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2018-05-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and can grow as yeast or filaments, depending on the environmental conditions. The filamentous form is of particular interest because it can play a direct role in adherence and pathogenicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three clinical strains of Lactobacillus on C. albicans filamentation as well as their probiotic potential in pathogen-host interactions via an experimental candidiasis model study in Galleria mellonella. We used the reference strain Candida albicans ATCC 18804 and three clinical strains of Lactobacillus: L. rhamnosus strain 5.2, L. paracasei strain 20.3, and L. fermentum strain 20.4. First, the capacity of C. albicans to form hyphae was tested in vitro through association with the Lactobacillus strains. After that, we verified the ability of these strains to attenuate experimental candidiasis in a Galleria mellonella model through a survival curve assay. Regarding the filamentation assay, a significant reduction in hyphae formation of up to 57% was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of the Lactobacillus strains, compared to a control group composed of only C. albicans. In addition, when the larvae were pretreated with Lactobacillus spp. prior to C. albicans infection, the survival rate of G. mellonela increased in all experimental groups. We concluded that Lactobacillus influences the growth and expression C. albicans virulence factors, which may interfere with the pathogenicity of these microorganisms.

  12. Reversal of fluconazole resistance induced by a synergistic effect with Acca sellowiana in Candida glabrata strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R M Machado, Gabriella da; Pippi, Bruna; Dalla Lana, Daiane Flores; Amaral, Ana Paula S; Teixeira, Mário Lettieri; Souza, Kellen C B de; Fuentefria, Alexandre M

    2016-11-01

    The increased incidence of non-albicans Candida (NAC) resistant to fluconazole (FLZ) makes it necessary to use new therapeutic alternatives. Acca sellowiana (O.berg) Burret (Myrtaceae) is a guava with several proven biological activities. The interaction with fluconazole can be a feasible alternative to overcome this resistance. This study evaluates the in vitro antifungal activity of fractions obtained from the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of A. sellowiana against resistant strains of NAC. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated at 500 μg/mL by microdilution method. Checkerboard assay was performed to determine the effect of the combination of the F2 fraction and antifungal at concentrations: MIC/4, MIC/2, MIC, MIC × 2 and MIC × 4. Candida glabrata showed the lowest MIC values (500-3.90 μg/mL) and the F2 active fraction was the most effective. The association of F2 with FLZ showed a strong synergistic effect (FICI ≤ 0.5) against 100% of C. glabrata resistant isolates. Moreover, the F2 active fraction has demonstrated that probably acts in the cell wall of these yeasts. There was no observed acute dermal toxicity of lyophilized aqueous extract of leaves of A. sellowiana on pig ear skin cells. The interaction between substances present in the F2 active fraction is possibly responsible for the antifungal activity presented by this fraction. This study is unprecedented and suggests that the combination of F2 active fraction and FLZ might be used as an alternative treatment for mucocutaneus infections caused by C. glabrata resistant.

  13. Antifungal Effects of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated Fluconazole against Fluconazole Resistant Strains of Candida albicans Isolated From Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Memarian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of women with volvuvaginal candidiasis suffer from certain chronic and recurrent types of this infection that affect their quality of life. Meanwhile, increased use of antifungal drugs, especially azoles, for treatment of chronic candidiasis is an important factor for incidence of drug resistance in Candida isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate anticandidal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole to develop better drugs for treatment of patients with candidal vaginitis, especially its chronic type. Methods: After collection of 300 vaginal swab specimens and culture and isolation of primary colonies and determination of Candida species, fluconazole resistant strains of Candida albicans were detected using disc diffusion. Finally, antifungal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole and fluconazole were compared by broth microdilution. Results: Only one fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans was isolated from patients (MIC=64µg/ml. The results obtained from drug susceptibility test showed that this strain was sensitive to gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole (MIC=2µg/ml. Conclusion: Given the optimal anticandidal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole on resistant strains of C. albicans, a suitable compound with great anticandidal properties may be achieved in the future.

  14. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  15. COPPER RESISTANT STRAIN CANDIDA TROPICALIS RomCu5 INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE COPPER COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie. P. Prekrasna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was interaction of Candida tropicalis RomCu5 isolated from highland Ecuador ecosystem with soluble and insoluble copper compounds. Strain C. tropicalis RomCu5 was cultured in a liquid medium of Hiss in the presence of soluble (copper citrate and CuCl2 and insoluble (CuO and CuCO3 copper compounds. The biomass growth was determined by change in optical density of culture liquid, composition of the gas phase was measured on gas chromatograph, redox potential and pH of the culture fluid was defined potentiometrically. The concentration of soluble copper compounds was determined colorimetrically. Maximal permissible concentration of Cu2+ for C. tropicalis RomCu5 was 30 000 ppm of Cu2+ in form of copper citrate and 500 ppm of Cu2+ in form of CuCl2. C. tropicalis was metabolically active at super high concentrations of Cu2+, despite the inhibitory effect of Cu2+. C. tropicalis immobilized Cu2+ in the form of copper citrate and CuCl2 by it accumulation in the biomass. Due to medium acidification C. tropicalis dissolved CuO and CuCO3. High resistance of C. tropicalis to Cu2+ and ability to interact with soluble and insoluble copper compounds makes it biotechnologically perspective.

  16. Efficiency of four currently used decontamination conditionings in Romania against Aspergillus and Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, D; Cristina, R T; Teusdea, V; Mitrănescu, E; Muselin, F; Butnariu, M; David, G; Dumitrescu, E

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy of four commercial biocidal products (noted A to D), using manufacturers' recommendations, and a contact time of 30minutes, were evaluated in the purpose of standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted. Were used four strains, two as reference: Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) (ATCC 16404) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and two isolates: Aspergillus flavus and respectively Aspergillus fumigatus. The inoculum plates containing Malt Extract Agar (MEA) were incubated 48h for C. albicans and 72hours for Aspergillus spp. The standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted was conducted in two phases: the test cultures preparation and the method validation. Method validation included: the control of experimental conditions and of neutralizant solution, and the method verification. Results revealed that three from the four tested products (A, B and D) had exerted biocidal effect on the studied strains at the recommended concentrations, the registered CFU values being reduced by more than 4 log 10 , conversely in the case of the product (C), applied against A. fumigatus at the recommended concentration of 2%, the biocidal effect was not detected, fact confirmed also by the CFU's value (3.59 log 10 ). The biocide retested at a greater concentration (of 5%), showed a biocidal effect against A. fumigatus after 30minutes, the CFU value being reduced, by more than 5.29 log 10 , evidencing the resistance emergence of A. fumigatus under the repeated pressure of biocides. It is re-confirming that merely the "chemical" defense measures to defuse the fungi's strategies become unproductive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen against echinocandin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, Francieli; Pozzebon Venturini, Tarcieli; Baldissera Piasentin, Fernanda; Morais Santurio, Janio; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; Hartz Alves, Sydney

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen against echinocandin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Candida parapsilosis using the broth microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range =1-8 µg/mL) and ebselen (MIC range =0.25-4 µg/mL) showed in vitro activity against echinocandin-susceptible isolates. However, ebselen also showed the highest antifungal activity against echinocandin-resistant strains (MIC range =0.06-4 µg/mL). This study demonstrated that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation using in vivo experimental protocols.

  18. Multidrug-resistant endemic clonal strain of Candida auris in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Kumar, V.; Sharma, C.; Prakash, A.; Agarwal, K.; Babu, R.; Dinesh, K.R.; Karim, S.; Singh, S.K.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Candida auris is a recently described rare agent of fungemia. It is notable for its antifungal resistance. A total of 15 C. auris isolates, originating from seven cases of fungemia, three cases of diabetic gangrenous foot, and one case of bronchopneumonia from a tertiary care hospital in south

  19. Targeted changes of the cell wall proteome influence Candida albicans ability to form single- and multi-strain biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cabral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We have combined gene overexpression, strain barcoding and microarray profiling to screen a library of 531 C. albicans conditional overexpression strains (∼10% of the genome for genes affecting biofilm development in mixed-population experiments. The overexpression of 16 genes increased strain occupancy within a multi-strain biofilm, whereas overexpression of 4 genes decreased it. The set of 16 genes was significantly enriched for those encoding predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-modified proteins, namely Ihd1/Pga36, Phr2, Pga15, Pga19, Pga22, Pga32, Pga37, Pga42 and Pga59; eight of which have been classified as pathogen-specific. Validation experiments using either individually- or competitively-grown overexpression strains revealed that the contribution of these genes to biofilm formation was variable and stage-specific. Deeper functional analysis of PGA59 and PGA22 at a single-cell resolution using atomic force microscopy showed that overexpression of either gene increased C. albicans ability to adhere to an abiotic substrate. However, unlike PGA59, PGA22 overexpression led to cell cluster formation that resulted in increased sensitivity to shear forces and decreased ability to form a single-strain biofilm. Within the multi-strain environment provided by the PGA22-non overexpressing cells, PGA22-overexpressing cells were protected from shear forces and fitter for biofilm development. Ultrastructural analysis, genome-wide transcript profiling and phenotypic analyses in a heterologous context suggested that PGA22 affects cell adherence through alteration of cell wall structure and/or function. Taken together, our findings reveal that several novel predicted GPI-modified proteins contribute to the cooperative behaviour between biofilm cells and are important participants during C. albicans biofilm formation. Moreover, they illustrate the power

  20. Nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid on Growth Inhibition of Standard Strain of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Haghighi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, the incidence of opportunistic fungi has shown a marked increase. Infection caused by common pathogenic fungi is a significant health problem in immune compromised hosts. The present study evaluated antifungal activity of Titanum dioxide nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid against Candida albicans as self-cleaning agent by standard micro dilution test. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the Medical University of Tarbiyat Modares in 2009. TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 (Titanium tetrachloride. Size and type of these nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray-Diffraction (XRD. Afterwards, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicide Concentration (MFC test for TiO2 and EDTA were performed. Results: Concentration of synthesised TiO2 was 7.03 mg/ml and 5.63 5.63 ×1020 particles/ml. Evaluation of morphology and diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles with SEM showed that nanoparticles were spherical with diameter between 40-65 nm. MIC50 of 2.2, 1.24 and 0.125 µg/ml respectively. MIC90 and MFC of TiO2, EDTA and fluconazole were 3.51, 2.48 , 0.5 µg/ml and 4.06, 3.1 ,1 µg/ml respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, using of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles with chemical method showed a suitable activity against Candida in comparison with Fluconazole. Thus it might represent a good candidates in elimination of Candida in medical from medical devices. Key Words:

  1. In vitro activity of econazole in comparison with three common antifungal agents against clinical Candida strains isolated from superficial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Abastabar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that for Candida albicans isolates, miconazole and econazole had the best effect, but in non-albicans Candida species, itraconazole and miconazole displayed more activity than other antifungal agents.

  2. Antifungal mechanism of the combination of Cinnamomum verum and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils with fluconazole against pathogenic Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Rym; Hammami, Majdi; Gharbi, Dorra; Karkouch, Ines; Hamouda, Thouraya Ben; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Tabbene, Olfa

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Candida activity of ten essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate their potential synergism with conventional drugs. The effect on secreted aspartic protease (SAP) activity and the mechanism of action were also explored. The antifungal properties of essential oils were investigated using standard micro-broth dilution assay. Only Cinnamomum verum, Thymus capitatus, Syzygium aromaticum, and Pelargonium graveolens exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic Candida strains. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. graveolens/fluconazole, with FIC value 0.37. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that C. verum EO reduced the quantity of ergosterol to 83%. A total inhibition was observed for the combination C. verum/fluconazole. However, P. graveolens EO may disturb the permeability barrier of the fungal cell wall. An increase of MIC values of P. graveolens EO and the combination with fluconazole was observed with osmoprotectants (sorbitol and PEG6000). Furthermore, the combination with fluconazole may affect ergosterol biosynthesis and disturb fatty acid homeostasis in C. albicans cells as the quantity of ergosterol and oleic acid was reduced to 52.33 and 72%, respectively. The combination of P. graveolens and C. verum EOs with fluconazole inhibited 78.31 and 64.72% SAP activity, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report underlying the mechanism of action and the inhibitory effect of SAP activity of essential oils in synergy with fluconazole. Naturally occurring phytochemicals C. verum and P. graveolens could be effective candidate to enhance the efficacy of fluconazole-based therapy of C. albicans infections.

  3. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  4. In vitro anti-Candida activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors against fluconazole-resistant strains and their activity against biofilm-forming isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Silva, Rose Anny; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Anderson Ramos; Campos, Rosana Sousa; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; da Silva Gaspar, Brenda; da Cruz Fonseca, Said Gonçalves; Josino, Maria Aparecida Alexandre; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Gaspar, Danielle Macedo; de Lucena, David Freitas; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown broad antifungal activity of the classic antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This fact, combined with the increased cross-resistance frequency of the genre Candida regarding the main treatment today, fluconazole, requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In that context, this study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. planktonic cells, as well as to assess the mechanism of action and the viability of biofilms treated with fluoxetine. After 24 h, the fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. strains showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the ranges of 20-160 μg/mL for fluoxetine, 10-20 μg/mL for sertraline, and 10-100.8 μg/mL for paroxetine by the broth microdilution method (M27-A3). According to our data by flow cytometry, each of the SSRIs cause fungal death after damaging the plasma and mitochondrial membrane, which activates apoptotic signaling pathways and leads to dose-dependant cell viability loss. Regarding biofilm-forming isolates, the fluoxetine reduce mature biofilm of all the species tested. Therefore, it is concluded that SSRIs are capable of inhibit the growth in vitro of Candida spp., both in planktonic form, as biofilm, inducing cellular death by apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenotypic aspects of oral strains of Candida albicans in children with down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the biological aspects of oral strains of C. albicans in children with Down's syndrome. These yeasts were analyzed as to their macromorphological and enzymatic aspects and were tested as to their in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs using broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The morphotyping revealed that all oral C. albicans isolates from children with Down's syndrome promoted the formation of fringes regardless of size, while the control group presented smaller fringes. All oral C. albicans strains produced proteinase, but those with phospholipolytic activity showed greater enzyme capacity in the test group. In vitro susceptibility showed that all oral C. albicans isolates were sensitive to the drugs used.

  6. Cellulolytic enzyme expression and simultaneous conversion of lignocellulosic sugars into ethanol and xylitol by a new Candida tropicalis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattam, Anu Jose; Kuila, Arindam; Suralikerimath, Niranjan; Choudary, Nettem; Rao, Peddy V C; Velankar, Harshad Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol production involves major steps such as thermochemical pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated biomass and the fermentation of released sugars into ethanol. At least two different organisms are conventionally utilized for producing cellulolytic enzymes and for ethanol production through fermentation, whereas in the present study a single yeast isolate with the capacity to simultaneously produce cellulases and xylanases and ferment the released sugars into ethanol and xylitol has been described. A yeast strain isolated from soil samples and identified as Candida tropicalis MTCC 25057 expressed cellulases and xylanases over a wide range of temperatures (32 and 42 °C) and in the presence of different cellulosic substrates [carboxymethylcellulose and wheat straw (WS)]. The studies indicated that the cultivation of yeast at 42 °C in pre-treated hydrolysate containing 0.5 % WS resulted in proportional expression of cellulases (exoglucanases and endoglucanases) at concentrations of 114.1 and 97.8 U g(-1) ds, respectively. A high xylanase activity (689.3 U g(-1) ds) was also exhibited by the yeast under similar growth conditions. Maximum expression of cellulolytic enzymes by the yeast occurred within 24 h of incubation. Of the sugars released from biomass after pretreatment, 49 g L(-1) xylose was aerobically converted into 15.8 g L(-1) of xylitol. In addition, 25.4 g L(-1) glucose released after the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass was fermented by the same yeast to obtain an ethanol titer of 7.3 g L(-1). During the present study, a new strain of C. tropicalis was isolated and found to have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) applications. The strain could grow in a wide range of process conditions (temperature, pH) and in the presence of lignocellulosic inhibitors such as furfural, HMF and acetic acid. The new yeast produced cellulolytic enzymes over a wide temperature range and in the presence of

  7. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  8. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Ben-Ami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance. We used population analysis profiling (PAP to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6% of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHRC. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole.

  9. Bioremediation of acidic oily sludge-contaminated soil by the novel yeast strain Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nitu; Patle, Sonali; Lal, Banwari

    2010-03-01

    Primitive wax refining techniques had resulted in almost 50,000 tonnes of acidic oily sludge (pH 1-3) being accumulated inside the Digboi refinery premises in Assam state, northeast India. A novel yeast species Candida digboiensis TERI ASN6 was obtained that could degrade the acidic petroleum hydrocarbons at pH 3 under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation potential of this strain under laboratory and field conditions. The ability of TERI ASN6 to degrade the hydrocarbons found in the acidic oily sludge was established by gravimetry and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Following this, a feasibility study was done, on site, to study various treatments for the remediation of the acidic sludge. Among the treatments, the application of C. digboiensis TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed the highest degradation of the acidic oily sludge. This treatment was then selected for the full-scale bioremediation study conducted on site, inside the refinery premises. The novel yeast strain TERI ASN6 could degrade 40 mg of eicosane in 50 ml of minimal salts medium in 10 days and 72% of heneicosane in 192 h at pH 3. The degradation of alkanes yielded monocarboxylic acid intermediates while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene found in the acidic oily sludge yielded the oxygenated intermediate pyrenol. In the feasibility study, the application of TERI ASN6 with nutrients showed a reduction of solvent extractable total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 160 to 28.81 g kg(-1) soil as compared to a TPH reduction from 183.85 to 151.10 g kg(-1) soil in the untreated control in 135 days. The full-scale bioremediation study in a 3,280-m(2) area in the refinery showed a reduction of TPH from 184.06 to 7.96 g kg(-1) soil in 175 days. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by microbes is a well-known phenomenon, but most microbes are unable to withstand the low pH conditions found in Digboi refinery. The strain C. digboiensis could efficiently degrade

  10. Differential Activity of the Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor SCY-078 against Wild-Type and Echinocandin-Resistant Strains of Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Castanheira, Mariana

    2017-08-01

    SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118) is a novel orally active inhibitor of fungal β-(1,3)-glucan synthase (GS). SCY-078 is a derivative of enfumafungin and is structurally distinct from the echinocandin class of antifungal agents. We evaluated the in vitro activity of this compound against wild-type (WT) and echinocandin-resistant isolates containing mutations in the FKS genes of Candida spp. Against 36 Candida spp. FKS mutants tested, 30 (83.3%) were non-WT to 1 or more echinocandins, and only 9 (25.0%) were non-WT (MIC, >WT-upper limit) to SCY-078. Among C. glabrata isolates carrying FKS alterations, 84.0% were non-WT to the echinocandins versus only 24.0% for SCY-078. In contrast to the echinocandin comparators, the activity of SCY-078 was minimally affected by the presence of FKS mutations, suggesting that this agent is useful in the treatment of Candida infections due to echinocandin-resistant strains. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar V; Mathur M; Kumar S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore for...

  12. Serial passaging of Candida albicans in systemic murine infection suggests that the wild type strain SC5314 is well adapted to the murine kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Lüttich

    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a remarkable ability to adapt to unfavorable environments by different mechanisms, including microevolution. For example, a previous study has shown that passaging through the murine spleen can cause new phenotypic characteristics. Since the murine kidney is the main target organ in murine Candida sepsis and infection of the spleen differs from the kidney in several aspects, we tested whether C. albicans SC5314 could evolve to further adapt to infection and persistence within the kidney. Therefore, we performed a long-term serial passage experiment through the murine kidney of using a low infectious dose. We found that the overall virulence of the commonly used wild type strain SC5314 did not change after eight passages and that the isolated pools showed only very moderate changes of phenotypic traits on the population level. Nevertheless, the last passage showed a higher phenotypic variability and a few individual strains exhibited phenotypic alterations suggesting that microevolution has occurred. However, the majority of the tested single strains were phenotypically indistinguishable from SC5314. Thus, our findings indicate that characteristics of SC5314 which are important to establish and maintain kidney infection over a prolonged time are already well developed.

  13. Inhibition of Hyphal Growth of Azole-Resistant Strains of Candida albicans by Triazole Antifungal Agents in the Presence of Lactoferrin-Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Shigeru; Teraguchi, Susumu; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    1998-01-01

    The effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) or the LF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) on the growth of Candida albicans hyphae, including those of three azole-resistant strains, were investigated by a crystal violet staining method. The hyphae of two highly azole-resistant strains were more susceptible to inhibition by LF or LFcin B than the azole-susceptible strains tested. One moderately azole-resistant strain was defective in the formation of hyphae and showed a susceptibility to LF greater than that of the susceptible strains but a susceptibility to LFcin B similar to that of the susceptible strains. The highly azole-resistant strain TIMM3317 showed trailing growth in the presence of fluconazole or itraconazole, while the extent of growth was reduced by the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC. Thus, the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC resulted in a substantial decrease in the MICs of fluconazole and itraconazole for two highly azole-resistant strains; e.g., the MIC of fluconazole for TIMM3317 was shifted from >256 to 0.25 μg/ml by LF, but the MICs were not decreased for the susceptible strains. The combination effects observed with triazoles and LF-related compounds in the case of the two highly azole-resistant strains were confirmed to be synergistic by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. These results demonstrate that for some azole-resistant C. albicans strains, LF-related compounds combined with triazoles can inhibit the growth of hyphae, an important form of this organism in pathogenesis. PMID:9660988

  14. Subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole increase the intracellular sodium content in both fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida albicans strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolecká, A.; Krauke, Yannick; Bujdáková, H.; Sychrová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 605-610 ISSN 0008-4166 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Candida albicans * fluconazol * salt tolerance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.262, year: 2009

  15. Antifungal effects of Lavandula binaludensis and Cuminum cyminum essential oils against Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooeianhaghighi, M H; Sepehrian, L; Shokri, H

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), which affects approximately 5% of women of reproductive age, is defined as 4 or more episodes of symptomatic Candida vaginitis within a year. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical compositions and antifungal susceptibility of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) and Lavandula binaludensis (L. binaludensis) essential oils and their combination against Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains isolated from patients with RVVC. C. albicans isolates were identified via germ tube test, CHROMagar and RapID Yeast Plus System. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The broth microdilution method was used as antifungal susceptibility test (CLSI-M27-A3). The GC-MS analysis allowed 13 components to be determined; the main components of C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils were γ-terpinene (21.07%) and 1,8-cineole (71.56%), respectively. L. binaludensis and C. cyminum oils were effective in inhibiting C. albicans growth at mean concentrations of 7.91±1.61μg/mL and 8.00±1.89μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the combination of C. cyminum with L. binaludensis oils were more active causing inhibition in all C. albicans isolates, with concentrations varying from 3.90 to 11.71μg/mL (mean value: 7.22±1.69μg/mL). The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils as natural inhibitors to control the growth of the most important pathogenic Candida species and alternative therapies for RVVC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Solís, Sandra E; Rueda-Gordillo, Florencio; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans has a variety of virulence factors, including secreted aspartyl proteases, which are determinant factors in the pathogenesis of this yeast in immunocompromised patients. Proteinase activity was identified in C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients with cancer, diabetes and HIV+, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty C. albicans strains were analyzed, distributed in 5 different groups: patients with cancer, diabetes, HIV+, with oral candidiasis and healthy subjects. Proteolytic activity was identified in 46% of the strains from cancer patients, 54% from HIV+ patients, 60% from diabetics, 70% from oral candidiasis patients, and 42% from healthy subjects. Activity was higher in strains from immunocompromised and oral candidiasis patients than in healthy subjects. Differences were observed between the candidiasis-healthy, candidiasis-HIV+, and diabetic-healthy groups. No differences were observed between the oral candidiasis, diabetes and cancer patients, between the diabetes and HIV+ patients, or between the cancer patients, HIV+ patients and healthy subjects. The present results suggest that although secreted aspartyl proteases are important in the pathogenesis of C. albicans, their activity depends on host conditions. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Locus Next-Generation Sequence Typing of DNA Extracted From Pooled Colonies Detects Multiple Unrelated Candida albicans Strains in a Significant Proportion of Patient Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida albicans is an important opportunistic human pathogen. For C. albicans strain typing or drug susceptibility testing, a single colony recovered from a patient sample is normally used. This is insufficient when multiple strains are present at the site sampled. How often this is the case is unclear. Previous studies, confined to oral, vaginal and vulvar samples, have yielded conflicting results and have assessed too small a number of colonies per sample to reliably detect the presence of multiple strains. We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS modification of the highly discriminatory C. albicans MLST (multilocus sequence typing method, 100+1 NGS-MLST, for detection and typing of multiple strains in clinical samples. In 100+1 NGS-MLST, DNA is extracted from a pool of colonies from a patient sample and also from one of the colonies. MLST amplicons from both DNA preparations are analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Using base call frequencies, our bespoke DALMATIONS software determines the MLST type of the single colony. If base call frequency differences between pool and single colony indicate the presence of an additional strain, the differences are used to computationally infer the second MLST type without the need for MLST of additional individual colonies. In mixes of previously typed pairs of strains, 100+1 NGS-MLST reliably detected a second strain. Inferred MLST types of second strains were always more similar to their real MLST types than to those of any of 59 other isolates (22 of 31 inferred types were identical to the real type. Using 100+1 NGS-MLST we found that 7/60 human samples, including three superficial candidiasis samples, contained two unrelated strains. In addition, at least one sample contained two highly similar variants of the same strain. The probability of samples containing unrelated strains appears to differ considerably between body sites. Our findings indicate the need for wider surveys to

  20. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as

  1. Candida auris

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  2. Hichrom candida agar for identification of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradkar, V P; Mathur, M; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%); C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%), C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%), C. tropicalis (100 and 100%) and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55%) respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  3. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  4. [Distribution of Candida species in vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Berna; Yazici, Vesile; Aydin, Neriman

    2005-07-01

    Identification of Candida species is important to guide treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis which is seen frequently and needs long-term therapy due to recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the species distribution of Candida isolated from vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium in the laboratory diagnosis. Samples from 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed as vaginitis have been analysed in our laboratory. Colonies appeared on CHROMagar Candida media after 48 hours of incubation at 35 degrees C were evaluated for their colors and characteristics. Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, growth on corn meal Tween 80 agar and when necessary also by API 20 C AUX commercial kit. A total of 84 Candida strains were isolated from 80 patients. Two different Candida species have been isolated from four (5%) of the samples. Among Candida strains isolated, 45 (53.6%) were C. albicans, 29 (34.5%) C. glabrata, 7 (8.3%) C. krusei, and 3 (3.6%) C. kefyr. All of the C. albicans and six of the seven C. krusei isolates have been identified correctly by CHROMagar Candida medium. These results showed that C. albicans is still the most frequently isolated species from vaginal samples. It was concluded that CHROMagar Candida medium is useful for identification of colonies due to frequently seen Candida species and also in differentiation of multiple Candida species grown on the same culture.

  5. Single-cell Protein and Xylitol Production by a Novel Yeast Strain Candida intermedia FL023 from Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates and Xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqiang; Hu, Jinlong; Zhao, Shumiao; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Ge, Xiangyang; Peng, Nan

    2018-05-01

    Yeasts are good candidates to utilize the hydrolysates of lignocellulose, the most abundant bioresource, for bioproducts. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiencies of single-cell protein (SCP) and xylitol production by a novel yeast strain, Candida intermedia FL023, from lignocellulosic hydrolysates and xylose. This strain efficiently assimilated hexose, pentose, and cellubiose for cell mass production with the crude protein content of 484.2 g kg -1 dry cell mass. SCP was produced by strain FL023 using corncob hydrolysate and urea as the carbon and nitrogen sources with the dry cell mass productivity 0.86 g L -1  h -1 and the yield of 0.40 g g -1 sugar. SCP was also produced using NaOH-pretreated Miscanthus sinensis straw and corn steep liquor as the carbon and nitrogen sources through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with the dry cell productivity of 0.23 g L -1  h -1 and yield of 0.17 g g -1 straw. C. intermedia FL023 was tolerant to 0.5 g L -1 furfural, acetic acid, and syringaldehyde in xylitol fermentation and produced 45.7 g L -1 xylitol from xylose with the productivity of 0.38 g L -1  h -1 and the yield of 0.57 g g -1 xylose. This study provides feasible methods for feed and food additive production from the abundant lignocellulosic bioresources.

  6. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Strains of Candida Albicans Isolated from AIDS Patients to Fluconazole and Determination of CDR2 Resistance Gene in Resistant Strains by RT-PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Farahbakhsh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, opportunistic fungi especially Candida albicans are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in immunodeficiency patients. Increasing Azole-resistant strains of C.albicans are a main problem in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CDR2 gene in C.albicans azole resistant strains, isolated from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis by RT-PCR method. Materials & Methods: The present experimental study was conducted at Tarbiat Modares University of Medical Sciences in 2009. C. albicans isolates from HIV infected patients were identified by standard procedures, including germ tube formation, clamidospor and color of colonies on CHROM agar. At first, susceptibility of C. albicans isolates was assessed by disk diffusion agar technique. Then, CDR2 resistance gene was analyzed by RT-PCR and electrophoresis of the PCR products. Finally, patterns of the resulted bands were compared with standard fluconazole resistant strains. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: The results of drug sensitivity of 66 C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients revealed that 62.6% were susceptible, 8.6% were susceptible-dose dependent (SDD and 28.7% were resistant. In RT-PCR analysis, 6% of patients had the CDR2 gene. Conclusion: The use of phenotypic methods like disk diffusion agar, which is cheaper, along with genotypic methods, like RT-PCR, which provide the possibility of studying the mechanism of drug resistance, is recommended.

  7. Investigation of Association between Slime Production by Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the susceptibilities of fluconazole and voriconazole based on slime production by Candida spp. Methods: Candida strains (115) isolated in the period between January 2011 and January 2012 were included in this study. ... Yıldırım Beyazıt Training Hospital, were included in this study. Candida ...

  8. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance...... of the antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating...

  9. Application of different markers and data-analysis tools to the examination of biodiversity can lead to different results: a case study with Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoma, Hajnalka; Ács-Szabó, Lajos; Papp, László Attila; Sipiczki, Matthias

    2018-08-01

    Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) is a genetically heterogeneous species. In this work, the diversity of 41 strains of various origins is examined and compared by the analysis of the length polymorphism of nuclear microsatellites and the RFLP of mitochondrial genomes. The band patterns are analysed with UPGMA, neighbor joining, neighbor net, minimum spanning tree and non-metric MDS algorithms. The results and their comparison to previous analyses demonstrate that different markers and different clustering methods can result in very different groupings of the same strains. The observed differences between the topologies of the dendrograms also indicate that the positions of the strains do not necessarily reflect their real genetic relationships and origins. The possibilities that the differences might be partially due to different sensitivity of the markers to environmental factors (selection pressure) and partially to the different grouping criteria of the algorithms are also discussed.

  10. Structural study of phosphomannan of yeast-form cells of Candida albicans J-1012 strain with special reference to application of mild acetolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Shibata, N; Mitobe, H; Ohkubo, Y; Suzuki, S

    1989-08-01

    Structural analysis of the phosphomannan isolated from yeast-form cells of a pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans J-1012 strain, was conducted. Treatment of this phosphomannan (Fr. J) with 10 mM HCl at 100 degrees C for 60 min gave a mixture of beta-1,2-linked manno-oligosaccharides, from tetraose to biose plus mannose, and an acid-stable mannan moiety (Fr. J-a), which was then acetolyzed by means of an acetolysis medium, 100:100:1 (v/v) mixture of (CH3CO)2O, CH3COOH, and H2SO4, at 40 degrees C for 36 h in order to avoid cleavage of the beta-1,2 linkage. The resultant manno-oligosaccharide mixture was fractionated on a column of Bio-Gel P-2 to yield insufficiently resolved manno-oligosaccharide fractions higher than pentaose and lower manno-oligosaccharides ranging from tetraose to biose plus mannose. The higher manno-oligosaccharide fraction was then digested with the Arthrobacter GJM-1 alpha-mannosidase in order to cleave the enzyme-susceptible alpha-1,2 and alpha-1,3 linkages, leaving manno-oligosaccharides containing the beta-1,2 linkage at their nonreducing terminal sites, Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Man, Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1---- 2Manp alpha 1----2Man, and Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp beta 1----2Manp alpha 1---- 2Manp alpha 1----2Manp alpha 1----2Man. However, the result of acetolysis of Fr. J-a by means of a 10:10:1 (v/v) mixture of (CH3CO)2O, CH3COOH, and H2SO4 at 40 degrees C for 13 h was significantly different from that obtained by the mild acetolysis method; i.e., the amount of mannose was apparently larger than that formed by the mild acetolysis method. In summary, a chemical structure for Fr. J as a highly branched mannan containing 14 different branching moieties was proposed.

  11. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  12. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  13. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children Diversidade fenotípica e genotípica entre amostras de Candida albicans isoladas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livre de cárie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mardegan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans oral strains collected from caries-free and caries-active healthy children ranging from 24 to 36 months old, were studied. The aim of the study was to determine proteinase and phospholipase activities produced by Candida albicans in the two groups and to determine the phenotypic diversity of these enzymes based on genetic polymorphism using the AP-PCR method. Strains identified by morphological and fermentation tests as C. albicans were grown in proteinase and phospholipase agar media at 37ºC for 7 and 4 days, respectively. After the incubation period, the enzyme activity of the proteinase and phospholipase positive strains was measured. All strains were subjected to AP-PCR, using the arbitrary primer AP-3. The enzymatic analysis showed no differences between the two groups. The AP-PCR method was effective in demonstrating intra-individual genetic polymorphism in C. albicans, showing a greater clonal diversity in caries-active versus caries-free children. Dendograms of similarity showed only intra-individual clonal lineage. The results suggest that the enzymatic profile does not depend on the genotypic characteristics of the strains.Cepas orais de Candida albicans coletadas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livres de cárie com idade variando de 24 a 36 meses, foram estudadas. O propósito do estudo foi determinar a atividade da proteinase e da fosfolipase produzida por Candida albicans nos dois grupos e comparar com a diversidade genotípica usando o método AP-PCR. As cepas identificadas como C. albicans por testes morfológicos e de fermentação, foram cultivadas em meio ágar proteinase e fosfolipase a 37ºC por 7 e 4 dias, respectivamente. Após o período de incubação, a atividade enzimática das cepas proteinase e fosfolipase positiva foram medidas. Todas as cepas foram submetidas a técnica genotípica AP-PCR, usando o primer arbitrário AP-3. A análise enzimática demonstrou que não há diferença entre os

  14. Simple low cost differentiation of Candida auris from Candida haemulonii complex using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Sachu, Arun; Mohan, Karthika; Vinod, Vivek; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, Shamsul

    Candida auris is unique due to its multidrug resistance and misidentification as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Its correct identification is important to avoid inappropriate treatments. To develop a cheap method for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Fifteen C. auris isolates, six isolates each of C. haemulonii and Candida duobushaemulonii, and one isolate of Candida haemulonii var. vulnera were tested using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for better differentiation. On CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar all C. auris strains showed confluent growth of white to cream colored smooth colonies at 37°C and 42°C after 24 and 48h incubation and did not produce pseudohyphae. The isolates of the C. haemulonii complex, on the contrary, showed poor growth of smooth, light-pink colonies at 24h while at 48h the growth was semiconfluent with the production of pseudohyphae. C. haemulonii complex failed to grow at 42°C. We report a rapid and cheap method using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute extrarenal kidney damage in the course of infection with fungal strain of Candida glabrata in a patient with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarejko-Paradowska, A.; Bartnicki, P.; Pietrzak, B.; Wilk, R.; Serwa-Stepien, E.; Rysz, J.; Jablonowski, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute renal injury is becoming a significant epidemiological problem among patients requiring hospital treatment. Extrarenal aetiology of the kidney injury is recognized in 5 % to 10 % of hospitalized patients; however, the identification of the mycelium of the Candida glabrata as the direct factor causing the acute urinary obstruction is extremely rare. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to the clinic because of progressing weakness, nausea and vomiting, poor appetite and reduced urination. On admission, laboratory findings revealed pyuria, inflammatory changes, acute renal failure (eGFR-MDRD 6 ml/min), and hyperglycemia. The patient underwent USG of the abdominal cavity, which showed bilateral hydronephrosis, with lithiasis on the right site. Cystoscopy done the next day revealed that the mucous membrane of the bladder was reddened and had a white coating. During the next several days, a renal fistula was created on the left and right sides. Candida glabrata was isolated from urine, and was sensitive only to voriconazole. V-fend (voriconazole) treatment resulted in increase of diuresis and decrease in creatinine and urea levels. Conclusions: Urinary tract infection caused by Candida glabrata causes significant therapeutic problems. In most cases, these yeasts are resistant to triazole anti-fungal drugs such as fluconazole, which translates into significantly increased mortality of patients. To date, a similar case was described only by one group of doctors, however, due to the intensity of the currently used immunosuppression and multiantibiotic therapy, increased incidence of diabetes and the aging of the population, it is expected that the prevalence of this clinical problem will increase. (authors)

  16. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  17. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  18. Adherence to HeLa cells, typing by killer toxins and susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida dubliniensis strains Adesão a células HeLa, tipagem pelas toxinas "killer" e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida dubliniensis

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    Gismari Miranda da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777 was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035. No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia. O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padr��o produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777 de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035. Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.

  19. Radiation resistance of Candida parapsilosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation resistance of 30 strains classified as Candida parapsilosis was examined. The strains originated partly from environments where ionizing radiation was used for research or routine purposes, partly from environments with no known possibility for selection of strains with unusually high radiation resistance. D-6 values between 1.5 and 2.4 Megarads were found when the cells were irradiated in the dried state, a D-6 value being the dose necessary to reduce the initial number of colony-forming units with a factor of 10 6 . The majority of D-6 values were between 1.9 and 2.1 Megarads. D-6 values for the cells irradiated in liquid media were about 2/3 of tose in the dried state. No difference in resistance was revealed depending on the origin of the strains examined. For radiation sterilization of medical products the demonstrated resistance of Candida parapsilosis might be of importance of routine use of minimum doses below 2.5 Megarads were to be accepted. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Etest and macrodilution broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida sp strains isolated from oral cavities of AIDS patients

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    SILVA Maria do Rosário R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the Etest and the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test for fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B was performed with 59 of Candida species isolated from the oral cavities of AIDS patients. The Etest method was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the reference method was performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-A guidelines. Our data showed that there was a good correlation between the MICs obtained by the Etest and broth dilution methods. When only the MIC results at ± 2 dilutions for both methods were considered, the agreement rates were 90.4% for itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B and 84.6% for fluconazole of the C. albicans tested. In contrast, to the reference method, the Etest method classified as susceptible three fluconazole-resistant isolates and one itraconazole-resistant isolate, representing four very major errors. These results indicate that Etest could be considered useful for antifungal sensitivity evaluation of yeasts in clinical laboratories.

  1. In vitro synergism of simvastatin and fluconazole against Candida species

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections are responsible for high mortality rates. Several species of fungi may be involved, but Candida spp. is the most prevalent. Simvastatin is used to lower cholesterol and also exhibits antifungal action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic action of simvastatin with fluconazole against strains of Candida spp. Susceptibility testing was performed according to protocol M27-A3, by broth microdilution method and the synergistic effect of simvastatin and fluconazole was calculated based on FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index. Eleven strains were evaluated, and simvastatin showed a synergistic effect with fluconazole against 10 (91% of the Candida spp. strains tested. Simvastatin may be a valuable drug in the treatment of systemic infections caused by Candida spp.

  2. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  3. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyada Ghufrana Nadeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods: A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results: The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion: The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  4. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-02-09

    Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal-tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  5. Optimization of ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase production from date wastes by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acourene, S; Ammouche, A

    2012-05-01

    The present study deals with submerged ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SDB, Aspergillus niger ANSS-B5, and Candida guilliermondii CGL-A10, using date wastes as the basal fermentation medium. The physical and chemical parameters influencing the production of these metabolites were optimized. As for the ethanol production, the optimum yield obtained was 136.00 ± 0.66 g/l under optimum conditions of an incubation period of 72 h, inoculum content of 4% (w/v), sugars concentration of 180.0 g/l, and ammonium phosphate concentration of 1.0 g/l. Concerning citric acid production, the cumulative effect of temperature (30°C), sugars concentration of 150.0 g/l, methanol concentration of 3.0%, initial pH of 3.5, ammonium nitrate concentration of 2.5 g/l, and potassium phosphate concentration of 2.5 g/l during the fermentation process of date wastes syrup did increase the citric acid production to 98.42 ± 1.41 g/l. For the production of α-amylase, the obtained result shows that the presence of starch strongly induces the production of α-amylase with a maximum at 5.0 g/l. Among the various nitrogen sources tested, urea at 5.0 g/l gave the maximum biomass and α-amylase estimated at 5.76 ± 0.56 g/l and 2,304.19 ± 31.08 μmol/l/min, respectively after 72 h incubation at 30°C, with an initial pH of 6.0 and potassium phosphate concentration of 6.0 g/l.

  6. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis in Mashhad, Iran by Use of MALDI-TOF MS

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    Majid Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

     Of the 65 isolates analyzed, 61 (93.8% were recognised by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and for four isolates (6.1% only not relabile identifications were achieved. In this study, the most frequently isolated species were Candida albicans (58.5%, followed by Candida tropicalis (16.9%, Candida glabrata (7.7%, Candida parapsilosis (7.7% and Candida guillermondii (3.1%.  Conclusion presented results demonstrate that the MALDI TOF mass spectrometry is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic identification of Candida species and other yeast strains routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  7. Candida ethanolica n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybárová, J; Stros, F; Kocková-Kratochvílová, A

    1980-01-01

    A new yeast, Candida ethanolica, isolated from industrial fodder yeast cultivated on synthetic ethanol as the only source of carbon, originally designated III-5 and III-6, is described. This species differs from all recently accepted Candida species in not assimilating nitrate, not producing urease and not fermenting sugars.

  8. Study of puromycin and acridic orange strain effect on photoprotection of yeasts Candida guillermondii from the lethal action of short-wave ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Ya.; Strakhovskaya, M.G.; Rubvin, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis inhibitor of puromycin albumen has been used to establish that photoprotection formation in yeasts of a hypothetic compound which protects DNA from lethal damages, is not connected with macromolecular synthesis. The combined effect of photoprotective light and acridic orange strain on cells has been studied. It is shown that the mechanism in the base of the protector action is analogous to the mechanism of DNA protection with acridic orange

  9. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

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    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  10. Culture characteristics of Candida sp in waste conversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of Candida sp. was isolated from ripe banana pulp during the preliminary phase of a process for the production of a protein-enriched feed supplement. Morphological and biochemical tests demonstrated that the strain, which was bipolar and elongated, was not capable of growth at 37ºC but grew at room ...

  11. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  12. Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A.; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M.; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

  13. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  14. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  15. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6% and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%, followed by Candida krusei (25.0%; and Candida tropicalis (4.2%. The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL, followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL, and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL.Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.

  16. The determination of optimal cells disintegration method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rybalkyn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is common infectious disease that affects the mucous membranes, skin, nails, hair, and internal organs. Now Ukraine has neither domestic nor registered imported vaccine against candidiasis. The development of vaccine for prevention and treatment of candidiasis is a key issue in modern medicine and pharmacy. Similar research is actively conducted in many countries of the world: Russia, USA, Japan and others. It should be noted that researchers have not yet reached a consensus view which vaccine is most effective with candidiasis. There are several types of vaccines: live, inactivated, subunit and others. In this article, we consider getting the potential subunit vaccine from Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Subunit vaccine is composed of fragments of antigens that can provide an adequate immune response. These vaccines can be represented by particles of microbes. It is known that the main substances in cells of genus Candida fungi, which have antigenic properties, are proteins and polysaccharides. However, the question of their localization in the layers of the cell wall and cytoplasm nowadays require more detailed studies. Many researchers to highlight cytoplasm antigens and all the other layers of the cell use the following methods: grinding cells with quartz sand, destroying them in different machine disintegrating, freezing and thawing a multi others. To obtain potential subunit vaccine fungi were rejected by methods that are based on the processing of biomass fungi chemicals (extraction, hydrolysis. The aim of this work was to study experimentally the destruction method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Cells of Candida albicans fungi strain CCM 335-867 and Candida tropicalis fungi strain 20336 ATTS have been separately cultured in vitro on agar Sabouraud at 25 ± 2º C for 48 hours and then washed by 10 ml of sterile 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution. Cell suspension of Candida albicans and

  17. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  18. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; vanHoogmoed, CG; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderKuijlBooij, M; vanderMei, HC

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy

  19. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew Z.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, with Candida albicans being the most clinically relevant species. Candida albicans resides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation of C. albicans virulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and within Candida species), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein–DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics in C. albicans and discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  20. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  1. Candida species isolated from different body sites and their antifungal susceptibility pattern: Cross-analysis of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Fazii, Paolo; Traini, Tonino; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-01

    Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C. albicans (44), C. glabrata (13) and C. parapsilosis (13) mainly from Hematology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Neonatology and Oncology Divisions, the majority of the biological samples were swabs (44) and blood cultures (16). The analysis of the biofilm formation was performed at 24 and 48-hours comparing resistant and susceptible strains of C. albicans to resistant and susceptible strains of C. glabrata. Candida albicans has a greater ability to form biofilm compared to C. glabrata, both in the susceptible and resistant strains reaching maturity after 24 hours with a complex structure composed of blastospores, pseudohyphae, and hyphae embedded in a matrix. On the contrary, C. glabrata biofilm was composed exclusively of blastospores that in the resistant strain, after 24 hours, were organized in a compact multilayer different to the discontinuous structure observed in the susceptible analyzed strains. In conclusion, the increasing of the incidence of Candida species infection together with their emerging drug resistance also related to the biofilm forming capability underline the need to monitor their distribution and susceptibility patterns for improving the surveillance and for a correct management of the infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Molecular characterization of Candida isolates from intensive care unit patients, Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, Marianna; Paluchowska, Paulina; Bogusz, Bożena; Budak, Alicja

    Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A total of 132 Candida clinical isolates (62 C. albicans, 40 C. glabrata, 13 C. tropicalis, 11 C. krusei, 6 C. kefyr), obtained from specimens of endotracheal aspirate, urine and blood taken from patients of a tertiary hospital in Poland, were included in the study. Species identification was performed by PCR method and genetic relatedness was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay (RAPD) with five primers. The RAPD analysis revealed high genetic diversity among the studied Candida isolates, indicating that most of the strains were from endogenous sources. Only two clonal strains of C. glabrata isolated from different patients were observed, suggesting a possible cross-transmission of these pathogens. Our study confirmed the high discriminatory power of the RAPD assay. This genotyping method can be applied to local epidemiological studies of Candida species. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  4. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  5. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional strains by using a broth dilution assay standardized according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A assay. Terbinafine was found to have an MIC of 1 μg/ml for reference C. albicans strains. For 259 clinical isolates, the MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of terbinafine was 1 μg/ml (fluconazole, 0.5 μg/ml), and the MIC90 was 4 μg/ml (fluconazole, 1 μg/ml). Terbinafine was highly active against Candida parapsilosis (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and showed potentially interesting activity against isolates of Candida dubliniensis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida humicola, and Candida lusitaniae. It was not active against the Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis isolates in this assay. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus neoformans were highly susceptible to terbinafine, with MICs of 0.06 to 0.25 μg/ml. The NCCLS macrodilution assay provides reproducible in vitro data for terbinafine against Candida and other yeasts. The MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis are compatible with the known clinical efficacy of terbinafine in cutaneous infections, while the clinical relevance of its activities against the other species has yet to be determined. PMID:9593126

  6. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose...

  7. Vaginal Candida spp. genomes from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, L Latéy; Chibucos, Marcus C; Ma, Bing; Bruno, Vincent; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-08-31

    Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four C. albicans and one C. glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. An SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related; however, phylogenetic distances between them suggest that there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments. These sequences will facilitate further comparative analyses and ultimately improve our understanding of genetic variation in isolates of Candida spp. that are associated with VVC. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Li; Ji, Tongzhen; Meng, Lingxin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Xiao; Li, Lin; Lu, Binghuai; Cao, Zheng

    2018-04-20

    Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay. From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8 % when using the molecular method and 15.0 % when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8 %), Candida glabrata (13.5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3.7 %), Candida krusei (2.2 %) and Candida tropicalis (1.1 %). We found that 90.7 % of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6 %). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-08-15

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Rad, M; Zafarghandi, S; Abbasabadi, B; Tavallaee, M

    2011-04-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide. According to previous epidemiological studies, Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida. The prevalence of non-Candida species, however, is increasing. Identification of Candida species among the population will not only help health professionals to choose suitable antifungal treatments, but also prevent development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to identify, using chromogenic agar medium, the Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among a sample of the Iranian population. In a prospective cohort study during a two year period from March 2006 to March 2008, swab samples of vaginal discharge/secretion were taken from 200 patients admitted to the gynecology clinic of Mahdieh Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with a clinical presentation suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates obtained were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and chromogenic agar medium. Candida species were also identified by germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospore production on Corn Meal Agar and carbohydrate absorption using the API 20C-AUX kit. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the risk factors associated with candidiasis. An assessment of the different species of recurrent and non-recurrent candidiasis was also made. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to analyze the data. A total of 191 isolates were obtained from 175 vaginal specimens. Candida albicans accounted for 67% of the strains including single and mixed infections. The other identified species were Candida glabrata (18.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.8%), Candida krusei (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (1.6%), and Candida guilliermondii (0.5%) respectively. Mixed infection with two or more species of Candida was seen in 10.3% of patients. The most common mixed cause was the combination of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Participants who were sexually active

  11. Plasticity of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karla J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Candida albicans, the most pervasive fungal pathogen that colonizes humans, forms biofilms that are architecturally complex. They consist of a basal yeast cell polylayer and an upper region of hyphae encapsulated in extracellular matrix. However, biofilms formed in vitro vary as a result of the different conditions employed in models, the methods used to assess biofilm formation, strain differences, and, in a most dramatic fashion, the configuration of the mating type locus (MTL). Therefore, integrating data from different studies can lead to problems of interpretation if such variability is not taken into account. Here we review the conditions and factors that cause biofilm variation, with the goal of engendering awareness that more attention must be paid to the strains employed, the methods used to assess biofilm development, every aspect of the model employed, and the configuration of the MTL locus. We end by posing a set of questions that may be asked in comparing the results of different studies and developing protocols for new ones. This review should engender the notion that not all biofilms are created equal. PMID:27250770

  12. Rapid Discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis by Use of a Singleplex PCR ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Enache-Angoulvant, A.; Guitard, J.; Grenouillet, F.; Martin, T.; Durrens, P.; Fairhead, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based assay using a single primer pair targeting the RPL31 gene that allows discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis according to the size of the generated amplicon.

  13. Candida species diversity and antifungal susceptibility patterns in oral samples of HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ordóñez, Isadora; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva T; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R

    2017-04-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of carriers of Candida, Candida species diversity, and in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In 297 HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico, Candida strains were identified by molecular methods (PCR-RFLP) from isolates of oral rinses of patients in Tijuana, Mexicali, and Ensenada. 56.3% of patients were colonized or infected with Candida. In Tijuana, there was a significantly higher percentage of carriers (75.5%). Out of the 181 strains that were isolated, 71.8% were Candida albicans and 28.2% were non-albicans species. The most common non-albicans species was Candida tropicalis (12.2%), followed by Candida glabrata (8.3%), Candida parapsilosis (2.2%), Candida krusei (1.7%), and Candida guilliermondii (1.1%). Candida dubliniensis was not isolated. Two associated species were found in 11 patients. In Mexicali and Ensenada, there was a lower proportion of Candida carriers compared to other regions in Mexico and worldwide, however, in Tijuana, a border town with many peculiarities, a higher carrier rate was found. In this population, only a high viral load was associated with oral Candida carriers. Other factors such as gender, use of antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels, time since diagnosis, and alcohol/ tobacco consumption, were not associated with Candida carriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  15. Catalysis by Candida antarctica B (CALB) immobilized on natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this work, a lipase B from Candida antarctica strain was immobilized onto natural silica carriers via adsorption to enhance its feasibility in practical applications. Methodology and results: The biocatalyst was prepared by simple adsorption on the support whose composition was beforehand characterized and the ...

  16. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini-chr...

  17. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of fungal infections worldwide. In the U.S., Candida is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream ...

  18. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  19. Study on chemical analysis, antioxidant and in vitro antifungal activities of essential oil from wild Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds growing in area of Argan Tree of Morocco against clinical strains of Candida responsible for nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdadi, A; Hamdouch, A; Oukacha, A; Moutaj, R; Gharby, S; Harhar, H; El Hadek, M; Chebli, B; Idrissi Hassani, L M

    2015-12-01

    To study the composition, the antioxidant activity and the in vitro antifungal action anti-Candida species of essential oils extracted from seeds of Vite xagnus-castus L. The essential oils were extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity was analyzed using the DPPH free radical-scavenging method. Susceptibility tests for Candida albicans (12), C. dubliniensis (1), C. glabrata (3), C. krusei (3), C. parapsilosis (6), C. lusitaniae (1), C. famata (1) and C. tropicalis (3) were expressed as inhibition zone by the disc-diffusion method and as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) by the broth macrodilution method, compared to amphotricin B and fluconazol as standard drugs. Major components were: 1,8-cineole (19.61%), sabinene (14.57%), α-pinene (9.76%), β-farnesene (6.04%), β-caryophyllene oxide (5.83%) and β-caryophyllene (5.02%). A low antioxidant activity was found (IC50=1.072mg/ml), but it can be exploited. V. agnus-castus seeds essential oils disosed a 35-58mm zone of inhibition (mean: 49mm) against all 30 isolates tested. In broth macrodilution method, all the tested Candida species were susceptible to the essential oils and this activity was concentration-dependent. MIC values varied from 0.13 to 2.13mg/ml V. agnus-castus seeds essential oils. Results of this study indicated that the oils of plant origin could be used as potential anti-Candida species causative agents of nosocomial infections. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. The natural antifungal substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they may represent alternative therapies for candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Clinical features of invasive candidiasis and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in children: a multicenter study in Urumqi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai Er Ken, Ai Bi Bai; Ma, Zhi-Hua; Xiong, Dai-Qin; Xu, Pei-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the clinical features of invasive candidiasis in children and the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection. A retrospective study was performed on 134 children with invasive candidiasis and hospitalized in 5 tertiary hospitals in Urumqi, China, between January 2010 and December 2015. The Candida species distribution was investigated. The clinical data were compared between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection. The risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 134 Candida strains were isolated from 134 children with invasive candidiasis, and non-albicans Candida (NAC) accounted for 53.0%. The incidence of invasive candidiasis in the PICU and other pediatric wards were 41.8% and 48.5% respectively. Sixty-eight patients (50.7%) had Candida bloodstream infection, and 45 patients (33.6%) had Candida urinary tract infection. There were significant differences in age, rate of use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and incidence rates of chronic renal insufficiency, heart failure, urinary catheterization, and NAC infection between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection (Pcandidiasis is similar between the PICU and other pediatric wards. NAC is the most common species of invasive candidiasis. Candida bloodstream infection is the most common invasive infection. Younger age (1-24 months) and NAC infection are the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection.

  1. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (pCandida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis. PMID:27206014

  2. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  3. Epidemiological investigation of Candida species causing bloodstream infection in paediatric small bowel transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Mallory J; Gomes-Neto, João Carlos; Banjara, Nabaraj; Florescu, Diana F; Mercer, David F; Iwen, Peter C; Hallen-Adams, Heather E

    2017-06-01

    Small bowel transplantation (SBT) can be a life-saving medical procedure. However, these recipients experience high risk of bloodstream infections caused by Candida. This research aims to characterise the SBT recipient gut microbiota over time following transplantation and investigate the epidemiology of candidaemia in seven paediatric patients. Candida species from the recipients' ileum and bloodstream were identified by internal transcribed spacer sequence and distinguished to strain by multilocus sequence typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream isolates was determined against nine antifungals. Twenty-two ileostomy samples harboured at least one Candida species. Fungaemia were caused by Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida pelliculosa. All but three bloodstream isolates showed susceptibility to all the antifungals tested. One C. glabrata isolate showed multidrug resistance to itraconazole, amphotericin B and posaconazole and intermediate resistance to caspofungin. Results are congruent with both endogenous (C. albicans, C. glabrata) and exogenous (C. parapsilosis) infections; results also suggest two patients were infected by the same strain of C. parapsilosis. Continuing to work towards a better understanding of sources of infection-particularly the exogenous sources-would lead to targeted prevention strategies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-01-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell. Images PMID:6752021

  5. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-09-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell.

  6. Biophysical Effects of a Polymeric Biosurfactant in Candida krusei and Candida albicans Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella Freitas; Dos Santos Pinto, Bruna Lorrana; Souza, Eliene Batista; Viana, José Lima; Zagmignan, Adrielle; Dos Santos, Julliana Ribeiro Alves; Santos, Áquila Rodrigues Costa; Tavares, Priscila Batista; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Monteiro, Andrea Souza

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a polymeric biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida krusei cells to human buccal epithelial cells and its interference in biofilm formation by these strains. The biofilm inhibition by biosurfactant (25 mg/mL) in C. krusei and C. albicans in polystyrene was reduced up to 79.5 and 85 %, respectively. In addition, the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter of the yeasts altered as a function of the biosurfactant concentration added to the cell suspension. The changes in the cell surface characteristics and the interface modification can contribute to the inhibition of the initial adherence of yeasts cells to the surface. In addition, the analyses of the biofilm matrix and planktonic cell surfaces demonstrated differences in carbohydrate and protein concentrations for the two studied strains, which may contribute to the modulation of cell adhesion or consolidation of biofilms, especially in C. krusei. This study suggests a possible application of the of CLOA72 biosurfactant in inhibiting the adhesion and formation of biofilms on biological surfaces by yeasts of the Candida genus.

  7. FarnesoI beyond morphogenesis controI: effect in Non- Candida albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    Candididasis is one of the most important life-tbreatening opportunistic mycosis mainly occurring in individuais with impaired immunity. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungai isolate, an increase in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species is being reported. ln fact, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are emerging as clinically relevant pathogens. So it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of infection b...

  8. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  9. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  10. Inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Zibafar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Candidiasis associated with indwelling medical devices is especially problematic since they can act as substrates for biofilm growth which are highly resistant to antifungal drugs. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation and biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Since in recent years Candida tropicalis have been reported as an important and common non-albicans Candida species with high drug resistance pattern, the inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis was evaluated. Methods: Five Candida tropicalis strains were treated with different concentration of farnesol (0, 30 and 300 µM after 0, 1 and 4 hrs of adherence and then they were maintained under biofilm formation condition in polystyrene, 96-well microtiter plates at 37°C for 48 hrs. Biofilm formation was measured by a semiquantitative colorimetric technique based on reduction assay of 2,3- bis  -2H-tetrazolium- 5- carboxanilide (XTT. Results: The results indicated that the initial adherence time had no effect on biofilm formation and low concentration of farnesol (30 µM could not inhibit biofilm formation. However the presence of non-adherent cells increased biofilm formation significantly and the high concentration of farnesol (300 µM could inhibit biofilm formation. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the high concentration of farnesol could inhibit biofilm formation and may be used as an adjuvant in prevention and in therapeutic strategies with antifungal drugs.

  11. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism Candida...

  12. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-02-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates were, respectively, 37.0 and 6.0% after 24 h of incubation and 93.6 and 92.2% after 72 h of incubation, with specificities of 99.8 and 100%. Furthermore, CHROMagar Candida plates identified 13 of 14 Candida tropicalis and 9 of 12 Candida krusei strains after 48 h of incubation.

  13. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

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    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  14. Bactericidal activity of culture fluid components of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3, and their capacity to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, I V; Kravtsov, E G; Protsenko, A V; Yashina, N V; Yermolaev, A V; Chesnokova, V L; Dalin, M V

    2007-03-01

    Antagonistic activities of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21), L. casei ATCC 27216, and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and bactericidal activity of lactobacillus culture fluid towards E. coli strain K12, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis test cultures were studied. The bactericidal effect of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation (pH 6.0) on the test cultures was dose-dependent. Adhesion of C. albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epitheliocytes was more pronounced for strains isolated from women with asymptomatic infection than for strains isolated from women with manifest forms. L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation modulated adhesion of yeast-like fungi only if the fungal strain was initially highly adherent.

  15. Enzymatic Activity of Candida spp. from Oral Cavity and Urine in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Dąbkowska, Maria; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Oral colonization with Candida spp. is not synonymous with a systemic active infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate enzymatic activity of Candida strains isolated from the oral cavity in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and to compare it with the activity determined in urine. We studied 32 children with NS and 26 control healthy children. Children with NS were treated with glucocorticosteroids, cyclosporin A, mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine. In all children, API-ZYM enzymatic tests were performed to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes of Candida isolated from the oral cavity and in urine. Candida spp. were isolated from the oral cavity in 11 patients with NS (34.4%), all receiving immunosuppressive treatment. All strains produced valine arylamidase, 9 alpha-glucosidase (E16), and 9 N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (E18). A positive correlation between the presence of Candida in the oral cavity and E16 and E18 enzymatic activity in both oral cavity and urine was found. A dose of cyclosporin A had an effect on the enzymatic activity (p Candida invasion. The results of this study suggest that oral candida infection should be monitored in children with nephrotic syndrome, particularly those treated with immunosuppressive agents.

  16. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    OpenAIRE

    Marol Serhat; Yücesoy Mine

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 ...

  17. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  18. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  19. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  20. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  1. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marol Serhat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  3. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-10-29

    The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  4. Species-Specific and Drug-Specific Differences in Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms to Echinocandins: Characterization of Less Common Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Peshkova, Pavla; Tasina, Efthymia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida species other than Candida albicans are increasingly recognized as causes of biofilm-associated infections. This is a comprehensive study that compared the in vitro activities of all three echinocandins against biofilms formed by different common and infrequently identified Candida isolates. We determined the activities of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) against planktonic cells and biofilms of bloodstream isolates of C. albicans (15 strains), Candida parapsilosis (6 strains), Candida lusitaniae (16 strains), Candida guilliermondii (5 strains), and Candida krusei (12 strains) by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. Planktonic and biofilm MICs were defined as ≥50% fungal damage. Planktonic cells of all Candida species were susceptible to the three echinocandins, with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. By comparison, differences in the MIC profiles of biofilms in response to echinocandins existed among the Candida species. Thus, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii biofilms were highly recalcitrant to all echinocandins, with MICs of ≥32 mg/liter. In contrast, the MICs of all three echinocandins for C. albicans and C. krusei biofilms were relatively low (MICs ≤ 1 mg/liter). While echinocandins exhibited generally high MICs against C. parapsilosis biofilms, MFG exhibited the lowest MICs against these isolates (4 mg/liter). A paradoxical growth effect was observed with CAS concentrations ranging from 8 to 64 mg/liter against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms but not against C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, or C. guilliermondii. While non-albicans Candida planktonic cells were susceptible to all echinocandins, there were drug- and species-specific differences in susceptibility among biofilms of the various Candida species, with C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii exhibiting profiles of high MICs of the three echinocandins. PMID:23529739

  5. Productividad y selectividad del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca en el crecimiento de levaduras nativas del género Candida sp

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    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Productivity and selectivity of culture medium from the sour guava (Psidium araca in the growth of native yeast Candida sp Resumen El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo para evaluar la eficiencia del medio de cultivo a partir de guayaba agria (Psidium araca frente a medios comerciales en el crecimiento de tres cepas nativas: Candida guillermondii, Candida famita y Candida sp. Se evaluó el crecimiento microbiano a diferentes concentraciones de fruta, 5, 10, 25 y 50% p/v, tomando como control los medios comerciales: Malta, Sabouraud y agar papa dextrosa (PDA. La productividad y selectividad del medio de guayaba agria fue determinada mediante el método Ecométrico en un tiempo de 48 horas. Los análisis estadísticos aplicados para evaluar y comparar el crecimiento de las cepas en los medios comerciales y en el medio de guayaba agria a diferentes concentraciones demostraron lo siguiente: Candida guillermondii presentó crecimiento mayor o igual a 25 y 50% p/v comparado con los medios comerciales; Candida famata y Candida sp presentaron mejores crecimientos al 5% p/v, con respecto a los diferentes medios comerciales. Los resultados demostraron que el medio de cultivo es altamente productivo y no selectivo, lo que representa una alternativa en la conservación, el mantenimiento y el desarrollo de las levaduras estudiadas. Palabras clave: método Ecométrico; Candida guillermondii; Candida famata; Candida sp. Abstract This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the culture medium from sour guava (Psidium araca against commercial media in the growth of three native strains: Candida guillermondii, Candida famata and Candida sp. Microbial growth was evaluated at different concentrations of fruit, 5, 10, 25, 50% w /v, using as control the commercial media: Malta, Sabouraud and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar. The productivity and selectivity of the sour guava medium was determined by the Ecometric method in a time of 48 hours

  6. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei: a case report and an updated literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  7. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, A.; Brucker, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45 d ig c , production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C 1 8 : 1 ) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  8. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  9. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

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    Keyvan Pakshir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp, all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7% were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49% demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%. All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis.

  10. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mahboubeh; Nouraei, Hasti; Khodadadi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP) with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp), all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7%) were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49%) demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%). All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis. PMID:29318048

  11. Candida xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic yeast species isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2017-03-01

    Three yeast strains designated as S44, XF1 and XF2, respectively, were isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov of apricot tree in Shule County, Xinjiang, China, and were demonstrated to be a new member of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of S44 (type strain) to all sequences of other Candida yeasts was very low (≦93 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences revealed that the strain S44 is closely related to C. blattae, C. dosseyi, C. pruni, C. asparagi, C. fructus and C. musae. However, the strain S44 is distinguished from these Candida species by the physiological characteristics. Moreover, the strain S44 formed typical pseudohyphae when grown on cornmeal agar at 25 °C for 7 days, but did not form ascospores in sporulation medium for 3-4 weeks. Therefore, the name Candida xinjiangensis is proposed for the novel species, with S44 (=KCTC T 27747) as the type strain.

  12. Effect of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis planktonic/biofilm quorum sensing molecules on yeast morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of this work was to study the effect of farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule for Candida albicans, on morphologic inhibition of Candida dubliniensis. The second goal of this work was to confirm if Candida dubliniensis also excreted quorum sensing molecules, on both planktonic and biofilm forms. The results clearly demonstrate that Candida dubliniensis undergoes morphological alterations triggered by farnesol. It was also found that supernatants of Candida dubliniensis and Ca...

  13. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm -1 . All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Candida Infections and Human Defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Vania; Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio; Zupin, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi. The aim of the current work was to review all previous studies in literature that analysed defensins in the context of Candida spp. infections, in order to investigate and clarify the exact mechanisms of defensins anti-fungal action. Several studies were identified from 1985 to 2017 (9 works form years 1985 to 1999, 44 works ranging from 2000 to 2009 and 35 from 2010 to 2017) searched in two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar). The main key words used for the research were "Candida", "Defensins"," Innate immune system","fungi". The findings of the reviewed studies highlight the pivotal role of defensins antimicrobial peptides in the immune response against Candida infections, since they are able to discriminate host cell from fungi: defensins are able to recognize the pathogens cell wall (different in composition from the human ones), and to disrupt it through membrane permeabilization. However, further research is needed to explain completely defensins' mechanisms of action to fight C. albicans (and other Candida spp.) infections, being the information fragmentary and only in part elucidated. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

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    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  16. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  17. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group...... consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning...... balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P

  18. Emergence of non-albicans Candida among candidal vulvovaginitis cases and study of their potential virulence factors, from a tertiary care center, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Varsha; Banerjee, Tuhina; Kumar, Pankaj; Pandey, Sulekha; Tilak, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Candida species and study some of their virulence factors among thevulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC)patients. The study was conducted in a Tertiary Care University Hospital in North India. This study was carried out prospectively for a period of 1 year. High vaginal swabs (HVSs) were collected from women in childbearing age group attending the gynecology and obstetrics out-patient departments with the complaints suggestive of vulvovaginitis. Samples were plated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar slope. Candida spp. isolated was further speciated based on microscopy, biochemical tests and culture characteristics on special media. Virulence factors of these strains were determined by biofilm formation and phospholipase activity. A total of 464 HVS from 232 patients with the complaints of vulvovaginitis were included in this study. Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%). Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata. Biofilm production was shown by 50 candidal strains (70.4%) and phospholipase activity was given by 41 candidal strains (57.74%). Our study suggests increasing prevalence of non-albicans Candida among the VVC cases along with their virulence factors. Therefore, we recommend that microbiological investigation upto species level should be mandatory to determine the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of VVC.

  19. Emergence of non-albicans Candida among candidal vulvovaginitis cases and study of their potential virulence factors, from a tertiary care center, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Candida species and study some of their virulence factors among thevulvovaginal candidiasis(VVCpatients. Study Design and Settings: The study was conducted in a Tertiary Care University Hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out prospectively for a period of 1 year. High vaginal swabs (HVSs were collected from women in childbearing age group attending the gynecology and obstetrics out-patient departments with the complaints suggestive of vulvovaginitis. Samples were plated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slope. Candida spp. isolated was further speciated based on microscopy, biochemical tests and culture characteristics on special media. Virulence factors of these strains were determined by biofilm formation and phospholipase activity. Result: A total of 464 HVS from 232 patients with the complaints of vulvovaginitis were included in this study. Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%. Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata. Biofilm production was shown by 50 candidal strains (70.4% and phospholipase activity was given by 41 candidal strains (57.74%. Conclusion: Our study suggests increasing prevalence of non-albicans Candida among the VVC cases along with their virulence factors. Therefore, we recommend that microbiological investigation upto species level should be mandatory to determine the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of VVC.

  20. In vitro activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against Candida inconspicua clinical isolates as determined by the time-kill method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Sóczó, Georgina; Miszti, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Candida inconspicua is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients possessing inherently decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. We determined the MICs and killing activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against C. inconspicua clinical isolates as well as reference strain C. inconspicu...

  1. Special Issue: Candida and Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue highlights emerging topics related to Candida, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in the hospital setting. The advantages and limitations of new, non-culture based diagnostic techniques are discussed. The issue reviews mammalian and non-mammalian infection models. The manuscripts present updates on several molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, including filamentation, biofilm formation, and phospholipid production.

  2. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins.

  3. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  4. Menadione 処理した Candida albicans ROS 生産機構の解析

    OpenAIRE

    上野, 将明; 小笠原, 綾子; 渡部, 俊彦; 三上, 健; 松本, 達二; ウエノ, ユキヒロ; オガサワラ, アヤコ; ワタナベ, トシユキ; ミカミ, タケシ; マツモト, タツジ; Yukihiro, UENO; Ayako, OGASAWARA; Toshihiko, WATANABE; Takeshi, MIKAMI; Tatsuji, MATSUMOTO

    2008-01-01

    Menadione shows anti Condida activity by promoting ROS production. However, the ROS production mechanism has not been clarifield. Thus, in this study, we studied thr relation between anti Candida activity of menadione and ROS production. Menadione inhibited the growth of C. albicans BWP17 strain, the growth of C. albicans JM02 strain was not inhibited. ROS production in C. albicans BWP17 strain was enhanced by addition of menadione. The ROS production in C. albicans JM02 strain was also enhan...

  5. Screening of pharmacologically active small molecule compounds identifies antifungal agents against Candida biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eWatamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida species have emerged as important and common opportunistic human pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently effect. The aim of this study is develop new small-molecule antifungal compounds by library screening methods using C. albicans, and to evaluate their antifungal effects on Candida biofilms and cytotoxic effects on human cells. Wild-type C. albicans strain SC5314 was used in library screening. To identify antifungal compounds, we screened a small-molecule library of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280TM using an antifungal susceptibility test (AST. To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using Candida strains in various growth modes, including biofilms. We tested the cytotoxicity of the hit compounds using human gingival fibroblast (hGF cells to evaluate their clinical safety. Only 35 compounds were identified by screening, which inhibited the metabolic activity of C. albicans by >50%. Of these, 26 compounds had fungistatic effects and 9 compounds had fungicidal effects on C. albicans. Five compounds, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate, ellipticine and CV-3988, had strong fungicidal effects and could inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida biofilms. However, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine were cytotoxic to hGF cells at low concentrations. CV-3988 showed no cytotoxicity at a fungicidal concentration.Four of the compounds identified, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine, had toxic effects on Candida strains and hGF cells. In contrast, CV-3988 had fungicidal effects on Candida strains, but low cytotoxic effects on hGF cells. Therefore, this screening reveals agent, CV-3988 that was previously unknown to be antifungal agent, which could be a novel therapies for superficial mucosal

  6. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  7. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The constants obtained for this model were µmax = 0.246 h-1, Ks = 16.95 mg/L and Ki = 604.85 mg/L.Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradação de catecol em frascos de Erlenmeyers em água residuária sintética pela levedura Candida parapsilopsis. As respostas dos ensaios cinéticos mostraram que altas concentrações de catecol ocasionaram uma fase lag longa para a levedura. Portanto, a aclimatização da cultura de levedura empregada para biodegradação de catecol é de fundamental importância, sendo possível reduzir toda a concentração inicial de catecol da água residuária sintética de 910 mg/L em 48 horas. Os dados experimentais da cinética de biodegradação do catecol foram ajustados pelo modelo de Haldane adequadamente, sobre a faixa de concentração de catecol investigada de 36 a 910 mg/L. Os parâmetros cinéticos obtidos do modelo de Haldane foram: µmax = 0,246 h-1, Ks = 16,95 mg/L e Ki = 604,85 mg/L.

  8. Effect of Low-Level Laser therapy on the fungal proliferation of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Araújo, Natália C.; Menezes, Rebeca F. d.; Moreno, Lara M.; Santos-Neto, Alexandrino d. P.; Gerbi, Marleny Elizabeth M.

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans plays an important role in triggering infections in HIV+ patients. The indiscriminate use of antifungals has led to resistance to Candida albicans, which requires new treatment alternatives for oral candidiasis. Low-level laser therapy promotes a considerable improvement in the healing of wounds and in curing illnesses caused by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser radiation on the cell proliferation of Candida albicans in immunosuppressed patients. Six Candida albicans strains that had been isolated from immunosuppressed patients were divided into a control group and experimental groups, which received eight sessions of laser therapy (InGaAlP, λ685nm, P = 30mW, CW, Φ~6 mm and GaAlAs, λ830nm, P = 40mW, CW, Φ~6 mm) using dosimetries of 6J/cm2, 8J/cm2, 10J/cm2 and 12J/cm2 for each wavelength and power. The results were not statistically significant (Kruskal Wallis, p > 0.05), although the proliferation of Candida albicans was lower in some of the experimental groups. The dosimetry of 6J/cm2 (GaAlAs, λ830nm, P = 40mW) provided lower mean scores than the other groups for the growth of Candida. Further studies are required to confirm whetehr laser therapy is a viable option in the treatment of fungal infections.

  9. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  10. Distribution of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species in oral candidiasis patients: Correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muadcheingka, Thaniya; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to study the prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) species from oral candidiasis patients and evaluate the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biofilm forming capacity of the clinical isolates Candida species from oral cavity. This study identified a total of 250 Candida strains isolated from 207 oral candidiasis patients with PCR-RFLP technique. CSH value, total biomass of biofilm and biofilm forming ability of 117 oral Candida isolates were evaluated. C. albicans (61.6%) was still the predominant species in oral candidiasis patients with and without denture wearer, respectively, followed by C. glabrata (15.2%), C. tropicalis (10.4%), C. parapsilosis (3.2%), C. kefyr (3.6%), C. dubliniensis (2%), C. lusitaniae (2%), C. krusei (1.6%), and C. guilliermondii (0.4%). The proportion of mixed colonization with more than one Candida species was 18% from total cases. The relative CSH value and biofilm biomass of NAC species were greater than C. albicans (poral isolates NAC species had biofilm forming ability, whereas 78% of C. albicans were biofilm formers. Furthermore, the significant difference of relative CSH values between biofilm formers and non-biofilm formers was observed in the NAC species (poral cavity was gradually increasing. The possible contributing factors might be high cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability. The relative CSH value could be a putative factor for determining biofilm formation ability of the non-albicans Candida species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Candida-specific chicken egg yolk antibodies to inhibit the adhering of Candida to denture base materials: prevention of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Yoshiaki; Fujisaki, Junichi; Nagayama, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kiyotsugu; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Hamada, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Ryoich; Mukai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-Candida chicken egg yolk antibodies (anti-IgY) were used to investigate the prevention of adherence of Candida species to denture base material in vitro. Candida is a potential virulence factor that can cause systemic infection and even death in immunocompromised individuals. Because long-term antifungal treatment may lead to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, it is necessary to develop novel preventive measures and treatments for candidiasis. Three types of chicken egg yolk antibodies were used in this study: non-specific antibody (control IgY), Candida albicans-specific antibody (anti-C.a.IgY) and Candida glabrata-specific antibody (anti-C.g.IgY). A mixture of different dilutions of each antibody with a suspension of Candida species and denture base material was incubated for 3 h, and then the colony-forming units of Candida on the denture base material were counted. Compared with control IgY, anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY significantly inhibited the adherence of C. albicans, but anti-C.a.IgY tended to be more potent than anti-C.g.IgY. The adherence of C. glabrata was also inhibited significantly by anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY with almost equivalent potency, indicating that their actions against C. glabrata were comparable. This study revealed the inhibitory effects of anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY against the adherence of C. albicans and C. glabrata to denture base material. This finding indicates the possibility of a beneficial effect of IgYs for the prevention of denture stomatitis and candidiasis in clinical settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Production of sophorolipids biosurfactants by multiple species of the Starmerella (Candida) bombicola yeast clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophorolipid production was tested for 26 strains representing 19 species of the Starmerella yeast clade, including S. bombicola and Candida apicola, which were previously reported to produce sophorolipids. Five of the 19 species tested showed significant production of sophorolipids: S. bombicola, ...

  13. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    , Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  14. Some properties on the application of Candida utilis TISTR No. 5001 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To stimulate and maintain Candida utilis TISTR No. 5001 as the dominant strain in the SBR system, the initial pH of wastewater had to be controlled in the acidic range (5-6). The laboratory scale SBR system (10-L reactor volume) with C. utilis TISTR No. 5001 (Y-SBR system) operating at 1 cycle/day, ambient temperature ...

  15. Selection of lactose-fermenting yeast for ethanol production from whey. [Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, M E; Castillo, F J

    1982-01-01

    Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected from among 9 strains of lactose-fermenting yeasts on the basis of its ability to ferment concentrated whey. In 28% deproteinized whey solutions it produced an average of 12.4% EtOH. This yeast could be used in a process for whey treatment.

  16. Anti-Candida Properties of Urauchimycins from Actinobacteria Associated with Trachymyrmex Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Thais D.; Borges, Warley S.; Solomon, Scott E.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Duarte, Marta C. T.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.

    2013-01-01

    After decades of intensive searching for antimicrobial compounds derived from actinobacteria, the frequency of isolation of new molecules has decreased. To cope with this concern, studies have focused on the exploitation of actinobacteria from unexplored environments and actinobacteria symbionts of plants and animals. In this study, twenty-four actinobacteria strains isolated from workers of Trachymyrmex ants were evaluated for antifungal activity towards a variety of Candida species. Results revealed that seven strains inhibited the tested Candida species. Streptomyces sp. TD025 presented potent and broad spectrum of inhibition of Candida and was selected for the isolation of bioactive molecules. From liquid shake culture of this bacterium, we isolated the rare antimycin urauchimycins A and B. For the first time, these molecules were evaluated for antifungal activity against medically important Candida species. Both antimycins showed antifungal activity, especially urauchimycin B. This compound inhibited the growth of all Candida species tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values equivalent to the antifungal nystatin. Our results concur with the predictions that the attine ant-microbe symbiosis may be a source of bioactive metabolites for biotechnology and medical applications. PMID:23586060

  17. Fluconazole and amphotericin-B resistance are associated with increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Blanco Linares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Candida dubliniensis, a new species of Candida that has been recovered from several sites in healthy people, has been associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidiasis in AIDS and HIV-positive patients. This species is closely related to C. albicans. The enzymatic activity of C. dubliniensis in response to oxidative stress is of interest for the development of drugs to combat C. dubliniensis. Methods Fluconazole- and amphotericin B-resistant strains were generated as described by Fekete-Forgács et al. (2000. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase assays were performed as described by McCord and Fridovich (1969 and Aebi (1984, respectively. Results We demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase activities were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the fluconazole- and amphotericin B-resistant strains of C. dubliniensis and C. albicans than in the sensitive strains. The catalase and SOD activities were also significantly (p<0.01 higher in the sensitive and resistant C. albicans strains than in the respective C. dubliniensis strains. Conclusions These data suggest that C. albicans is better protected from oxidative stress than C. dubliniensis and that fluconazole, like amphotericin B, can induce oxidative stress in Candida; oxidative stress induces an adaptive response that results in a coordinated increase in catalase and SOD activities.

  18. Comparative Phenotypic Analysis of the Major Fungal Pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M.; Schröder, Markus S.; Turner, Siobhán A.; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis. PMID:25233198

  19. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either

  20. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  1. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  2. [Evaluation of Vitek 2 for the identification of Candida yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiuzzi, María E; Cataldi, Silvana; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of Vitek 2 YST cards (bioMérieux, Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) for the identification of yeasts of the genus Candida. A total of 168 isolates were analyzed and the results were compared to those of the API 20 C AUX (24%) o API ID 32 C (76%) kits (bioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France). Each isolate was grown in chromogenic agar and in corn meal agar (Oxoid, UK) to observe its micromorphology. C. albicans and C. dublininesis were identified by additional biochemical and molecular tests. The agreement observed was 98.3%. Only three isolates were incorrectly identified by Vitek 2: one strain of C .tropicalis and one strain of C. krusei were identified as C. parapsilosis by YST while one strain of C. krusei was identified with low discrimination. The average time for obtaining results was 18.25 h. Vitek 2 is a simple, safe and useful system for the identification of significant Candida species. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Candida tropicalis CE017: a new Brazilian enzymatic source for the bioreduction of aromatic prochiral ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Gizelle A.B.; Araujo, Daniel M. de Freitas; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Melo, Vania M.M.; Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Gotor-Fernandez, Vicente; Gotor, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The reactivity and stereoselectivity showed by a new strain of Candida tropicalis in the reduction of prochiral ketones have been compared with the ones previously attained in our laboratory using microorganisms from the Brazilian biodiversity. In this manner, Candida tropicalis has demonstrated its versatility as stereoselective agent in the bioreduction of a series of aromatic ketones. These prochiral compounds were converted into their corresponding optically alcohols with moderate to excellent stereopreference depending on the substrate structure. Among ketones tested, nitroacetophenones were enzymatically reduced to enantiopure (S)-alcohol with complete conversion. (author)

  4. Candida tropicalis CE017: a new Brazilian enzymatic source for the bioreduction of aromatic prochiral ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Gizelle A.B.; Araujo, Daniel M. de Freitas; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Mattos, Marcos Carlos de; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Melo, Vania M.M., E-mail: mcdmatto@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Gonzalo, Gonzalo de; Gotor-Fernandez, Vicente; Gotor, Vicente [Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Univ. de Biotecnologia de Asturias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2010-07-01

    The reactivity and stereoselectivity showed by a new strain of Candida tropicalis in the reduction of prochiral ketones have been compared with the ones previously attained in our laboratory using microorganisms from the Brazilian biodiversity. In this manner, Candida tropicalis has demonstrated its versatility as stereoselective agent in the bioreduction of a series of aromatic ketones. These prochiral compounds were converted into their corresponding optically alcohols with moderate to excellent stereopreference depending on the substrate structure. Among ketones tested, nitroacetophenones were enzymatically reduced to enantiopure (S)-alcohol with complete conversion. (author)

  5. In Vitro Activity of Tea Tree Oil Vaginal Suppositories against Candida spp. and Probiotic Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Maura; Mattarelli, Paola; Modesto, Monica; Girolamo, Antonietta; Ballardini, Milva; Tamburro, Annunziata; Meledandri, Marcello; Mondello, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro microbicidal activity of vaginal suppositories (VS) containing tea tree oil (TTO-VS) towards Candida spp. and vaginal probiotics. A total of 20 Candida spp. strains, taken from patients with vaginitis and from an established type collection, including reference strains, were analysed by using the CLSI microdilution method. To study the action of VS towards the beneficial vaginal microbiota, the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (DSM 10140) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei R-215 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R-52) was tested. Both TTO-VS and TTO showed fungicidal activity against all strains of Candida spp. whereas placebo-VS or the Aloe gel used as controls were ineffective. The study of fractional fungicidal concentrations (FFC) showed synergistic interaction with the association between Amphotericin B and TTO (0.25 to 0.08 µg/ml, respectively) against Candida albicans. Instead, the probiotics were only affected by TTO concentration ≥ 4% v/v, while, at concentrations vaginal microbiota. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the efficacy to prevent acute or recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Fungicidal efficacy of various honeys against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from HIV+ patients with candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, H; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Honey is well known to possess a broad spectrum of activity against medically important organisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of different honeys against 40 fluconazole (FLU) resistant Candida species, including Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Three honey samples were collected from northern (Mazandaran, A), southern (Hormozgan, B) and central (Lorestan, C) regions of Iran. A microdilution technique based on the CLSI, M27-A2 protocol was employed to compare the susceptibility of honeys "A", "B" and "C" against different pathogenic Candida isolates. The results showed that different Candida isolates were resistant to FLU, ranging from 64μg/mL to 512μg/mL. All of the honeys tested had antifungal activities against FLU-resistant Candida species, ranging from 20% to 56.25% (v/v) and 25% to 56.25% (v/v) for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), respectively. Honey "A" (MIC: 31.59%, v/v) showed higher anti-Candida activity than honey "B" (MIC: 35.99%, v/v) and honey "C" (MIC: 39.2%, v/v). No statistically significant differences were observed among the mean MIC values of the honey samples (P>0.05). The order of overall susceptibility of Candida species to honey samples were; C. krusei>C. glabrata>C. tropicalis>C. albicans (P>0.05). In addition, the mean MICs of Candida strains isolated from the nail, vagina and oral cavity were 33.68%, 36.44% and 39.89%, respectively, and were not significantly different (P>0.05). Overall, varying susceptibilities to the anti-Candida properties of different honeys were observed with four FLU-resistant species of Candida. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of honey as an inhibitor of candidal growth in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  8. Comparison of the Candida albicans and biofilm formation amount on natural tooth,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Polat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the retention of the Candidaalbicans and biofilm formation on natural teeth, porcelainand acrylic resin.Materials and methods: Samples are taken with thesterile ecuvion sticks from the buccal embrasures of thenatural tooth, porcelain and acrylic. The biofilm productionof candida reproducing strains was determined withmicroplate method. Samples are settled in 0.5 ml sterilephosphate buffered saline. Reproduction detected coloniesdefined to species in accordance with their macroscopicand microscopic features and germ tube test inmicrobiology laboratory.Results: There was significant differences for retention ofCandida albicans and biofilm formation on the surface oftooth, porcelain and acrylic (p<0.05.Conclusion: Adherence of Candida albicans and biofilmformation on the porcelain significantly less than naturaltooth and acrylic, and retention and biofilm formation onthe tooth less than acrylic.

  9. Anaerobic organic acid metabolism of Candida zemplinina in comparison with Saccharomyces wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Ildikó; Nyitrai-Sárdy, Diána; Leskó, Annamária; Pomázi, Andrea; Kállay, Miklós

    2014-05-16

    Organic acid production under oxygen-limited conditions has been thoroughly studied in the Saccharomyces species, but practically never investigated in Candida zemplinina, which seems to be an acidogenic species under oxidative laboratory conditions. In this study, several strains of C. zemplinina were tested for organic acid metabolism, in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces uvarum and Candida stellata, under fermentative conditions. Only C. stellata produced significantly higher acidity in simple minimal media (SM) with low sugar content and two different nitrogen sources (ammonia or glutamic acid) at low level. However, the acid profile differed largely between the Saccharomyces and Candida species and showed inverse types of N-dependence in some cases. Succinic acid production was strongly enhanced on glutamic acid in Saccharomyces species, but not in Candida species. 2-oxoglutarate production was strongly supported on ammonium nitrogen in Candida species, but remained low in Saccharomyces. Candida species, C. stellata in particular, produced more pyruvic acid regardless of N-sources. From the results, we concluded that the anaerobic organic acid metabolisms of C. zemplinina and C. stellata are different from each other and also from that of the Saccharomyces species. In the formation of succinic acid, the oxidative pathway from glutamic acid seems to play little or no role in C. zemplinina. The reductive branch of the TCA cycle, however, produces acidic intermediates (malic, fumaric, and succinic acid) in a level comparable with the production of the Saccharomyces species. An unidentified organic acid, which was produced on glutamic acid only by the Candida species, needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  11. Yeasts from Scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber): A focus on monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of Candida famata and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Maia Junior, José Erisvaldo; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify yeasts from the gastrointestinal tract of scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and from plant material collected from the environment where they live. Then, the isolates phenotypically identified as Candida famata were submitted to molecular identification of their closely related species and evaluated for their antifungal susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. Cloacal swabs from 20 scarlet ibises kept in captivity at Mangal das Garças Park (Brazil), pooled stool samples (n = 20) and samples of trunks and hollow of trees (n = 20) obtained from their enclosures were collected. The samples were seeded on Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The 48 recovered isolates were phenotypically identified as 15 Candida famata, 13 Candida catenulata, 2 Candida intermedia, 1 Candida lusitaniae, 2 Candida guilliermondii, 1 Candida kefyr, 1 Candida amapae, 1 Candida krusei, 8 Trichosporon spp., and 4 Rhodotorula spp. The C. famata isolates were further identified as 3 C. famata, 8 Debaryomyces nepalensis, and 4 C. palmioleophila. All C. famata and C. palmioleophila were susceptible to caspofungin and itraconazole, while one D. nepalensis was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. This same isolate and another D. nepalensis had lower amphotericin B susceptibility. The azole resistant strain had an increased efflux of rhodamine 6G and an alteration in the membrane sterol content, demonstrating multifactorial resistance mechanism. Finally, this research shows that scarlet ibises and their environment harbor C. famata and closely related species, including antifungal resistant isolates, emphasizing the need of monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of these yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbery, Peter E

    2011-08-16

    The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. This Review describes our current understanding of the network of signal transduction pathways that monitors environmental cues to activate a programme of hypha-specific gene transcription, and the molecular processes that drive the highly polarized growth of hyphae.

  13. Regression analysis and categorical agreement of fluconazole disk zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution of clinical isolates of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P; Kashyap, B

    2017-06-01

    Rampant use of fluconazole in Candida infections has led to predominance of less susceptible non-albicans Candida over Candida albicans. The aim of the study was to determine if zone diameters around fluconazole disk can be used to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for clinical isolates of Candida species and vice versa. Categorical agreement between the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended disk diffusion and CLSI broth microdilution method was sought for. Antifungal susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and Broth microdilution was done as per CLSI document M44-S3 and CLSI document M27-S4 for Candida isolates respectively. Regression analysis correlating zone diameters to MIC value was done. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to determine correlation between disk zone diameters and MICs. Candida albicans (33.3%) was clearly outnumbered by other non-albicans species predominantly Candida tropicalis (42.5%) and Candida glabrata (18.4%). Ten percent of the strains were resistant to fluconazole by disk diffusion and 13% by broth microdilution. MIC range for Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis ranged from≤0.25-64μg/ml while that of Candida glabrata ranged from≤0.25-128μg/ml. Categorical agreement between disk diffusion and broth microdilution was 86.8%. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was -0.5975 indicating moderate negative correlation between the two variables. Zone sizes can be used to estimate the MIC values, although with limited accuracy. There should be a constant effort to upgrade the guidelines in view of new clinical data, and laboratories should make an active effort to incorporate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravin Charles, M V; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-06-01

    In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  15. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  16. Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniela; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

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    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  18. In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and hyaluronic acid on the growth of vulvovaginal Candida albicans and other yeasts

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    Martina Stevan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The present study aimed to test the in vitro activity against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains of 18-β glycyrrhetinic acid (18-β GA and hyaluronic acid (HA, both alone and in combination. This antimicrobial activity was assessed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS method on Candida strains that were isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC. Results. Our results demonstrate that the anti-Candida activity is independent from antifungal susceptibility level and the fact that the growth inhibition is stronger at acidic pH level makes the two drugs a promising biological alternative for the topical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and RVVC. Conclusions. Furthermore, the reduction of both budding cells formation and germ tube elongation, on mammalian cell monolayers, may explain the observed growth inhibition and suggest a decreased virulence, respectively.

  19. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  20. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

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    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of a Catabolite Repression-Insensitive Mutant of a Methanol Yeast, Candida boidinii A5, Producing Alcohol Oxidase in Glucose-Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Sawai, Tohru; Tani, Yoshiki

    1987-01-01

    Mutants exhibiting alcohol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.13) activity when grown on glucose in the presence of methanol were found among 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants derived from a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5. One of these mutants, strain ADU-15, showed the highest alcohol oxidase activity in glucose-containing medium. The growth characteristics and also the induction and degradation of alcohol oxidase were compared with the parent strain and mutant strain ADU-15. In the parent strain, initia...

  2. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Koh, Yoon-Woo; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Park, Jung-Mi

    2008-01-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  3. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media

    OpenAIRE

    Citiulo, Francesco; Moran, Gary; COLEMAN, DAVID; SULLIVAN, DEREK

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida species that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that...

  4. Diminished Antimicrobial Peptide and Antifungal Antibiotic Activities against Candida albicans in Denture Adhesive

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    Amber M. Bates

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of denture stomatitis may be related to the long-term use of adhesives, which may predispose individuals to oral candidiasis. In this study, we hypothesize that antimicrobial peptides and antifungal antibiotics have diminished anti-Candida activities in denture adhesive. To show this, nine antimicrobial peptides and five antifungal antibiotics with and without 1.0% denture adhesive were incubated with Candida albicans strains ATCC 64124 and HMV4C in radial diffusion assays. In gels with 1.0% adhesive, HNP-1, HBD2, HBD3, IP-10, LL37 (only one strain, histatin 5 (only one strain, lactoferricin B, and SMAP28 showed diminished activity against C. albicans. In gels with 1.0% adhesive, amphotericin B and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride were active against both strains of C. albicans. These results suggest that denture adhesive may inactivate innate immune mediators in the oral cavity increasing the risk of C. albicans infections, but inclusion of antifungal antibiotics to denture adhesive may aid in prevention or treatment of Candida infections and denture stomatitis.

  5. Investigation of possible virulence factors in Candida strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-16

    Jun 16, 2014 ... and aspartic proteinases), catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heat‑shock proteins ..... oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Gokce G, Cerikcioglu N, Yagci A. Acid proteinase, phospholipase, and biofilm.

  6. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: effect on matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Silva, S; Negri, M; Gorup, L F; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different silver nanoparticles (SN) concentrations on the matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. Candida biofilms were developed in 6-well microtiter plates during 48 h. After, these biofilms were exposed to 13.5 or 54 μg SN ml(-1) for 24 h. Then, extracellular matrices were extracted from biofilms and analysed chemically in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. To investigate the biofilm structure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used. SN interfered with the matrix composition of Candida biofilms tested in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA, except for the protein content of C. albicans biofilm. By SEM, Candida biofilms treated with SN revealed structural differences, when compared with the control groups. Further, SN showed a trend of agglomeration within the biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopy images suggest that SN induced damage on cell walls of the Candida isolates tested. In general, irrespective of concentration, SN affected the matrix composition and structure of Candida biofilms and these findings may be related to the mechanisms of biocide action of SN. This study reveals new insights about the behaviour of SN when in contact with Candida biofilms. SN may contribute to the development of therapies to prevent or control Candida infections. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Growth conditions for the biomass yield of two methanol utilizing yeast spp. , Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    More than 580 MeOH utilizing yeasts were isolated from samples collected throughout South Korea. Of these, 2 strains showed good biomass yield and were selected and tentatively identified as Candida melinii and Rhodotorula glutinis glutinis. Experiments on growth conditions for these 2 species were performed. Optimum pH was 2.6 for Candida, 5.2 for Rhodotorula, and the temperature optimum was 28 to 30/sup 0/ for both. Maximum biomass yield was 4.32 g/L for Candida and 4.2l g/L for Rhodotorula. Optimum concentrations were (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.3%, Mg/sup +/ 400 ppM, Fe/sup +/ 10 to 15 ppM for Candida and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.3% Mg/sup +/ 600 ppM Ca/sup +/ 2 ppM for Rhodotorula. Biotin stimulated Candida. Protein contents of the dry cell biomass were 39.3% in Candida and 44.0% in Rhodotorula.

  9. Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, a hitherto unknown property of yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Brink, Jolanda A. van den; Veenhuis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of utilizing uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil by the enrichment culture method. The strains were identified as Candida famata (Harrison) Meyer et Yarrow and Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurm., Gougerot et Vaucher) Ota. On the subcellular

  10. Susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida spp. from blood and feces collected in Novi Sad in 3-year period (2008-2010

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    Jelesić Zora Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an important emerging nosocomial infection in patients with risk factors. Candida species from nonsterile sites can give insight into the characteristics of strains that may cause invasive disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of Candida blood and fecal isolates in Novi Sad, Vojvodina. During a 3-year period (2008 to 2010, 424 isolates of Candida spp. were collected, 30 bloodstream isolates and 394 strains from fecal samples. In vitro susceptibility of these isolates to five antifungal agents was established using commercial ATB FUNGUS 3 (Bio-Mérieux. Predominant species was Candida albicans (6 isolates from blood and 269 from feces. Resistance to one or more antifungal agents was less common in Candida albicans (3.63% than in other species (24.83%. Resistance to itraconazole was the most commonly found in both groups of isolates, 9.64% strains from feces and 20% from blood samples. Twelve isolates were multiply resistant, usually to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Resistance to amphotericine B was extremely rare. Although resistance to antimycotics of Candida spp. is rare at present, continued surveillance of antifungal susceptibility is necessary in order to monitor trends, and to choose the right empiric therapy.

  11. Comparison of enzymatic activities in different Candida species isolated from women with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahinia, M; Halvaeezadeh, M; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A

    2017-06-01

    Comparing the activities of secreted enzymes in different fungal species can improve our understanding of their pathogenic role. Secretion of various enzymes by Candida species has been considered for determination of their virulence in different Candida infections including vulvovaginitis. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the activity of secreted enzymes in Candidia strains isolated from women suspected to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and referred to some health centers in Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran. The vaginal secretion samples were taken by swap from 250 suspected women with symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. Identification of the isolated Candida from culture positive samples performed by the color of colonies and some standard mycological procedures. Activities of phospholipase, hemolysin-α, hemolysin-β, esterase and proteinase were measured in vitro by standard laboratory protocols. The enzymatic activity index (EAI) was calculated for each enzyme in accordance to relevant protocols. Totally in eighty cases (32%), a Candida strain was isolated which found to be as 52 (65%) Candida albicans; 12 (15%) C. glabrata; 10 (12.5%) C. dubliniensis; 4 (5%) C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis species (each=1; 1.3%). Among C. albicans strains, 89.1% produced all studied enzymes, while 86% of C. glabrata strains failed to produce proteinase and phospholipase. The EAIs in decreasing order were as hemolysin-β=0.2895, hemolysin-α=0.5420, esterase=0.5753, proteinase=0.7413, and phospholipase=0.7446, respectively. Activity of phospholipase, esterase and proteinase secreted by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were significantly more than those released by C. glabrata and C. krusei, while 86% of C. glabrata strains did not show esterase activity. On the other hand, the activity rates of hemolysin α and β among all studied isolates were almost similar. In the present study, the prevalence

  12. Sensibilidade de leveduras do gênero Candida, isoladas de pacientes com câncer, a antifúngicos poliênicos Candida from cancer patients: susceptibility "in vitro" to polyene antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Hartz Alves

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio da determinação da CIM (Concentração Inibitória Mínima e da CFM (Concentração Fungicida Mínima, os autores compararam a sensibilidade de amostras de Candida isoladas de pacientes com câncer, com as de cepas isoladas de pacientes sem câncer, frente à anfotericina B e a nistatina. Os autores não verificaram diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos estudados e discutem o fenômeno da resistência de Candida a antifungicos poliênicosCandida strains susceptibility from cancer patients were compared with Candida strains susceptibility from patients, without cancer by MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and MFC (Minimal Fungicidal Concentration to Amphotericin B and Nystatin. Broth dilution method and Agar dilution method were the procedure employed. The authors find no significant differences between the studied groups. The problem of Candida resistance to polyene antifungals is discussed

  13. Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore

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    N Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.

  14. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  15. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215). C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81%) patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177) of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177), C. krusei 5.6% (10) and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177). Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90), 7.7% (7/90) and 4.7% (4) of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:23398783

  16. Isolation of L-methionine-enriched mutant of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii No.2201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Y.; Lim, W.J.; Yang, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Six strains of methylotrophic yeast were examined for production of L-methionine-enriched cells. Candida boidinii (kloeckera sp.) No. 2201,which accumulated 0.54 mg/g-dry cell weight (DCW) of free L-methionine (pool methionine), was selected as the parental strain for breeding L-methionine-rich mutants. Ethionine-resistant mutants were derived from the strain by UV irradiation. A mutant strain, E500-78,which was resistant to 500 μg/ml of DL-ethionine, accumulated 6.02 mg/g-DCW of pool methionine. The culture conditions for mutant strain E500-78 to increase pool methionine accumulation were optimized. As a result, the mutant strain accumulated 8.80 mg/g-DCW of pool methionine and contained 16.02 mg/g-DCW total methionine

  17. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

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    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  18. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtman, E.A.

    1983-09-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole.

  19. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  20. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, E.A.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, New York

    1983-01-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole. (orig.)

  1. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  2. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  3. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  4. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AND YEAST-LIKE FUNGI OF THE GENUS CANDIDA, ISOLATED FROM ONCOLOGICAL PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fomina NS; Fomin OO

    2012-01-01

    The results of the spectrum of microorganisms, which are the causative agents of infectious complications of the oral cavity in patients with oncological pathology are presented in the article. The sensitivity of isolated clinical strains of microorganisms to antibiotics, antifungal, antiseptic decasan, miramistin, gorosten, septefril is shown. The results of antiseptic resistance formation to staphylococci and Candida to dekasan, miramistin, septefril, gorosten are described.

  5. Calcineurin signaling and membrane lipid homeostasis regulates iron mediated multidrug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hameed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that iron deprivation enhances drug susceptibility of Candida albicans by increasing membrane fluidity which correlated with the lower expression of ERG11 transcript and ergosterol levels. The iron restriction dependent membrane perturbations led to an increase in passive diffusion and drug susceptibility. The mechanisms underlying iron homeostasis and multidrug resistance (MDR, however, are not yet resolved. To evaluate the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS based lipidome analyses of iron deprived Candida cells to examine the new cellular circuitry of the MDR of this pathogen. Our transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and iron homeostasis. Among the several categories of iron deprivation responsive genes, the down regulation of calcineurin signaling genes including HSP90, CMP1 and CRZ1 was noteworthy. Interestingly, iron deprived Candida cells as well as iron acquisition defective mutants phenocopied molecular chaperone HSP90 and calcineurin mutants and thus were sensitive to alkaline pH, salinity and membrane perturbations. In contrast, sensitivity to above stresses did not change in iron deprived DSY2146 strain with a hyperactive allele of calcineurin. Although, iron deprivation phenocopied compromised HSP90 and calcineurin, it was independent of protein kinase C signaling cascade. Notably, the phenotypes associated with iron deprivation in genetically impaired calcineurin and HSP90 could be reversed with iron supplementation. The observed down regulation of ergosterol (ERG1, ERG2, ERG11 and ERG25 and sphingolipid biosynthesis (AUR1 and SCS7 genes followed by lipidome analysis confirmed that iron deprivation not only disrupted ergosterol biosynthesis, but it also affected sphingolipid homeostasis in Candida cells. These lipid compositional changes suggested extensive remodeling of the membranes in iron

  6. Protection of mice from oral Candidiasis by heat-killed enterococcus faecalis, possibly through its direct binding to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Hayama, Kazumi; Ninomiya, Kentaro; Iwasa, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Abe, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new therapy against oral candidiasis, a commensal microorganism, Enterococcus faecalis was tested for its ability to modulate Candida growth in vitro and its therapeutic activities against a murine model in vivo. Addition of heat-killed E. faecalis strain EF2001 (EF2001) isolated from healthy human feces to the culture of C. albicans strain TIMM1768 inhibited adherence of the latter to a microtiter plate in a dose dependent manner and Candida cells surrounded by EF2001 were increased. To examine the protective activities of EF2001 in vivo, heat-killed EF2001 was applied orally before and after inoculation of Candida to the tongue of mice previously immunosuppressed. Two days after inoculation this inoculation, both the symptom score and CFU from swabbed-tongue were significantly reduced in the EF2001-treated animals. Histological analysis indicated that EF2001 may potentiate the accumulation of polymorphnuclear cells near a Candida-infected region. These results suggest that oral administration of EF2001 has protective activity against oral candidiasis and that the in vivo activity may be reflected by direct interaction between EF2001 and Candida cells in vitro and the potentiation of an immunostimulatory effect of EF2001.

  7. Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test

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    Fatemeh Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranges for clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients underwent endoscopy (130 specimens from gastritis and 70 samples from esophagitis were included in this study between April 2015 and November 2015. All specimens were subcultured on sabouraud dextrose agar, and genomic DNA of all strains was extracted using boiling method. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region were used for the identification of all Candida strains. MIC ranges were determined for itraconazole (ITC, amphotericin B (AmB, and fluconazole (FLU by E-test. Results: Twenty of 200 suspected patients (10% were positive by direct microscopy and culture. Candida albicans was the most common species (60% followed by Candida glabrata (30%, Candida parapsilosis (5%, and Candida kefyr (5%. MIC ranges were determined for FLU (0.125–8 μg/mL, ITC (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, and AmB (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Every colonization of Candida species should be considered as a potentially factor of mucocutaneous candidiasis and should be treated with antifungal drugs.

  8. Ecology of Candida-associated Denture Stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Ejvind

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of a prosthesis into the oral cavity results in profound alterations of the environmental conditions as the prosthesis and the underlying mucosa become colonized with oral microorganisms, including Candida spp. This may lead to denture stomatitis, a non-specific inflammatory reaction against microbial antigens, toxins and enzymes produced by the colonizing microorganisms. The role of Candida in the etiology of denture stomatitis is indicated by an increased number of yeasts on th...

  9. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Claudio Maranhão; Pires,Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa,Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior,Osvaldo; Almeida,Oslei Paes de

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  10. Candida parapsilosis in domestic laundry machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dögen, Aylin; Sav, Hafize; Gonca, Serpil; Kaplan, Engin; Ilkit, Macit; Novak Babic, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis, although a human commensal, acts as an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections, with a rising incidence worldwide. Its ecological characteristics are poorly understood. Human-made environments within dwellings, such as dishwashers and water distribution systems, represent major sources of fungi such as C. parapsilosis. Here, we investigated the presence of members of the C. parapsilosis complex in 99 washing machines in various dwellings in the city of Mersin, Turkey. We sampled three sites in each washing machine: (i) the washing powder drawers, (ii) fabric softener drawers, and (iii) rubber seals around the washing machine doors. Additionally, we recorded the type of cleanser used by each customer. Of note, 25.3% of sampled washing machines harbored C. parapsilosis strains, later identified as the members of the C. parapsilosis sensu stricto via internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Out of the 29 isolates obtained, biofilm-forming ability and proteinase and esterase activities were recorded in 14, 11, and 4 of the isolates, respectively. Our results suggest that the washing machines investigated abundantly harbored C. parapsilosis sensu stricto; however, no single preferred isolation site or association with cleanser type was observed (P > .05). Furthermore, C. parapsilosis isolates grew at temperatures ranging from 10°C to 37°C, at pH values ranging from 4 to 10, and were found to tolerate 5-10% NaCl. Domestic laundry appliances as a potential source of C. parapsilosis infections are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  12. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; O, Joo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  13. FKS2 Mutations Associated with Decreased Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida glabrata following Anidulafungin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Miranda, Isabel Marcos; Silva, Raquel M.; Pinto e Silva, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Amorim, Antonio; Rodrigues, Acacio Goncalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia

    2011-01-01

    This is the first case report of Candida glabrata-disseminated candidiasis describing the acquisition of echinocandin resistance following anidulafungin treatment. The initial isolates recovered were susceptible to echinocandins. However, during 27 days of anidulafungin treatment, two resistant strains were isolated (from the blood and peritoneal fluid). The resistant peritoneal fluid isolate exhibited a Ser663Pro mutation in position 1987 of FKS2 HS1 (hot spot 1), whereas the resistant blood...

  14. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    2018-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast isolates,

  15. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  16. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts : Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, Tahereh; Aslani, Narges; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Meyabadi, Masoumeh Fatahi; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.; Boekhout, Teun; Kolecka, Anna; Badali, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  17. Histone deacetylases and their inhibition in Candida species

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    Cecile Garnaud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs towards Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation.

  18. The Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Teucrium polium on Candida Albicans and Two Species of Malassezia

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    Maryam Nadimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teucrium polium L. is a medicinal plant, which due to its antimicrobial, antispasmodic and anti-tumor properties has been used in traditional medicine for over 2000 years. The aim of this research was to study the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L. against three strains of Candida albicans (ATCC 62061, ATCC 1677, and NCPF 3153, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa using pour plate method. Materials and Methods: Teucrium polium L. was collected from Broojen area during the spring. The plant was dried and powdered. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared from the fine powder. Different concentrations of extracts (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml were made in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and modified Leeming-Notman Agar (MLNA medium for Candida albicans, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa. 1.5×106 cfu/ml of yeasts, were cultured on media and incubated at 37ºC and 32ºC respectively. Pour plate method was used to assess the antifungal activity of these extracts.Results: The inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Teucrium polium L. on the three strains of Candida albicans was depended on concentration level of extracts in media. Aqueous extract had inhibitory effect on Candida albicans (NCPF 3153 only, and with increasing of the extract concentration, the number of colonies was decreased, so that in concentration of 8 mg/ml, no growth was seen. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts had no inhibitory effect on Malassezia species. Conclusion: Teucrium polium L. extracts have considerable inhibitory effect on different strains of Candida albicans. Further investigations are needed to detect the effectiveness of this plant in treatment of Candida infections.

  19. Retrospective study of Candida sp. contaminations of endoscopes at the University Hospital of Tlemcen (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaine-Lahfa, I; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Sari-Belkherroubi, L; Boucherit, K

    2017-06-01

    Improper cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes has been responsible for multiple nosocomial outbreaks and sometimes serious life-threatening infections. The aim of our study is, at first, to identify Candida species responsible for the contamination of endoscopes, and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of planktonic (MIC) and sessile cells (SMIC) of amphotericin B (AmB) against our isolated strains. The present study was performed on four endoscopes in the department of gastroenterology at the University Hospital of Tlemcen (Algeria). A total of 300 samples from endoscopes were examined over a period of 3years. Thirty-four strains of Candida sp. were isolated, representing 11.33% of the considered samples. The number of isolated strains dropped significantly in the second and the third year compared to the first year of our study. After testing the antifungal property of amphotericin B, we showed clearly that the sessile cells of Candida sp. were much more resistant than their planktonic counterparts (suspended cells). The methods of sterilization of the endoscopes are very important; drying by compressed air is a critical step that reduces significantly the number of yeasts contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri has antifungal effects on oral Candida species in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Twetman, Svante

    2017-01-01

    Background: An alternative approach for managing Candida infections in the oral cavity by modulating the oral microbiota with probiotic bacteria has been proposed. Objective: The aim was to investigate the antifungal potential of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) against six oral Candida species ( C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis , and C. parapsilosis ). Design: The lactobacilli were tested for their ability to co-aggregate with and inhibit the growth of the yeasts assessed by spectrophotometry and the agar overlay inhibition assay. Additionally, the pH was evaluated with microsensors, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the lactobacilli was verified. Results: Both L. reuteri strains showed co-aggregation abilities with the yeasts. The lactobacilli almost completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis , but did not affect C. krusei . Statistically significant differences in co-aggregation and growth inhibition capacities between the two L. reuteri strains were observed (preuteri exhibited antifungal properties against five of the six most common oral Candida species. Further, the results reconfirms that the probiotic capacity of L. reuteri is strain specific.

  1. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-08-01

    identified (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. The objective of this work was to evaluate frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of diabetic patients taken care in the service of endocrinology of the University Hospital Walter Cantídio of the Federal University of the Ceará. Samples had been collected of 48 diabetic patients, men and women, with various situations of glicemic control. Clinical materials had been collected with aid of swab and harvested in plates of Petri contend Sabouraud agar dextrose with cloranfenicol and incubated to 37°C. The grown were identified by the used classic tests in mycology. In the following, these Candida strains were submitted to tests to detect phospholipase and proteinase enzymes. Of these, 15 samples (31,35% presented positive culture for the genera Candida. The species more frequent was C. albicans with 80%, followed by C. tropicalis (13.3% and C. guilliermondii (6.7%. Asfor the research on the enzymatic activity of Candida sp. it was observed that 86.6% presented activity of proteinase and 80% of phospholipase. It was concluded with these results that C. albicans is more frequent and that Candida spp. isolated species have strong enzymatic activity.

  2. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on C. albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  3. Exoenzyme activity and possibility identification of Candida dubliniensis among Candida albicans species isolated from vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Maryam; Salari, Samira; Pakshir, Keyvan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or vaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals causing inflammation, irritation, itching, and vaginal discharge. Common yeast infections are caused by the yeast species C. albicans. However, there are other species of Candida such as C. dubliniensis which are considered as the causative agents of this infection. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinase and coagulase are known as virulence factors. The aim of this study was the molecular confirmation and differentiation of C. dubliniensis among C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the evaluation of proteinase and coagulase activities. A total of 100 C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis referred to Shiraz medical clinics were enrolled in the study. All the isolates were primarily identified by conventional methods. PCR-RFLP method was used for the confirmation and identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Moreover, in vitro proteinase and coagulase activities of these isolates were evaluated using bovine serum albumin media and classical rabbit plasma tube test. As a result, PCR-RFLP identified 100% of the isolates as C. albicans, and no C. dubliniensis could be identified in this study. 84% of the isolates showed proteinase activity, whereas coagulase activity was only detected in 5% of the isolates. This study reveals that C. dubliniensis plays no role in vaginal candidiasis in Iranian patients. Proteinase production could be an essential virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenicity, but coagulase activity has less potential in this matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thinking beyond the Common Candida Species: Need for Species-Level Identification of Candida Due to the Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Jackson, Brendan R; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Pappas, Peter G; Chiller, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Candida species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Because much of the treatment for Candida infections is empirical, some institutions do not identify Candida to species level. With the worldwide emergence of the multidrug-resistant species Candida auris , identification of Candida to species level has new clinical relevance. Species should be identified for invasive candidiasis isolates, and species-level identification can be considered for selected noninvasive isolates to improve detection of C. auris . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts by analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.D.; Choo, K.B.; Tsai, W.C.; Jen, T.M.; Yeh, J.Y.; Han, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts based on autoradiographic analysis of protein profiles of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cellular proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using ATCC strains as references, protein profile analysis showed that different Candida and other yeast species produced distinctively different patterns. Good agreement in results obtained with this approach and with other conventional systems was observed. Being accurate and reproducible, this approach provides a basis for the development of an alternative method for the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens

  6. Promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral Candida biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Marion; Guerineau, Amandine; Boudesocque, Leslie; Costa, Damien; Bazinet, Laurent; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Imbert, Christine

    2014-04-01

    In the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) and two other red fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Malpighia punicifolia L.) were assessed on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata yeasts. When added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against Candida spp. when used at low concentrations. In addition, the pretreatment of surfaces with this extract induced an anti-adhesion activity mainly against C. glabrata yeasts and an antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. This activity was dependent on concentration, species, and strain. A phytochemical investigation bioguided by anti-adhesion tests against the two Candida species was carried out on crude cranberry juice to determine the active fractions. Three subfractions enriched in proanthocyanidins showed an anti-adhesion activity at low concentrations. This study investigated for the first time the interest of crude extracts of cranberry and cranberry juice fractions to prevent biofilms of C. glabrata. It highlighted the potency of consuming this fruit and using it as a source of anti-adhesion agents. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing antifungal effects of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum extract with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite all the progress that has been made in the manufacture of synthetic drugs, herbal drugs are increasingly taken into account. This is due to the growing belief that they have fewer side effects compared to synthetic ones. Objective: To compare the antifungal effects of extracts of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum with Nystatin on Candida Albicans. Methods: This inviro trial accomplished in the school of dentistry of Tehran University in 2012. From the mouths of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were sampled using sterile swabs. Candida Albicans strains were isolated from samples and standard Candida Albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured too. Then extract of Zatariamultiflora and Punicagranatum to be obtained and antifungal of extract studied with disk diffusion method. Antifungal power of each of the extracts on the inhibition zone diameter was created in the medium. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Friedman statistical tests. Findings: Results showed extracts of Zataria and pomegranate flowers have antifungal significant effects (P<0.001. Diameter of inhabitation zone was 17.66±./75 mm in Nystatin group and in the Zataria and pomegranate flowers extracts groups was lower (P<0.001. None of the negative control disc did inhibition zone in the medium. Conclusion: With due attention of Zataria and pomegranate flowers extracts exhibited antifungal effects on Candida Albincans.

  8. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Ahmad A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Al-Aboosi, Mustafa M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oral Candida colonization and candidosis in a group of patients with psoriasis and controls. A total of 100 patients with psoriasis and matched controls underwent the concentrated oral rinse test for Candida isolation. Candida species were identified by the VITEK 2 Identification System. Categorical variables were evaluated using the χ(2) test. The median Candida count was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 3% of the patients with psoriasis. The Candida count and prevalence were significantly higher in the patients with psoriasis compared with controls (69% vs 44%, P Oral Candida was significantly higher in late-onset (at age ≥30 years) compared with early-onset psoriasis (at age oral Candida colonization and candidiasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the predisposing factor(s) for oral Candida in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... This study compared the susceptibility of six dental restorative materials to Candida albicans adhesion. ... found for the composite and the compomer samples. ..... Candida colonization on acrylic resins and denture liners:.

  10. Molecular genetic techniques for gene manipulation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Rong; Yan, Lan; Lv, Quan-Zhen; Zhou, Mi; Sui, Xue; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2014-05-15

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen in humans due to its high frequency as an opportunistic and pathogenic fungus causing superficial as well as invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. An understanding of gene function in C. albicans is necessary to study the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, virulence and drug resistance. Several manipulation techniques have been used for investigation of gene function in C. albicans, including gene disruption, controlled gene expression, protein tagging, gene reintegration, and overexpression. In this review, the main cassettes containing selectable markers used for gene manipulation in C. albicans are summarized; the advantages and limitations of these cassettes are discussed concerning the influences on the target gene expression and the virulence of the mutant strains.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects and anti-Candida activity of lactobacilli in macrophages and in invertebrate model of Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; de Barros, Patricia Pimentel; Begnini, Barbara Evelyn; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-09-01

    Due to the growing number of multi-resistant Candida spp., adjuvant treatments that may help combat these fungal pathogens are relevant and useful. This study evaluated the immunomodulation and anti-Candida activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei suspensions, either single- or multiple-strain, in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Galleria mellonella (GM). Mouse macrophages were activated by different lactobacilli suspensions and challenged with C. albicans (CA). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 production and cell viability were investigated. LR was the best suspension for stimulating all evaluated cytokines and thus was used in subsequent in vivo assays. Two C. albicans clinical strains, CA21 and CA60, were then added to the GM assays to further confirm the results. LR suspension was injected into the larvae 24 h before challenging with CA. Survival curve, CFU per larva and hemocytes were counted. In the GM, the LR suspension increased the survival rate and hemocyte counts and decreased the CFU per larva counts for all groups. Lactobacilli suspensions presented strain-dependent immunomodulation; however, single suspensions showed better results. Anti-Candida activity was demonstrated by decreased Candida counts in the GM with the use of LR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary Screening of 10 - Hydroxy - 2 - Decenoic Acid Productive Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, eleven strains, which vere screened strictly from raw royal.jelly, soil and honeycomb etc. by means of dilution plate and spread plate methods, were cultured at 28°C for60 h with shaking. To determine whether they could yield 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid during fermentation, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were used. The results showed that the strains BH002 and BH004. were both identified as Crvtococcaceae. where BH002 was primarily classified into Candida for possessing the abilities. The 10-HDA productivity of Candida BH002 and that of BH004 were 0.327% and 0.2648% respectively.

  13. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-12-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  14. In vitro sensitivity of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans to chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, T; Salmela, I

    1978-06-01

    Strains of fresh clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans have been tested in vitro for their sensitivity to eight drugs used in the therapy of monilial and trichomonal vaginitis. Three of the chemotherapeutic agents, chlorchinaldol, clotrimazole and broxyquinoline were effective against both organisms. Tinidazole and metronidazole were active against T. vaginalis. The strains of C. albicans were also sensitive to trichomycin, natamycin and nystatin. Tinidazole was the most effective trichomonacide, clotrimazole and chlorchinaldol were most effective against C. albicans, while chlorchinaldol had the best in vitro effect against both organisms. The ranges of the MICs are compared to values previously reported.

  15. In vitro synergistic activity of lidocaine and miconazole against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição dos Santos Oliveira Cunha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the main yeast isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC and a major antifungal used to treat VVC is miconazole (MZ, it shows local toxic effects, such as irritation and burns. The lidocaine (LD is a local anesthetic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic activity of LD/MZ against 19 strains of C. albicans isolated from vaginal secretion. 78.9% of the strains were susceptible to the combination LD/MZ, demonstrating synergism of drugs. These drugs can be used to produce vaginal creams to treat VVC, especially drug resistant.

  16. Molecular identification and distribution profile of Candida species isolated from Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Ghahri, Mohammad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Jalalizand, Nilufar; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-08-01

    A total of 855 yeast strains isolated from different clinical specimens, mainly nail (42%) and vulva-vagina (25%) were identified by a set of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh colonies using Whatman FTA Card technology. PCR assays were performed on the complete ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region for all isolates and species identification was carried out through their specific electrophoretic profiles after digestion with the enzyme MspI. Those isolates suspected as Candida parapsilosis group were then subjected to amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH) gene and restriction digestion with NlaIII enzyme. In total, 71.1% of the strains were obtained from females and 28.9% from males. The age group of 31-40 years consisted of the highest frequency of patients with candidiasis. Candida albicans was the predominant species (58.6%) followed by C. parapsilosis (11.0%), C. glabrata (8.3%), C. tropicalis (7.0%), C. kefyr (5.8%), C. krusei (4.4%), C. orthopsilosis (2.1%), and C. guilliermondii (0.6%). A few strains of C. lusitaniae, C. rugosa, C. intermedia, C. inconspicua, C. neoformans and S. cerevisiae were isolated. We could not identify 8 (0.9%) isolates. Candida albicans remains the most frequently species isolated from Iranian patients; however, the number of non-C. albicans Candida species looks to be increasing. The simple and reliable PCR-RFLP system used in the study has the potential to identify most clinically isolated yeasts.

  17. Effect of oral antiseptic agents on phospholipase and proteinase enzymes of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun-Can, Banu; Kadir, Tanju; Gumru, Birsay

    2016-02-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most prevalent form of oral candida infections among the denture wearers. Generally, antiseptic oral rinses used in the treatment of these infections are considered as an adjunct or alternative antifungal treatment. Studies have suggested that the intraoral concentrations of antiseptics decrease substantially to the sub-therapeutic levels on account of the dynamics of the oral cavity. This condition yields the question about the minimum antiseptic concentration that effect the character or pathogenesis of Candida during treatment. The extracellular phospholipase and proteinase enzymes of Candida albicans are regarded to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human fungal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, hexetidine and triclosan on the production of these enzymes by C. albicans strains isolated from 20 patients with denture stomatitis. Phospholipase test was done by using Sabouraud dextrose agar with egg yolk, proteinase test was done by using bovine serum albumin agar. Phospholipase test was done by using Sabouraud dextrose agar with egg yolk, proteinase test was done by using bovine serum albumin agar. Exoenzyme production of 20 strains which were brief exposured to sub-therapeutic concentrations of three antiseptic agents decreased significantly compared with the strains that were not exposured with antiseptic values (pantiseptics (pantiseptic was compared, there were no significant differences between enzymatic activities (p>0.05). The results of this study show that sub-therapeutic levels of each antiseptic may modulate candidal exoenzyme production, consequently suppressing pathogenicity of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana in pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, María Josefina; Cuestas, María Luján; Landanburu, María Fernanda; Mujica, María Teresa

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulvovaginitis commonly diagnosed in gynecology care. In recent years, the taxonomy of the most important pathogenic Candida species, such as Candida albicans have undergone significant changes. This study examined the prevalence of C. albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal specimens from 210 pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginitis or having asymptomatic colonization. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used for the identification of the species. During the studied period, 55 isolates of Candida or other yeasts were obtained from specimens collected from 52 patients suffering from vulvovaginitis (24.8%). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species in 42 isolates (80.7%), either alone or in combination with other species of the genus (5.7%, n=3). Additionally, nine isolates of C. albicans (50%) were obtained from asymptomatic patients (n=18). C. dubliniensis was the causative agent in 2 (3.8%) cases of VVC, and was also isolated in one asymptomatic patient. Molecular assays were carried out using specific PCR to amplify the ACT1-associated intron sequence of C. dubliniensis. The amplification of the HWP1 gene also correctly identified isolates of the species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was isolated in this work. Some C. albicans isolates were either homozygous or heterozygous at the HWP1 locus. The distribution of heterozygous and homozygous C. albicans isolates at the HWP1 locus was very similar among patients suffering from VVC and asymptomatic patients (p=0.897). The presence of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, and the absence of C. africana in pregnant is noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Furfural tolerance and detoxification mechanism in Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Cheng, Gang; Joshua, Chijioke; He, Zijun; Sun, Xinxiao; Li, Ruimin; Liu, Lexuan; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    by 1.59-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively. Candida tropicalis was a robust strain with intrinsic tolerance to inhibitor furfural. The mechanism of furfural detoxification and metabolic responses were identified by multiple analyses. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1 was confirmed to be responsible for furfural detoxification. C. tropicalis showed a complex regulation system during furfural detoxification to minimize adverse effects caused by furfural. Furthermore, the mechanism we uncovered in this work was successfully applied to enhance E. coli 's furfural tolerance by heterologous expression of ctADH1 . The study provides deeper insights into strain modification for biofuel production by efficient lignocellulose fermentation.

  20. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  1. Activities of Fluconazole, Caspofungin, Anidulafungin, and Amphotericin B on Planktonic and Biofilm Candida Species Determined by Microcalorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolo, Elena Maryka; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Borens, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the activities of fluconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and amphotericin B against Candida species in planktonic form and biofilms using a highly sensitive assay measuring growth-related heat production (microcalorimetry). C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis were tested, and MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. The antifungal activities were determined by isothermal microcalorimetry at 37°C in RPMI 1640. For planktonic Candida, heat flow was measured in the presence of antifungal dilutions for 24 h. Candida biofilm was formed on porous glass beads for 24 h and exposed to serial dilutions of antifungals for 24 h, and heat flow was measured for 48 h. The minimum heat inhibitory concentration (MHIC) was defined as the lowest antifungal concentration reducing the heat flow peak by ≥50% (≥90% for amphotericin B) at 24 h for planktonic Candida and at 48 h for Candida biofilms (measured also at 24 h). Fluconazole (planktonic MHICs, 0.25 to >512 μg/ml) and amphotericin B (planktonic MHICs, 0.25 to 1 μg/ml) showed higher MHICs than anidulafungin (planktonic MHICs, 0.015 to 0.5 μg/ml) and caspofungin (planktonic MHICs, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml). Against Candida species in biofilms, fluconazole's activity was reduced by >1,000-fold compared to its activity against the planktonic counterparts, whereas echinocandins and amphotericin B mainly preserved their activities. Fluconazole induced growth of planktonic C. krusei at sub-MICs. At high concentrations of caspofungin (>4 μg/ml), paradoxical growth of planktonic C. albicans and C. glabrata was observed. Microcalorimetry enabled real-time evaluation of antifungal activities against planktonic and biofilm Candida organisms. It can be used in the future to evaluate new antifungals and antifungal combinations and to study resistant strains. PMID:24566186

  2. Pathogenic characteristics of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of denture wearers and cancer patients wearing oral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, J V; Patel, M

    2017-09-01

    Candida albicans cause opportunistic infections including oral candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. It has an ability to cause infection due to its virulence factors. This study investigated the pathogenic characteristics of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavities of healthy subjects and two vulnerable groups, denture wearers and cancer patients wearing oral prostheses. Oral rinse samples were collected and cultured for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Candida. Twenty strains of C. albicans isolated from the healthy individuals and denture wearers and, 14 strains isolated from the cancer patients were selected and their pathogenic characteristics were measured. The results of the study groups were compared using a Scheffe test for pairwise comparison and a chi square test. Denture wearer and cancer patients with prostheses carried significantly higher number (p production were significantly higher in the strains from denture wearers. In addition, high number of isolates from the denture wearers produced phospholipase and proteinase (85% and 80% respectively) compared to the strains from normal subjects (25% and 60% respectively). Only the germ tube formation and adherence ability were significantly higher in the strains from the cancer patients with prostheses (p = 0.05 and p oral cavity and prostheses is important in the prevention of colonization of Candida and the development of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of action of herbal antifungal alkaloid berberine, in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiveeni Dhamgaye

    Full Text Available Candida albicans causes superficial to systemic infections in immuno-compromised individuals. The concomitant use of fungistatic drugs and the lack of cidal drugs frequently result in strains that could withstand commonly used antifungals, and display multidrug resistance (MDR. In search of novel fungicidals, in this study, we have explored a plant alkaloid berberine (BER for its antifungal potential. For this, we screened an in-house transcription factor (TF mutant library of C. albicans strains towards their susceptibility to BER. Our screen of TF mutant strains identified a heat shock factor (HSF1, which has a central role in thermal adaptation, to be most responsive to BER treatment. Interestingly, HSF1 mutant was not only highly susceptible to BER but also displayed collateral susceptibility towards drugs targeting cell wall (CW and ergosterol biosynthesis. Notably, BER treatment alone could affect the CW integrity as was evident from the growth retardation of MAP kinase and calcineurin pathway null mutant strains and transmission electron microscopy. However, unlike BER, HSF1 effect on CW appeared to be independent of MAP kinase and Calcineurin pathway genes. Additionally, unlike hsf1 null strain, BER treatment of Candida cells resulted in dysfunctional mitochondria, which was evident from its slow growth in non-fermentative carbon source and poor labeling with mitochondrial membrane potential sensitive probe. This phenotype was reinforced with an enhanced ROS levels coinciding with the up-regulated oxidative stress genes in BER-treated cells. Together, our study not only describes the molecular mechanism of BER fungicidal activity but also unravels a new role of evolutionary conserved HSF1, in MDR of Candida.

  4. Fluconazole induces rapid high-frequency MTL homozygosis with microbiological polymorphism in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Yih Ou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans, a common fungal pathogen that can cause opportunistic infections, is regarded as an apparently asexual, diploid fungus. A parasexual cycle was previously found between homozygotes with opposite mating type-like loci (MTLa/α. Fluconazole-resistant strains had a higher proportion of MTL homozygotes, whereas MTL homozygous C. albicans was found in only about 3.2% of clinical strains. MTL heterozygotes had a low frequency (1.4 × 10−4 of white–opaque switching to MTL homozygotes in nature. Methods: Here, a reference C. albicans strain (SC5314 was used in a fluconazole-induced assay to obtain standard opaque MTL homozygous strains and first-generation daughter strains from the fluconazole inhibition zone. Further separation methods were employed to produce second- and third-generation daughter strains. Polymerase chain reaction analysis based on MTL genes was used to define MTL genotypes, and microscopic observations, a flow-cytometric assay, and an antifungal E-test were used to compare microbiological characteristics. Results: MTL homozygotes were found at a high frequency (17 of 35; 48.6% in fluconazole-induced first-generation daughter strains, as were morphological polymorphisms, decreased DNA content, and modified antifungal drug susceptibility. High-frequency MTL homozygosity was identified inside the fluconazole inhibition zone within 24 hours. The DNA content of fluconazole-induced daughter strains was reduced compared with their progenitor SC5314 and standard MTL homozygous strains. Conclusion: Treatment with fluconazole, commonly used to treat invasive candidiasis, inhibited the growth of C. albicans and altered its microbiological characteristics. Our results suggest that fluconazole treatment induces the high frequency of loss of heterozygosity and microbiological polymorphism in C. albicans. Keywords: Candida albicans, fluconazole, loss of heterozygosity, mating type-like gene

  5. Antimicrobial Effect of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on Some Oral Bacteria and Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Acid producing bacteria including Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli cause tooth demineralization and lead to tooth decay. Also, oral colonization of the species of Candida has been reported in many studies that are resistant to antifungal agents. Objectives: In this study, antibacterial and antifungal effects of nano-CuO were studied against some oral bacteria and yeast fungi. Materials and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs for oral bacterial and fungal test strains were determined in 96-well microtiter plate technique. The agar diffusion test (ADT was employed to assess the antifungal properties of nystatin. Results: The MIC50 value of CuO NPs was determined at the range of 1–10 µg/ml for S. mutans, < 1 µg/ml for L. acidophilus, and 10 µg/ml for L. casei. Higher concentrations of CuO NPs (100-1000 µg/ml were effective on the bacterial cell growth, resulting in 100% reduction in the optical density in TSB medium. The cells of Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. glabrata were treated with CuO NPs and the results showed a decrease in fungal growth at a concentration of 1-1000 µg/ml in TSB medium. The MIC50 value of CuO NPs was determined 1000 µg/ml for three species of Candida. The diameter of growth inhibition zones of 1100 µg/ml nystatin was obtained 15-21 mm for clinical isolates of three species of Candida. Conclusions: With respect to the potential bactericidal activity of CuO NPs on various cariogenic bacteria examined in this study, these NPs could be introduce as a candidate control agent for preventing dental caries or dental infections. In our study, on the other hand, Nano copper oxide had a weak effect on the candida species.

  6. Genetic and phenotypic intra-species variation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Matthew P; Martinez, Diego A; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Anderson, Matthew Z; Berlin, Aaron; Gujja, Sharvari; Zeng, Qiandong; Zisson, Ethan; Wang, Joshua M; Greenberg, Joshua M; Berman, Judith; Bennett, Richard J; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-03-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus of the human gastrointestinal tract and a prevalent opportunistic pathogen. To examine diversity within this species, extensive genomic and phenotypic analyses were performed on 21 clinical C. albicans isolates. Genomic variation was evident in the form of polymorphisms, copy number variations, chromosomal inversions, subtelomeric hypervariation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and whole or partial chromosome aneuploidies. All 21 strains were diploid, although karyotypic changes were present in eight of the 21 isolates, with multiple strains being trisomic for Chromosome 4 or Chromosome 7. Aneuploid strains exhibited a general fitness defect relative to euploid strains when grown under replete conditions. All strains were also heterozygous, yet multiple, distinct LOH tracts were present in each isolate. Higher overall levels of genome heterozygosity correlated with faster growth rates, consistent with increased overall fitness. Genes with the highest rates of amino acid substitutions included many cell wall proteins, implicating fast evolving changes in cell adhesion and host interactions. One clinical isolate, P94015, presented several striking properties including a novel cellular phenotype, an inability to filament, drug resistance, and decreased virulence. Several of these properties were shown to be due to a homozygous nonsense mutation in the EFG1 gene. Furthermore, loss of EFG1 function resulted in increased fitness of P94015 in a commensal model of infection. Our analysis therefore reveals intra-species genetic and phenotypic differences in C. albicans and delineates a natural mutation that alters the balance between commensalism and pathogenicity. © 2015 Hirakawa et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Typing and virulence factors of food-borne Candida spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2018-08-20

    Food-borne yeasts, excluding yeasts used as starter cultures, are commonly considered as food spoilage microorganisms. However, the incidence of non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) infections has increased considerably over the past two decades. Although 15 Candida species are frequently identified as pathogens, a threat to human from food-borne Candida is poorly recognized. In the present study food-borne NCAC were characterized for the virulence factors, known to be associated with yeast pathogenicity. All food-borne strains in planktonic forms and 89% in biofilm structures represented biotypes established for C. albicans, and 61% demonstrated hemolytic activity. 56-94% of food-borne isolates formed biofilms on glass and biomaterials at a level comparable to clinical C. albicans. Nine out of eighteen tested food-borne NCAC strains (C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. famata, C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis) showed similarity to clinical C. albicans in terms of their biotypes and the tested virulence factors, allocating them in a group of risk of potential pathogens. However, their capacity to grow at 37 °C seems to be the preliminary criterion in the study of potential virulence of food-borne yeasts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Candida albicans Hom6 is a homoserine dehydrogenase involved in protein synthesis and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen in humans. In healthy individuals, C. albicans represents a harmless commensal organism, but infections can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients. The complete genome sequence of C. albicans is extremely useful for identifying genes that may be potential drug targets and important for pathogenic virulence. However, there are still many uncharacterized genes in the Candida genome database. In this study, we investigated C. albicans Hom6, the functions of which remain undetermined experimentally. Methods: HOM6-deleted and HOM6-reintegrated mutant strains were constructed. The mutant strains were compared with wild-type in their growth in various media and enzyme activity. Effects of HOM6 deletion on translation were further investigated by cell susceptibility to hygromycin B or cycloheximide, as well as by polysome profiling, and cell adhesion to polystyrene was also determined. Results: C. albicans Hom6 exhibits homoserine dehydrogenase activity and is involved in the biosynthesis of methionine and threonine. HOM6 deletion caused translational arrest in cells grown under amino acid starvation conditions. Additionally, Hom6 protein was found in both cytosolic and cell-wall fractions of cultured cells. Furthermore, HOM6 deletion reduced C. albicans cell adhesion to polystyrene, which is a common plastic used in many medical devices. Conclusion: Given that there is no Hom6 homologue in mammalian cells, our results provided an important foundation for future development of new antifungal drugs. Keywords: Candida albicans, cell adhesion, Hom6, homoserine dehydrogenase, protein synthesis

  9. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  10. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 μg/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 μg/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Sensitivity of Candida albicans to essential oils: are they an alternative to antifungal agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar ™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. High prevalence of oral colonization by Candida dubliniensis in HIV-positive patients in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binolfi, Andrés; Biasoli, Marisa S; Luque, Alicia G; Tosello, María E; Magaró, Hortensia M

    2005-08-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently described yeast species, closely related to Candida albicans. This work represents the first general survey of the carriage of C. dubliniensis in the oral cavities of HIV-positive patients in Argentina. We studied 133 strains isolated from 162 HIV-positive patients, using the following identification tests: chlamydospore production on corn meal agar with Tween 80; colony color on CHROMagar Candida media; differential growth at 45 degrees C on potato dextrose agar; D-xylose assimilation; chlamydospore formation on sunflower seed agar (SSA); carbohydrate assimilation profiles using the API 20 C Aux commercial kit and PCR using primers that hybridize to the class IV intron of the ACT1 gene. Out of the 133 strains, 21 were identified as C. dubliniensis, representing approximately 13% of the 162 patients in this study. From these data, we conclude that although the PCR assay is the most reliable method, clamydospore formation on SSA is an easier and less expensive test for the screening of C. dubliniensis in the routine laboratory. Our results show that C. dubliniensis has a high prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Argentina.

  13. Identification and susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida spp. to killer toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Robledo-Leal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP. Restriction resulted in 23 isolates identified as C. albicans using AlwI, 24 isolates as C. parapsilosis using RsaI, and 13 as C. tropicalis using XmaI. Then, a group of all isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of previously described killer yeasts, resulting in 75% being susceptible to at least one killer yeast while the remaining were not inhibited by any strain. C. albicans was the most susceptible group while C. tropicalis had the fewest inhibitions. No species-specific pattern of inhibition was obtained with this panel of killer yeasts. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were the strains that inhibited the most isolates of Candida spp.

  14. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  15. Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Barbara D; Zazove, Philip; Pierson, Carl L; Gorenflo, Daniel W; Horrocks, Julie

    2003-12-01

    To assess associations between female and male factors and the risk of recurring Candida vulvovaginitis. A prospective cohort study of 148 women with Candida vulvovaginitis and 78 of their male sexual partners was conducted at two primary care practices in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area. Thirty-three of 148 women developed at least one further episode of Candida albicans vulvovaginitis within 1 year of follow-up. Cultures of Candida species from various sites of the woman (tongue, feces, vulva, and vagina) and from her partner (tongue, feces, urine, and semen) did not predict recurrences. Female factors associated with recurrence included recent masturbating with saliva (hazard ratio 2.66 [95% CI 1.17-6.06]) or cunnilingus (hazard ratio 2.94 [95% CI 1.12-7.68]) and ingestion of two or more servings of bread per day (p vulvovaginitis.

  16. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Sana; Jamil, Naz; Saad, Uzma; Hafiz, Saleem; Siddiqui, Sualleha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida albicansin patients with funguria. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Patients’ urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candidaspecies was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6%) were male patients and 85 (29.4%) were female patients, with 165 (57.1%) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9%) from the in-patients. Five species of Candidawere found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1%) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9%) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8%) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8%) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4%) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2%). In the present study, 30.1% patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis(60.9%), followed by other non-albicansCandida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candidaas a major cause of candiduria.

  17. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  18. Donor Derived Candida stellimalicola in a Clinical Specimen: Preservation Fluid Contamination During Pancreas Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Damien; Huguenin, Antoine; Tisserand, Elodie; Reiter, Véronique; Morelon, Emmanuel; Badet, Lionel; Villena, Isabelle; Wallon, Martine; Toubas, Dominique

    2017-07-05

    We report here a case of possible donor-derived Candida stellimalicola infection after pancreas transplantation. Candida stellimalicola, an environmental non-filamentous yeast, was isolated from both the peritoneal fluid of the graft donor and the preservation fluid of the transplanted pancreas. Interestingly, this strain exhibited high minimum inhibitory concentrations to azoles. These results justified the use of echinocandins as therapy instead of fluconazole. This switch permitted a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. stellimalicola from clinical samples and therefore the first reported case of a possible human infection. This case report highlights the need for standardized microbiological procedures in solid organ transplant settings. Moreover, it underlines the importance of using molecular identification technique when routine techniques do not allow successful identification of the pathogen. It is of utmost importance to determine sensitivity profile, even in the absence of species-level identification, because resistance to fluconazole is not uncommon, especially in emergent species.

  19. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri has antifungal effects on oral Candida species in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: An alternative approach for managing Candida infections in the oral cavity by modulating the oral microbiota with probiotic bacteria has been proposed.  Objective: The aim was to investigate the antifungal potential of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC...... PTA 5289) against six oral Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, and C. parapsilosis).  Design: The lactobacilli were tested for their ability to co-aggregate with and inhibit the growth of the yeasts assessed by spectrophotometry and the agar overlay...... inhibition assay. Additionally, the pH was evaluated with microsensors, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the lactobacilli was verified.  Results: Both L. reuteri strains showed co-aggregation abilities with the yeasts. The lactobacilli almost completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans...

  20. Potential Use of Phenolic Acids as Anti-Candida Agents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Guilherme R.; Ellepola, Kassapa; Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a sharp rise in the occurrence of Candida infections and associated mortality over the last few years, due to the growing body of immunocompromised population. Limited number of currently available antifungal agents, undesirable side effects and toxicity, as well as emergence of resistant strains pose a considerable clinical challenge for the treatment of candidiasis. Therefore, molecules that derived from natural sources exhibiting considerable antifungal properties are a promising source for the development of novel anti-candidal therapy. Phenolic compounds isolated from natural sources possess antifungal properties of interest. Particularly, phenolic acids have shown promising in vitro and in vivo activity against Candida species. However, studies on their mechanism of action alone or in synergism with known antifungals are still scarce. This review attempts to discuss the potential use, proposed mechanisms of action and limitations of the phenolic acids in anti-candidal therapy. PMID:26733965

  1. Possibility for simultaneous electricity generation and bioremediation by using Candida melibiosica yeast in biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Georgiev, Danail; Mitov, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have proved that Candida melibiosica 2491 yeast strain possesses electrogenic properties and could be used as a biocatalyst in yeast-based biofuel cells. In this paper we demonstrate that when the yeast is cultivated under polarization conditions in a biofuel cell its phytase activity exceeds that obtained during cultivation in a conventional bioreactor. Furthermore, there is a correlation between the yeast phytase activity and the electrical characteristic of the biofuel cell during the different yeast growth phases. The obtained results reveal a possibility for application of C.melibiosica for simultaneous electricity generation and bioremediation of hardly degradable polyphosphates, especially in the regions with intensive stock-farming. Keywords: Biofuel cells, yeast, Candida melibiosica, electricity generation, bioremediation

  2. Decreased Killing Activity of Micafungin Against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr in the Presence of Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Qasem; Kovács, Renátó; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kardos, Tamás; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2017-09-01

    Currently, echinocandins are first-line drugs for treatment of invasive candidiasis. However, data on how serum influences killing activity of echinocandins against uncommon Candida species are limited. Therefore, the killing activity of micafungin in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum was compared against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges in RPMI-1640 were 0.5-1, 0.12-0.25, and 0.06-0.12 mg/L, respectively. In 50% serum, MICs increased 32- to 256-fold. In RPMI-1640 ≥ 0.25, ≥4, and 32 mg/L micafungin was fungicidal against all four C. kefyr (≤4.04 hours), two of three C. lusitaniae (≤16.10 hours), and two of three C. guilliermondii (≤12.30 hours), respectively. In 50% serum, all three species grew at ≤4 mg/L. Micafungin at 16-32 mg/L was fungicidal against all C. kefyr isolates (≤3.03 hours) and at 32 mg/L was fungistatic against one of three C. lusitaniae isolates. Two C. lusitaniae isolates and all three C. guilliermondii grew at all tested concentrations. Adding human serum to susceptibility test media drew attention to loss of fungicidal or fungistatic activity of micafungin in the presence of serum proteins, which is not predicted by MICs in case of C. kefyr and C. lusitaniae in RPMI-1640. Our results strongly suggest that micafungin and probably other echinocandins should be used with caution against rare Candida species.

  3. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  4. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Jamil, N.; Hafiz, S.; Siddiqui, S.; Saad, U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Candida albicans in patients with funguria. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Patients urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candida species was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Results: Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6 percentage) were male patients and 85 (29.4 percentage) were female patients, with 165 (57.1 percentage) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9 percentage) from the in-patients. Five species of Candida were found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1 percentage) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9 percentage) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8 percentage) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8 percentage) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4 percentage) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2 percentage). Conclusion: In the present study, 30.1 percentage patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis (60.9 percentage), followed by other non-albicans Candida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of candiduria. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  6. Undecylenic Acid Inhibits Morphogenesis of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    McLain, Nealoo; Ascanio, Rhoda; Baker, Carol; Strohaver, Robert A.; Dolan, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  7. Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, N; Ascanio, R; Baker, C; Strohaver, R A; Dolan, J W

    2000-10-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  8. Growth-dependent secretome of Candida utilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buerth, C.; Heilmann, C.J.; Klis, F.M.; de Koster, C.G.; Ernst, J.F.; Tielker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the food yeast Candida utilis has emerged as an excellent host for production of heterologous proteins. Since secretion of the recombinant product is advantageous for its purification, we characterized the secreted proteome of C. utilis. Cells were cultivated to the exponential or

  9. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  10. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheir DH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6 was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.

  11. Candida neustonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the sea surface microlayer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Feng; Lee, Ching-Fu; Liu, Shiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    A new ascomycetous yeast species, Candida neustonensis is proposed in this study based on four strains (SN92(T), SN47, SJ22, SJ25) isolated from sea surface microlayer in Taiwan. These four yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on 5% malt extract agar, corn meal agar, V8 agar, McClary's acetate agar and potato-dextrose agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene places C. neustonensis as a member of the Pichia guilliermondii clade, it also reveals that the phylogenetically closest relatives of C. neustonensis are C. fukuyamaensis (4.4% divergence), C. xestobii (4.4% divergence) and P. guilliermondii (4.5% divergence). C. neustonensis also is clearly distinguished from other known species in the P. guilliermondii clade based on the results of physiology tests. From these comparison analyses, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Candida neustonensis sp. nov., with strain SN92(T) (= BCRC 23108(T) = JCM 14892(T) = CBS 11061(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Cellular characterisation of Candida tropicalis presenting fluconazole-related trailing growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dornelas-Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed fluconazole susceptibility in 52 Candida tropicalis clinical strains using seven antifungal susceptibility methods, including broth microdilution (BMD [standard M27 A3 (with neutral and acid pH, ATB Fungus 3, Vitek 2 system and flow cytometric analysis] and agar-based methods (disk diffusion and E-test. Trailing growth, detection of cell-associated secreted aspartic proteases (Saps and morphological and ultrastructural traits of these clinical strains were also examined. The ranges of fluconazole 24 h-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were similar among all methods. The essential agreement among the methods used for MIC determinations was excellent and all methods categorised all strains as susceptible, except for one strain that showed a minor error. The presence of the trailing effect was assessed by six methods. Trailing positivity was observed for 86.5-100% of the strains. The exception was the BMD-Ac method where trailing growth was not observed. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations were detected in C. tropicalis trailing cells, including mitochondrial swelling and cell walls with irregular shapes. We tested the production of Saps in 13 C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth through flow cytometry. Our results showed that all of the C. tropicalis strains up-regulated surface Sap expression after 24 h or 48 h of exposure to fluconazole, which was not observed in untreated yeast strains. We concluded that C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth presented some particular features on both biological and ultrastructural levels.

  13. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

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    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  14. Potential application of Candida melibiosica in biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Various prokaryote species have been widely studied for microbial fuel cell (MFC) application. However, the information about yeast utilization into biofuel cells is still scanty. The aim of this investigation is to verify if Candida melibiosica 2491, a yeast strain, possessing high phytase activity, could be applied as a biocatalyst in a yeast biofuel cell. The microbiological requirements were coupled with the electrochemical ones tracing main biochemical pathway metabolites such as different carbohydrate and inorganic phosphates and their assimilation with time. The obtained results show that from the three carbohydrates investigated - glucose, fructose and sucrose, fructose is the most suitable for the yeast cultivation. The presence of yeast extract and peptone improves the performance into the biofuel cell. The relationship between the yeast cell amount and the biofuel cell characteristics was determined. Analyses showed that electricity was generated by the yeast culture even in the absence of an artificial mediator. The addition of methylene blue at concentrations higher than 0.1 mM improves the current and power density output. The obtained experimental results proved that C. melibiosica 2491 belongs to the electrogenic strains. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Candida glabrata for diacetyl production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available In this study, Candida glabrata, an efficient pyruvate-producing strain, was metabolically engineered for the production of the food ingredient diacetyl. A diacetyl biosynthetic pathway was reconstructed based on genetic modifications and medium optimization. The former included (i channeling carbon flux into the diacetyl biosynthetic pathway by amplification of acetolactate synthase, (ii elimination of the branched pathway of α-acetolactate by deleting the ILV5 gene, and (iii restriction of diacetyl degradation by deleting the BDH gene. The resultant strain showed an almost 1∶1 co-production of α-acetolactate and diacetyl (0.95 g L(-1. Furthermore, addition of Fe3+ to the medium enhanced the conversion of α-acetolactate to diacetyl and resulted in a two-fold increase in diacetyl production (2.1 g L(-1. In addition, increased carbon flux was further channeled into diacetyl biosynthetic pathway and a titer of 4.7 g L(-1 of diacetyl was achieved by altering the vitamin level in the flask culture. Thus, this study illustrates that C. glabrata could be tailored as an attractive platform for enhanced biosynthesis of beneficial products from pyruvate by metabolic engineering strategies.

  16. Antifungal activity of bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antifungal action of biomolecules produced from the secondary metabolism of bacterial strains found in the rhizosphere of semi arid plants against human pathogenic Candida albicans. Crude extracts were obtained using ethyl acetate as an organic solvent and the bioactivity was assessed with a ...

  17. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  18. Evaluación de los cebadores TS3 e ITS4 para la detección de infecciones por Candida spp. en muestras de flujo vaginal y humor acuoso Evaluation of ITS3 and ITS4 primers for detection of Candida spp. Candida spp. infections from vaginal samples and aqueous humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Ramirez

    2008-06-01

    intraocular infections. Materials and methods. 17 Candida reference strains, 29 vaginal samples, 7 samples of aqueous humor and one of vitreous humor were studied. Three methods to lyse the Candida wall were analyzed: freezing-thawing, sonication and the use of lyticase. For nucleic acid purification the Wizard Genomics kit was used; in the PCR the commercial kit Go Taq Green Master Mix and the primers ITS3 and ITS4 were used. Results. The best method for lysis was the enzymatic lysis with lyticase. The primers ITS3 and ITS4 identified all the Candida strains and there were no cross-reaction with other microorganisms. The sensitivity of the PCR was 100 fg. All the samples of vaginal flux and Candida strains were identified and only one sample of aqueous humor was positive for the genus Candida. In the other samples of aqueous humor toxoplasmosis was the definitive diagnosis. Conclusion. PCR amplification for Candida is a sensitive and specific technique for the diagnosis.

  19. Selection of yeast strains for the production of alcohol from lactoserum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laham-Guillaume, M; Moulin, G; Galzy, P

    1979-01-01

    Five of 11 yeast strains tested fermented 85 g lactose/L to approximately 5% EtOH. Four of these strains, Candida pseudotropicalis CBS 19384 and IP 513, and Kluyveromyces fragilis CBS 397, and CBS 5795, anaerobically fermented deproteinized whey to EtOH.

  20. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p Candida counts. Unstimulated whole saliva significantly (p Candida counts of 0 versus or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  1. Azasordarins: Susceptibility of Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. to GW 471558

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Monzón, Araceli; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the azasordarin GW 471558 was compared with those of amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 177 clinical isolates of Candida spp. GW 471558 showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis, even against isolates with decreased susceptibility to azoles. Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida guilliermondii are resistant to GW 471558 in vitro (MICs, >128 μg/ml).

  2. Antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast: Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Aissat Saad; Meslem Abdelmelek; Benhalima Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast i.e. Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Rhodotorula sp. Methods: Four Algeria honeys of different botanical origin were analyzed to test antifungal effect against C. albicans, and Rhodotorula sp. Different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% w/v) of honey were studied in vitro for their antifugal activity using C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. as fungal strains...

  3. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AND YEAST-LIKE FUNGI OF THE GENUS CANDIDA, ISOLATED FROM ONCOLOGICAL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina NS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the spectrum of microorganisms, which are the causative agents of infectious complications of the oral cavity in patients with oncological pathology are presented in the article. The sensitivity of isolated clinical strains of microorganisms to antibiotics, antifungal, antiseptic decasan, miramistin, gorosten, septefril is shown. The results of antiseptic resistance formation to staphylococci and Candida to dekasan, miramistin, septefril, gorosten are described.

  4. Evaluation of antipathogenic activity and adherence properties of human Lactobacillus strains for vaginal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, M C; Coman, M M; Cecchini, C; Silvi, S; Orpianesi, C; Cresci, A

    2014-05-01

    To test different Lactobacillus strains for their antipathogenic activity towards Candida strains and their adhesion properties for the preparation of vaginal ovules and douches to be used in vaginal candidiasis prevention. Five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their antimicrobial potential against different clinically isolated Candida strains. They were also screened for their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide and to coaggregate with pathogens. Adhesion properties of the five different Lactobacillus strains to HeLa cells and the presence of arcA gene were also assessed. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that all the five Lactobacillus strains tested possessed inhibitory action against the Candida strains using the radial streak method, but the effect is strain dependent. The same situation arises with regard to the ability of coaggregation that is present in all the strains into different degrees. Only Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®) were able to produce H2O2 and none of the strains possess arcA gene. The most adherent strains to HeLa cells were Lact. rhamnosus IMC 501(®), Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) and also their combination SYNBIO(®). This latter was selected for the preparation of ovules and douches using different matrix. Witepsol(®) ovules have proved the best formulation in terms of probiotic viability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®), Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) and SYNBIO(®) were able to produce H2O2, to coaggregate and to exert antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida strains and to strongly adhere to HeLa cells. All these properties together with those technological make these strains good candidates for the realization of formulations suitable for vaginal health. To develop new vaginal formulations taking into account the impact of probiotic strains on pathogens as well as the technological properties of the strains to validate their effectiveness in human health. © 2014 The

  5. Comparative transcript profiling of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis identifies SFL2, a C. albicans gene required for virulence in a reconstituted epithelial infection model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spiering, Martin J

    2010-02-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are closely related species displaying differences in virulence and genome content, therefore providing potential opportunities to identify novel C. albicans virulence genes. C. albicans gene arrays were used for comparative analysis of global gene expression in the two species in reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE). C. albicans (SC5314) showed upregulation of hypha-specific and virulence genes within 30 min postinoculation, coinciding with rapid induction of filamentation and increased RHE damage. C. dubliniensis (CD36) showed no detectable upregulation of hypha-specific genes, grew as yeast, and caused limited RHE damage. Several genes absent or highly divergent in C. dubliniensis were upregulated in C. albicans. One such gene, SFL2 (orf19.3969), encoding a putative heat shock factor, was deleted in C. albicans. DeltaDeltasfl2 cells failed to filament under a range of hypha-inducing conditions and exhibited greatly reduced RHE damage, reversed by reintroduction of SFL2 into the DeltaDeltasfl2 strain. Moreover, SFL2 overexpression in C. albicans triggered hyphal morphogenesis. Although SFL2 deletion had no apparent effect on host survival in the murine model of systemic infection, DeltaDeltasfl2 strain-infected kidney tissues contained only yeast cells. These results suggest a role for SFL2 in morphogenesis and an indirect role in C. albicans pathogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  6. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Jim E; Corti, Miriam; Lambert, Patrick; Ferris, Michael; Xin, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the efficacy of vaccines

  7. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  8. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  9. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  10. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  11. Candida albicans importance to denture wearers. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiznys, Alvydas; Zdanavičienė, Eglė; Žilinskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic oral fungal infections have spred, especially in denture wearers. Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory reaction, multifactorial etiology, which is usually associated with Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, due to its high virulence, ability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity tissues and denture surfaces. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management strategies of Candida-associated denture stomatitis commonly encountered in dental practice.

  12. [Biomass composition of thermotolerant yeasts of the genus Candida under elevated cultivation temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakova, T I; Dediukhina, E G; Eroshin, V K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of growth temperature on the content of nucleic acids, the content and composition of protein, and the pool of free amino acids and lipids was studied under the conditions of chemostat cultivation of yeast strains at constant flow rates and pO2. The pool of free amino acids in all of the strains decreased with an increase in the temperature of growth. Changes in the content and composition of other cellular components depending on temperature were determined by individual characteristics of the strains. A linear relationship between the content of biomass components and the temperature of growth was found only in Candida scottii. The temperature of yeast cultivation may be used as a factor regulating the pool of free intracellular amino acids and the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  13. Identification and Determination of Drug Resistant of Candida species isolated from Hospital Acquired Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Diba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Currently, the use of antifungal azole group and yeasts resistant to these drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the yeasts obtained from candidiasis patients and furthermore determining thier antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present descriptive study, infections samples were collected from 256 patients with suspected nosocomial candidiasis, then direct exam and culture were performed. Yeast colonies were identified using phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction method and enzyme digestion. Data were analyzed using Descriptive statistical tests. Results: Of sixty isolated yeast, thirty-seven cases of Candida albicans (61.6%, seven cases of C. krusei and C. glabrata (11.6% each, five cases of C. dubliniensis (8.3% and four cases of C. tropicalis (6.6% were indicated. The study showed that the sensitivity of C. albicans and C. cruise species to amphotericin B was negligible in disk diffusion and very sensitve in microdilution. Conclusion: Inspite of the results of antifungal susceptibility test of strains studied did not show high resistance, but screening for drug-resistant Candida isolates in Candida infection by disk diffusion and microdilution methods for new cases of drug resistance is reasonable.

  14. Candida spp. occurrence in oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöllner Maria Stella Amorim da Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. One hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took part in this study and were divided into four groups: 1 infants predominantly on breastfeeding (n = 55 and their mothers (n = 55; 2 infants on bottlefeeding (n = 30; 3 non-lactating women on whom oral collections were performed (n = 80 and, 4 non-lactating women on whom breast collections were performed (n = 34. Oral and mammary swabs were cultured on Sabouraud agar dextrose with chloramphenicol. The Candida yeast strains found were isolated and identified through morphological and biochemical tests. Candida species were much less frequent in infants who were predominantly breastfed than in those who were bottlefed. Yeasts were much more frequent on the breasts of lactating women, with statistical difference in relation to the control group.

  15. FTIR spectroscopy in medical mycology: applications to the differentiation and typing of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubas, Dominique; Essendoubi, Mohammed; Adt, Isabelle; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2007-03-01

    The incidence of fungal infections, in particular candidiasis and aspergillosis, has considerably increased during the last three decades. This is mainly due to advances in medical treatments and technologies. In high risk patients (e.g. in haematology or intensive care), the prognosis of invasive candidiasis is relatively poor. Therefore, a rapid and correct identification of the infectious agent is important for an efficient and prompt therapy. Most clinical laboratories rely on conventional identification methods that are based on morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics. However, these have their limitations because they are time-consuming and not always very accurate. Moreover, molecular methods may be required to determine the genetic relationship between the infectious strains, for instance in Candida outbreaks. In addition, the latter methods require time, expensive consumables and highly trained staff to be performed adequately. In this study, we have applied the FTIR spectroscopic approach to different situations encountered in routine mycological diagnosis. We show the potentials of this phenotypic approach, used in parallel with routine identification methods, for the differentiation of 3 frequently encountered Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) by using both suspensions and microcolonies. This approach, developed for an early discrimination, may help in the initial choice of antifungal treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method for intraspecies comparison (typing) of 3 Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis), particularly when an outbreak is suspected.

  16. In vitro activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691, C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. krusei (ATCC 34135, C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449 and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646. Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 10(6 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC. All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%, carvacrol (9.42%, thymol (8.42% and □-terpineol (7.57%. C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 µL mL-1 and 5 µL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 µL mL-1 and 3.54 µL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 µL mL-1 and 2.97 µL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis.

  17. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

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    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  18. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, K.; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Holá, Miroslava; Mahelová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2014), s. 23924-23935 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * Candida parapsilosis * biofilm Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2014

  19. Enzymes of Candida tropicalis yeast biodegrading phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Effluents of industrial wastewaters from oil refineries, paper mills, dyes, ceramic factories, resins, textiles and plastic contain high concentrations of aromatic compounds, which are toxic to organisms. Degradation of these compounds to tolerant limits before releasing them into the environment is an urgent requirement. Candida tropicalis yeast is an important representative of eucaryotic microorganisms that are able to utilize phenol. During the first phase of phenol biodegradation, cytopl...

  20. A phenotypic profile of the Candida albicans regulatory network.

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    Oliver R Homann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract and also the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. It last shared a common ancestor with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae over 300 million years ago. We describe a collection of 143 genetically matched strains of C. albicans, each of which has been deleted for a specific transcriptional regulator. This collection represents a large fraction of the non-essential transcription circuitry. A phenotypic profile for each mutant was developed using a screen of 55 growth conditions. The results identify the biological roles of many individual transcriptional regulators; for many, this work represents the first description of their functions. For example, a quarter of the strains showed altered colony formation, a phenotype reflecting transitions among yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal cell forms. These transitions, which have been closely linked to pathogenesis, have been extensively studied, yet our work nearly doubles the number of transcriptional regulators known to influence them. As a second example, nearly a quarter of the knockout strains affected sensitivity to commonly used antifungal drugs; although a few transcriptional regulators have previously been implicated in susceptibility to these drugs, our work indicates many additional mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance. Finally, our results inform how transcriptional networks evolve. Comparison with the existing S. cerevisiae data (supplemented by additional S. cerevisiae experiments reported here allows the first systematic analysis of phenotypic conservation by orthologous transcriptional regulators over a large evolutionary distance. We find that, despite the many specific wiring changes documented between these species, the general phenotypes of orthologous transcriptional regulator knockouts are largely conserved. These observations support the idea that many wiring changes affect the detailed architecture of

  1. A phenotypic profile of the Candida albicans regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Oliver R; Dea, Jeanselle; Noble, Suzanne M; Johnson, Alexander D

    2009-12-01

    Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract and also the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. It last shared a common ancestor with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae over 300 million years ago. We describe a collection of 143 genetically matched strains of C. albicans, each of which has been deleted for a specific transcriptional regulator. This collection represents a large fraction of the non-essential transcription circuitry. A phenotypic profile for each mutant was developed using a screen of 55 growth conditions. The results identify the biological roles of many individual transcriptional regulators; for many, this work represents the first description of their functions. For example, a quarter of the strains showed altered colony formation, a phenotype reflecting transitions among yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal cell forms. These transitions, which have been closely linked to pathogenesis, have been extensively studied, yet our work nearly doubles the number of transcriptional regulators known to influence them. As a second example, nearly a quarter of the knockout strains affected sensitivity to commonly used antifungal drugs; although a few transcriptional regulators have previously been implicated in susceptibility to these drugs, our work indicates many additional mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance. Finally, our results inform how transcriptional networks evolve. Comparison with the existing S. cerevisiae data (supplemented by additional S. cerevisiae experiments reported here) allows the first systematic analysis of phenotypic conservation by orthologous transcriptional regulators over a large evolutionary distance. We find that, despite the many specific wiring changes documented between these species, the general phenotypes of orthologous transcriptional regulator knockouts are largely conserved. These observations support the idea that many wiring changes affect the detailed architecture of the circuit, but

  2. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans...

  3. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans. Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct.

  4. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Hua Xinfeng

    2003-01-01

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241 Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241 Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241 Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241 Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C 0 ), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241 Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C 0 ) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241 Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  5. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  6. Identification, Typing, Antifungal Resistance Profile, and Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans Isolates from Lebanese Hospital Patients

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    Ibrahim Bitar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As leading opportunistic fungal pathogens identification and subtyping of Candida species are crucial in recognizing outbreaks of infection, recognizing particularly virulent strains, and detecting the emergence of drug resistant strains. In this study our objective was to compare identification of Candida albicans by the hospitals through the use of conventional versus identification based on the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer and to assess biofilm forming capabilities, drug resistance patterns and correlate these with MLST typing. ITS typing revealed a 21.2% hospital misidentification rate. Multidrug resistance to three drugs out of four tested was detected within 25% of the isolates raising concerns about the followed treatment regimens. Drug resistant strains as well as biofilm formers were phylogenetically related, with some isolates with significant biofilm forming capabilities being correlated to those that were multidrug resistant. Such isolates were grouped closely together in a neighbor-joining tree generated by MLST typing indicating phylogenetic relatedness, microevolution, or recurrent infection. In conclusion, this pilot study gives much needed insight concerning C. albicans isolates circulating in Lebanese hospitals and is the first study of its kind correlating biofilm formation, antifungal resistance, and evolutionary relatedness.

  7. Proper Sterol Distribution Is Required for Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    McCourt, Paula; Liu, Hsing-Yin; Parker, Josie E.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Bata, Adam; Giordano, Caroline; Kelly, Steven L.; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus responsible for the majority of systemic fungal infections. Multiple factors contribute to C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans strains lacking CaArv1 are avirulent. Arv1 has a conserved Arv1 homology domain (AHD) that has a zinc-binding domain containing two cysteine clusters. Here, we explored the role of the CaAHD and zinc-binding motif in CaArv1-dependent virulence. Overall, we found that the CaAHD was necessary but not sufficient for cells to...

  8. Atividade enzimática, produção de slime e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida sp Enzymatic activity, slime production and antifungal agent sensitivity of Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Otero Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A habilidade de Candida spp secretar enzimas extracelulares e slime tem sido associada como fatores de patogenicidade. Do total de 37 cepas de Candida sp, 100% foram produtoras de proteinase, 83,8% fosfolipase, 64,9% slime e 100% sensíveis ao fluconazol e itraconazol. Foram encontradas 17 tipagens (enzima/slime. Esta metodologia apresentou um bom índice discriminatório (D=0,93 podendo ser utilizado na caracterização fenotípica das leveduras.Abilith of Candida spp to secrete extracellular enzymes and slime has been associated as pathogenicity factors. Out of a total of 37 strains of Candida sp, 100% were proteinase producers, 83.8% were phospholipase producers, 64.9% were slime producers and 100% were sensitive to fluconazole and itraconazole. Seventeen typings (enzymes/slime were found. This methodology presented a good discrimination rate (D = 0.93 and could be used for phenotypic characterization of yeasts.

  9. Morphology-Independent Virulence of Candida Species during Polymicrobial Intra-abdominal Infections with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An experimental mouse model of Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus intra-abdominal infection (IAI) results in 100% mortality by 48 to 72 h postinoculation, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. Mortality is associated with robust local and systemic inflammation without a requirement for C. albicans morphogenesis. However, the contribution of virulence factors coregulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition is unknown. This also raised the question of whether other Candida species that are unable to form hyphae are as virulent as C. albicans during polymicrobial IAI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of non-albicans Candida (NAC) species with various morphologies and C. albicans transcription factor mutants (efg1/efg1 and cph1/cph1) to induce synergistic mortality and the accompanying inflammation. Results showed that S. aureus coinoculated with C. krusei or C. tropicalis was highly lethal, similar to C. albicans, while S. aureus-C. dubliniensis, S. aureus-C. parapsilosis, and S. aureus-C. glabrata coinoculations resulted in little to no mortality. Local and systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly elevated during symptomatic and/or lethal coinfections, and hypothermia strongly correlated with mortality. Coinoculation with C. albicans strains deficient in the transcription factor Efg1 but not Cph1 reversed the lethal outcome. These results support previous findings and demonstrate that select Candida species, without reference to any morphological requirement, induce synergistic mortality, with IL-6 and PGE2 acting as key inflammatory factors. Mechanistically, signaling pathways controlled by Efg1 are critical for the ability of C. albicans to induce mortality from an intra-abdominal polymicrobial infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

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    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  11. [Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from urine samples of patients in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekkaya, Serife; Fındık, Duygu; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Candida strains (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata) isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Identification of the isolates was done according to microscopic morphology (chlamydospor, blastospor, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID 32C bioMérieux, France). Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by in vitro broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). To investigate the clonal relationship of the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed by using Cnd3 primer. Of the 56 Candida isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values for amphotericin B were 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.125 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. Fluconazole MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25-4 µg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.25-16 µg/ml, 0.5 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.5-64 µg/ml, 8 and 16 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. For amphotericin B, none of the isolates had high MIC values (MIC > 1 µg/ml). While one of the C.glabrata isolates was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 µg/ml), one C.tropicalis and two C.glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (MIC: 16-32 µg/ml). The results of RAPD analysis indicated an exogenous spread from two clones for C.albicans, one clone for C.glabrata and one clone for C.tropicalis. This study underlines the importance of molecular epidemiological analysis of clinical samples together with hospital environmental samples in terms of Candida spp. To determine the exogenous origin for the related strains and to prevent

  12. [Emerging pathogen: Candida kefyr (Kluvyeromyces marxianus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, Tuğba; Kalkancı, Ayşe

    2017-10-01

    In the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital Candida kefyr was isolated from different clinical samples as 5.3% in 2016 and in 2017 this rate increased to 9.3% which was nearly two-fold and this has drawn our attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the special characteristics, antifungal susceptibility and virulence properties of C.keyfr species. Germ tube, corn meal-tween 80 agar morphology and carbohydrate assimilation profiles on ID32C yeast identification system were used for the diagnosis of Candida species. In this study, DNA sequencing was performed using ITS1 and ITS4 primers amplifying fungal gene between 5.8S and 18S regions of rRNA. Antifungal susceptibility was performed using M27A microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole were determined. MIC distribution, MIC50 and MIC90 values and geometric mean (GM) were detected. The existence of virulence factors caseinase, secreted aspartyl proteinase, esterase and phospholipase were investigated in vitro. A total of 865 Candida species were isolated from different clinical samples in the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital in 2016. Among them, 46 (5.3%) were C.kefyr. In the first four months of 2017, 30 (9.3%) C.kefyr were identified among 320 Candida isolates. Ten isolates which have shown atypical morphology on corn meal agar were selected. Among these 10 isolates, nine of them were identified as C.kefyr by using ID32C system and DNA sequencing method. Amphotericin B MIC value was 2 µg/ml for one isolate, and fluconazole MIC value was 8 µg/ml for another isolate among 46 isolates. Among the 30 isolates of the year 2017, one of them presented MIC value for fluconazole as 8 µg/ml. No marked antifungal resistance was detected in our isolate group. Caseinase was positive in one C.kefyr isolate, and

  13. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  14. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (pbetel-quid-chewers (p>0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  15. The comparative study of antifungal activity of Syzygium aromaticum, Punica granatum and nystatin on Candida albicans; an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, A; Boojarpour, N; Ashnagar, S; Momen Beitollahi, J; Shamshiri, A R

    2014-12-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi, among which, Candida albicans is the most important species responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients with invasive fungal disease. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal drugs has led scientists to pay more attention to traditional medicine herbs. Due to the limitations in the treatment of fungal diseases such as shortages, high prices, antifungal side effects and drug resistance or reduced susceptibility to fungal drugs we decided to study the antifungal effects of herbal extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Punica granatum. Twenty-one isolates of oral C. albicans in patients with denture stomatitis referred to prosthesis department, Dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were prepared and cultured. Plant extracts were prepared from the herbs market. Tests on patient samples and standard strains 5027ATCC (PTCC10231) yeast C. albicans were performed via well diffusion method. In addition, nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Finally, the antifungal effect of extracts using Statistical Repeated measurement ANOVA test was investigated. Both S. aromaticum and P. granatum showed noticeable antifungal activity in well method. Syzygium aromaticum showed better anti candida activity than nystatin (Pgranatum showed good antifungal effects (P-value<0.001). S. aromaticum (inhibition zone diameter: 29.62) showed better antifungal effects than nystatin (inhibition zone diameter: 28.48). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças de uma creche da prefeitura de Fortaleza Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the buccal mucosa of children of a day-care center of the city hall of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2005-02-01

    %-45% followed by C. tropicalis (31%, C. guilliermondi (17%, C. glabrata (4.5% and C. stellatoidea (1,5%. Considering enzymatic activitie of Candida albicans strains, 20% produced proteinasis and 33% produced phospholipasis. Candida albicans isolated from children mouth mucous from a public day care center in Fortaleza presented a weak enzymatic activity. This finding leads to the conclusion that those strains seem to be of low virulence.

  17. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  18. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-11-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories.

  19. The Tlo Proteins Are Stoichiometric Components of Candida albicans Mediator Anchored via the Med3 Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anda; Petrov, Kostadin O.; Hyun, Emily R.; Liu, Zhongle; Gerber, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The amplification of the TLO (for telomere-associated) genes in Candida albicans, compared to its less pathogenic, close relative Candida dubliniensis, suggests a role in virulence. Little, however, is known about the function of the Tlo proteins. We have purified the Mediator coactivator complex from C. albicans (caMediator) and found that Tlo proteins are a stoichiometric component of caMediator. Many members of the Tlo family are expressed, and each is a unique member of caMediator. Protein expression analysis of individual Tlo proteins, as well as the purification of tagged Tlo proteins, demonstrate that there is a large free population of Tlo proteins in addition to the Mediator-associated population. Coexpression and copurification of Tloα12 and caMed3 in Escherichia coli established a direct physical interaction between the two proteins. We have also made a C. albicans med3Δ/Δ strain and purified an intact Mediator from this strain. The analysis of the composition of the med3Δ Mediator shows that it lacks a Tlo subunit. Regarding Mediator function, the med3Δ/Δ strain serves as a substitute for the difficult-to-make tloΔ/Δ C. albicans strain. A potential role of the TLO and MED3 genes in virulence is supported by the inability of the med3Δ/Δ strain to form normal germ tubes. This study of caMediator structure provides initial clues to the mechanism of action of the Tlo genes and a platform for further mechanistic studies of caMediator's involvement in gene regulatory patterns that underlie pathogenesis. PMID:22562472

  20. The Role of Isocitrate Lyase (ICL1) in the Metabolic Adaptation of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Oluwaseun Ayodeji; Ting, Seng Yeat; Tabana, Yasser M; Ahmed, Mowaffaq Adam; Yunus, Muhammad Amir; Mohamed, Rafeezul; Lung Than, Leslie Thian; Sandai, Doblin

    2016-01-01

    Background A major characteristic of Candida biofilm cells that differentiates them from free-floating cells is their high tolerance to antifungal drugs. This high resistance is attributed to particular biofilm properties, including the accumulation of extrapolymeric substances, morphogenetic switching, and metabolic flexibility. Objectives This study evaluated the roles of metabolic processes (in particular the glyoxylate cycle) on biofilm formation, antifungal drug resistance, morphology, and cell wall components. Methods Growth, adhesion, biofilm formation, and cell wall carbohydrate composition were quantified for isogenic Candida albicans ICL1/ICL1, ICL1/icl1, and icl1/icl1 strains. The morphology and topography of these strains were compared by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. FKS1 (glucan synthase), ERG11 (14-α-demethylase), and CDR2 (efflux pump) mRNA levels were quantified using qRT-PCR. Results The ICL1/icl1 and icl1/icl1 strains formed similar biofilms and exhibited analogous drug-tolerance levels to the control ICL1/ICL1 strains. Furthermore, the drug sequestration ability of β-1, 3-glucan, a major carbohydrate component of the extracellular matrix, was not impaired. However, the inactivation of ICL1 did impair morphogenesis. ICL1 deletion also had a considerable effect on the expression of the FKS1, ERG11, and CDR2 genes. FKS1 and ERG11 were upregulated in ICL1/icl1 and icl1/icl1 cells throughout the biofilm developmental stages, and CDR2 was upregulated at the early phase. However, their expression was downregulated compared to the control ICL1/ICL1 strain. Conclusions We conclude that the glyoxylate cycle is not a specific determinant of biofilm drug resistance. PMID:27800147

  1. prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of candida species isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Candida species isolated from HVS specimens were Candida albicans (n=19, 48.7%), Can- dida glabrata .... C test kits. The isolates were stored ... problem that causes significant morbidity and affects the .... from both urinary and high vaginal specimens followed by ... drugs that are used in the treatment of infec- tions due ...

  2. Incidence and Speciation of Candida Species among Non-gravid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the incidence and speciation of Candida species among non-gravid young females, using commercially available chromogenic Candida speciation media (CHROM agar) for the identification/speciation of medically important yeast and yeastlike organisms in a routine clinical mycology laboratory.

  3. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with ...

  4. Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mionić Ebersold, Marijana; Petrović, Milica; Fong, Wye-Khay; Bonvin, Debora; Hofmann, Heinrich; Milošević, Irena

    2018-02-07

    Due to the growing issues with fungal infections, especially with Candida , there is still a need to develop novel anti- Candida materials. One of the known antifungal agents is undecylenic acid (UA), which still cannot be efficiently used due to its oily nature, and thus limited solubility. By taking advantage of the properties of UA, we developed an emulsion with hexagonal phase, i.e., hexosomes, whose structure and morphology was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. The presence of UA in the hexosome was confirmed by spectroscopy. Moreover, we studied the anti- Candida effect of hexosomes and their cytotoxicity toward human cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the 50% and 90% Candida -growth reduction was found at 0.01 and 0.16 wt % hexosomes, respectively (i.e., 2 and 32 pg hex / C.a. cell, respectively). The percentage of metabolically active Candida was reduced by 72-96% at hexosome concentrations of 1.0-8.2 pg hex / C.a. cell as compared to untreated Candida . Furthermore, at the same concentration range the embedded filamentation test after 24 and 48 h showed the inhibition of both the filamentation and growth of Candida , while the preliminary toxicity test showed that hexosomes were nontoxic for human cells. All these render the here-developed hexosomes with UA efficient and promising anti- Candida agents.

  5. Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans

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    Marijana Mionić Ebersold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing issues with fungal infections, especially with Candida, there is still a need to develop novel anti-Candida materials. One of the known antifungal agents is undecylenic acid (UA, which still cannot be efficiently used due to its oily nature, and thus limited solubility. By taking advantage of the properties of UA, we developed an emulsion with hexagonal phase, i.e., hexosomes, whose structure and morphology was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. The presence of UA in the hexosome was confirmed by spectroscopy. Moreover, we studied the anti-Candida effect of hexosomes and their cytotoxicity toward human cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the 50% and 90% Candida-growth reduction was found at 0.01 and 0.16 wt % hexosomes, respectively (i.e., 2 and 32 pghex/C.a.cell, respectively. The percentage of metabolically active Candida was reduced by 72–96% at hexosome concentrations of 1.0–8.2 pghex/C.a.cell as compared to untreated Candida. Furthermore, at the same concentration range the embedded filamentation test after 24 and 48 h showed the inhibition of both the filamentation and growth of Candida, while the preliminary toxicity test showed that hexosomes were nontoxic for human cells. All these render the here-developed hexosomes with UA efficient and promising anti-Candida agents.

  6. Multigeneration toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; de Lima e Silva, Claudia; Lam, Thao; Koekkoek, Jacco C.; Lamoree, Marja H.; Verweij, Rudo A.

    2017-01-01

    In a recent study, we showed that the springtail Folsomia candida was quite sensitive the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid. This study aimed at determining the toxicity of both compounds to F. candida following exposure over three generations, in natural LUFA 2.2 standard

  7. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  8. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results. Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion. Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite antifungal therapy. PMID:26858961

  9. Speciation of Candida isolates obtained from diarrheal stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Uppal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Candida diarrhea was mostly seen in individuals younger than 12 years, most commonly caused by C. krusei. Resistance to fluconazole was high. A rising resistance to amphotericin B is alarming. Speciation of Candida is important to see the difference in antifungal susceptibility in different species.

  10. Emerging azole resistance among Candida albicans from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequently isolated yeasts in clinical laboratories and accounts for up to 80 % of the yeasts recovered from sites of infection. The study was set out to determine antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) to ...

  11. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nota, B.; Vooijs, H.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2011-01-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing

  12. Oral candida infection among HIV patients at Kilimanjaro Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    candida infection in HIV positive patients and investigate the relationship between oral manifestations ... and prescription at Child Centred Family Care Clinic at KCMC for a period of 12 months. .... et al., 2013) compared candida colonization in asymptomatic HIV patients and control. .... Journal of Dental Research, Dental.

  13. AI-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

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    Endang W. Bachtiar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2, synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.

  14. Novel Polymorphic Multilocus Microsatellite Markers to Distinguish Candida tropicalis Isolates.

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    Xin Fan

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404, six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26 were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing. Two known microsatellite loci CT14 and URA3 were also studied. The 6-locus scheme was then tested against a set of 82 different isolates from 32 patients. Microsatellite genotypes of isolates from the same patient (two to five isolates per patient were identical. The six loci produced eight to 17 allele types and identified 11 to 24 genotypes amongst 32 patients' isolates, achieving a discriminatory power (DP of 0.76 to 0.97 (versus 0.78 for both CT14 and URA3 loci, respectively. Testing of a combination of only three loci, ctm1, ctm3 and ctm24, also achieved maximum typing efficiency (DP = 0.99, 29 genotypes. The microsatellite typing scheme had good correlation compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, although was slightly less discriminatory. The new six-locus microsatellite typing scheme is a potentially valuable tool for genotyping and investigating microevolution of C. tropicalis.

  15. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

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    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  16. A cluster of Candida krusei infections in a haematological unit

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    Vuopio-Varkila Jaana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida krusei infections are associated with high mortality. In order to explore ways to prevent these infections, we investigated potential routes for nosocomial spread and possible clonality of C. krusei in a haematological unit which had experienced an unusually high incidence of cases. Methods We searched for C. krusei contamination of the hospital environment and determined the level of colonization in patients and health care workers. We also analyzed the possible association between exposure to prophylactic antifungals or chemotherapeutic agents and occurrence of C. krusei. The C. krusei isolates found were genotyped by pulsed-field electrophoresis method in order to determine possible relatedness of the cases. Results Twelve patients with invasive C. krusei infection and ten patients with potentially significant infection or mucosal colonization were documented within nine months. We were unable to identify any exogenic source of infection or colonization. Genetic analysis of the isolates showed little evidence of clonal transmission of C. krusei strains between the patients. Instead, each patient was colonized or infected by several different closely related genotypes. No association between medications and occurrence of C. krusei was found. Conclusion Little evidence of nosocomial spread of a single C. krusei clone was found. The outbreak may have been controlled by cessation of prophylactic antifungals and by intensifying infection control measures, e.g. hand hygiene and cohorting of the patients, although no clear association with these factors was demonstrated.

  17. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus from the Asia and Western Pacific region: data from the SENTRY antifungal surveillance program (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    The SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program monitors global susceptibility rates of newer and established antifungal agents. We report the in vitro activity of seven antifungal agents against 496 contemporary clinical isolates of yeasts and molds. The isolates were obtained from 20 laboratories in the Asia-Western Pacific (APAC) region during 2010 through 2012. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole were susceptibility tested using CLSI methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. Sequencing of fks hot spots was performed for echinocandin-resistant strains. Isolates included 13 species of Candida (n=460), 5 species of non-Candida yeasts (21), 5 species of Aspergillus (11) and 4 other molds. Echinocandin resistance was uncommon among eight species of Candida and was only detected in three isolates of Candida glabrata, two from Australia harboring mutations in fks1 (F625S) and fks2 (S663P). Resistance to the azoles was much more common and was observed among all species with the exception of Candida dubliniensis. Fluconazole resistance rates observed with C. glabrata (6.8%) was comparable to that seen with Candida parapsilosis (5.7%) and Candida tropicalis (3.6%). Cross resistance among the triazoles was seen with each of these three species. The mold-active azoles and the echinocandins were all active against isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Azole resistance was not detected among the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal resistance is uncommon among isolates of fungi causing invasive fungal infections in the APAC region. As in other regions of the world, emerging resistance to the echinocandins among invasive isolates of C. glabrata bears close monitoring.

  18. Biochemical characterization of an anti-Candida factor produced by Enterococcus faecalis

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    Shekh Raeesh M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because Candida albicans is resistant to several antifungal antibiotics, there is a need to identify other less toxic natural products, particularly antimicrobial proteins, peptides or bacteriocin like inhibitory substances. An attempt has been made to purify and characterise an anti-Candida compound produced by Enterococcus faecalis. Results An anti-Candida protein (ACP produced by E. faecalis active against 8 C. albicans strains was characterised and partially purified. The ACP showed a broad-spectrum activity against multidrug resistant C. albicans MTCC 183, MTCC 7315, MTCC 3958, NCIM 3557, NCIM 3471 and DI. It was completely inactivated by treatment with proteinase K and partially by pronase E. The ACP retained biological stability after heat-treatment at 90°C for 20 min, maintained activity over a pH range 6–10, and remained active after treatment with α-amylase, lipase, organic solvents, and detergents. The antimicrobial activity of the E. faecalis strain was found exclusively in the extracellular filtrate produced in the late logarithmic growth phase. The highest activity (1600 AU mL-1 against C. albicans MTCC 183 was recorded at 48 h of incubation, and activity decreased thereafter. The peptide showed very low haemagglutination and haemolytic activities against human red blood cells. The antimicrobial substance was purified by salt-fractionation and chromatography. Partially purified ACP had a molecular weight of approximately 43 KDa in Tricine-PAGE analysis. The 12 amino acid N terminal sequence was obtained by Edman degradation. The peptide was de novo sequenced by ESI-MS, and the deduced combined sequence when compared to other bacteriocins and antimicrobial peptide had no significant sequence similarity. Conclusions The inhibitory activity of the test strain is due to the synthesis of an antimicrobial protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a promising non-haemolytic anti-Candida

  19. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

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    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  20. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  1. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S Y; Cheah, Y K; Seow, H F; Sandai, D; Than, L T L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ran-Bin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40% but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Results There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %. There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU, and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC.

  3. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yang, Yun-Liang; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Lin, Chin-Yu; Liu, Jih-Shin; Tang, Ran-Bin; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Fan, Yu-Hua; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC) are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Results There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %). There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU), and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC. PMID:15813977

  4. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  5. Phenotypic Analysis and Virulence of Candida albicans LIG4 Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluz, Encarnación; Calderone, Richard; Reyes, Guadalupe; Larriba, Germán

    2001-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported the isolation and preliminary characterization of a DNA ligase-encoding gene of Candida albicans. This gene (LIG4) is the structural and functional homologue of both yeast and human ligase IV, which is involved in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks. In the present study, we have shown that there are no other LIG4 homologues in C. albicans. In order to study the function of LIG4 in morphogenesis and virulence, we constructed gene deletions. LIG4 transcript levels were reduced in the heterozygote and were completely absent in null strains. Concomitantly, the heterozygote showed a pronounced defect in myceliation, which was slightly greater in the null strain. This was true with several solid and liquid media, such as Spider medium, medium 199, and 2% glucose–1% yeast extract–2% Bacto Peptone, at several pHs. Reintroduction of the wild-type allele into the null mutant partially restored the ability of cells to form hyphae. In agreement with the positive role of LIG4 in morphogenesis, we detected a significant rise in mRNA levels during the morphological transition. LIG4 is not essential for DNA replication or for the repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation or UV light, indicating that these lesions are repaired primarily by homologous recombination. However, our data show that the NHEJ apparatus of C. albicans may control morphogenesis in this diploid organism. In addition, deletion of one or both copies of LIG4 resulted in attenuation of virulence in a murine model of candidiasis. PMID:11119499

  6. Effect of lipolytic activity of Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Yamadazyma terventina on the acidity of extra-virgin olive oil with a different polyphenol and water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2015-05-01

    Previous microbiological research demonstrated the presence of a rich micro-flora composed mainly of yeasts in the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oil. Some of the yeasts are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the olive oil through the hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols. Present research has demonstrated that the lipolytic activity of some lipase-producer strains belonging to a yeast species called Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Yamadazyma terventina can be modulated by the water and the polyphenol content of olive oil. Laboratory tests highlighted a substantial increase in free fatty acid in the inoculated olive oil characterized by high water content and low polyphenol concentration. The acidity of the olive oil samples containing 0.06% and 0.31% of water increased significantly by 33% in the lipase-producer yeast strains tested during a period of 2 weeks of incubation at 30 °C. All other yeasts showed strong lipolytic activity in the presence of 1.31% of water - the only exception to this was the C. adriatica 1985 strain. The phenolic compounds typical of olive oil represent another important factor able to condition the viability and the lipolytic activity of the lipase-producer yeasts. From the tests performed on the olive oil characterized by an increasing content of total polyphenols equal to 84, 150 and 510 mg per kg of oil, the percentage of the lipase-producer yeasts able to hydrolyse the triacylglycerols was respectively 100%, 67% and 11%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  8. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay

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    J Pratiba Dalal

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  9. [INVESTIGATION ON ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA YEASTS IN PREGNANT PATIENTS WITH CONFIRMED VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS AND THEIR NEWBORNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, A; Kouzmanov, A; Ivanova, Z; Zisova, L; Amalie, G; Petleshkova, P; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Ts; Krasteva, M; Uchikova, E

    Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVU) is considered as a special risk factor during pregnancy, with important influence on the reproductive function of the patients and on the morbidity in the newborns from mothers with VVC. Maternal VVC is a major risk factor for the development of candida-colonization of the infant, which in turn is the first step towards the development of mucocutaneous or systemic candidiasis and Candida-septicemia in the newborn. In pregnant patients, the possible applicable local and systemic medications are limited, while the therapeutic resistance in chronic recurrent forms of VVC increases, facts that require precision of the diagnosic approach to optimize the therapeutic recommendations in pregnant patients, considered as a high risk group. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida yeasts to current antifungal agents in pregnant patients with confirmed VVC before the act of birth. Material and Methods Vaginal secretions of 23 healthy pregnant women with proven Candida vaginitis were taken within 48 hours before birth and the presence of yeasls of Candida was confirmed by culture examination. Between 47-72 hours after birth, samples were taken for Candida colonization of the oralmucosa and feces of their newborns. Samples were plated on Sabouraud agar and cultured in an incubator for 2 to 3 days at a temperature of 25° C. Species identification of the isolated yeasts were performed by commercial API Candida test - API 20C AUX (BioMerieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France). Part of the isolates was identified by commercial whale AUXACOLOR (BioRad, Mames la Coquette, France). Antifungal sensitivity of isolated strains was examined by applying commercial solicitation ready kit and methods of disc diffusion and E-test, as the aim of the authors was to assess their potential for use in the diagnosis, and the correlation between them. Results Candida albicans was the prevalent etiological agent in pregnant

  10. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil using Candida catenulata and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M.; Shoda, Makoto; Phae, Chae-Gun

    2008-01-01

    Even though petroleum-degrading microorganisms are widely distributed in soil and water, they may not be present in sufficient numbers to achieve contaminant remediation. In such cases, it may be useful to inoculate the polluted area with highly effective petroleum-degrading microbial strains to augment the exiting ones. In order to identify a microbial strain for bioaugmentation of oil-contaminated soil, we isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency of diesel fuel in culture. The efficacy of the isolated microbial strain, identified as Candida catenulata CM1, was further evaluated during composting of a mixture containing 23% food waste and 77% diesel-contaminated soil including 2% (w/w) diesel. After 13 days of composting, 84% of the initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes containing a powdered form of CM1 (CM1-solid), compared with 48% of removal ratio in control reactor without inoculum. This finding suggests that CM1 is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with food waste through composting processes. - Enhancement on degradation ability of petroleum hydrocarbon by the microbial strain in the composting process with food waste

  11. Aberrant lipogenesis is a metabolic marker for azole-resistant candida albicans (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Caroline; Hong, Weili; Younis, Waleed; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Seleem, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Candida is the single most important cause of fungal bloodstream infections worldwide causing significant mortality as high as 50%. This high mortality rate is, in part, due to the inability to rapidly diagnose and simultaneously initiate an effective antifungal therapy early in the disease process. Current culture-based diagnostics are often slow, requiring several days to complete, and are only 50% sensitive in diagnosing candidemia (Candida bloodstream infection). For every 12 hours of delay in starting correct antifungal therapy, the risk of death for a given patient with candidemia increases by 200%. To address this unmet need, we explored the potential of employing stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) imaging to diagnose candidemia and probe metabolic differences between resistant and susceptible strain at a single cell level. Metabolism is integral to pathogenicity; microorganism have very short life cycles, and therefore only a few hours are needed to observe a full metabolic cycle. SRS imaging at C-H vibration frequency at 2850 cm-1 revealed a substantial difference in lipogenesis between the susceptible and resistant C. albicans. Treating the C. albicans with fluconazole, an antimicrobial drug that targets ergosterol biosynthesis only affected the lipogenesis in the susceptible strain. Our results show that single-cell metabolic imaging under a SRS microscope can be used for diagnose candidemia and early detection of antimicrobial susceptibility.

  12. Oxidative stress response to menadione and cumene hydroperoxide in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata

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    Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause severe invasive infections and can evade phagocytic cell clearance. We are interested in understanding the virulence of this fungal pathogen, in particular its oxidative stress response. Here we investigated C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans responses to two different oxidants: menadione and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. In log-phase, in the presence of menadione, C. glabrata requires Cta1p (catalase, while in a stationary phase (SP, Cta1p is dispensable. In addition, C. glabrata is less resistant to menadione than C. albicans in SP. The S. cerevisiae laboratory reference strain is less resistant to menadione than C. glabrata and C. albicans; however S. cerevisiaeclinical isolates (CIs are more resistant than the lab reference strain. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae CIs showed an increased catalase activity. Interestingly, in SP C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae are more resistant to CHP than C. albicans and Cta1p plays no apparent role in detoxifying this oxidant.

  13. Construction and fed-batch cultivation of Candida famata with enhanced riboflavin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Lyzak, Oleksy; Yatsyshyn, Valentyna; Kluz, Maciej; Sibirny, Vladimir; Puchalski, Czeslaw; Sibirny, Andriy

    2014-02-20

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential nutrition component serving as a precursor of coenzymes FMN and FAD that are involved mostly in reactions of oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin is produced in commercial scale and is used in feed and food industries, and in medicine. The yeast Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so called "flavinogenic yeasts" which overproduce riboflavin under iron limitation. Three genes SEF1, RIB1 and RIB7 coding for a putative transcription factor, GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthase, respectively were simultaneously overexpressed in the background of a non-reverting riboflavin producing mutant AF-4, obtained earlier in our laboratory using methods of classical selection (Dmytruk et al. (2011), Metabolic Engineering 13, 82-88). Cultivation conditions of the constructed strain were optimized for shake-flasks and bioreactor cultivations. The constructed strain accumulated up to 16.4g/L of riboflavin in optimized medium in a 7L laboratory bioreactor during fed-batch fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis

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    Gheniffer Fornari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15–25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile.

  15. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Gheniffer; Vicente, Vania Aparecida; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Muro, Marisol Dominguez; Pinheiro, Rosangela Lameira; Ferrari, Carolina; Herkert, Patricia Fernanda; Takimura, Marcos; Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15-25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Genotyping of the MTL loci and susceptibility to two antifungal agents of Candida glabrata clinical isolates

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    María Teresa Lavaniegos-Sobrino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is the second most common isolate from bloodstream infections worldwide and is naturally less susceptible to the antifungal drug fluconazole than other Candida species. C. glabrata is a haploid yeast that contains three mating-type like loci (MTL, although no sexual cycle has been described. Strains containing both types of mating information at the MTL1 locus are found in clinical isolates, but it is thought that strains containing type a information are more common. Here we investigated if a particular combination of mating type information at each MTLlocus is more prevalent in clinical isolates from hospitalized patients in Mexico and if there is a correlation between mating information and resistance to fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. We found that while both types of information at MTL1 are equally represented in a collection of 64 clinical isolates, the vast majority of isolates contain a-type information at MTL2 and α-type at MTL3. We also found no correlation of the particular combination of mating type information at the three MTL loci and resistance to fluconazole.

  17. Immune response in mice infected with Candida albicans in the mycelial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; de Valdez, G A; de Petrino, S F; Sirena, A; Perdigón, G

    1989-05-01

    The effect of the infection with the mycelial form of a Candida albicans strain (Mycology Dept.) upon the immune system in mice was studied. BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally in a single dose of a 3 x 10(6), 6 x 10(6) and 12 x 10(6) cell suspension of the strain. Macrophages's activity was studied the days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 after inoculation, by the following assays: phagocytosis in vitro, mononucleated phagocytic system by the colloidal carbon clearance technique, the lymphocyte's activity by the direct plaque forming cells technique (PFC) and delayed hypersensitivity (DTH). Infection with the mycelial form did not affect the peritoneal macrophage's phagocytic ability, neither modified the delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, a slight and transient depression of the lymphocyte stimulation was found. Suppression of PFC to SRBC was high when a 12 x 10(6) cell suspension was used in contrast to the infection with blastospores. These results suggest that systemic infection by Candida albicans in its mycelial form do not induce a non specific immunosuppression.

  18. Chlamydospore production and germ-tube formation by auxotrophs of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, E

    1973-04-01

    A prototrophic strain and 21 auxotrophic strains of Candida albicans were assessed for their capacity to produce chlamydospores and germ tubes. All of the mutants were able to produce germ-tubes in human serum but only two mutants produced them in defined medium with L-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. Most auxotrophs were not able to produce chlamydospores on corn meal agar with 1% Tween 80, but they could be induced to do so if the medium was supplemented with their growth requirement(s). Although L-cysteine was able to support the growth of two methionine mutants, it did not support chlamydospore formation when added to corn meal agar with 1% Tween 80. Mutants of C. albicans that do not form chlamydospores could be incorrectly identified in laboratories that rely on chlamydospore formation for identification.

  19. Bioactivity of a Family of Chiral Nonracemic Aminobenzylnaphthols towards Candida albicans

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    Maria Annunziata M. Capozzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chiral nonracemic aminobenzylnaphthols were obtained by a Betti multi-component reaction between 2-naphthol, aryl aldehydes and enantiopure arylethylamine. Moreover, some new aminobenzylnaphthols were synthesized by a similar reaction between 2-naphthol, aryl aldehydes and prolinol. These aminobenzylnaphthols, synthesized from different components and thus having different structural features, were tested as anti-yeast agents inhibiting Candida albicans. The effect towards the test strain was studied with a microdilution approach and three different concentrations (150, 300 and 450 µg/mL were tested. The best results were found for the aminobenzylnaphthols obtained from 1-naphthylethylamine and from natural prolinol. The use of the two-way ANOVA highlighted the better performances of the prolinol derivative among the differently structured aminobenzylnaphthols that were screened. The activity towards C. albicans of this prolinol derivative resulted to be interesting and could represent a promising alternative to overcome the problem of the strains resistant to the traditional antifungals.

  20. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  1. Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Heather T; Mitchell, Kaitlin F; Edward, Jessica A; Andes, David R

    2013-01-01

    Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involving both mechanisms similar to conventional, planktonic antifungal resistance, such as increased efflux pump activity, as well as mechanisms specific to the biofilm lifestyle. A unique biofilm property is the production of an extracellular matrix. Two components of this material, β-glucan and extracellular DNA, promote biofilm resistance to multiple antifungals. Biofilm formation also engages several stress response pathways that impair the activity of azole drugs. Resistance within a biofilm is often heterogeneous, with the development of a subpopulation of resistant persister cells. In this article we review the molecular mechanisms underlying Candida biofilm antifungal resistance and their relative contributions during various growth phases. PMID:24059922

  2. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

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    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  3. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  4. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah

    2011-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  5. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

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    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  6. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

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    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  7. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

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    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  8. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Reena; Rathod, G P

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud's dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram's stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori's methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  9. Prevalence of Candida Species in Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

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    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The clinical management of oral lichen planus poses considerable difficulties to the clinician. In recent years, researchers have focused on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Candida albicans in the patients with refractory lichen planus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of candida species in the erosive oral lichen planus lesions. Materials and methods. Twenty-one patients with erosive oral lichen planus and twenty-one healthy individuals aged 18-60 were randomly selected; samples were taken from the tongue, saliva and buccal mucosa with swab friction. Theses samples were sent to the laboratory for determining the presence of candida species in cultures and direct examination method. Results. No significant difference was found between healthy individuals and patients with erosive lichen planus regarding presence of candida species. The type of candida in the evaluated samples was Candida albicans in both healthy and patient groups. Conclusion. According to the results, candida was not confirmed as an etiologic factor for erosive lichen planus lesions.

  10. Fluconazole resistance in Candida species: a current perspective

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    Berkow EL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth L Berkow, Shawn R Lockhart Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Candida albicans and the emerging non-albicans Candida spp. have significant clinical relevance among many patient populations. Current treatment guidelines include fluconazole as a primary therapeutic option for the treatment of these infections, but it is only fungistatic against Candida spp. and both inherent and acquired resistance to fluconazole have been reported. Such mechanisms of resistance include increased drug efflux, alteration or increase in the drug target, and development of compensatory pathways for producing the target sterol, ergosterol. While many mechanisms of resistance observed in C. albicans are also found in the non-albicans species, there are also important and unexpected differences between species. Furthermore, mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in emerging Candida spp., including the global health threat Candida auris, are largely unknown. In order to preserve the utility of one of our fundamental antifungal drugs, fluconazole, it is essential that we fully appreciate the manner by which Candida spp. manifest resistance to it. Keywords: Candida, fluconazole resistance, ERG11, drug efflux, ergosterol

  11. Rapid identification of drug resistant Candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diba, Kambiz; Namaki, Atefeh; Ayatolahi, Haleh; Hanifian, Haleh

    2012-01-01

    Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37℃, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  12. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  13. [Fungal (Candida) infections in the immunocompromised pediatric patient].

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    Bruce Diemond, J; Lopez, C; Huerta Romano, F; Montiel Castillo, C

    2008-11-01

    Today, mycotic infections in immunocompromised patients are mainly caused by Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. The patients most sensitive to these infections are those with some kind of cell-mediated immunity quantitative or qualitative alteration (i.e., blood-related cancer, primary or secondary neutropenia, immunosuppressive disease or therapy, etc.). Candida infection in the immunosupressed patient comprises a wide range of serious diseases such as candidemia, chronic disseminated candididasis, endocarditis, meningitis and endophthalmitis. Therefore, infection by Candida spp. is considered secondary to the technological and medical advances which extend the life of patients with chronic diseases. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioactivity Assessment of Indian Origin-Mangrove Actinobacteria against Candida albicans.

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    Pavan Kumar, J G S; Gomathi, Ajitha; Gothandam, K M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2018-02-12

    Actinobacteria is found to have a potent metabolic activity against pathogens. The present study reveals the assessment of potent antifungal secondary metabolites from actinobacteria isolated from Indian marine mangrove sediments. The samples were collected from the coastal regions of Muthupet, Andaman and the Nicobar Islands. Identification was carried out using 16S rRNA analysis and biosynthetic genes (Polyketide synthase type I/II and Non-ribosomal peptide synthase) were screened. Actinobacteria were assayed for their antifungal activity against 16 clinical Candida albicans and the compound analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. The 31 actinobacterial strains were isolated and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that this ecosystem is rich on actinobacteria, with Streptomyces as the predominant genus. The PCR based screening of biosynthetic genes revealed the presence of PKS-I in six strains, PKS-II in four strains and NRPS in 11 strains. The isolated actinobacteria VITGAP240 and VITGAP241 (two isolates) were found to have a potential antifungal activity against all the tested C. albicans . GC-MS results revealed that the actinobacterial compounds were belonging to heterocyclic, polyketides and peptides. Overall, the strains possess a wide spectrum of antifungal properties which affords the production of significant bioactive metabolites as potential antibiotics.

  15. Susceptibility of Candida albicans Isolated from Blood to Wickerhamomyces anomalous Mycocins.

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    Paris, Ana Paula; Persel, Cristiane; Serafin, Cleber Fernando; de Cássia Garcia Simão, Rita; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of infections caused by Candida albicans in developed and developing countries and their resistance to some available antifungal drugs have been viewed as causing a great problem to human health worldwide. In order to find new researched molecules, there are some mycoses secreted by yeasts, especially mycocins produced by Wickerhamomyces anomalus with a broad antimicrobial spectrum of activity. Thus, this trial aimed at evaluating mycocins' activity obtained from environmental W. anomalus cell wall compared to thirty C. albicans strains isolated from blood. Mycocins were extracted from cell walls of three W. anomalus strains (WA40, WA45, and WA92). The 400 μg mL -1 concentration of WA40M1, WA45M2, and WA92M3 mycocin extracts showed the following respective activity results: 96.6, 96.6, and 90.0 % C. albicans strains. WA45M2 and WA92M3 mycocin extracts showed some activity in 3.3 % of C. albicans strains at 50 μg mL -1 concentration. Mycocins extracted from cell walls of three W. anomalus strains named as WA40, WA45, and WA92 showed antifungal activity compared to C. albicans and low degree of hemolysis.

  16. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil using Candida catenulata and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Shoda, Makoto; Phae, Chae-Gun

    2008-12-01

    Even though petroleum-degrading microorganisms are widely distributed in soil and water, they may not be present in sufficient numbers to achieve contaminant remediation. In such cases, it may be useful to inoculate the polluted area with highly effective petroleum-degrading microbial strains to augment the exiting ones. In order to identify a microbial strain for bioaugmentation of oil-contaminated soil, we isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency of diesel fuel in culture. The efficacy of the isolated microbial strain, identified as Candida catenulata CM1, was further evaluated during composting of a mixture containing 23% food waste and 77% diesel-contaminated soil including 2% (w/w) diesel. After 13 days of composting, 84% of the initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes containing a powdered form of CM1 (CM1-solid), compared with 48% of removal ratio in control reactor without inoculum. This finding suggests that CM1 is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with food waste through composting processes.

  17. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Charles, M. V.; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media ...

  19. Proteomic analysis of protein phosphatase Z1 from Candida albicans.

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    Bernadett Márkus

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase Z is a "novel type" fungus specific serine/threonine protein phosphatase. Previously our research group identified the CaPPZ1 gene in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans and reported that the gene deletion had several important physiological consequences. In order to reveal the protein targets and the associated mechanisms behind the functions of the phosphatase a proteomic method was adopted for the comparison of the cappz1 deletion mutant and the genetically matching QMY23 control strain. Proteins extracted from the control and deletion mutant strains were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the protein spots were stained with RuBPS and Pro-Q Diamond in order to visualize the total proteome and the phosphoproteome, respectively. The alterations in spot intensities were determined by densitometry and were analysed with the Delta2D (Decodon software. Spots showing significantly different intensities between the mutant and control strains were excised from the gels and were digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. As many as 15 protein spots were found that exhibited significant changes in their intensity upon the deletion of the phosphatase and 20 phosphoproteins were identified in which the level of phosphorylation was modified significantly in the mutant. In agreement with previous findings we found that the affected proteins function in protein synthesis, oxidative stress response, regulation of morphology and metabolism. Among these proteins we identified two potential CaPpz1 substrates (Eft2 and Rpp0 that may regulate the elongation step of translation. RT-qPCR experiments revealed that the expression of the genes coding for the affected proteins was not altered significantly. Thus, the absence of CaPpz1 exerted its effects via protein synthesis/degradation and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. In addition, our proteomics data strongly

  20. Proteomic analysis of protein phosphatase Z1 from Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P.; Petrényi, Katalin; Boros, Enikő; Pócsi, István; Tőzsér, József; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase Z is a “novel type” fungus specific serine/threonine protein phosphatase. Previously our research group identified the CaPPZ1 gene in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans and reported that the gene deletion had several important physiological consequences. In order to reveal the protein targets and the associated mechanisms behind the functions of the phosphatase a proteomic method was adopted for the comparison of the cappz1 deletion mutant and the genetically matching QMY23 control strain. Proteins extracted from the control and deletion mutant strains were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the protein spots were stained with RuBPS and Pro-Q Diamond in order to visualize the total proteome and the phosphoproteome, respectively. The alterations in spot intensities were determined by densitometry and were analysed with the Delta2D (Decodon) software. Spots showing significantly different intensities between the mutant and control strains were excised from the gels and were digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry. As many as 15 protein spots were found that exhibited significant changes in their intensity upon the deletion of the phosphatase and 20 phosphoproteins were identified in which the level of phosphorylation was modified significantly in the mutant. In agreement with previous findings we found that the affected proteins function in protein synthesis, oxidative stress response, regulation of morphology and metabolism. Among these proteins we identified two potential CaPpz1 substrates (Eft2 and Rpp0) that may regulate the elongation step of translation. RT-qPCR experiments revealed that the expression of the genes coding for the affected proteins was not altered significantly. Thus, the absence of CaPpz1 exerted its effects via protein synthesis/degradation and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. In addition, our proteomics data strongly suggested a role for

  1. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

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    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  2. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  3. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  4. Relative Abundances of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in In Vitro Coculture Biofilms Impact Biofilm Structure and Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michelle L; Jayaraman, Arul; Kao, Katy C

    2018-04-15

    Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species- Candida albicans and Candida glabrata -are often coisolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida coculture biofilms. In this work, we report that biofilm formation of the coculture population depends on the relative ratio of starting cell concentrations of C. albicans and C. glabrata When using a starting ratio of C. albicans to C. glabrata of 1:3, ∼6.5- and ∼2.5-fold increases in biofilm biomass were observed relative to those of a C. albicans monoculture and a C. albicans / C. glabrata ratio of 1:1, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the heterogeneity and complex structures composed of long C. albicans hyphae and C. glabrata cell clusters in the coculture biofilms, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) studies showed increases in the relative expression of the HWP1 and ALS3 adhesion genes in the C. albicans / C. glabrata 1:3 biofilm compared to that in the C. albicans monoculture biofilm. Additionally, only the 1:3 C. albicans / C. glabrata biofilm demonstrated an increased resistance to the antifungal drug caspofungin. Overall, the results suggest that interspecific interactions between these two fungal pathogens increase biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in a coculture composition-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are often coisolated during infection, and the occurrence of coisolation increases with increasing inflammation, suggesting possible synergistic interactions between the two Candida species in

  5. A phylogenetic study of ubiquinone-7 species of the genus Candida based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Nakase, Takashi

    2002-02-01

    To clarify phylogenetic relationships among ubiquinone 7 (Q7)-forming species of the genus Candida, we analyzed the nearly complete sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA genes (18S rDNAs) from fifty strains (including 46 type strains) of Candida species, and from 8 type strains of species/varieties of the genera Issatchenkia, Pichia and Saturnispora. Q7-forming Candida species were divided into three major groups (Group I, II, and III) and were phylogenetically distant from a group that includes the type species of the genus Candida. Group I included four clusters with basal branches that were weakly supported. The first cluster comprised C. vartiovaarae, C. maritima, C. utilis, C. freyschussii, C. odintsovae, C. melinii, C. quercuum, Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus, and W. mucosa. The second cluster comprised C. norvegica, C. montana, C. stellimalicola, C. solani, C. berthetii, and C. dendrica. Williopsis pratensis, W. californica, Pichia opuntiae and 2 related species, P. amethionina (two varieties), and P. caribaea were also included in this cluster. The third cluster comprised C. pelliculosa (anamorph of P. anomala), C. nitrativorans, and C. silvicultrix. The fourth cluster comprised C. wickerhamii and C. peltata, which were placed in the P. holstii - C. ernobii clade with Q8-containing species. Group II comprised C. pignaliae, C. nemodendra, C. methanolovescens, C. maris, C. sonorensis, C. pini, C. llanquihuensis, C. cariosilignicola, C. ovalis, C. succiphila (including its two synonyms), C. methanosorbosa, C. nitratophila, C. nanaspora, C. boidinii (including its two synonyms), W. salicorniae, and P. methanolica. Group III was composed of four clusters with strong bootstrap support. The first cluster comprised C. valida (anamorph of P. membranifaciens), C. ethanolica, C. pseudolambica, C. citrea, C. inconspicua, C. norvegensis, C. rugopelliculosa, and C. lambica. Three species and two varieties of the genus Issatchenkia were also included in this cluster. The

  6. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation.

  7. Goodbye warts, hello vitiligo: Candida antigen-induced depigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin N; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2013-01-01

    Depigmentation after the use of topical immune modulators is a rare but reported event. Herein we present what is to our knowledge the first case of vitiligo at a site of Candida antigen injection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

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    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  9. Kinetic studies of Candida parapsilosis phagocytosis by macrophages and detection of intracellular survival mechanisms

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    Renata eToth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though the number of Candida infections due to non-albicans species like C. parapsilosis has been increasing, little is known about their pathomechanisms. Certain aspects of C. parapsilosis and host interactions have already been investigated; however we lack information about the innate cellular responses towards this species. The aim of our project was to dissect and compare the phagocytosis of C. parapsilosis to C. albicans and to another Candida species C. glabrata by murine and human macrophages by live cell video microscopy. We broke down the phagocytic process into three stages: macrophage migration, engulfment of fungal cells and host cell killing after the uptake. Our results showed increased macrophage migration towards C. parapsilosis and we observed differences during the engulfment processes when comparing the three species. The engulfment time of C. parapsilosis was comparable to that of C. albicans regardless of the pseudohypha length and spatial orientation relative to phagocytes, while the rate of host cell killing and the overall uptake regarding C. parapsilosis showed similarities mainly with C. glabrata. Furthermore, we observed difference between human and murine phagocytes in the uptake of C. parapsilosis. UV-treatment of fungal cells had varied effects on phagocytosis dependent upon which Candida strain was used. Besides statistical analysis, live cell imaging videos showed that this species similarly to the other two also has the ability to survive in host cells via the following mechanisms: yeast replication, and pseudohypha growth inside of phagocytes, exocytosis of fungal cells and also abortion of host cell mitosis following the uptake. According to our knowledge this is the first study that provides a thorough examination of C. parapsilosis phagocytosis and reports intracellular survival mechanisms associated with this species.

  10. Disruption of Protein Mannosylation Affects Candida guilliermondii Cell Wall, Immune Sensing, and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Navarro-Arias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungal cell wall contains glycoproteins that interact with the host immune system. In the prominent pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, Pmr1 acts as a Golgi-resident ion pump that provides cofactors to mannosyltransferases, regulating the synthesis of mannans attached to glycoproteins. To gain insight into a putative conservation of such a crucial process within opportunistic yeasts, we were particularly interested in studying the role of the PMR1 homolog in a low-virulent species that rarely causes candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii. We disrupted C. guilliermondii PMR1 and found that loss of Pmr1 affected cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, susceptibility to cell wall perturbing agents, mannan levels, and the wall composition and organization. Despite there was a significant increment in the amount of β1,3-glucan exposed at the wall surface, this positively influenced only the ability of the mutant to stimulate IL-10 production by human monocytes, suggesting that recognition of both mannan and β1,3-glucan, is required to stimulate strong levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, our results indicate C. guilliermondii sensing by monocytes was critically dependent on the recognition of N-linked mannans and β1,3-glucan, as reported in other Candida species. In addition, chemical remotion of cell wall O-linked mannans was found to positively influence the recognition of C. guilliermondii by human monocytes, suggesting that O-linked mannans mask other cell wall components from immune cells. This observation contrasts with that reported in C. albicans. Finally, mice infected with C. guilliermondii pmr1 null mutant cells had significantly lower fungal burdens compared to animals challenged with the parental strain. Accordingly, the null mutant showed inability to kill larvae in the Galleria mellonella infection model. This study thus demonstrates that mannans are relevant for the C. guilliermondii-host interaction, with

  11. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  12. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  13. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  14. Otomastoiditis caused by Candida auris: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoung Il; An, Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Moon, Soo-Youn; Son, Jun Seong

    2017-08-01

    Fungal otomastoiditis is a rare disease, but can be fatal for immunocompromised patients. Recently, there have been increasing cases of otologic infection caused by Candida auris. Candida auris can be easily misdiagnosed for other species and treatment is difficult due to multidrug resistance. Clinician should be aware of this rare pathogen, and it should be treated with appropriate antifungal agent with surgical debridement. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The first cases of Candida auris candidaemia in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Jalila; Hagen, Ferry; Al-Balushi, Zainab A M; de Hoog, G Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S

    2017-09-01

    Candida auris has been recognised as a problematic healthcare-associated emerging yeast which is often misidentified as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Correct early identification of C. auris is important for appropriate antifungal treatment and implementing effective infection control measures. Here we report emergence of the first C. auris cases in Oman, initially misidentified as C. haemulonii. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  17. Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on H⁺ extrusion activity and ultrastructure of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Bhatia, Rimple; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    The antifungal effects of cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (coniferyl aldehyde) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (sinapaldehyde) were investigated against 65 strains of Candida (six standard, 39 fluconazole-sensitive and 20 fluconazole-resistant). MICs of cinnamaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde and sinapaldehyde ranged from 100 to 500 µg ml(-1), 100 to 300 µg ml(-1) and 100 to 200 µg ml(-1), respectively. All tested isolates showed a marked sensitivity towards these aldehydes in spot and time-kill assays. Sinapaldehyde was found to be the most effective, followed by coniferyl aldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. At their respective MIC(90) values, the three compounds caused mean inhibition levels of glucose-stimulated H(+)-efflux of 36, 34 and 41 % (cinnamaldehyde), 41, 42 and 47 % (coniferyl aldehyde) and 43, 45 and 51 % (sinapaldehyde) for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Inhibition levels of H(+)-efflux caused by plasma membrane ATPase inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (100 µM) and diethylstilbestrol (10 µM) were 34, 45 and 44 %, and 57, 39 and 35 %, for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Intracellular pH (pHi) was found to decrease by 0.34, 0.42 and 0.50 units following incubation with three tested aldehydes from the control pHi of 6.70. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed on a representative strain, C. albicans 10261, showing alterations in morphology, cell wall, plasma membrane damage and lysis. Haemolytic activity of the three compounds varied from 10 to 15 % at their highest MIC compared to an activity level of 20 % shown by fluconazole at 30 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, this study shows significant activity of cinnamic aldehydes against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, suggesting that these molecules can be developed as antifungals.

  18. Importation, Mitigation, and Genomic Epidemiology of Candida auris at a Large Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesho, Emil P; Bronstein, Melissa Z; McGann, Patrick; Stam, Jason; Kwak, Yoon; Maybank, Rosslyn; McNamara, Jodi; Callahan, Megan; Campbell, Jean; Hinkle, Mary K; Walsh, Edward E

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Candida auris (CA) is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen associated with increased mortality. The environment may play a role, but transmission dynamics remain poorly understood. We sought to limit environmental and patient CA contamination following a sustained unsuspected exposure. DESIGN Quasi-experimental observation. SETTING A 528-bed teaching hospital. PATIENTS The index case patient and 17 collocated ward mates. INTERVENTION Immediately after confirmation of CA in the bloodstream and urine of a patient admitted 6 days previously, active surveillance, enhanced transmission-based precautions, environmental cleaning with peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light, and patient relocation were undertaken. Pre-existing agreements and foundational relationships among internal multidisciplinary teams and external partners were leveraged to bolster detection and mitigation efforts and to provide genomic epidemiology. RESULTS Candida auris was isolated from 3 of 132 surface samples on days 8, 9, and 15 of ward occupancy, and from no patient samples (0 of 48). Environmental and patient isolates were genetically identical (4-8 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) and most closely related to the 2013 India CA-6684 strain (~200 SNPs), supporting the epidemiological hypothesis that the source of environmental contamination was the index case patient, who probably acquired the South Asian strain from another New York hospital. All isolates contained a mutation associated with azole resistance (K163R) found in the India 2105 VPCI strain but not in CA-6684. The index patient remained colonized until death. No surfaces were CA-positive 1 month later. CONCLUSION Compared to previous descriptions, CA dissemination was minimal. Immediate access to rapid CA diagnostics facilitates early containment strategies and outbreak investigations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:53-57.

  19. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline Viviane Marques das Neves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2 was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 µg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 µg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 µg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 µg/mL for bacteria and 32 µg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 µg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis.

  20. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  1. Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity Diferenças na produção de exoenzimas e habilidade de aderência entre isolados de espécies de Candida provenientes do cateter, sangue e cavidade bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1% and 55.9% of Candida albicans and 69.8% and 37.7% of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a c

  2. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Miličević Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific

  3. Rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations in clinical Candida albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole by rolling circle amplification and DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiping; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Wang, Bin; McNicholas, Paul; Pantarat, Namfon; Ellis, David; Xiao, Meng; Widmer, Fred; Chen, Sharon CA

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Amino acid substitutions in the target enzyme Erg11p of azole antifungals contribute to clinically-relevant azole resistance in Candida albicans. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations would be an advantage as a screening tool to identify potentially-resistant strains and to track their movement. To complement DNA sequencing, we developed a padlock probe and rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based method to detect a series of mutations in th...

  4. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial succession of Debaryomyces hansenii strains during the production of Danish surfaced-ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Mee; Westall, Signe; Jespersen, Lene

    2002-01-01

    to be the dominant yeast species throughout the ripening period, whereas other yeast species such as Trichosporon spp., Rhodotorula spp., and Candida spp. were found in minor concentrations during early stages of cheese ripening. Mitochondrial DNA RFLP was used to show that several strains of D. hansenii were...

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits Candida albicans virulence factors in vitro and modulates immune system in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F C; de Barros, P P; Rossoni, R D; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-Candida effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 on Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. rhamnosus on C. albicans's biofilm formation by CFU count and metabolic activity, filamentation capacity, and adhesion (ALS3 and HWP1) and transcriptional regulatory gene (BCR1 and CPH1) expression. The in vitro results showed that both the L. rhamnosus cells and supernatant reduced C. albicans biofilm formation, filamentation and gene expression. In the in vivo study, the treatment with L. rhamnosus supernatant increased 80% the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans. Furthermore, the supernatant of L. rhamnosus recruited haemocytes into the haemolymph (2·1-fold increase). Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced the biofilm formation and filamentation of C. albicans in vitro by negatively regulating all studied C. albicans genes. Lactobacillus rhamnosus protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. This study is the first study to report the anti-Candida properties of L. rhamnosus ATCC 9595. The supernatant of this strain has immunomodulatory effects on the G. mellonella model and protects the larvae against pathogens. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Use of alcohol vinegar in the inhibition of Candida spp. and its effect on the physical properties of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Mota, Ana Carolina Loureiro Gama; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; Batista, André Ulisses Dantas; de Araújo Oliveira, Julyana; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2015-04-28

    Given the high prevalence of oral candidiasis and the restricted number of antifungal agents available to control infection, this study investigated the in vitro antifungal activity of alcohol vinegar on Candida spp. and its effect on the physical properties of acrylic resins. Tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of vinegar alcohol (0.04 g/ml of acetic acid) and nystatin (control) were performed. The antifungal activity of alcohol vinegar was assessed through microbial growth kinetic assays and inhibition of Candida albicans adhesion to acrylic resin at different intervals of time. Surface roughness and color of the acrylic resin were analyzed using a roughness meter and color analyzer device. Alcohol vinegar showed MIC75% and MFC62.5% of 2.5 mg/ml, with fungicidal effect from 120 min, differing from nystatin (p Alcohol vinegar caused greater inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to the acrylic resin (p ≤ 0.001) compared to nystatin and did not change the roughness and color parameters of the material. Alcohol vinegar showed antifungal properties against Candida strains and caused no physical changes to the acrylic resin.

  9. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  10. Evaluation of SOC for the presumptive identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W H; Knezek, K L; Dorn, G L

    1987-01-01

    SOC, a fungal growth medium composed of Solryth, oxgall, and caffeic acid, was evaluated as a medium to provide rapid, differential identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Using a variety of common isolation media to produce the yeast inocula, the germ tube methods tested ranked in the following order of decreasing sensitivity: SOC (97% +/- 1), serum (92% +/- 5), rabbit coagulase plasma with EDTA in combination with tryptic soy broth (89% +/- 5), TOC (89% +/- 6), and rabbit coagulase plasma with EDTA (83% +/- 4). In chlamydospore production, SOC also proved to be the most sensitive after 24 h incubation: SOC (96% +/- 2), TOC (80% +/- 2), and cornmeal-Tween 80 agar (14% +/- 3). Other medically important yeasts showed normal patterns of growth within 24 h on SOC, thus assisting in their identification. Eighty strains of Cryptococcus neoformans showed characteristic brown pigmentation on SOC and TOC within 18 h, while all other species of the genus Cryptococcus and 229 Candida isolates did not show a change in pigmentation.

  11. Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, G.; Lynch, D.H.; MacKinley, P.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg -1 in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC 50s of 18 mg kg -1 was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. - Research highlights: → Avoidance cup test using Folsomia candida detects Cu independently of concentration. → Improved avoidance Petri dish test detects Cu in soil in function of concentration. → Cu voidance tests had similar EC50 values whether conducted with or without light. → Combining Cu avoidance test trials in OECD soil reduced the variability of results. - Improved avoidance tests having an EC 50 value similar to the background Cu concentration in uncontaminated agricultural soils can distinguish Cu contaminated and Cu free OECD soil.

  12. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Gerardo Becerra; Bourdon, Lorena Michele Brennan; Benavides, Leonel García; Huerta-Olvera, Selene G; Plascencia, Arturo; Villanueva, José; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván Isidro

    2017-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease characterised by heart valve lesions, which exhibit extracellular matrix proteins that act as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of antimicrobial agents. The genus Candida has acquired clinical importance given that it is increasingly being isolated from cases of nosocomial infections. To evaluate the activity of caspofungin compared to that of liposomal amphotericin B against Candida albicans in experimental infective endocarditis. Wistar rats underwent surgical intervention and infection with strains of C. albicans to develop infective endocarditis. Three groups were formed: the first group was treated with caspofungin, the second with liposomal amphotericin B, and the third received a placebo. In vitro sensitivity was first determined to further evaluate the effect of these treatments on a rat experimental model of endocarditis by semiquantitative culture of fibrinous vegetations and histological analysis. Our semiquantitative culture of growing vegetation showed massive C. albicans colonisation in rats without treatment, whereas rats treated with caspofungin showed significantly reduced colonisation, which was similar to the results obtained with liposomal amphotericin B. The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans.

  13. Candida albicans adherence to resin-composite restorative dental material: influence of whole human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, José Luis; Elguezabal, Natalia; Prado, Carlota; Ellacuría, Joseba; Soler, Iñaki; Pontón, José

    2002-11-01

    Attachment of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is believed to be a critical event in the colonization of the oral cavity and in the development of oral diseases such as Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adhesion of C albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information about the adhesion of C albicans to composite restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of adhesion of C albicans to a resin-composite restorative material (Herculite). The adhesion of 2 strains of C albicans, a germinative and a germ tube-deficient mutant, was studied by a visual method after incubating the fungus and the resin with and without human whole saliva. In absence of saliva, the adhesion of the C albicans germinative isolate to the resin showed an increase in parallel with the germination, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes). However, no significant differences were observed in the adhesion of the agerminative mutant during the period of time studied. In the presence of saliva, the adhesion of both isolates to the resin was significantly lowered. Germination and the presence of human whole saliva are important factors in the adhesion of C albicans to the resin-composite restorative material Herculite.

  14. Saponins of Trifolium spp. Aerial Parts as Modulators of Candida Albicans Virulence Attributes

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    Aleksandra Budzyńska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to provide the insight into the biology of C. albicans influenced by undescribed yet properties of saponin-rich (80%–98% fractions (SAPFs, isolated from extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum, T. incarnatum, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum aerial parts. Their concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL were arbitrarily considered as subMICs for C. albicans ATCC 10231 and were further used. SAPFs affected yeast enzymatic activity, lowered tolerance to the oxidative stress, to the osmotic stress and to the action of the cell wall disrupting agent. In their presence, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly inhibited, as well as Candida invasive capacity. The evaluation of SAPFs interactions with anti-mycotics showed synergistic activity, mainly with azoles. Fluconazole MIC was lowered—susceptible C. albicans ATCC 10231 was more susceptible, and resistant C. glabrata (clinical strain become more susceptible (eightfold. Moreover, the tested samples showed no hemolytic activity and at the concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL did not reduce viability of fibroblasts L929. This study provided the original evidence that SAPFs of Trifolium spp. aerial part exhibit significant antimicrobial activity, by reduce the expression/quantity of important Candida virulence factors and have good potential for the development of novel antifungal products supporting classic drugs.

  15. Hypertonic sabouraud dextrose agar as a substrate for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, Oncü; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to detect the proportion of Candida dubliniensis among yeast strains previously identified as C. albicans by using several phenotypic methods and PCR.For this purpose, we screened 300 strains by using phenotypic tests suggested for the identification of C. dubliniensis in the literature, but we detected high proportion of false-positive reactions. Only two strains (0.6%) were detected as true C. dubliniensis by PCR and API ID 32C methods. Moreover, these two strains gave the expected results with all the phenotypic tests, including modified salt tolerance test for C. dubliniensis.In conclusion, none of the phenotypic methods, except for the modified salt tolerance test, revealed 100% successful results in discrimination of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis species. However, in the tobacco agar test, the rate of false positivity was as low as 0.6%. We suggest that in the case of absence of PCR and other automatized identification systems, these two phenotypic tests can be used in routine laboratories to obtain a presumptive result.

  16. Influence of growth conditions on adhesion of yeast Candida spp. and Pichia spp. to stainless steel surfaces.

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    Tomičić, Ružica; Raspor, Peter

    2017-08-01

    An understanding of adhesion behavior of Candida and Pichia yeast under different environmental conditions is key to the development of effective preventive measures against biofilm-associated infection. Hence in this study we investigated the impact of growth medium and temperature on Candida and Pichia adherence using stainless steel (AISI 304) discs with different degrees of surface roughness (Ra = 25.20-961.9 nm), material typical for the food processing industry as well as medical devices. The adhesion of the yeast strains to stainless steel surfaces grown in Malt Extract broth (MEB) or YPD broth at three temperatures (7 °C, 37 °C, 43 °C for Candida strains and 7 °C, 27 °C, 32 °C for Pichia strains) was assessed by crystal violet staining. The results showed that the nutrient content of medium significantly influenced the quantity of adhered cells by the tested yeasts. Adhesion of C. albicans and C. glabrata on stainless steel surfaces were significantly higher in MEB, whereas for C. parapsilosis and C. krusei it was YPD broth. In the case with P. pijperi and P. membranifaciens, YPD broth was more effective in promoting adhesion than MEB. On the other hand, our data indicated that temperature is a very important factor which considerably affects the adhesion of these yeast. There was also significant difference in cell adhesion on all types of stainless steel surfaces for all tested yeast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistencia de levaduras del género Candida al fluconazol Candida yeast´s resistance to fluconazol

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    Carlos Hernando Gómez Quintero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por levaduras del género Candida sp. son cada vez más prevalentes en pacientes hospitalizados, especialmente en grupos de mayor riesgo como pueden ser pacientes con neoplasia hematológica bajo tratamiento de quimioterapia y en cuidados intensivos. La resistencia de Candida sp. representa un reto terapéutico que deja un menor número de posibilidades para el tratamiento de estas infecciones que se caracterizan, a su vez, por una alta morbimortalidad. Esta revisión describe los mecanismos de resistencia de Candida sp. a fluconazol y los factores de riesgo para la adquisición de éstos.Yeast infections of the genus Candida sp are becoming more prevalent in hospitalized patients, especially in high risk groups such as patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy and in intensive care units. Candida sp's resistance represents a therapeutic challenge that leaves fewer opportunities for the treatment of these infections which are characterized by high morbidity and mortality. This review describes Candida sp's resistance mechanisms to fluconazole and the risk factors for their acquisition.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro activity against Candida spp. of fluconazole encapsulated on cationic and conventional nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

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    Gómez-Sequeda N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás Gómez-Sequeda,1 Rodrigo Torres,2 Claudia Ortiz3 1School of Biology, 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, 3School of Microbiology, Faculty of Health, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia Abstract: In this study, nanoparticles (NPs of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with fluconazole (FLZ and FLZ-NPs coated with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI (FLZ-NP-PEI were synthetized in order to improve antimycotic activity against four strains of Candida spp. of clinical relevance. FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI were synthesized by double emulsion solvent-diffusion (DES-D and characterized. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC were determined in vitro by culturing Candida strains in the presence of these nanocompounds. FLZ-NPs were spherical in shape with hydrodynamic sizes of ~222 nm and surface charge of -11.6 mV. The surface charges of these NPs were successfully modified using PEI (FLZ-NP-PEI with mean hydrodynamic sizes of 281 nm and surface charge of 23.5 mV. The efficiency of encapsulation (~53% and a quick release of FLZ (≥90% after 3 h were obtained. Cytotoxicity assay showed a good cell viability for FLZ-NPs (≥86%, and PEI-modified NPs presented a decrease in cell viability (~38%. FLZ-NPs showed an increasing antifungal activity of FLZ for sensitive (Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida albicans ATCC10231, MIC50 =0.5 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively and resistant strains (Candida glabrata EMLM14 and Candida krusei ATCC6258, MIC50 =0.1 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. FLZ-NP-PEI showed fungicidal activity even against C. glabrata and C. krusei (MFC =4 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. MIC50 values showed best results for FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI. Nevertheless, only FLZ-NP-PEI displayed fungicidal activity against the studied strains. Keywords: drug delivery systems, double emulsion diffusion, nanoparticles, minimal inhibitory concentration

  19. Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-positive patients at Fortaleza, Ceará Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isolado da cavidade oral de pacientes HIV-positivos em Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans and other species are usually involved in opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunological deficiency syndrome (AIDS. The virulence mechanisms by which this yeast expresses its pathogenicity include adherence patterns, ability to form pseudomycelia and production of extracellular enzymes, among others. The objective of this research was to verify the frequency of Candida and the production of proteinase and phospholipase in 52 strains of Candida albicans from the oral cavity of patients infected by HIV treated at Hospital São José, AIDS reference and training center in Fortaleza, Ceará. Samples were collected of patients, with or without oral lesions characteristic of candidosis. From 100 patients, 80% presented positivity for Candida: 65% (52 were identified as C. albicans, 27.5% (22 as C. tropicalis, 2.5% (2 as C. glabrata, 2.5% (2 as C. krusei and 2.5% (2 as C. guilliermondii. Among the strains of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavity, proteinase and phospholipase were detected in 69.2% and 73%, respectively. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, with intermediate expression of proteinase and phospholipase.Candida albicans e outras espécies são usualmente envolvidas em infecções de pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. Os mecanismos de virulência pelos quais a levedura expressa sua patogenicidade incluem padrões de aderência, habilidade por formar pseudomicélio, produção de enzimas extracelulares e outros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a freqüência de Candida e a produção de proteinase e fosfolipase em 52 cepas de Candida albicans da cavidade oral de pacientes infectados pelo HIV atendidos no Hospital São José, hospital de referência e centro de treinamento em AIDS em Fortaleza, Ceará. Neste trabalho foram coletadas amostras de pacientes com ou sem lesões características de candidose. Dos cem pacientes 80

  20. Candida spp. AISLADAS EN PACIENTES CON VULVOVAGINITIS DE COMUNIDADES RURALES DEL MUNICIPIO CARIPE, ESTADO MONAGAS, VENEZUELA, 2014 | Candida spp. ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH VULVOVAGINITIS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES FROM CARIPE MUNICIPALITY, MONAGAS STATE, VENEZUELA, 2014

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    Druvic Lemus-Espinoza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated patients with symptomatic vaginal fungal infection in a rural area of Caripe Municipality, Monagas state, Venezuela, aiming to identify the species involved and their sensibility to antimicotics. Identification of species of Candida yeast was made with the use of CHROMagar Candida® and API AUX 20®. Additionally, in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole was evaluated by the agar diffusion method (CLSI, M44-A2. The prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 23/86 cases (26.7% among women 15 to 60 years. Candida albicans was the most common species among patients (39.1%. However, other isolated agents within the same genus Candida dominated (65.2% and were identified: Complex C. glabrata (4/23; 17.4%, C. tropicalis (4/23; 17.4%, Complex C. parapsilosis (3/23; 13.1%, C.guilliermondii (2/23; 8.7%, C. krusei (1/23; 4.3% and one episode of mixed infection with C. albicans and C. krusei (1/23. No statistical difference was observed between symptoms; vulvovaginal erythema occurred in all infected women. More than half of the yeasts (15/23 were sensitive to fluconazole. In this population sample, isolates of C. albicans and C. guilliermondii were 100% sensitive to fluconazole, while the C. krusei strain (1/23 isolated from a mixed infection was resistant to this antimicotic. Other species, like C. tropicalis (4/23, C. glabrata (2/23 and Complex C. parapsilosis (1/23 showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. In gynecological evaluations of patients from rural or urban communities, with clinical picture of micotic vulvovaginitis, a microbiological study of vaginal secretions should be implemented.

  1. PF1163A and B, new antifungal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. I. Taxonomy of producing strain, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, H; Seki, A; Yaguchi, T; Hosoya, A; Sasaki, T; Hoshiko, S; Shomura, T

    2000-01-01

    Two novel antifungal antibiotics, PF1163A and B, were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. They were purified from the solid cultures of rice media using ethyl acetate extraction, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. PF1163A and B showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strain Candida albicans but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. These compounds inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.

  2. Posaconazole exhibits in vitro and in vivo synergistic antifungal activity with caspofungin or FK506 against Candida albicans.

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    Ying-Lien Chen

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to test whether posaconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, exhibits synergy with the β-1,3 glucan synthase inhibitor caspofungin or the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Although current drug treatments for Candida infection are often efficacious, the available antifungal armamentarium may not be keeping pace with the increasing incidence of drug resistant strains. The development of drug combinations or novel antifungal drugs to address emerging drug resistance is therefore of general importance. Combination drug therapies are employed to treat patients with HIV, cancer, or tuberculosis, and has considerable promise in the treatment of fungal infections like cryptococcal meningitis and C. albicans infections. Our studies reported here demonstrate that posaconazole exhibits in vitro synergy with caspofungin or FK506 against drug susceptible or resistant C. albicans strains. Furthermore, these combinations also show in vivo synergy against C. albicans strain SC5314 and its derived echinocandin-resistant mutants, which harbor an S645Y mutation in the CaFks1 β-1,3 glucan synthase drug target, suggesting potential therapeutic applicability for these combinations in the future.

  3. Lab-scale preparations of Candida albicans and dual Candida albicans-Candida glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) perfusion tube using a modified gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Lu, KeQiao; Tian, Ge; Cui, YanYan; Yan, YuanYuan; Wang, TianMing; Zhang, XinLong; Wang, ChangZhong

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of a man-made gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI) was described, which was composed of a gas cushion injector and four incubators. The GS-FFBI had the characteristics of (i) a bottom-up flow direction, and (ii) lab-scale biofilm preparation without the use of a multichannel pump. Two opportunistic fungal strains, namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, were employed to incubate C. albicans and dual C. albicans-C. glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride perfusion tube. In terms of the results from {2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} (XTT) assay, dry weight measurement, colony-forming unit counting, susceptibility test, and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that GS-FFBI could form both stable single and dual Candida biofilms with no significant variations among the four incubators or the three daily incubations within 21h, and could operate for at least 96h smoothly with no contamination of stock medium. The results also indicated, for the first time, that C. albicans and C. glabrata might be co-existent competitively and symbiotically in the dual biofilms with flowing media. GS-FFBI would be a useful device to study in vitro morphological and physiological features of microbial biofilms in the medical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. <原著>Candida albicansの厚膜胞子形成培地の検討

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    鎌口,有秀/馬場,久衛/小松,始/野崎,善弘/越前,敏廣; カマグチ,アリヒデ/ババ,ヒサエ/コマツ,ハジメ/ノザキ,ヨシヒロ/エチゼン,トシヒロ; KAMAGUCHI,Arihide/BABA,Hisae/KOMATSU,Hazime/NOSAKI,Yoshihiro/ECHIZEN,Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    The composition of a medium and condition to reduce chlamydospore forming time in Candida albicans were examined. The most suitable composition of a medium and condition in reducing chlamydospore forming time were that the medium contained 30% of corn meal agar and 2 mg per ml of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine with an initial pH of 8.0, and incubation temperature was 25℃. This was designated 0.3CMG agar medium in this paper. On this medium all tested strains of C. albicans containing clinically isola...

  5. Adaptation of Microstix®-Candida Slide-test for Diagnosis of Bovine Mastitis Due to Anascogenic Yeasts

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    Przemysław Dudko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large diversity of mastitis-causing bacteria (150 species, subspecies or biovars have been documented, an adequate and simple mycological screening for yeast-related mastitis has not been developed. Since yeast incubation normally lasts longer than the majority of bacteriological ones, usually a treatment is administered before the results of microbial cultures are obtained. Therefore, a simple test has been needed for detection of yeast-related mastitis, the results of which can be read in parallel to bacteriological screening. Application of Microstix®-Candida assay was first checked for its specificity in standard Candida albicans (Oxford strain cultures (phase I and then in the other 36 strains of yeasts isolated from clinical mastitis cases during field investigations (second phase. Next, a test was implemented for identification of pathogens in 9 cohorts (1,200 cows from red-white Polish- Friesian breed in which the dynamics of mastitis were traced by bacteriological and mycological assays along year-long observations. The data obtained showed that apart from frequent infections (~50-70% proved by using pure microbial cultures, also mixed (bacterial-fungal infections (0-25% appeared as well as negative sieves (in the range of 0-45%. Mycological assays revealed a significant fraction of mixed infections during both lactation and the dry period. Strepto-staphylococcal infection was thus identified, however, its proportion strongly decreased after the introduction of antibiotics (after sensitivity to microbial agents was determined. Microbial monitoring was improved in these herds by parallel application of bacteriological and mycological (particularly Microstix®- Candida tests. Microstix®-assay appears to be useful for mycological diagnosis in field conditions of infected (mastitis herds. Its advantages include easy performance and short incubation time that is only 24 h at 37 °C (72-96 h at room temperature. This allowed

  6. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

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    Luciani Gaspar De Toledo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic and MRC-5 (fibroblast cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL. The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred

  7. Candida guilliermondii as the aetiology of candidosis Candida guilliermondii como agente de candidose

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    Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii is one of the components of human microbiota. This yeast has been infrequently associated with human infections, which may be related to its low pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to provide clinical and epidemiological data for patients infected with C. guilliermondii at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. From October 1997 to October 2003, C. guilliermondii was isolated from clinical samples from 11 patients. Three patients were excluded because the isolation of the yeast represented colonisation. Specimens from the eight patients included in the study corresponded to blood (n = 5, ascitis fluid (n = 2, and oesophagus biopsy (n = 1. Three patients (37.5% had major immunosuppressed conditions, including solid organ transplantation, AIDS, and leukaemia. Previous use of antibiotics occurred in 87.5%. Main invasive medical procedures were central venous catheter (50.0%, abdominal surgery (25.0%, and peritoneal dialysis (50.0%. No susceptibility data was obtained. Although risk factors for candidaemia were similar amongst patients infected by with C. guilliermondii or other Candida species, mortality associated with C. guilliermondii was significantly lower.Candida guilliermondii é um dos componentes da microbiota humana e infecções associadas com esta levedura têm sido incomuns, o que pode ser atribuído a sua baixa patogenicidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi documentar aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos em pacientes que tiveram C. guilliermondii isolada a partir de amostras biológicas. O estudo foi conduzido na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brasil. Durante outubro de 1997 e outubro de 2003, C. guilliermondii foi isolada de 11 pacientes, três dos quais foram excluídos por se apresentarem apenas colonizados. Espécimes clínicos corresponderam a sangue (n = 5, líquido de ascite (n = 2 e biópsia de esôfago (n = 1. Três pacientes eram imunodeprimidos, incluindo transplante de órgãos sólidos, SIDA e

  8. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

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    Antonella Marangoni

    Full Text Available The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli, in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml, against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  9. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  10. The acute neutrophil response mediated by S100 alarmins during vaginal Candida infections is independent of the Th17-pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Kolls, Jay K; Happel, Kyle I; Wormley, Floyd; Wozniak, Karen L; Fidel, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Candida albicans affects a significant number of women during their reproductive ages. Clinical observations revealed that a robust vaginal polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration occurs in susceptible women, promoting pathological inflammation without affecting fungal burden. Evidence to date in the mouse model suggests that a similar acute PMN migration into the vagina is mediated by chemotactic S100A8 and S100A9 alarmins produced by vaginal epithelial cells in response to Candida. Based on the putative role for the Th17 response in mucosal candidiasis as well as S100 alarmin induction, this study aimed to determine whether the Th17 pathway plays a role in the S100 alarmin-mediated acute inflammation during VVC using the experimental mouse model. For this, IL-23p19(-/-), IL-17RA(-/-) and IL-22(-/-) mice were intravaginally inoculated with Candida, and vaginal lavage fluids were evaluated for fungal burden, PMN infiltration, the presence of S100 alarmins and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Compared to wild-type mice, the cytokine-deficient mice showed comparative levels of vaginal fungal burden and PMN infiltration following inoculation. Likewise, inoculated mice of all strains with substantial PMN infiltration exhibited elevated levels of vaginal S100 alarmins in both vaginal epithelia and secretions in the vaginal lumen. Finally, cytokine analyses of vaginal lavage fluid from inoculated mice revealed equivalent expression profiles irrespective of the Th17 cytokine status or PMN response. These data suggest that the vaginal S100 alarmin response to Candida does not require the cells or cytokines of the Th17 lineage, and therefore, the immunopathogenic inflammatory response during VVC occurs independently of the Th17-pathway.

  11. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

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    Vijay eKumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

  12. Genome sequence and physiological analysis of Yamadazyma laniorum f.a. sp. nov. and a reevaluation of the apocryphal xylose fermentation of its sister species, Candida tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Max A B; Kominek, Jacek; Langdon, Quinn K; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2017-05-01

    Xylose fermentation is a rare trait that is immensely important to the cellulosic biofuel industry, and Candida tenuis is one of the few yeasts that has been reported with this trait. Here we report the isolation of two strains representing a candidate sister species to C. tenuis. Integrated analysis of genome sequence and physiology suggested the genetic basis of a number of traits, including variation between the novel species and C. tenuis in lactose metabolism due to the loss of genes encoding lactose permease and β-galactosidase in the former. Surprisingly, physiological characterization revealed that neither the type strain of C. tenuis nor this novel species fermented xylose in traditional assays. We reexamined three xylose-fermenting strains previously identified as C. tenuis and found that these strains belong to the genus Scheffersomyces and are not C. tenuis. We propose Yamadazyma laniorum f.a. sp. nov. to accommodate our new strains and designate its type strain as yHMH7 (=CBS 14780 = NRRL Y-63967T). Furthermore, we propose the transfer of Candida tenuis to the genus Yamadazyma as Yamadazyma tenuis comb. nov. This approach provides a roadmap for how integrated genome sequence and physiological analysis can yield insight into the mechanisms that generate yeast biodiversity. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS as a tool to identify foodborne yeasts and yeast-like fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintilla, Raquel; Kolecka, Anna; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide M; Houbraken, Jos; Kostrzewa, Markus; Boekhout, Teun; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2018-02-02

    Since food spoilage by yeasts causes high economic losses, fast and accurate identifications of yeasts associated with food and food-related products are important for the food industry. In this study the efficiency of the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify food related yeasts was evaluated. A CBS in-house MALDI-TOF MS database was created and later challenged with a blinded test set of 146 yeast strains obtained from food and food related products. Ninety eight percent of the strains were correctly identified with log score values>1.7. One strain, Mrakia frigida, gained a correct identification with a score value1.7. Ambiguous identifications were observed due to two incorrect reference mass spectra's found in the commercial database BDAL v.4.0, namely Candida sake DSM 70763 which was re-identified as Candida oleophila, and Candida inconspicua DSM 70631 which was re-identified as Pichia membranifaciens. MALDI-TOF MS can distinguish between most of the species, but for some species complexes, such as the Kazachstania telluris and Mrakia frigida complexes, MALDI-TOF MS showed limited resolution and identification of sibling species was sometimes problematic. Despite this, we showed that the MALDI-TOF MS is applicable for routine identification and validation of foodborne yeasts, but a further update of the commercial reference databases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology and phospholipase activity of oral Candida spp. among patients with central nervous system diseases before and after dental cleaning procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Silva Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering of diseases that affect central nervous system may be considered more susceptible to the infectious diseases of mouth. Sixty-nine patients suffering of cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation were submitted to saliva examination for the presence of Candida spp. before and after a procedure of dental cleaning. The isolates were submitted to assay for verifying phospholipase production. 55.10% of the patients provided isolation of Candida spp. The frequency of isolation obtained before dental procedure was: C. albicans (83.33%, C. krusei (8.33% and C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (2.78% each. The frequency after the procedure was: C. albicans (68.57%, C. parapsilosis (11.43%, C. krusei and C. kefyr (8.57% each and Candida glabrata (2.86%. We verified significantly difference (p < 0.01 between populations obtained at the two examinations. Phospholipase production was verified only among C. albicans strains and the proportion of producers was higher when testing isolates obtained after dental cleaning procedure. Studies focused on Candida spp. isolation are useful for better comprehension of the role of these yeasts on the oral flora from patients with cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation.

  15. 1,4-Naphthoquinone derivatives potently suppress Candida albicans growth, inhibit formation of hyphae and show no toxicity toward zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Monika; Kubiński, Konrad; Martyna, Aleksandra; Muzyczka, Angelika; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Czernik, Sławomir; Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Chwedczuk, Marta; Demchuk, Oleg M; Golczyk, Hieronim; Masłyk, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we applied various assays to find new activities of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives for potential anti-Candida albicans applications. These assays determined (a) the antimicrobial effect on growth/cell multiplication in fungal cultures, (b) the effect on formation of hyphae and biofilm, (c) the influence on cell membrane integrity, (d) the effect on cell morphology using atomic force microscopy, and (e) toxicity against zebrafish embryos. We have demonstrated the activity of these compounds against different Candida species and clinical isolates of C. albicans. 1,4-Naphthoquinones significantly affected fungal strains at 8-250 mg l -1 of MIC. Interestingly, at concentrations below MICs, the chemicals showed effectiveness in inhibition of hyphal formation and cell aggregation in Candida. Of note, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed an influence of the compounds on cell morphological properties. However, at low concentrations (0.8-31.2 mg l -1 ), it did not exert any evident toxic effects on zebrafish embryos. Our research has evidenced the effectiveness of 1,4-naphthoquinones as potential anti-Candida agents.

  16. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  17. Rutas de glicosilación en Candida albicans: circuitos reguladores y efectos sobre virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Cantero, María del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis trata sobre las rutas de glicosilación en Candida albicans: circuitos reguladores y efectos sobre virulencia. [EN]This thesis is about glycosylation pathways in Candida albicans: regulatory circuits and effects on virulence.

  18. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, F.M.; Mennink-Kersten, M.A.S.H.; Ruegebrink, D.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Donnelly, J.P.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  19. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, Frans M. Verduyn; Mennink-Kersten, Monique A. S. H.; Ruegebrink, Dorien; van der Lee, Henrich A. L.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  20. Molecular identification of candida species isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khanmohamadi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Regarding to the results of this study, C. albicans was the most common Candida species, isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and approximately 30% of this infection causing by non-albicans species of Candida.

  1. Antifungal activity of fluconazole-loaded natural rubber latex against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonashiro Marcelino, Mônica; Azevedo Borges, Felipe; Martins Costa, Ana Flávia; de Lacorte Singulani, Junya; Ribeiro, Nathan Vinícius; Barcelos Costa-Orlandi, Caroline; Garms, Bruna Cambraia; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José; Herculano, Rondinelli Donizetti; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2018-03-01

    This work aimed to produce a membrane based on fluconazole-loaded natural rubber latex (NRL), and study their interaction, drug release and antifungal susceptibility against Candida albicans. Fluconazole-loaded NRL membrane was obtained by casting method. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed no modifications either in NRL or fluconazole after the incorporation. Mechanical test presented low Young's modulus and high strain, indicating the membranes have sufficient elasticity for biomedical application. The bio-membrane was able to release the drug and inhibit the growth of C. albicans as demonstrated by disk diffusion and macrodilution assays. The biomembrane was able to release fluconazole and inhibit the growth of C. albicans, representing a promising biomaterial for skin application.

  2. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...... also resistant to azoles and caspofungin. In this study, 4 isolates were studied thoroughly using susceptibility assays and a mouse model and to determine clonality. METHODS: Different broth microdilution tests, Etests, and time-kill studies for antifungals were performed in different media. Three...... isolates obtained from nonrelated patients, and a reference strain. RESULTS: The murine model indicated that 1 isolate was resistant to amphotericin B, 1 had intermediate susceptibility, and 1 was fully susceptible. Two of the 3 isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Microdilution methods did not reliably...

  3. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60–80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h−1. Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w, against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  4. Whole Genome Sequence of the Heterozygous Clinical Isolate Candida krusei 81-B-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Cuomo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida krusei is a diploid, heterozygous yeast that is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. This species also is utilized for fermenting cocoa beans during chocolate production. One major concern in the clinical setting is the innate resistance of this species to the most commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence and assembly for the first clinical isolate of C. krusei, strain 81-B-5, into 11 scaffolds generated with PacBio sequencing technology. Gene annotation and comparative analysis revealed a unique profile of transporters that could play a role in drug resistance or adaptation to different environments. In addition, we show that, while 82% of the genome is highly heterozygous, a 2.0 Mb region of the largest scaffold has undergone loss of heterozygosity. This genome will serve as a reference for further genetic studies of this pathogen.

  5. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2015-08-19

    The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose) concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60-80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w) on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h(-1)). Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w), against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  6. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  7. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  8. Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and β-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations.

  9. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  10. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  11. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  12. Signs of chronic stress in women with recurrent candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia M; Kornfeld, Dan; Thuresson, Jessica; Rylander, Eva

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between recurrent vulvovaginal candida and chronic stress. Chronic stress affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, which influences the immune function. Recurrent candida vulvovaginitis is increasing. Women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida (n = 35) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 35) collected saliva for the analysis of cortisol. Hormone analyses of blood samples and vulvovaginal examinations were performed. A questionnaire was completed. Morning rise cortisol level was significantly blunted among patients compared with control subjects (P vulvovaginal candida, compared with control subjects. More patients than control subjects reported a history of condyloma, bacterial vaginosis, and herpes genitalis. No differences were seen between patients and control subjects regarding sexual hormone binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone, testosterone or Hemoglobin A1c. Morning rise salivary cortisol level is blunted in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida, which indicates signs of chronic stress. The higher incidence of vulvovaginal infections in these women compared with control subjects may reflect impaired immunity, which may be due to chronic stress.

  13. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in <40% of the isolates; however there was a significant association between proteinase production by Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 Displays In vitro Inhibitory Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Monique S.; Noronha, Francisca M. F.; Arruda, Mariana O.; Costa, Ênnio P. da Silva; Bomfim, Maria R. Q.; Monteiro, Andrea S.; Ferro, Thiago A. F.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Girón, Jorge A.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L. paracasei (ATCC 335), L. plantarum (ATCC 8014), and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595), against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826), and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813). The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: (i) adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, (ii) biofilm formation, (iii) co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, (iv) inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and (v) antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001), likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidiasis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidiasis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains. PMID:27833605

  16. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 displays in vitro inhibitory activities against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Santos Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356, L. brevis (ATCC 367, L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645, L. fermentum (ATCC 23271, L. paracasei (ATCC 335, L. plantarum (ATCC 8014, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595, against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826, and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813. The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: i adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, ii biofilm formation, iii co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, iv inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and v antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001, likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidosis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidosis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains.

  17. Probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) modulates adhesive properties of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Zorica; Zupan, Jure; Matos, Tadeja; Raspor, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Following the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapy together with broad-spectrum antimycotic therapy, the frequency of mucosal and systemic infections caused by the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata has increased in the past decades. Due to the resistance of C. glabrata to existing azole drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (nom. nud.) on C. glabrata adhesion at different temperatures, pH values, and in the presence of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. We also studied the adhesion of C. glabrata co-culture with Candida krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two bacterial probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei The method used to assess adhesion was crystal violet staining. Our results showed that despite the nonadhesiveness of S. boulardii cells, this probiotic significantly affected the adherence ability of C. glabrata This effect was highly dependent on C. glabrata strain and was either antagonistic or synergistic. Regarding the extrinsic factors, temperature did not indicate any significant influence on this S. boulardii modulatory effect, while at high pH and at increased concentrations of antimycotics, S. boulardii did not manage to repress the adhesion of C. glabrata strains. The experiments of C. glabrata co-cultures with other species showed that the adhesiveness of two separate cultures could not be used to predict the adhesiveness of their co-culture. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

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    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.The authors studied the killer effect of nine standard strains of yeasts on 146 samples of Candida albicans isolated from the following clinical specimens: oral mucosa, feces, bronchial wash, sputum, vaginal secretion, urine, skin lesion, nail lesion and blood. Using this system it was possible to differentiate 23 biotypes of Candida albicans. The biotypes 211, 111 and 811 were most frequently isolated. Most of the samples of C. albicans (98.6% were sensitive to at least one or more of the nine killer strains. Using the killer system it was possible to show that two patients harbored the same killer biotypes, 111 and 211, respectively, in different clinical specimens and another patient harbored the same biotype (211 in blood cultures effected in different ocasions. The utilization of the killer system to differentiate types among species of pathogenic yeasts can be a useful method to stablish the eventual

  19. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Moraga, Carla Paola; Rodríguez Martínez, Gonzalo Andrés; Lefimil Puente, Claudia Andrea; Morales Bozo, Irene Cecilia; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca Regina

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish associations among the Candida carriage rate, the diversity of Candida species carried and the different caries status of preschool children. Sixty-one children between 2 and 5 years of age were examined by a single expert examiner and were divided into three groups, the caries-free, moderate caries and severe caries groups, according to the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS). Saliva samples were obtained from the members of each group and were plated on Sabouraud agar plates to assess the Candida carriage rates. CHROMagar Candida medium was used for the preliminary screening. Biochemical testing or PCR/sequencing was conducted to identify the different Candida species in the samples. The differences observed were considered significant if the p value was Candida carriage rate and the number of species of this fungus carried were higher in the group with the highest level of caries severity (p Candida albicans was the most predominant Candida species in the saliva of all of the children, C. dubliniensis was identified only in the most caries-affected group in addition to other rare species of Candida non-albicans. A high salivary Candida carriage rate and the presence of specific species of this fungus (such as C. albicans and C. dubliniensis) appear to be related to the severity of caries experienced by preschool children.

  20. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  1. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

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    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  2. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

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    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  3. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Umiker, Nicole L.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO2, ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a......, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO2 in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (103-104 cfu/ml) along with lower...... populations of Saccharomyces (red grape juice and red wine incubated at two temperatures, 15 C and 21 C. Although Saccharomyces quickly dominated fermentations in grape juice, B1b and Q2 grew and eventually reached populations >105 cfu/ml. In wine, Q3 never entered logarithmic growth...

  4. Significance of hyphae formation in virulence of Candida tropicalis and transcriptomic analysis of hyphal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Tian, Yuan; Dong, Danfeng; Peng, Yibing

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the proportion of Candida tropicalis in clinical isolates has significantly increased. Some C. tropicalis strains colonize the skin or mucosal surfaces as commensals; others trigger invasive infection. To date, the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis has not been thoroughly researched. This study reports several virulence factors, including biofilm and hyphae formation, proteinase, phospholipase, lipase and hemolytic activity, in 52 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis collected from five hospitals in four provinces of China. Some C. tropicalis tended to produce more hyphae than others in the same circumstance. Six C. tropicalis strains with different morphologies were injected into mice via the tail vein, and the survival proportions and fungal burdens of the strains were evaluated. Hyphal production by C. tropicalis was associated with stronger virulence. RNA sequencing revealed that C. tropicalis with more hyphae up-regulated several genes involved in morphological differentiation and oxidative response, including IF2, Atx1, and Sod2. It appears that hyphal formation plays a vital role in the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis, and interacts with the oxidative stress response to strengthen the organism's virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction of genetically engineered Candida tropicalis for conversion of l-arabinose to l-ribulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Seok; Shim, Woo-Yong; Kim, Jung Hoe

    2018-05-20

    For the biological production of l-ribulose, conversion by enzymes or resting cells has been investigated. However, expensive or concentrated substrates, an additional purification step to remove borate and the requirement for cell cultivation and harvest steps before utilization of resting cells make the production process complex and unfavorable. Microbial fermentation may help overcome these limitations. In this study, we constructed a genetically engineered Candida tropicalis strain to produce l-ribulose by fermentation with a glucose/l-arabinose mixture. For the uptake of l-arabinose as a substrate and conversion of l-arabinose to l-ribulose, two heterologous genes coding for l-arabinose transporter and l-arabinose isomerase, were constitutively expressed in C. tropicalis under the GAPDH promoter. The Arabidopsis thaliana-originated l-arabinose transporter gene (STP2)-expressing strain exhibited a high l-arabinose uptake rate of 0.103 g/g cell/h and the expression of l-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus sakei 23 K showed 30% of conversion (9 g/L) from 30 g/L of l-arabinose. This genetically engineered strain can be used for l-ribulose production by fermentation using mixed sugars of glucose and l-arabinose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A case of Candida mediastinitis after dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Farhoudi, Farimah

    2011-02-01

    Acute mediastinitis is a serious infection involving the connective mediastinal tissue in the interpleural spaces and other thoracic structures. Candida albicans mediastinitis is a rare clinical entity associated with high mortality and morbidity. We present a rare case of a previously healthy and immunocompetent man with Candida mediastinitis due to retropharyngeal abscess after dental extraction, who presented with odynophagia and fever. Antibiotics were prescribed and surgical drainage was performed after diagnosis of mediastinitis by CT scan; however, the patient remained febrile.  The second culture obtained during irrigation of the mediastinum was positive for Candida albicans and the patient was responsive to antifungal therapy and survived. This case illustrates the need to consider a fungal cause in immunocompetent patients with mediastinitis who are not responsive to broad spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage.