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Sample records for candida oleophila atcc

  1. Complete control of Penicillium expansum on apple fruit using a combination of antagonistic yeast Candida oleophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Guerrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Candida oleophila strains (L06, L07 smooth, and L07 rough were evaluated in vivo and in vitro as biocontrol agents against Penicillium expansum on postharvest 'Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh. in Chihuahua, Mexico. The in vivo and in vitro activity of exo-β-1,3-glucanase was measured as a possible biocontrol mode of action for C. oleophila. Mean disease incidence caused by P. expansum was 0.3% for apples treated with fludioxonil + ciprodinil, which were used as a positive control, and 1% for fruits treated with a combination of the three C. oleophila strains; the effects of these treatments were significantly equivalent. Disease incidence in control apples was 39% and was significantly different from the other treatments. The in vivo exo-β-1,3-glucanase activity began at 24 h and peaked at 72 and 96 h for all treatments. Strain L06 had the highest activity (7.96 nKat and a specific activity of 2.92 nKat μg-1. Candida albicans had the lowest activity (2.83 nKat and a specific activity of 0.67 nKat ug-1. The highest in vitro activity was for C. albicans (85.03 nKat and the lowest for strain L06 (78.2 nKat. Significant differences in both in vivo and in vitro enzymatic activity were observed between strain L06 and C. albicans. Polynomial regression analysis (R² = 0.96 in vitro and 0.68 in vivo indicated that increased enzymatic activity was associated with reduced fruit disease incidence. The production of exo-β-1,3-glucanase by C. oleophila is a possible mode of action for the efficient biocontrol of P. expansum on postharvest apples.

  2. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast.

  3. Influence of Selenium Content in the Culture Medium on Protein Profile of Yeast Cells Candida utilis ATCC 9950

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    Marek Kieliszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and it has been recognized as a component of several selenoproteins with crucial biological functions. It has been identified as a component of active centers of many enzymes, as well as integral part of biologically active complexes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content and amino acid profile of the protein of fodder yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 cultured in media control and experimental enriched selenium. Protein analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE method consisting of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The highest contents of soluble protein (49,5 mg/g were found in yeast cells after 24-hour culture conducted in control (YPD medium. In the presence of selenium there were determined small amounts of protein content. With increasing time of yeast culture (to 72 hours the control and experimental media were reported to reduce soluble protein content. In electropherogram proteins from control cultures was observed the presence of 10 protein fractions, but in all the experimental cultures (containing 20, 30, and 40 mg/L selenium of 14 protein fractions. On the basis of the molecular weights of proteins, it can be concluded that they were among others: selenoprotein 15 kDa and selenoprotein 18 kDa.

  4. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

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    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  5. Pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, Candida oleophila with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. These phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeas...

  6. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  7. Killer behavior within the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; García-Maldonado, Nancy; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan M; González, Gloria M

    2014-11-01

    A group of 29 isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, 29 of Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 of Candida metapsilosis were assayed for the presence of killer activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26609 as a sensitive strain. All C. metapsilosis isolates showed killer activity at 25 °C while strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis did not exhibit this activity. Sensitivity to killer toxins was evaluated using a set of previously reported killer strains of clinical origin. Only 11 isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex were inhibited by at least one killer isolate without resulting in any clear pattern, except for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ATCC 22019, which was inhibited by every killer strain with the exception of C. parapsilosis and Candida utilis. The lack of sensitivity to killer activity among isolates of the genus Candida suggests that their toxins belong to the same killer type. Differentiation of species within the C. parapsilosis complex using the killer system may be feasible if a more taxonomically diverse panel of killer strains is employed.

  8. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and theoretical prediction of NMR chemical shifts of thiazole and selenazole derivatives with high antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z.; Motylewska, Katarzyna; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Biernasiuk, Anna; Misiura, Konrad; Malm, Anna; Fernández, Berta

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activities of novel thiazoles and selenazoles is presented. Their structures were determined using NMR, FAB(+)-MS, HRMS and elemental analyses. To support the experiment, theoretical calculations of the 1H NMR shifts were carried out for representative systems within the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** approximation which additionally confirmed the structure of investigated compounds. Among the derivatives, compounds 4b, 4h, 4j and 4l had very strong activity against reference strains of Candida albicans ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 with MIC = 0.49-7.81 μg/ml. In the case of compounds 4b, 4c, 4h - 4j and 4l, the activity was very strong against of Candida spp. isolated from clinical materials, i.e. C. albicans, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua, Candida famata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida sake, C. parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis with MIC = 0.24-15.62 μg/ml. The activity of several of these was similar to the activity of commonly used antifungal agent fluconazole. Additionally, compounds 4m - 4s were found to be active against Gram-positive bacteria, both pathogenic staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus ATCC with MIC = 31.25-125 μg/ml and opportunistic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 with MIC = 7.81-31.25 μg/ml.

  9. Candida Immunity

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    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  10. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  11. Metabolic capacity of Bacillus cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 interlinked with comparative genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, M.; Been, M.W.H.J. de; Zwietering, M.H.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important food-borne pathogen and spoilage organism. In this study, numerous phenotypes and the genomes of B.?cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were analysed to compare their metabolic capacity and stress resistance potential. The growth performance of the two strains wa

  12. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

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    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  13. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

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    ... are 17 different species of Candida. Of these, Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. ... blood. In many cases, the species found is Candida albicans , however, other species of Candida, Candida tropicalis , C. ...

  14. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  15. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin.

  16. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Nielsen, Lene; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during the years 2004-2008. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene ( SADH) followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme Ban I, using C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. orthopsilosis ATCC 96139 and C. metapsilosis ATCC 96144 as controls. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH gene alone, four isolates (5.1 %) had a pattern identical to the C. orthopsilosis reference strain. Sequence analysis of SADH and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions identified two of these isolates as C. metapsilosis. These results were confirmed by creating a phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of SADH, ITS and 26S rRNA gene sequence regions. Optimal differentiation between C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis was predicted using digestion with NlaIII, producing discriminatory band sizes of: 131 and 505 bp; 74, 288 and 348 bp; and 131, 217 and 288 bp, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Denmark.

  17. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  18. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  19. Influence of aeration of Candida albicans during culturing on their surface aggregation in the presence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Candida albicans surfaces are extremely sensitive to changes in growth conditions. In this study, adhesion to glass of aerated and non-aerated C. albicans ATCC 10261 in the presence and absence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7869 was determined in a parallel plate flow chamber. In addition,

  20. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  1. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

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    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  2. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

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    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  3. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  4. Citric acid production by Candida species grown on a soy-based crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid was produced by five species of the yeast Candida after growth on a medium containing soy biodiesel-based crude glycerol. After growth on a medium containing 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 and C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced the highest citric acid levels. On 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, the citric acid level produced by C. parapsilosis ATCC 7330 was 1.8 g L(-1) or 11.3 g L(-1), respectively, while C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced citric acid concentrations of 3.0 g L(-1) or 10.4 g L(-1), respectively. Biomass production by C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C was highest at 1.2 g L(-1) or 6.9 g L(-1), respectively. The citric acid yields observed for C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 after growth on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol (0.35 g g(-1) or 0.21 g g(-1), respectively) were generally higher than for the other Candida species tested. When similar crude glycerol concentrations were present in the culture medium, citric acid yields observed for some of the Candida species utilized in this study were about the same or higher compared to citric acid yields by Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Based on the findings, it appeared that C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 was the most effective species utilized, with its citric acid production being similar to what has been observed when citric acid-producing strains of Y. lipolytica were grown on crude glycerol under batch conditions that could be of significance to biobased citric acid production.

  5. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

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    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  6. Exopolysaccharide matrix of developed candida albicans biofilms after exposure to antifungal agents

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fluconazole or nystatin exposure on developed Candida albicans biofilms regarding their exopolysaccharide matrix. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fluconazole or nystatin was determined for C. albicans reference strain (ATCC 90028). Poly(methlymethacrylate) resin (PMMA) specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions and had their surface roughness measured. Biofilms were developed on specimens surfaces for 4...

  7. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Seleem, Dalia; Chen, Emily; Benso, Bruna; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro M.

    2016-01-01

    Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expressio...

  8. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species. PMID:28154488

  9. Proteomic Analysis of the Secretome of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W Wakarchuk

    Full Text Available The bacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are known for their ability to degrade plant cell wall biomass. Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 have been the subject of much research into secreted cellulases and hemicellulases. Recently the genome sequences of both C. fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 were published, and a genome comparison has revealed their full spectrum of possible carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Using mass spectrometry, we have compared the proteins secreted by C. fimi and C. flavigena during growth on the soluble cellulose substrate, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, as well as a soluble xylan fraction. Many known C. fimi CAZymes were detected, which validated our analysis, as were a number of new CAZymes and other proteins that, though identified in the genome, have not previously been observed in the secretome of either organism. Our data also shows that many of these are co-expressed on growth of either CMC or xylan. This analysis provides a new perspective on Cellulomonas enzymes and provides many new CAZyme targets for characterization.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Secretome of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakarchuk, Warren W; Brochu, Denis; Foote, Simon; Robotham, Anna; Saxena, Hirak; Erak, Tamara; Kelly, John

    2016-01-01

    The bacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are known for their ability to degrade plant cell wall biomass. Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 have been the subject of much research into secreted cellulases and hemicellulases. Recently the genome sequences of both C. fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 were published, and a genome comparison has revealed their full spectrum of possible carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Using mass spectrometry, we have compared the proteins secreted by C. fimi and C. flavigena during growth on the soluble cellulose substrate, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), as well as a soluble xylan fraction. Many known C. fimi CAZymes were detected, which validated our analysis, as were a number of new CAZymes and other proteins that, though identified in the genome, have not previously been observed in the secretome of either organism. Our data also shows that many of these are co-expressed on growth of either CMC or xylan. This analysis provides a new perspective on Cellulomonas enzymes and provides many new CAZyme targets for characterization.

  11. Antifungal Activity of Two Root Canal Sealers against Different Strains of Candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Farnaz; Jafari, Sanaz; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Momeni, Tahereh; Jamloo, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Microorganisms and microbial products are the main etiologic factors in pulp and periapical diseases. The present study aimed to compare the antifungal activity of two different sealers, AH-26 and MTA Fillapex against three strains of Candida, 24, 48, 72 h and 7 days after mixing. Methods and Materials: The microorganisms used in this study were Candidia albicans (ATCC 10231), Candidia glabrata (ATCC 90030) and Candidia krusei (DSM 70079). This test was based on growth of microorganisms and turbidity measurement technique using a spectrophotometer. The direct contact test was conducted by direct and indirect methods. Multiple comparisons were carried out using analysis of variances (ANOVA) with repeated measures followed by Tukey’s tests. Results: The antifungal activity of both sealers was similar in the indirect method. The antifungal activity of both sealers in the direct method was similar against Candida albicans and higher for AH-26 sealer against Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Conclusion: The total antifungal effect of MTA Fillapex sealer was significantly less than AH-26 sealer in direct method. The antifungal effect of both sealers was similar in indirect method. PMID:28179934

  12. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Simone F G; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia C A; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio O C; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo.

  13. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Simone FG; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia CA; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio OC; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. PMID:25654408

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Tannerella forsythia Type Strain ATCC 43037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Valentin; Pabinger, Stephan; Chen, Tsute; Messner, Paul; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Schäffer, Christina

    2015-06-11

    Tannerella forsythia is an oral pathogen implicated in the development of periodontitis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Tannerella forsythia strain ATCC 43037. The previously available genome of this designation (NCBI reference sequence NC_016610.1) was discovered to be derived from a different strain, FDC 92A2 (= ATCC BAA-2717).

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Tannerella forsythia Type Strain ATCC 43037

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Valentin; Pabinger, Stephan; Chen, Tsute; Messner, Paul; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Schäffer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is an oral pathogen implicated in the development of periodontitis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Tannerella forsythia strain ATCC 43037. The previously available genome of this designation (NCBI reference sequence NC_016610.1) was discovered to be derived from a different strain, FDC 92A2 (= ATCC BAA-2717).

  16. [Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the identification of Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Harun; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Özmerdiven, Gülşah Ece; Sağlam, Sezcan; Ener, Beyza

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are one of the major causes of nosocomial infections and are the fourth most common agent involved in bloodstream infections. The impact of non-albicans Candida species is increasing, however C.albicans is still the most common species. Since the antifungal susceptibility pattern among Candida spp. may be different, rapid diagnosis and identification of non-albicans Candida spp. are important for the determination of antifungal agents that will be used for treatment. The aim of the study was to describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) assay that rapidly detects, identifies and quantitates Candida species from blood culture samples. A total of 50 consecutive positive blood culture bottles (BACTEC, Beckton Dickinson, USA) identified at our laboratory between June-November 2013, were included in the study. Reference strains of Candida spp. (C.albicans ATCC 10231, C.glabrata ATCC 90030, C.tropicalis ATCC 1021, C.krusei ATCC 6258, C.parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. dubliniensis CD36) grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar were used for quality control. BACTEC bottles that were positive for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were also studied to search the cross-reactivity. A commercial kit (Zymo Research, USA) was used for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR was performed on LightCycler 480 (Roche, Germany) with primers and probes specific for 18S rRNA of Candida species. Twenty microlitres of the reaction mix contained 2 μl of extracted DNA, 2 μl of LightCycler Fast Start DNA Master Probe (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 2 μl of MgCl(2) (5 mmol), 2 μl of 10x PCR buffer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 0.5 μl of each primer (0.01 nmol/μl) and 1 μl of each probe (0.1 μmol/μl) (TibMolBiol, Germany). Amplification was performed using the following conditions; 95°C for 10 mins and 50 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 10 secs, annealing at 62°C for 10 secs and polymerisation at 72°C for 20 secs. A melting curve was

  17. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  18. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of dictamnine against candida albicans%白鲜碱对白色念珠菌体外抑制作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施琳俊; 薛婷君; 吴岚; 朱彩莲; 周曾同

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测白鲜碱对白色念珠菌的抑制作用,及其对白色念珠菌细胞周期的影响.方法:采用白色念珠菌标准菌株(ATCC76615)为研究对象,用经典方法测定白鲜碱对白色念珠菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC),抑制生物膜50%(SMIC50)的药物浓度,流式细胞仪分析白鲜碱对白色念珠菌细胞周期的影响.结果:白鲜碱对白色念珠菌的MIC为312.5 μg/mL,对生物膜的SMIC50为1250 μg/mL,白鲜碱能使白色念珠菌生长停滞.结论:白鲜碱具有抑制白色念珠菌生长的能力.%Objective:To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of dictamnine against Candida albicans and the in-fluence of dictamnine on the cell cycle of Candida albicans. Method: NCCLS M27-A2 broth microdilution method was ac-cessed to evaluate the in vitro activity of dictamnine against Candida albicans (ATCC 76615). XTT-reduction method was used to test the SMIC50 of dictamnine against Candida albicans biofilms. Flow cytometer was applied to determine the effect of dictamnine on the cell cycle of Candida albicans. Result: MIC of dictamnine against Candida albicans was 312.5 μg / mL. SMIC50 of dictamnine against Candida albicans biofilms was 1250 μg / mL. Dictamnine can stop the growth cycle of Candi-da albicans. Conclusion: Dictamnine displayed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

  20. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  1. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee).

  2. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (Pbetle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  3. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd-Al-Faisal Nordin; Wan Himratul-Aznita Wan Harun; Fathilah Abdul Razak; Md Yusoff Musa

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments:(i) in the absence of P. betle extract;and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg?mL21;(iii) 3 mg?mL21;and (iv) 6 mg?mL21. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (m). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the m-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P,0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.443106 to 1.783106 viable cell counts (CFU)?mL21. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  4. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  5. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  6. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  7. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  8. Candida parapsilosis and candida guillermondii: Emerging pathogens in nail candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails. Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%. Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%. While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%, those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%, those of spp. were 20 (4.3% and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%. Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1% were men and 331 (70,9% were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of

  9. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  10. Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 discriminates Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Oliver, Debra; Palmer, Michael D; Szekely, Adrien; Odds, Frank C; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2009-07-01

    Two new cryptic sister species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, were recently identified by consistent DNA sequence differences among several genes within the genetically heterogeneous Candida parapsilosis complex. Here, we present data demonstrating that Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer region 2 rapidly and robustly distinguishes between these three closely related Candida species.

  11. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  12. Antifungal activity of plant-based tinctures on Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate through determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC the antifungal activity of Salvia officinalis (sage, Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Malva sylvestris (mallow tinctures on Candida albicans (ATCC 40227, C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and C. krusei (ATCC 40147. Material and methods: In 96-well microplates, 100 μl of Sabouraud-Dextrose broth doubly concentrated, 100 μl of the tested tinctures and 10 μl of fungal inoculums (1.5 x 106 organisms/ml were inserted. The products were diluted from initial concentration of 100 mg/ml until 0.78 mg/ml. MIC corresponded to the lowest dilution at which there was no visible fungal growth. Nystatin (100,000 UI/ml was used as control. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. Results: S. officinalis tincture did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans and C. tropicalis; MIC was 100 mg/ml for C. krusei. For A. occidentale, MIC was 100 mg/ml for C. albicans and C. krusei, and for C. tropicalis, there was no fungal inhibition. M. sylvestris tincture presented MIC at 25 mg/ml for C. krusei and 100 mg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The best antifungal activity was showed by M. sylvestris tincture (p < 0.05. Conclusion: M. sylvestris tincture exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains at lower concentrations. S. officinalis tincture inhibited the action of C. krusei and A. occidentale tincture showed activity against C. albicans and C. tropicalis.

  13. Efecto Antimicótico in vitro de Origanum vulgare sobre cepas de Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio Gastelú, Jorge Eleodoro; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Salcedo- Moncada, Doris; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Pineda-Mejía, Martha; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Ramos Perfecto, Donald; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología.; Zambrano de la Peña, Livia Sonia; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Martínez Cadillo, Elba Estefanía; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Mendoza Rojas, Gilberto Alejandro; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Petkova-Gueorguieva, Marieta; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Bardales Álvarez, Roxana Margarita; Universidad Nacional San Agustín de Arequipa

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antimicótico in vitro de aceite esencial de Origanum vulgare, sobre cepa de Candida albicans ATCC 10231 Material y método: Se efectuó la selección de cuatro de diferentes geotipos de orégano, se obtuvo los aceites esenciales mediante proceso de destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua; se determinó su composición química cuantitativa por Cromatografía de Gases, Espectrometría de Masas (CG/EM). Se evaluó in vitro la actividad antimicótica de los aceites esenciales...

  14. Cloning and Sequencing of a Candida albicans Catalase Gene and Effects of Disruption of This Gene†

    OpenAIRE

    Wysong, Deborah R.; Christin, Laurent; Sugar, Alan M.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Diamond, Richard D.

    1998-01-01

    Catalase plays a key role as an antioxidant, protecting aerobic organisms from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide, and in some cases has been postulated to be a virulence factor. To help elucidate the function of catalase in Candida albicans, a single C. albicans-derived catalase gene, designated CAT1, was isolated and cloned. Degenerate PCR primers based on highly conserved areas of other fungal catalase genes were used to amplify a 411-bp product from genomic DNA of C. albicans ATCC 102...

  15. GENOTYPING Candida albicans FROM CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA AND NON-CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA SHOWS NO ENRICHMENT OF MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING CLADES BUT ENRICHMENT OF ABC GENOTYPE C IN CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    MC MANUS, BRENDA; Coleman, David

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leu...

  16. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim; Brenda A McManus; Stephen R Flint; David C Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia pati...

  17. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Aslanimehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103 comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103 were statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis.

  18. Genome Sequence of Actinobacillus suis Type Strain ATCC 33415T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Reilly, Thomas J

    2014-09-18

    The assembled and annotated genome of Actinobacillus suis ATCC 33415(T) is reported here. The 2,501,598-bp genome encodes 2,246 open reading frames (ORFs) with strain variable incursion of an integrative conjugative element into a tRNA locus. Comparative analysis of the deduced gene set should inform our understanding of pathogenesis, genomic plasticity, and serotype variation.

  19. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the germi

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  1. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed c

  2. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also co

  3. 40 CFR 180.1205 - Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1205 Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the... the insecticide Beauveria bassiana (ATCC #74040) in or on all food commodities when applied or used...

  4. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  5. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  6. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  7. Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis ATCC33679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L. Garner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s. The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF and its receptor (fatB were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

  8. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (pcandida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  10. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  11. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; McManus, Brenda A; Flint, Stephen R; Coleman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  12. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23768: Pellicle formation, post-synthesis aggregation and fiber density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Gu, Jin; Kafle, Kabindra; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Kim, Seong H

    2015-11-20

    The pellicle formation, crystallinity, and bundling of cellulose microfibrils produced by bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus were studied. Cellulose pellicles were produced by two strains (ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23769) for 1 and 7 days; pellicles were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The bacterial cell population was higher at the surface exposed to air, indicating that the newly synthesized cellulose is deposited at the top of the pellicle. XRD, ATR-IR, and SFG analyses found no significant changes in the cellulose crystallinity, crystal size or polymorphic distribution with the culture time. However, SEM and SFG analyses revealed cellulose macrofibrils produced for 7 days had a higher packing density at the top of the pellicle, compared to the bottom. These findings suggest that the physical properties of cellulose microfibrils are different locally within the bacterial pellicles.

  13. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  14. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  15. Candida albicans: adapting to succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, David; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2013-11-13

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lu et al. (2013) report on the redundancy of signaling pathways controlling Candida albicans filamentation and pathogenicity. In the process, they provide important insight into how this normal commensal of humans adapts to different host microenvironments to become a highly successful opportunistic pathogen.

  16. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  17. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections.

  18. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections.

  19. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  20. Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Ashtiani, M T; Sadeghi, R H; Yadegari, M H

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents has been described. As fluconazole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates that constitutively over-express ERG11 have been identified in previous studies, the aim of this study is to investigate this molecular mechanism involved in fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Fluconazole susceptibility testing was carried out on clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from hospitalised children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to differentiate Candida spp. The resistant C. albicans isolates were subjected to RT-qPCR using primers that identify ERG11 gene expression. Of the 142 Candida spp. isolates studied, C. albicans was the most predominant isolate, occurring in 68.3% (97/142) of the patients. According to the CLSI method, the majority of the C. albicans isolates (91.7%, 89/97), categorised as susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤8 μg/mL), five isolates were considered resistant (MIC ≤64 μg/mL) and three had dose-dependent susceptibility (MIC = 8.16-32 μg/mL). The ERG11 gene in the five fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates was upregulated 4.15-5.84-fold relative to the ATCC 10231 control strain. In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended.

  1. A fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) based assay for Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 mediated oxidation of aryl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakara, Sneha; Chadha, Anju

    2015-09-10

    We present an FTIR based assay to monitor the whole cell mediated oxidation of aryl alcohols by measuring the characteristic IR absorption of the hydroxyl group [OH] of the substrate and the carbonyl group [CO] of the corresponding oxidized product. This method expedites the analysis of whole cell mediated catalysis which is usually done by GC and/or HPLC. The FTIR assay had linearity with R(2)≥0.980 and sensitivity up to 10μM. The accuracy and precision of FTIR assay was found ≥81% and ≥94%, respectively. This assay was validated by GC which exhibited ≥82% accuracy and ≥79% precision. The time of analysis taken by this assay was 2-3min per sample in comparison with 20-40min by GC.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Candida utilis for isopropanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakawa, Hideyuki; Mita, Tokiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Ikushima, Shigehito; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    A genetically-engineered strain of the yeast Candida utilis harboring genes encoding (1) an acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, (2) an acetoacetate decarboxylase, and (3) a primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase derived from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593 produced up to 0.21 g/L of isopropanol. Because the engineered strain accumulated acetate, isopropanol titer was improved to 1.2 g/L under neutralized fermentation conditions. Optimization of isopropanol production was attempted by the overexpression and disruption of several endogenous genes. Simultaneous overexpression of two genes encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase increased isopropanol titer to 9.5 g/L. Moreover, in fed-batch cultivation, the resultant recombinant strain produced 27.2 g/L of isopropanol from glucose with a yield of 41.5 % (mol/mol). This is the first demonstration of the production of isopropanol by genetically engineered yeast.

  3. Dose escalation studies with caspofungin against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domán, Marianna; Kovács, Renátó; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Juhász, Béla; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2015-09-01

    Echinocandins are recommended as first-line agents against invasive fungal infections caused by Candida glabrata, which still carry a high mortality rate. Dose escalation of echinocandins has been suggested to improve the clinical outcome against C. glabrata. To address this possibility, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments with caspofungin against four WT C. glabrata clinical isolates, a drug-susceptible ATCC 90030 reference strain and two echinocandin-resistant strains with known FKS mutations. MIC values for the clinical isolates in RPMI 1640 were ≤ 0.03 mg l(-1 ) but increased to 0.125-0.25 mg l(-1 )in RPMI 1640+50% serum. In RPMI 1640+50% serum, the replication of C. glabrata was weaker than in RPMI 1640.Caspofungin in RPMI 1640 at 1 and 4 mg l(-1) showed a fungicidal effect within 7 h against three of the four clinical isolates but was only fungistatic at 16 and 32 mg l(-1) (paradoxically decreased killing activity). In RPMI 1640+50% serum, caspofungin at ≥ 1 mg l(-1) was rapidly fungicidal (within 3.31 h) against three of the four isolates. In a profoundly neutropenic murine model, all caspofungin doses (1, 2, 3, 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) daily) decreased the fungal tissue burdens significantly (P caspofungin dose escalation does not improve efficacy.

  4. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater.

  5. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  6. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHARONE, Senda; PORTELA, Maristela Barbosa; MARTINS, Karol de Oliveira; SOARES, Rosangela Maria; CASTRO, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro. PMID:28198976

  7. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senda CHARONE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+ children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+ released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140 enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4; biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5 and medium without Candida (Group 6. Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05 from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

  8. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  9. Experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 49419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berberoglu, Halil; Pilon, Laurent [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of this study is to experimentally measure the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing microorganisms. Special attention is paid to the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U and the unicellular purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 49419 two of the widely studied photobiological hydrogen producers. The extinction and absorption coefficients are measured in the spectral range from 300 to 1300 nm using a spectrophotometer with and without an integrating sphere. Moreover, a nephelometer has been constructed to measure the scattering phase function of the microorganisms at 632.8 nm. The data are used to recover the mass specific absorption, scattering, and extinction cross-sections, the single scattering albedo, and the scattering phase function of the microorganisms. The scattering phase functions of both microorganisms were peaked strongly in the forward direction as expected from their size parameter and shape. The results reported in this study can be used with the radiative transport equation (RTE) to accurately predict and optimize light transport in photobioreactors for photobiological hydrogen production. Finally, the results show that absorption cross-sections of A. variabilis and R. sphaeroides have peaks that do not overlap but rather enlarge the spectral width of the absorption cross-section of a potential symbiotic culture promising more efficient utilization of solar radiation from light transfer point of view. (author)

  10. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Alessia; De Bernardis, Flavia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Sandini, Silvia; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis each represents 1-10% of the infections/colonisations attributed to C. parapsilosis by conventional biochemical tests. Little is known on the virulence properties of these fungi and on their role in the establishment/progression of the infection. In this study, the adhesive properties of clinical isolates belonging to the 'psilosis' species were assessed in an in vitro model of co-incubation with human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs). Ectophosphatase activity was also measured for all isolates, since the activity of this enzyme has previously been linked to adhesion properties in C. parapsilosis. The results indicate that whilst C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains showed similar adhesion abilities, C. metapsilosis isolates displayed a significantly lower ability to adhere to HBECs (Porthopsilosis has a comparable behaviour to C. parapsilosis, whilst C. metapsilosis seems to possess a reduced virulence potential.

  11. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-03-17

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

  12. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  13. Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in reconstituted human tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácser, Attila; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Nosanchuk, Jerome S; Salomon, Siegfried; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. To study the interactions of C. parapsilosis with human tissues, we evaluated the effects of the CBS 604 type strain and three different clinical isolates on reconstituted human oral epithelial and epidermal tissues. The newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were also examined in these models. Microscopy of reconstituted tissues infected with yeast cells revealed severe attenuation, morphological changes and cellular damage. C. orthopsilosis caused damage similar to C. parapsilosis isolates, whereas C. metapsilosis was less virulent. To further quantitate tissue damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant. The relative LDH measurements correlated with our histopathological observations. We also examined the effect of the lipase inhibitor Ebelactone B and proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A, to establish the utility of this model for studying factors of C. parapsilosis virulence. Both Ebelactone B and Pepstatin A reduced the destruction of epidermal and epithelial tissues. Our data show that reconstituted human tissues are extremely useful for modeling host interactions with C. parapsilosis and for studying fungal virulence factors.

  14. SCY-078 Is Fungicidal against Candida Species in Time-Kill Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorneaux, Bernard; Angulo, David; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Peel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SCY-078 is an orally bioavailable ß-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor (GSI) and the first-in-class of structurally novel triterpene antifungals in clinical development for treating candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In vitro susceptibilities by broth microdilution, antifungal carryover, and time-kill dynamics were determined for three reference (ATCC) strains (Candida albicans 90028, Candida parapsilosis 90018, and Candida tropicalis 750), a quality-control (QC) strain (Candida krusei 6258), and four other strains (C. albicans MYA-2732, 64124, and 76485 and Candida glabrata 90030). Caspofungin (CASP), fluconazole (FLC), and voriconazole (VRC) were comparators. For time-kill experiments, SCY-078 and CASP were evaluated at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 times the MIC80, and FLU and VRC were evaluated at 4× MIC80. The time to reach 50%, 90%, and 99.9% reduction in the number of CFUs from the starting inoculum was determined. Net change in the number of CFU per milliliter was used to determine 50% and 90% effective concentrations and maximum effect (EC50, EC90, and Emax, respectively). The SCY-078 MIC range was between 0.0625 and 1 μg/ml and generally similar to that of CASP. Antifungal carryover was not observed for SCY-078. SCY-078 was fungicidal against seven isolates at ≥4× MIC (kill of ≥3 log10) and achieved a 1.7-log10 reduction in CFU count/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. CASP behaved similarly against each isolate and achieved a 1.5-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. Reductions of 50% in CFU count/milliliter were achieved rapidly (1 to 2.8 h); fungicidal endpoints were reached at 12.1 to 21.8 h at ≥4× MIC. EC90 was reached at ∼5× MIC at each time point to 24 h. The EC50 and EC90 values were generally similar (8 to 24 h). Time-kill behavior of CASP was similar to that of SCY-078. FLC and VRC were fungistatic. Overall, SCY-078 has primarily fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and behaved

  15. Complete genome sequence of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Teresa [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Pratte, Brenda S. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Zhong, Jinshun [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01

    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that has served as a model organism, with an extensive literature extending over 40 years. The strain has three distinct nitrogenases that function under different environmental conditions and is capable of photoautotrophic growth in the light and true heterotrophic growth in the dark using fructose as both carbon and energy source. While this strain was first isolated in 1964 in Mississippi and named Ana-baena flos-aquae MSU A-37, it clusters phylogenetically with cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc. The strain is a moderate thermophile, growing well at approximately 40 C. Here we provide some additional characteristics of the strain, and an analysis of the complete genome sequence.

  16. Biotransformation of (-)beta-pinene by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9642.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniazzo, Geciane; de Oliveira, Débora; Dariva, Cláudio; Oestreicher, Enrique Guillermo; Antunes, Octávio A C

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the biotransformations of (-)alpha-pinene, (-)beta-pinene, and (+) limonene by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9642. The culture conditions involved--concentration of cosolvent (EtOH), substrate applied, and sequential addition of substrates were--investigated. Adaptation of the precultures with small amounts of substrate was also studied. The experiments were performed in conical flasks with liquid cultures. This strain of A. niger was able to convert only (-)beta-pinene into alpha-terpineol. An optimum conversion of (-)beta-pinene into alpha-terpineol of about 4% was obtained when the substrate was applied as a diluted solution in EtOH and sequential addition of substrate was used.

  17. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans) y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso...

  18. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  19. Biofilms of Candida albicans serotypes A and B differ in their sensitivity to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is classified into different serotypes according to cell wall mannan composition and cell surface hydrophobicity. Since the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the cell wall structure of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotypes A and B to antimicrobial PDT. Reference strains of C. albicans serotype A (ATCC 36801) and serotype B (ATCC 36802) were used for the assays. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (660 nm) was used as the light source and methylene blue (300 μM) as the photosensitizer. After biofilm formation on the bottom of a 96-well microplate for 48 h, each Candida strain was submitted to assays: PDT consisting of laser and photosensitizer application (L + P+), laser application alone (L + P-), photosensitizer application alone (L-P+), and application of saline as control (L-P-). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and transferred to tubes containing PBS. The content of the tubes was homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto Sabouraud agar plates to determine the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The results were compared by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The two strains studied were sensitive to PDT (L + P+), with a log reduction of 0.49 for serotype A and of 2.34 for serotype B. Laser application alone only reduced serotype B cells (0.53 log), and the use of the photosensitizer alone had no effect on the strains tested. It can be concluded that in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotype B were more sensitive to PDT.

  20. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  1. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  2. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  3. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Candida haemulonii, Candida pseudohaemulonii, and a proposed new species (Candida auris) isolates from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong Joon; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Kyungwon; Joo, Min Young; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of Candida haemulonii and closely related species at five Korean hospitals has been recently described. We examined biofilm formation by these isolates and assessed their genotypic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This study is the first to show that all bloodstream isolates of Candida pseudohaemulonii can form significant biofilms in glucose-containing medium. PFGE of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed that C. pseudohaemulonii isolates recovered from seven patients in two hospitals shared five patterns, and that 15 isolates of a proposed new species (Candida auris) obtained from patients at three hospitals shared seven patterns, suggesting that some of these isolates may be related to clonal transmission.

  4. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina De Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso discovertebral. Ante un paciente inmunocomprometido con dolor lumbar que presenta modificaciones disco vertebrales atípicas en la resonancia magnética, debe considerarse la infección micótica dentro de las posibilidades diagnósticas. El diagnóstico de certeza requiere la toma de biopsia del tejido afectado mediante punción aspiración y posterior análisis microbiológico. El tratamiento médico es el de elección, aunque en algunos casos se plantea el drenaje quirúrgico. El reconocimiento de las características radiológicas distintivas evita retardos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.Purpose: To describe Candida albicans spondylodiscitis distinctive imaging findings and treatment. The authors reported a 51 years old, male inmunocompromised patient with fever and lumbar pain. MR findings include bone marrow hypointense signal intensity in T2 weighted of affected vertebral bodies and intense discovertebral enhancement. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of an inmunocompromised patient with lumbar pain and lumbar atypical findings at MR. Biopsy sample is required in order to reach final diagnosis. The first choice treatment is antyfungal drugs although in certain cases surgery is required. Rapid recognition of distinctive imaging findings avoid missdiagnosis and treatment delays.

  5. In vitro aktivnost biofilma vrsta roda Candida izdvojenih iz anatolijskih bivolica s mastitisom u zapadnoj Turskoj.

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEKER, Esra; ÖZENÇ, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Identificirana su bila 66 izolata roda Candida izdvojena iz uzoraka mlijeka upaljenih četvrti vimena anatolijskih bivolica upotrebom sustava API 20 C AUX. Najčešće izdvojene vrste bile su Candida krusei (27,3%), zatim Candida rugosa (16,7%), Candida kefyr (12,1%) i Candida tropicalis (10,6%). Ostale izdvojene vrste bile su Candida albicans (9,1%), Candida zeylanoides (6,1%), Candida parapsilosis (6,1%), Candida guilliermondii (4,5%), Candida famata (3,0%), Candida glabrata (3,0%) i Candida ci...

  6. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  7. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  8. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  9. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  10. Resolution of Racemic Acids, Esters and Amines by Candida rugosa Lipase in Slightly Hydrated Organic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés R. Alcántara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial crude lipase from Candida rugosa is widely used as a biocatalyst in the resolution of racemic mixtures and in organic synthesis in slightly hydrated organic solvents. In many cases, reproducible results are not obtained when the same crude lipase is used, but from different suppliers of lots, this being due to the presence of different isoenzymes. The current work addresses this problem and strategies to overcome it. The yeast Candida rugosa ATCC 14380 was cultivated in a minimal culture medium, using different substances as inducers and carbon sources. The percentage of inducer that gave the optimum productivity of extracellular lipases was determined. Lyophilized extracellular enzymes were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF. Depending on the nature of the carbon source, different isoenzymes were produced in various proportions. These samples were partially purified by different methodologies, including dialysis, adsorption chromatography and precipitation with ammonium sulfate or organic solvents. These characterizations allowed us to explain the relative catalytic activity of different samples, showing that in biocatalysis enzymes should not be treated simply as a »white magic powder« that can solve all the challenges in organic synthesis. Heptyl oleate synthesis, alcoxycarbonylation of amines and hydrolysis of the ester of ketoprofen are excellent reaction tests for the evaluation of lipase samples as biocatalysts.

  11. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  12. Biofilm formation and Candida albicans morphology on the surface of denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susewind, Sabine; Lang, Reinhold; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Fungal biofilms may contribute to the occurrence of denture stomatitis. The objective of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation and morphology of Candida albicans in biofilms on the surface of denture base materials. Specimens were prepared from different denture base materials. After determination of surface properties and salivary pellicle formation, mono- and multispecies biofilm formation including Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was initiated. Relative amounts of adherent cells were determined after 20, 44, 68 and 188 h; C. albicans morphology was analysed employing selective fluorescence microscopic analysis. Significant differences were identified in the relative amount of cells adherent to the denture base materials. Highest blastospore/hyphae index suggesting an increased percentage of hyphae was observed in mono- and multispecies biofilms on the soft denture liner, which did not necessarily respond to the highest relative amount of adherent cells. For both biofilm models, lowest relative amount of adherent cells was identified on the methacrylate-based denture base material, which did not necessarily relate to a significantly lower blastospore/hyphae index. The results indicate that there are significant differences in both biofilm formation as well as the morphology of C. albicans cells in biofilms on the surface of different denture base materials.

  13. Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Biomass, Metabolic Activity and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sónia; Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    According to epidemiological data, Candida tropicalis has been related to urinary tract infections and haematological malignancy. Several virulence factors seem to be responsible for C. tropicalis infections, for example: their ability to adhere and to form biofilms onto different indwelling medical devices; their capacity to adhere, invade and damage host human tissues due to enzymes production such as proteinases. The main aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis biofilms of different ages (24-120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their ability to express aspartyl proteinase (SAPT) genes. The reference strain C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and two C. tropicalis isolates from urine were used. Biofilms were evaluated in terms of culturable cells by colony-forming units enumeration; total biofilm biomass was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method; metabolic activity was evaluated by XTT assay; and SAPT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. All strains of C. tropicalis were able to form biofilms in AU, although with differences between strains. Candida tropicalis biofilms showed a decrease in terms of the number of culturable cells from 48 to 72 h. Generally, SAPT3 was highly expressed. C. tropicalis strains assayed were able to form biofilms in the presence of AU although in a strain- and time-dependent way, and SAPT genes are expressed during C. tropicalis biofilm formation.

  14. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  15. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  16. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  17. Study of Candida Albicans Vaginitis Model in Kunming Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhuo; KONG Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    The model of vaginal candidiasis in Kunming mice was constructed in order to search for the optima construction conditions and provide an economic animal model of Candida albicans (C.albicans) vaginitis. Estrogen benzoate (E2) was given to mice at different concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.05 mg/mouse (4 levels) beginning 72 h prior to vaginal inoculation, then mice were inoculated intravaginally with various concentrations of stationary-phase C. albicans blastoconidia (ATCC90028) (5 levels) in 20 μL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in each F2 level. General state,scores of genital pathology, the hyphae and vaginal fungal burden (CFU) in vaginal lavage fluid, the hydrops rate of uterus and vaginal tissues for pathological section in mice were observed and obtained at day 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 after inoculation. The results showed the infection rate in mice was related to the dosage of E2 and concentration of C. albicans blastoconidia. Additionally there was better cross-effect between the two treated factors. The infection rate was about 80% on the day 4,and could reach 100% on the day 7 until the end of experiment after inoculated intravaginally in groups of E2I3, E2 0.025 mg/mouse injected hypodermically and inoculated intravaginally with 5×104 C. albicans blastoconidia, and large amount of hyphae and blastoconidia could be observe in superficial layer tissue and canal of vaginal by PAS. From the results in our experiment it was concluded that E2I3 was the optima construction condition in kunming mice.

  18. Efficacy of oral Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 on microflora and antioxidant in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-gui; Xu, Hai-bo; Xu, Feng; Zeng, Zhe-ling; Wei, Hua

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, a species of colonic microflora in humans, is involved in the intestinal tract of mice. This study was also conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of this species by evaluating different microbial populations and reactive oxygen species isolated from feces and intestinal contents for 28 days of oral administration. Microbial diversities were assessed through bacterial culture techniques, PCR-DGGE, and real-time PCR. This study showed that the intake of B. bifidum ATCC 29521 significantly (p stress were also determined. Results indicated that B. bifidum ATCC 29521 elicits a beneficial effect on murine gut microbiota and antioxidant activities compared with the control samples. This species can be considered as a potential bioresource antioxidant to promote health. Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 may also be used as a promising material in microbiological and food applications.

  19. Candida pneumonia in intensive care unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Ronny M; Linssen, Catharina F; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N; Bergmans, Dennis C

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make v

  20. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  1. [Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; Ruiz-Aragón, Jesús; García-Agudo, Lidia; Saldarreaga, Abel; Lozano, María Carmen; Marín, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    A case of possible infection due to Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient is presented. This fungal species has been rarely reported as cause of human infection. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to fluconazole.

  2. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  3. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  4. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Lelia POP; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Ramona SUHAROSCHI; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher via...

  5. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ~50,000 and ~17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, ma...

  6. Geographic Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Newly Described Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Comparison to the Closely Related Species Candida parapsilosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. pa...

  7. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  8. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  9. Four novel yeasts from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Four novel yeast species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and Candida vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. Blastobotrys robertii and Candida scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS Culture Collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 domai

  10. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  11. Oral candidosis by Candida albicans in normal and xerostomic mice Candidose oral por Candida albicans em camundongos normais e xerostômicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Aparecida Gonçalves Totti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sialoadenectomy on the development of oral candidosis after one or four inoculations of Candida albicans. Initially, a suspension containing 10(8 cells/ml of C. albicans ATCC 36801 was prepared. Seventy-eight sialoadenectomized mice and a similar amount of mice with normal salivary flow received a single inoculation of C. albicans suspension. Another group with a similar number of mice received 4 inoculations. The control group consisted of 6 sialoadenectomized mice and 6 mice with normal salivary flow that were not inoculated with C. albicans. Candidosis development was studied histologically in the tongue of the animals 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 days after inoculation and at 15-day intervals up to 165 days. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that sialoadenectomy and a higher frequency of yeast inoculation influenced the presence and extension of candidosis lesions.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito da sialoadenectomia sobre o desenvolvimento da candidose oral após uma ou quatro inoculações de Candida albicans. Inicialmente, uma suspensão contendo 10(8 células/ml de C. albicans ATCC 36801 foi preparada. Setenta e oito camundongos sialoadenectomizados e mesma quantidade de camundongos com fluxo salivar normal receberam uma única inoculação de suspensão de C. albicans. Outro grupo, com o mesmo número de camundongos, recebeu 4 inoculações. O grupo controle consistiu de 6 camundongos sialoadenectomizados e 6 com fluxo salivar normal que não foram inoculados com C. albicans. O desenvolvimento de candidose foi estudado histologicamente na língua dos animais em períodos de 1, 2, 3, 5 e 8 dias após a inoculação e em intervalos de 15 dias até 165 dias. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a sialoadenectomia e uma maior freqüência de inoculação influenciaram na presença e extensão das lesões de candidose.

  12. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  13. Killing rates exerted by caspofungin in 50 % serum and its correlation with in vivo efficacy in a neutropenic murine model against Candida krusei and Candida inconspicua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Berényi, Réka; Domán, Marianna; Kardos, Gábor; Juhász, Béla; Majoros, László

    2014-02-01

    Killing rates (K) of 1-32 µg ml(-1) caspofungin were determined in RPMI-1640 and in 50 % serum using time-kill methodology against three Candida krusei (MICs of all three isolates 0.25 µg ml(-1) in RPMI-1640 and 2 µg ml(-1) in serum) and three Candida inconspicua clinical isolates (MIC ranges 0.06-0.12 µg ml(-1) in RPMI-1640 and 0.25-0.5 µg ml(-1) in serum), against C. krusei ATCC 6258 and against one C. krusei isolate that was resistant to echinocandins (MIC 8 µg ml(-1) in RPMI-1640 and 32 µg ml(-1) in serum). In RPMI-1640, the highest mean K values were observed at 4 (-1.05 h(-1)) and 16 (-0.27 h(-1)) μg ml(-1) caspofungin for C. krusei and C. inconspicua clinical isolates, respectively. In 50 % serum, mean K value ranges at 1-32 and 4-32 µg ml(-1) concentrations for C. inconspicua and C. krusei were -1.12 to -1.44 and -0.42 to -0.57 h(-1), respectively. While K values against C. krusei in RPMI-1640 and 50 % serum were comparable, serum significantly increased the killing rate against C. inconspicua (Pcaspofungin at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 15 mg kg(-1) significantly decreased the fungal tissue burden of C. inconspicua in the kidneys (Pcaspofungin were effective (Pcaspofungin dose was effective even against the echinocandin-resistant C. krusei isolate. In 50 % serum, killing was concentration independent at effective concentrations (≥4 and ≥1 µg ml(-1) for C. krusei and C. inconspicua, respectively), suggesting that the efficacy of dose escalation is questionable. These in vitro results were also supported by the murine model.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 cellulose fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Miguel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild-type strain to hydrolyze cellulose and ferment the degradation products directly to ethanol and other metabolic byproducts makes it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. In this study, whole-genome microarrays were used to investigate the expression of C. thermocellum mRNA during growth on crystalline cellulose in controlled replicate batch fermentations. Results A time-series analysis of gene expression revealed changes in transcript levels of ~40% of genes (~1300 out of 3198 ORFs encoded in the genome during transition from early-exponential to late-stationary phase. K-means clustering of genes with statistically significant changes in transcript levels identified six distinct clusters of temporal expression. Broadly, genes involved in energy production, translation, glycolysis and amino acid, nucleotide and coenzyme metabolism displayed a decreasing trend in gene expression as cells entered stationary phase. In comparison, genes involved in cell structure and motility, chemotaxis, signal transduction and transcription showed an increasing trend in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering of cellulosome-related genes highlighted temporal changes in composition of this multi-enzyme complex during batch growth on crystalline cellulose, with increased expression of several genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in degradation of non-cellulosic substrates in stationary phase. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that under low substrate availability, growth slows due to decreased metabolic potential and C. thermocellum alters its gene expression to (i modulate the composition of cellulosomes that are released into the environment with an increased proportion of enzymes than can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides other than cellulose, (ii enhance signal transduction and chemotaxis mechanisms perhaps to sense

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 cellulose fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 wild-type strain to hydrolyze cellulose and ferment the degradation products directly to ethanol and other metabolic byproducts makes it an attractive candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. In this study, whole-genome microarrays were used to investigate the expression of C. thermocellum mRNA during growth on crystalline cellulose in controlled replicate batch fermentations. A time-series analysis of gene expression revealed changes in transcript levels of {approx}40% of genes ({approx}1300 out of 3198 ORFs encoded in the genome) during transition from early-exponential to late-stationary phase. K-means clustering of genes with statistically significant changes in transcript levels identified six distinct clusters of temporal expression. Broadly, genes involved in energy production, translation, glycolysis and amino acid, nucleotide and coenzyme metabolism displayed a decreasing trend in gene expression as cells entered stationary phase. In comparison, genes involved in cell structure and motility, chemotaxis, signal transduction and transcription showed an increasing trend in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering of cellulosome-related genes highlighted temporal changes in composition of this multi-enzyme complex during batch growth on crystalline cellulose, with increased expression of several genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in degradation of non-cellulosic substrates in stationary phase. Overall, the results suggest that under low substrate availability, growth slows due to decreased metabolic potential and C. thermocellum alters its gene expression to (i) modulate the composition of cellulosomes that are released into the environment with an increased proportion of enzymes than can efficiently degrade plant polysaccharides other than cellulose, (ii) enhance signal transduction and chemotaxis mechanisms perhaps to sense the oligosaccharide hydrolysis products

  16. Candida fermenticarens—a. new yeast from arboricole lichen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of an undescribed  Candida species were recovered from arboricole lichen collected in the eastern Cape. A description of the new species, Candida fermenticarens, is given.

  17. Peritoneal infection by Candida albicans: study of number and size of limphocytes and phagocitic activy of peritoneal machophages in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Saad

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this investigation was to stdy some aspects of leucocytes (granulocytes and limphocytes and the phagocitic activity of peritoneal macrophages. In this experimen, which took place at Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Brazil, it was used twenty female C57BLACK mice. Half of them were submitted to radiation to obtain immunossupressed animals (Group A - irradiated mice. The other ten mice were not iiradiated (Group B - control. The animals were sorted in four subgroups A-2 and B-2, were infected with Candida albicans (ATCC 90029. The resultant data showed significant differences in the number of leucocytes (granulocytes and limphocytes, and in the medium size of limphocytes between irradiated and non irradiated mice. Related to peritoneal macrophages, it was observed that the number of macrophages was lower in irradiated mice and the phagocitic was decreased in the irradiated and infected animals.

  18. Effect of usnic acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections.

  19. IDENTIFIKASI SPESIES CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mu`min, Mulia Sari

    2012-01-01

    2011 Abstrak Candida albicans merupakan jenis Candida yang menginfeksi semua organ tubuh manusia, dapat ditemukan pada semua golongan umur, baik pada pria maupun wanita. Candida albicans merupakan fungi patogen oportunistik yang paling sering menginfeksi rongga mulut. Fungi ini dapat ditemukan pada seluruh permukaan rongga mulut, yaitu lidah (punggung lidah merupakan tempat yang disukai Candida albicans untuk tumbuh dan berkembang biak), pipi, mukosa palatal, plak gigi, karies gigi, flo...

  20. Fermentation of residual glycerol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in pure and mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Rosemeri I; Guilherme, Alexandre A; Vale, Maria S; Nunes, Vanja F; Leitão, Renato C; Santaella, Sandra T

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate the production of hydrogen, organic acids and alcohols by the strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using residual glycerol as a carbon source. The experiments were carried out in pure and mixed cultures in batch experiments. Three different sources of inocula for mixed culture were used. Ruminal liquid from goats and sludge collected from two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating municipal wastewater and brewery effluent were tested for hydrogen, organic acids and alcohols production with or without C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The main detected end-products from the glycerol fermentation were hydrogen, organic acids (acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic) and alcohol (ethanol and 1,3-propanediol - 1,3PD). High hydrogen (0.44 mol H2/mol glycerol consumed) and 1,3PD (0.32 mol 1,3PD/mol glycerol consumed) yields were obtained when the strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was bioaugmented into the sludge from municipal wastewater using 5 g/L of glycerol. Significant concentrations of n-caproic acid were detected in the ruminal liquid when amended with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The results suggest that glycerol can be used for the generation of H2, 1,3PD and n-caproic acid using C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 as agent in pure or mixed cultures.

  1. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  2. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  3. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  4. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  5. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D; Gow, Neil A R; Maiden, Martin C J; Odds, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.

  6. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  7. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD.

  8. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlled...... by a complex regulatory and metabolic network that may be elucidated by the integration of genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic tools. Accordingly, an extensive evaluation of the proteomic changes associated with NAI-107 production was performed on Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 by combining two......-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and gene ontology approaches. Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 cultivations in a complex medium were characterized by stages of biomass accumulation (A) followed by biomass yield decline (D). NAI-107 production started at 90 h (A stage), reached a maximum at 140...

  9. Prevalence and Susceptibility Profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: Results from Population-Based Surveillance of Candidemia in Spain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Lopez, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Almirante, B.; Pahissa, A.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  10. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, A; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Rodriguez, D; Almirante, B; Pahissa, A; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2008-04-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  11. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  12. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  13. Genetic diversity of the yeast Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenburg, R; Klinner, U; Ritzerfeld, P; Zimmermann, M; Emeis, C C

    1992-12-01

    The electrophoretic karyotypes and some mtDNA restriction fragment patterns of 13 strains of Candida utilis and one strain of Hansenula jadinii were compared. PFGE separations revealed remarkable chromosome length polymorphisms between two groups of strains suggesting that perhaps they do not belong to the same species. However, all strains had the same or similar EcoRI, HindIII and BamHI mtDNA restriction patterns. The mtDNA genomes had an average size range of 55 kb. These results support the supposition that C. utilis is a yeast with a highly variable electrophoretic karyotype as already known for another imperfect yeast species, Candida albicans.

  14. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re......) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 attenuates the atherosclerotic progression through modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Liu, Wenen; Li, Yanming; Luo, San; Liu, Qingxia; Zhong, Yiming; Jian, Zijuan; Bao, Meihua

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the progression of atherosclerosis in Apoliprotein-E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice and the underlying mechanisms. Eight week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 12 weeks. The wild type (WT) mice or ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group were treated with saline only. Body weights, serum lipid levels, aortic atherosclerotic lesions, and tissue oxidative and inflammatory statuses were examined among the groups. As compared to ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group, ApoE(-/-) mice treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 had no changes in body weights and serum lipid profiles, but showed decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in en face aorta. In comparison with WT mice, ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group showed higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), but lower levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum. Administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 could reverse these trends in a dose-dependent manner in ApoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, ApoE(-/-) mice treated with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed an inhibition of translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus, suppression of degradation of aortic IκB-α, and improvements of gut microbiota distribution, as compared to ApoE(-/-) mice in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can attenuate the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice through reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 from Candida albicans Stimulates the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krause

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans interact synergistically in dual species biofilms resulting in enhanced mortality in animal models.The aim of the current study was to test possible candidate molecules which might mediate this synergistic interaction in an in vitro model of mixed biofilms, such as farnesol, tyrosol and prostaglandin (PG E2. In mono-microbial and dual biofilms of C.albicans wild type strains PGE2 levels between 25 and 250 pg/mL were measured. Similar concentrations of purified PGE2 significantly enhanced S.aureus biofilm formation in a mode comparable to that observed in dual species biofilms. Supernatants of the null mutant deficient in PGE2 production did not stimulate the proliferation of S.aureus and the addition of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the S.aureus biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, S. aureus biofilm formation was boosted by low and inhibited by high farnesol concentrations. Supernatants of the farnesol-deficient C. albicans ATCC10231 strain significantly enhanced the biofilm formation of S. aureus but at a lower level than the farnesol producer SC5314. However, C. albicans ATCC10231 also produced PGE2 but amounts were significantly lower compared to SC5314.In conclision, we identified C. albicans PGE2 as a key molecule stimulating the growth and biofilm formation of S. aureus in dual S. aureus/C. albicans biofilms, although C. albicans derived farnesol, but not tyrosol, may also contribute to this effect but to a lesser extent.

  17. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  18. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida.

  19. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.

  20. Characterization of Candida species from different populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, An-Huei; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The opportunistic Candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. We investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. A total of 913 isolates comprising 395 Candida albicans, 230 Candida tropicalis, 202 Candida glabrata, 62 Candida parapsilosis, 13 Candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. Urine was the most common source (41.2%), followed by sputum (16.3%), blood (15.2%), and others (27.3%). Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were more prevalent in the working group [from 19 to 65 years], whereas C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the elder one (≥ 66 years). We found that the age of patients and the source of isolates affect the distribution of species. On the other hand, the drug susceptibility of isolates was associated with fungal species and whether patients were hospitalized.

  1. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. MacCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  2. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white-opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of Ste2 for the cellular response, whereas the first IC loop (IC1) of Ste2 is dispensable for signaling. To also address pheromone-receptor interactions in related species, including apparently asexual Candida species, Ste2 orthologues were heterologously expressed in Candida albicans. Ste2 receptors from multiple Candida clade species were functional when expressed in C. albicans, whereas the Ste2 receptor of Candida lusitaniae was nonfunctional. Significantly, however, expression of a chimeric C. lusitaniae Ste2 receptor containing the C-terminal tail of Ste2 from C. albicans generated a productive response to C. lusitaniae pheromone. This system has allowed us to characterize pheromones from multiple Candida species and indicates that functional pheromone-receptor couples exist in fungal species that have yet to be shown to undergo sexual mating.

  3. Therapeutic approach to Candida bezoar in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wall, L. L.; Van Den Heijkant, M. M C; Bökenkamp, A.; Kuijper, C. F.; Van Der Horst, H. J R; De Jong, T. P V M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Candida bezoar (CB) is a rare finding in neonates and infants with candiduria, presenting as necrotic debris with proliferating mycelia in the collecting system of the kidney. If initial antifungal medical treatment does not result in clearance of candiduria and disappearance of CB on u

  4. Melaleuca alternifolia nanoparticles against Candida species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M E; Lopes, L Q S; Bonez, P C; Gündel, A; Martinez, D S T; Sagrillo, M R; Giongo, J L; Vaucher, R A; Raffin, R P; Boligon, A A; Santos, R C V

    2017-03-01

    Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species. It was performed the characterization of the oil and nanoparticles. The levels of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and the biomass of biofilms were measured. The chromatographic profile demonstrated that the TTO oil is in accordance with ISO 4730 with major constituents of 41.9% Terpinen-4-ol, 20.1% of γ-Terpinene, 9,8% of α-Terpinene, and 6,0% of 1,8-Cineole. The TTO nanoparticles showed pH of 6.3, mean diameter of 158.2 ± 2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.213 ± 0.017, and zeta potential of -8.69 ± 0.80 mV. The addition of TTO and its nanoparticles represented a significant reduction of biofilm formed by all Candida species, as well as a reduction of proteins and exopolysaccharides levels. It was possible to visualize the reduction of biofilm in presence of TTO nanoparticles by Calcofluor White method.

  5. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.;

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA...

  7. Antifungal effect of electrospun nanofibers containing cetylpyridinium chloride against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Alves dos SANTOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC has in vitro and in vivo antifungal action against Candida albicans, with advantages over other common antiseptics. A CPC delivery-controlled system, transported in polymer nanofibers (PVP/PMMA, was developed to increase the bioavailability of the drug in contact with the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study were to determine if CPC in nanofiber has antifungal action against C. albicans, and in what concentration it must be incorporated, so that the fraction released can yield an inhibitory concentration. The nanofiber was prepared by electrospinning, and sterilized with gamma irradiation. Nanofiber disks with 0.05%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% CPC, with 5% miconazole (MCZ and with no drug, as well as filter paper disks with 5% CPC, with 5% MCZ and with no drug were used in this study. A Candida albicans suspension (ATCC 90028 was inoculated in Mueller-Hinton Agar plates. The disks were placed on the plates and the inhibition zone diameters were measured 48h later. The nanopolymeric disks contracted in contact with the agar. All the concentrations of CPC incorporated in the nanofiber presented inhibitory action against C. albicans. Concentrations of 2.5% and 5% CPC presented a significant advantage over the nanofiber with no drug, proving the antifungal action of CPC. Under these experimental conditions, 5% CPC has greater inhibitory action against C. albicans than 5% MCZ, both in nanofiber and in filter paper. A modification made in the polymer to decrease the contraction rate may allow a larger inhibition zone to be maintained, thereby increasing the clinical usefulness of the polymer.

  8. Caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis due to resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie A; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas F

    2011-07-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot 1 point mutations. Mice received daily caspofungin treatment for 7 days and were then followed off therapy for 2 weeks to assess survival. Kidney tissue and blood were collected, and fungal burden and serum (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan were measured. Significant differences in virulence were observed among the three C. albicans isolates, which translated into differences in responses to caspofungin. The most virulent of the resistant isolates studied (isolate 43001; Fks1p F641S) did not respond to caspofungin doses of up to 10 mg/kg of body weight, as there were no differences in survival (survival range, 0 to 12% with treatment), tissue burden, or (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan concentration compared to those for untreated controls. Higher doses of caspofungin did improve survival against the second resistant isolate (53264; Fks1p S645P) that demonstrated reduced virulence (5 and 10 mg/kg; 80% survival). In contrast, caspofungin doses as low as 1 mg/kg improved survival (85 to 95%) and reduced tissue burden and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan concentration against the susceptible isolate (ATCC 90028). These data suggest that caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis may not be consistently effective against resistant C. albicans isolates, and this may be associated with the virulence of the strain.

  9. Adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto- chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei MARCACCI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The capacity of Candida albicans adherence is one ofits main factors of virulence. Surfaces of different materials canpropitiate conditions for higher or lower adherence and greater virulence of the microorganisms. Objective: Evaluate the adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto-chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering. Material and methods: Twenty-four cylindrical samples have been constructed, 12 of titanium and 12 of cobalt-chromium, divided in 4 groups of six. All have been polished in the habitual form by the same technician. Samples have been sandpapered at about high rotation for 15 seconds each sandpaper, on all its surface. A group of each metal was sandpapered only with sandpaper for metal number 80. The two other groups have been sandpapered in agreement with the sequence (decreasing granulation: 80, 150 and 220. Samples have been sterilized and located in plates of cells culture. In each well of the plate was added standardized amount of Sabouraud broth and suspension containing 106 cells per milliliter of C. albicans (ATCC 18804. After incubation, the number of adhered cells per mm2 was obtained by the method of sowing in plate of Petri. The obtained values have been tabulated and submitted to the tests of ANOVA and Tukey,with level of significance of 5%. Results: There was statistical difference for the granulation of sandpapers, what not occurred when considering metals.Conclusion: The bigger the final granulation of sandpaper, the greater the adherence and the type of metal did not influence in the result.

  10. Genome sequence and plasmid transformation of the model high-yield bacterial cellulose producer Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Reeve, Benjamin; Abbott, James; Freemont, Paul S.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong, highly pure form of cellulose that is used in a range of applications in industry, consumer goods and medicine. Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 is one of the highest reported bacterial cellulose producing strains and has been used as a model organism in numerous studies of bacterial cellulose production and studies aiming to increased cellulose productivity. Here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence for G. hansenii ATCC 53582 and find that in addition to the previously described cellulose synthase operon, ATCC 53582 contains two additional cellulose synthase operons and several previously undescribed genes associated with cellulose production. In parallel, we also develop optimized protocols and identify plasmid backbones suitable for transformation of ATCC 53582, albeit with low efficiencies. Together, these results provide important information for further studies into cellulose synthesis and for future studies aiming to genetically engineer G. hansenii ATCC 53582 for increased cellulose productivity.

  11. Study on Biofilm Inhibit Mechanism of Streptococcus Sanguis Bacteriocin on Candida Albicans.%血链球菌细菌素对白色念珠菌生物膜抑制作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晟利; 王琪波; 李旭明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To extract bacteriocin effective antimicrobial substances the standard strains of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC10556 and to study the action mechanism of Streptococcus sanguis bacteriocin on Candida albicans biofilms. Methods.. By ultrasonic, salt precipitation and sephadex G-25 column desalting through dialysis, sanguicin of the streptococcus bacteria isolated elements, the Candida albicans biofilms. After 2h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h,changes observed in BF. Results: After 24h, Candida albicans biofilms changed significantly, then was 12h. Conclusion: Streptococcus sanguis bacteriocin biofilms of Candida albicans strains were significantly inhibited.%目的:提取血链球菌标准株ATCC10556的有效抗菌物质细菌素,进一步研究血链球菌细菌素对白色念珠菌生物膜的作用机理.方法:通过超声破碎、盐析、sephadex G-25过柱脱盐、透析、浓缩的方法分离血链球菌细菌素,使之作用于白色念珠菌生物膜,并在2 h、6 h、12 h、24 h、48 h、72 h观察白色念珠菌生物膜厚度的变化.结果:24 h内白色念珠菌生物膜厚度有明显改变,12 h效果最为显著.结论:血链球菌细菌素对白色念株菌生物膜具有显著的抑制作用.

  12. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 Disk Diffusion and Associated Breakpoint Testing of Caspofungin and Micafungin Using a Well-Characterized Panel of Wild-Type and fks Hot Spot Mutant Candida Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus −4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species. PMID:21357293

  13. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mengying; Wu, Ting; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: xiaoyunxu88@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Thiostrepton-Producing Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Ogata, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255 produces thiostrepton, a thiopeptide class antibiotic. Here, we report the complete genome sequence for this strain, which contains a total of 8,032,664 bp, 7,452 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 72.3%. PMID:27257211

  15. Complete genome sequence of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora strain ATCC 49946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora causes the economically important disease fire blight that affects rosaceous plants, especially pear and apple. Here we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of strain ATCC 49946. The analysis of the sequence and its comparison with sequenced genomes of closely related...

  16. Identification of proteins involved in the heat stress response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periago, P.M.; Schaik, van W.; Abee, T.; Wouters, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    To monitor the ability of the food-borne opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus to survive during minimal processing of food products, we determined its heat-adaptive response. During pre-exposure to 42°C, B. cereus ATCC 14579 adapts to heat exposure at the lethal temperature of 50°C (maximum protec

  17. Evidence for a previously unrecognized mycobacterial endosymbiont in Acanthamoeba castellanii strain Ma (ATCC ® 50370 ™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kathleen C; Hetrick, Neil D; Molestina, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    We describe the isolation of a mycobacterium from Acanthamoeba castellanii strain Ma (ATCC(®) 50370(™)). The mycobacterium resides within vacuoles of A. castellanii, can be cultured by routine methodologies, and is a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Previously unrecognized mycobacterial endosymbionts are likely common among strains of Acanthamoeba housed at culture collections.

  18. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Thiostrepton-Producing Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Katsumi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Ogata, Seiya

    2016-06-02

    Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255 produces thiostrepton, a thiopeptide class antibiotic. Here, we report the complete genome sequence for this strain, which contains a total of 8,032,664 bp, 7,452 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 72.3%.

  20. Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, a Butyric Acid-Overproducing Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Zhu, Liying; Xu, Xian; Li, Yanping; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

    2013-05-30

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an efficient producer of butyric acid. Here we report a 3.01-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for an alternative pathway leading to acetate synthesis as well as a series of membrane transport systems.

  1. Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, a Butyric Acid-Overproducing Strain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an efficient producer of butyric acid. Here we report a 3.01-Mb assembly of its genome sequence and other useful information, including the coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for an alternative pathway leading to acetate synthesis as well as a series of membrane transport systems.

  2. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shawn A; Layton, Alice C; Ripp, Steven; Williams, Dan; Sayler, Gary S

    2008-01-01

    The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins. PMID:18710568

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bioluminescent Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV])

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng; Hervey, W. Judson; Kim, Seongwon; Lin, Baochuan; Vora, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative marine γ-proteobacterium that is known to be a formidable pathogen of aquatic animals and is a model organism for the study of bacterial bioluminescence and quorum sensing. In this report, we describe the complete genome sequence of the most studied strain of this species: V. harveyi ATCC 33843 (392 [MAV]).

  4. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  5. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Huntemann, Marcel; Wei, Chia-Lin; Han, James; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass-degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized component of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism. PMID:23833133

  6. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacill

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larval Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii Type Strain ATCC 19109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Needleman, David S; Watson, Michael A; Bono, James L

    2014-12-18

    Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here, we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (ATCC type strain 19109), which consists of two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp), and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,973 bp).

  8. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P L; Yen, T F

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed.

  9. Purification and Characterization of an L-Amino Amidase from Mycobacterium neoaurum ATCC 25795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Tandler, R.F.; Sonke, T.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Meijer, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    An L-amino amidase from Mycobacterium neoaurum ATCC 25795 responsible for the enantioselective resolution of DL-α-methyl valine amide was purified and characterized. The purification procedure included ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and anion-exchange chromatography, which resulted

  10. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to terbinafine in Candida albicans using a cDNA microarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yue-bin; QIAN Yuan-shu; MA Lian; GU Hong-ni

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is the most frequently seen opportunistic human fungal pathogen. Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal agent that has been proven to have high clinical efficacy in the therapy of fungal infections, the mechanism of action of terbinafine involves the specific inhibition of fungal squalene epoxidase, resulting in ergosterol deficiency and accumulation of intracellular squalene. We used cDNA microarray analysis technology to monitor global expression profile changes of Candida albicans genes in response to terbinafine treatment, and we anticipated a panoramic view of the responses of Candida albicans cells to the representatives of allylamine antifungal agents at the molecular level in an effort to identify drug class-specific and mechanism-independent changes in gene expression.Methods Candida albicans strain ATCC 90028 was exposed to either medium alone or terbinafine at a concentration equivalent to the 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs, 4 mg/L) for 90 minutes. RNA was isolated and gene expression profiles were compared to identify the changes in the gene expression profile using a cDNA microarray analysis. Differential expression of 10 select genes detected by cDNA microarray analysis was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results A total of 222 genes were found to be responsive to terbinafine, including 121 up-regulated genes and 101 down-regulated genes. These included genes encoding membrane transport proteins belonging to the members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or major facilitator superfamily (MFS; CDR1, AGP2, GAP6, PHO84, HOL3, FCY23, VCX1),genes involved in stress response and detoxification (CDR1, AGP2, HOL3), and gene involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG12). The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR were consistent with that of the cDNA microarray analysis.Conclusions The up-regulation of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance efflux pump

  11. Improvement of endophytic Azospirillum colonization by co-inoculation with Cellulomonas Uda ATCC 491

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    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR such as Azopirillum if accompanied with strong cellulase producing bacteria such as Cellulomonas, their colonization may be increased and their host plants growth improved. Materials and methods: Six endophytic Azospirilla which isolated from three rice and three wheat cultivars and also one strain from commercial biofertilizer (Green Biotech Co., identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis and were studied on the basis of cellulase, pectinase and auxin production and also their chemotaxis toward rice and wheat cultivars exudates was investigated. Two cellulase positive (A5 and A6 and two negative (A2 and A3 strains were selected and their interaction with C. uda ATCC 491 on auxin production and colonization on roots were compared. Results: This study showed that none of the strains had pectinase activity, but the strain isolated from rice had more Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase activity. Selected isolates and C. uda ATCC 491 showed chemotaxis toward roots exudates. In most of the isolates, rate of auxin production increased by coculture with C. uda ATCC 491. Also, it was determined that C. uda ATCC 491 promoted the colonization of Azospirillum without or with cellulase activity on rice and wheat roots, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Co-inoculation Azospirillum with C. uda ATCC 491 improves plant root system due to stimulation or additive effect of auxin production and cellulase activity, followed by more uptakes of water and minerals by roots. Also, it raises the number of colonization niches for useful bacteria such as Azospirillum and finally quantitative and qualitative plant parameters.

  12. Candida colonization and subsequent infections in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, D; Monod, M; Suter, P M; Frenk, E; Auckenthaler, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors determined the role of Candida colonization in the development of subsequent infection in critically ill patients. DESIGN. A 6-month prospective cohort study was given to patients admitted to the surgical and neonatal intensive care units in a 1600-bed university medical center. METHODS. Patients having predetermined criteria for significant Candida colonization revealed by routine microbiologic surveillance cultures at different body sites were eligible for the study. Risk factors for Candida infection were recorded. A Candida colonization index was determined daily as the ratio of the number of distinct body sites (dbs) colonized with identical strains over the total number of dbs tested; a mean of 5.3 dbs per patient was obtained. All isolates (n = 322) sequentially recovered were characterized by genotyping using contour-clamped homogeneous electrical field gel electrophoresis that allowed strain delineation among Candida species. RESULTS. Twenty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion; all were at high risk for Candida infection; 11 patients (38%) developed severe infections (8 candidemia); the remaining 18 patients were heavily colonized, but never required intravenous antifungal therapy. Among the potential risk factors for candida infection, three discriminated the colonized from the infected patients--i.e., length of previous antibiotic therapy (p < 0.02), severity of illness assessed by APACHE II score (p < 0.01), and the intensity of Candida spp colonization (p < 0.01). By logistic regression analysis, the latter two who were the independent factors that predicted subsequent candidal infection. Candida colonization always preceded infection with genotypically identical Candida spp strain. The proposed colonization indexes reached threshold values a mean of 6 days before Candida infection and demonstrated high positive predictive values (66 to 100%). CONCLUSIONS. The intensity of Candida colonization assessed by systematic

  13. Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeland, Laurence; Gazon, Mathieu; Guerin, Claude; Argaud, Laurent; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Bastien, Olivier; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Michallet, Mauricette; Picot, Stephane; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Since the outcomes of patients with candidemia is poor and Candida spp. with increased resistance to antifungal therapy may be associated with these results, the emergence of these blood infections caused by non-C. albicans Candida spp. was explored prospectively over a two-year period (2009-2010). Candidemia was defined as the recovery of Candida spp. in culture from a patient's blood sample. The in vitro susceptibility of each isolate to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined. In addition, characteristics of patients and outcomes were investigated in real-time. The Candida distribution was compared to that observed in a similar study 10 years earlier in the same hospital. A total of 182 patients with candidemia were included in the study. While C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (n = 102), non-C. albicans Candida spp. included; C. glabrata (n = 32), C. parapsilosis (n = 21), C. tropicalis (n = 13), C. krusei (n = 8), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. lusitaniae (n = 2), C. lipolytica (n = 2), C. famata (n = 1), C. guilliermondii (n = 1), C. inconspicua (n = 1), C. dubliniensis (n = 1), C. sake (n = 1) and C. nivariensis (n = 1). In seven patients, C. albicans was associated with another Candida spp. Surprisingly, this prospective study demonstrated that regardless of the department (intensive care unit or hematological department), Candida spp. distribution was no different from that found in the 1998-2001 survey, except for C. krusei. A reduction in the proportion of C. krusei isolates was observed from 2000-2010 (P = 0.028) as a result of its decreased recovery in the hematological department.

  14. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  15. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  16. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  17. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T).

  18. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  19. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  20. Catheter-Related Candidemia Caused by Candida lipolytica in a Patient Receiving Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Domenico; Romano, Ferdinando; Pontieri, Eugenio; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Caracciolo, Claudia; Bianchini, Stefano; Olioso, Paola; Staniscia, Tommaso; Sferra, Roberta; Boccia, Stefania; Vetuschi, Antonella; Federico, Giovanni; Gaudio, Eugenio; Carruba, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Candida lipolytica was recovered from the blood and the central venous catheter in a patient receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Two C. lipolytica strains from different geographical areas and the ATCC 9773 strain of C. lipolytica were used as controls. C. lipolytica was identified by standard methods. MICs indicated antifungal susceptibilities to amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole for all strains. In vitro testing and scanning electron microscopy showed that C. lipolytica was capable of producing large amounts of viscid slime material in glucose-containing solution, likely responsible for the ability of the yeast to adhere to catheter surfaces. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed an identical profile for all clinical isolates, unrelated to those observed for the control strains. This finding suggested the absence of microevolutionary changes in the population of the infecting strain, despite the length of the sepsis and the potential selective pressure of amphotericin B, which had been administered to the patient for about 20 days. The genomic differences that emerged between the isolates and the control strains were indicative of a certain degree of genetic diversity between C. lipolytica isolates from different geographical areas. PMID:11923360

  1. Exopolysaccharide matrix of developed Candida albicans biofilms after exposure to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wander José; Gonçalves, Letícia Machado; Seneviratne, Jayampath; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fluconazole or nystatin exposure on developed Candida albicans biofilms regarding their exopolysaccharide matrix. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fluconazole or nystatin was determined for C. albicans reference strain (ATCC 90028). Poly(methlymethacrylate) resin (PMMA) specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions and had their surface roughness measured. Biofilms were developed on specimens surfaces for 48 h and after that were exposed during 24 h to fluconazole or nystatin prepared in a medium at MIC, 10 x MIC or 100 x MIC. Metabolic activity was evaluated using an XTT assay. Production of soluble and insoluble exopolysaccharide and intracellular polysaccharides was evaluated by the phenol-sulfuric method. Confocal laser scanning microscope was used to evaluate biofilm architecture and percentage of dead/live cells. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. The presence of fluconazole or nystatin at concentrations higher than MIC results in a great reduction of metabolic activity (p0.05). The exposure to nystatin also did not alter the exopolysaccharide matrix at all the tested concentrations (p>0.05). Biofilm architecture was not affected by either of the antifungal agents (p>0.05). Nystatin promoted higher proportion of dead cells (p<0.05). It may be concluded that fluconazole and nystatin above the MIC concentration reduced the metabolic activity of C. albicans biofilms; however, they were not able to alter the exopolysaccharide matrix and biofilm architecture.

  2. Bioactivity and architecture of Candida albicans biofilms developed on poly(methyl methacrylate) resin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wander José; Seneviratne, Jayampath; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and architecture of Candida albicans biofilms developed on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin. To do this, surface roughness (SR) and surface free energy of PMMA specimens were measured. Next, the biofilms of two different C. albicans strains (ATCC 90028 and SC5314) were allowed to develop on the PMMA surface and evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after adhesion. The bioactivity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. Biofilm topography was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate the architectural properties of bio-volume, average thickness, biofilm roughness, surface area/volume ratio and the proportion of live/dead cells in the different biofilm development stages. SR and SFE had no influence on biofilm development. Each strain exhibited a different biofilm activity (P < 0.001). Confocal images showed different architectures for the different biofilm development stages. We conclude that the main differences detected in biofilm bioactivity and architecture were related to the characteristics of each C. albicans strain and to biofilm development time.

  3. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  4. Olive leaf extract activity against Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis - the in vitro viability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Nataša; Kopjar, Nevenka; Kraljić, Klara; Oršolić, Nada; Tomić, Siniša; Kosalec, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C. albicans with MIC value of 46.875 mg mL-1 and C. dubliniensis with MIC value 62.5 mg mL-1. Most sensitive methods for testing the antifungal effect of the extracts were the trypan blue exclusion method and fluorescent dye exclusion method while MIC could not be determined by the method according to the EUCAST recommendation suggesting that herbal preparations contain compounds that may interfere with this susceptibility testing. The fluorescent dye exclusion method was also used for the assessment of morphological changes in the nuclei of treated cells. According to the obtained results, olive leaf extract is less effective against the tested strains than hydroxytyrosol, an olive plant constituent tested in our previous study.

  5. Effect of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. on candida adhesion to oral epithelium and denture acrylic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) Linn. ethanolic extract on the adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and denture acrylic surfaces. Methods: Human BECs and transparent acrylic strips were pretreated with ethanolic extract solution of P. emblica fruits at concentration ranged from 18.7 to 300 mg/mL. After washing BECs and the strips were inoculated with three strains of C. albicans (ATCC 10281 and two clinical isolates) (107 cells/mL). Normal saline solution (NSS) and 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. BECs were harvested on 12 μm-polycarbonate filters (Millipore, USA). The membrane filters and the strips were stained with Gram stain. Adherent yeast cells on 100 randomly selected epithelial cells and 20 randomly selected fields on each strip were counted under microscope. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at a significant level of P< 0.05.Results:Significant lower numbers of all strains of yeasts adhering to BECs and acrylic strips were observed after exposure to 75-300 mg/mL of plant extract compared with NSS. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates that P. emblica ethanolic extract interferes with the adhesion of C.albicans to BECs and denture acrylic surfaces in vitro.

  6. Inhibition of candida adhesion to denture acrylic byBoesenbergia pandurata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thaweboon Sroisiri; Thaweboon Boonyanit

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate effect ofBoesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) rhizome extract on adhesion ofCandida albicans (C. albicans) to acrylic surface.Methods: Transparent acrylic strips were prepared and divided into three groups with pretreatment by extract solution ofB. pandurata rhizome at concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. After washing, the strips were then inoculated with two strains ofC. albicans (ATCC13803 and the clinical isolate) (107cells/mL). Normal saline solution and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Stained the strips with modified Gram stain without counterstain. Adherent yeast cells were direct counted under microscope (Olympus-CX31, Japan) in 20 randomly selected fields on each strip. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests at a significance level ofP < 0.05.Results: Pretreatment withB. pandurata extract significantly reduced the adhesion of both strains ofC. albicans to acrylic surfaces in a dose dependent manner.Conclusions:This observation indicates thatB. pandurata extract has an inhibitory effect on the ability ofC. albicans to adhere to denture acrylic and could be employed as an antifungal agent for preventing denture stomatitis.

  7. [Effect of Mexican propolis extracts from Apis mellifera on Candida albicans in vitro growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Mora, María Leonor; Londoño-Orozco, Amparo; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; López-Martínez, Rubén; Soto-Zárate, Carlos Ignacio; Carrillo-Miranda, Liborio; Penieres-Carrillo, Guillermo; García-Tovar, Carlos Gerardo; Cruz-Sánchez, Tonatiuh A

    2008-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by bees (Apis mellifera) from different trees and bushes. Due to its antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and antiparasitic properties, it has continued to be very popular throughout the time showing variable activity depending on its geographical origin. In Mexico, information about this product is very limited. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of four propolis ethanolic extracts from three different Mexican states, and four commercial extracts on Candida albicans growth. A reference strain (ATCC 10231) and 36 clinical isolates of C. albicans were used. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined by the dilution on agar method. Growth curves on Sabouraud Dextrose broth with and without different propolis ethanolic extracts concentrations were performed. In addition, whether the effect was fungistatic or fungicide was determined. The propolis ethanolic extract obtained from Cuautitlán Izcalli, State of Mexico, showed the best biological activity, inhibiting 94.4% from the clinical isolates at 0.8 mg/ml; the reference strain was inhibited at 0.6 mg/ml. The propolis effect was fungistatic in low concentrations and fungicide in concentrations higher to MIC. The Mexican propolis ethanolic extract could be further investigated for its alternative use for the treatment of some C. albicans infections.

  8. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 prevents atherosclerosis via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  11. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  12. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  13. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system.

  14. Candida species exhibit differential in vitro hemolytic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Gang; Lakshman P Samaranayake; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 80 Candida isolates representing 14 species were examined for their respective responses to an in vitro hemolytic test. A modification of a previously described plate assay system where the yeasts are incubated on glucose (3%)-enriched sheep blood agar in a carbon dioxide (5%)-rich environment for 48 h was used to evaluate the hemolytic activity. A group of eight Candida species which included Candida albicans (15 isolates), C. dubliniensis (2), C. kefyr (2), C. krusei (4), C. zeyl...

  15. Expression and Mutagenesis studies of Candida antactica lipase B

    OpenAIRE

    Rotticci-Mulder, Johanna C.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Candida antarctica lipase B was successfullyproduced in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Thespecific activities of Candida antarctica lipase B produced inPichia pastoris and commercial Candida antarctica lipase B fromNovozymes were the same. In shake-flask cultivations theexpression levels were about 25 mg L-1. Production levels couldbe increased to 1.5 g L-1, using a fermentor. A model tosimulate growth and oxygen consumption was described. The highcell density growth cou...

  16. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra; Narjara Coelho; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The ...

  17. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Epub October 4th Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole upt...

  18. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  19. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  20. Childhood Candida Infections: Single-center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-06-01

    Results: Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with Candida infection. Of these patients 17 were male (59% and 12 were female (41%. Eleven patients were less than a year old (38%, 9 were between 1-5 years (31% and 9 were above the age of five (31%. The most important underlying disease malignancies were congenital heart disease and neurological diseases. Candida growth was determined in the blood cultures of 17 patients, the urine cultures of 10 patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one patient. While the most commonly used anti-fungal agent was fluconazole (51.7%, others used were caspofungin (41.3% and amfoterisin B (13.7%. No isolated Candida strain showed resistance to anti-fungal agents. Treatment was clinically and microbiologically 96.5% successful. Conclusions: Fluconazole still appears to be an effective treatment choice we believe there is a necessity to review the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values for anti-fungal agents. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 245-251

  1. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  2. Identification and differentiation of Candida parapsilosis complex species by use of exon-primed intron-crossing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Zengbin; Ling, Bo; Pan, Shuming; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex is composed of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and the closely related species Lodderomyces elongisporus. An exon-primed intron-crossing PCR assay was developed here to distinguish the members of the species complex on the basis of the distinct sizes of amplicons, and Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were further discriminated by restriction enzyme analysis.

  3. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex. PMID:26168269

  4. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  5. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  6. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  7. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A. (Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1990-07-05

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities.

  8. Non-Candida albicans Candida mediastinitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Mantadakis, Elpis; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Bourolias, Constantinos A; Papazoglou, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A; Samonis, George

    2008-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis occurs as a complication of oropharyngeal or cervical infections and its delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high mortality. A rare case of an odontogenic infection in a diabetic patient, complicated by Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei parapharyngeal space infection, descending mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia is described. Isolate identification was based on colonial and microscopic morphological characteristics and carbohydrate assimilation test results. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and debridement, broad spectrum antibacterials and liposomal amphotericin B followed by prolonged oral voriconazole therapy.

  9. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  10. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum.

  11. Sorbitol Production By Zymomonas Mobilis ATCC 29191 In Medium Of Sucrose Pre-Treated With Invertase

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi; Viviane Cristina Schiabel; João Batista Buzato; Josiane Alessandra Vignoli; Márcio de Barros

    2002-01-01

    Sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium of sucrose pre-treated with invertase was studied. The best results were obtained when the medium was pre-treated with invertase as sorbitol production of 41,39 g/L and a productivity of 1,72 g/L.h-1 in 24 hours of fermentation. The invertase addition in the fermentation broth increased 72,17% in the sorbitol formation.

  12. Expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Genes in Escherichia coli for Acetone Production and Acetate Detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo, Lourdes L.; Welker, Neil E.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    1998-01-01

    A synthetic acetone operon (ace4) composed of four Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 genes (adc, ctfAB, and thl, coding for the acetoacetate decarboxylase, coenzyme A transferase, and thiolase, respectively) under the control of the thl promoter was constructed and was introduced into Escherichia coli on vector pACT. Acetone production demonstrated that ace4 is expressed in E. coli and resulted in the reduction of acetic acid levels in the fermentation broth. Since different E. coli strains...

  13. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  14. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  15. Sorbitol Production By Zymomonas Mobilis ATCC 29191 In Medium Of Sucrose Pre-Treated With Invertase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium of sucrose pre-treated with invertase was studied. The best results were obtained when the medium was pre-treated with invertase as sorbitol production of 41,39 g/L and a productivity of 1,72 g/L.h-1 in 24 hours of fermentation. The invertase addition in the fermentation broth increased 72,17% in the sorbitol formation.

  16. The influence of the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 14 ATCC 27774 on the corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feio, M.J. [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Microbiology Research Lab.; Rainha, V.; Fonseca, I.T.E. [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica; Reis, M.A. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Lino, A.R. [Instituto de Tecologia Quimica e Biologica, Qeiras (Portugal)

    2000-10-01

    The involvement of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of steel and the serious implications associated with their presence in industrial environments have long been known and extensively described. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 is an interesting metabolic case of SRB, as it can use both sulphate and nitrate as respiratory substrates during lactate oxidation. This strain has been extensively studied from both a biochemical and structural point of view but, so far, restricted information is available concerning its role in MIC. This work describes a comparative study of the corrosive aggressivity of ATCC 27774 strain towards mild steel when grown either in lactate/sulphate or lactate/nitrate media. The carbon source and electron acceptor's consumption rates were analysed and the metabolic features were correlated with weight loss measurements and SEM observations. (orig.) [German] Die Beteiligung von sulfatreduzierenden Bakterien (SRB) bei der mikrobiologisch beeinflussten Korrosion (MIC) von Stahl und die Auswirkungen, die mit ihrer Anwesenheit in industriellen Umgebungen verbunden sind, sind seit langem bekannt und ausfuehrlich beschrieben. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 ist ein interessanter metabolischer Fall von SRB, da es sowohl Sulfat als auch Nitrat als Respirationssubstrat waehrend der Laktatoxidation nutzen kann. Diese Art ist sowohl vom biochemischen als auch vom strukturellen Standpunkt aus intensiv untersucht worden; bisher gibt es allerdings nur begrenzte Informationen ueber eine Rolle bei MIC. Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine Vergleichsstudie der Korrosivitaet der ATCC 27774 Art (bei Wachstum entweder in Laktat/Sulfat- oder Laktat/Nitrat-Medien) gegenueber unlegiertem Stahl. Die Kohlenstoffquelle und die Elektronenakzeptorverbrauchsrate wurden analysiert und die metabolischen Merkmale wurden mit Massenverlustmessungen und REM-Beobachtungen korreliert. (orig.)

  17. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  18. Effects of penicillin G on morphology and certain physiological parameters of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, M; Kasra Kermanshahi, R; Zarkesh-Esfahani, S H

    2011-08-01

    Evidence shows that probiotic bacteria can undergo substantial structural and morphological changes in response to environmental stresses, including antibiotics. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of penicillin G (0.015, 0.03, and 0.06 mg/l) on the morphology and adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, including the colony morphotype, biofilm production, hydrophobicity, H₂O₂ formation, S-layer structure, and slpA gene expression. Whereas only smooth colonies grew in the presence of penicillin, rough and smooth colony types were observed in the control group. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was found to be hydrophobic under normal conditions, yet its hydrophobicity decreased in the presence of the antibiotic. No biofilm was produced by the bacterium, despite testing a variety of different culture conditions; however, treatment with penicillin G (0.015-0.06 mg/l) significantly decreased its production of H₂O₂ formation and altered the S-layer protein structure and slpA gene expression. The S-protein expression decreased with 0.015 mg/l penicillin G, yet increased with 0.03 and 0.06 mg/l penicillin G. In addition, the slpA gene expression decreased in the presence of 0.015 mg/l of the antibiotic. In conclusion, penicillin G was able to alter the S-layer protein production, slpA gene expression, and certain physicochemical properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

  19. Genome-scale reconstruction of metabolic networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vinay-Lara

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications.

  20. Genome –Scale Reconstruction of Metabolic Networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay-Lara, Elena; Hamilton, Joshua J.; Stahl, Buffy; Broadbent, Jeff R.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Steele, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications. PMID:25365062

  1. Characterization of KfrA proteins encoded by a plasmid of Paenibacillus popilliae ATCC 14706T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Iiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A scaffold obtained from whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Paenibacillus popilliae ATCC 14706T shares partial homology with plasmids found in other strains of P. popilliae. PCR and sequencing for gap enclosure indicated that the scaffold originated from a 15,929-bp circular DNA. The restriction patterns of a plasmid isolated from P. popilliae ATCC 14706T were identical to those expected from the sequence; thus, this circular DNA was identified as a plasmid of ATCC 14706T and designated pPOP15.9. The plasmid encodes 17 putative open reading frames. Orfs 1, 5, 7, 8, and 9 are homologous to Orfs 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17, respectively. Orf1 and Orf11 are annotated as replication initiation proteins. Orf8 and Orf16 are homologs of KfrA, a plasmid-stabilizing protein in Gram-negative bacteria. Recombinant Orf8 and Orf16 proteins were assessed for the properties of KfrA. Indeed, they formed multimers and bound to inverted repeat sequences in upstream regions of both orf8 and orf16. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of Orf8, Orf16 and Kfr proteins did not correlate with species lineage.

  2. Factors affecting treatment of palm oil mill effluent using enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaphaso, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdered enzyme was produced by freeze-drying the enzyme solution extracted from 3 days culture of Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 on palm cake with the addition of 0.2% glucose and 2% urea. The product yield was 38% by weight. The half-life of the enzyme was 9 months keeping at 4ºC. The enzyme was tested with decanter effluent with different characteristics from two palm oil mills. The decanter effluent possessing high suspended solid (SS and low oil (9.5 g/l content was selected for studying the factors affecting the separation of SS and oil as bulking solid. Results indicated that the effluent must contain oil not less than 15 g/l so that the bulking solid would occur from the reaction of the enzyme (with xylanase activity of 200 U/ ml after incubation at 40ºC for 6 h. Minimum concentrations of the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 and commercial xylanase (Meicellase were 200 and 600 U/ml, respectively. The optimum pH was 4.5. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 for 3 h under the optimum conditions resulted in 78% separation of suspended solids with oil & grease removal of 95% and COD reduction of 35%.

  3. Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2012-02-03

    Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a 13C15N-L-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 422 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under non-diazotrophic conditions. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed to measure actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under non-diazotrophic conditions. Overall results demonstrated the utility of 'non-steady state' pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria.

  4. Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Uma K; Stöckel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A; Gritsenko, Marina A; Nicora, Carrie D; Koppenaal, David W; Smith, Richard D; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Jacobs, Jon M

    2012-02-03

    Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a (13)C(15)N-l-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 414 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly, and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation, suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under continuous light. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed the measurement of actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under high light exposure. Overall results demonstrated the utility of "non-steady state" pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria.

  5. Dynamic proteomic profiling of a unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece ATCC51142 across light-dark diurnal cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Krovvidi, Ravi K.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2011-12-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece are recognized for their ability to execute nitrogen (N2)-fixation in the dark and photosynthesis in the light. Systems-wide dynamic proteomic profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis reveals fundamental insights into the control and regulation of these functions. To expand upon the current knowledge of protein expression patterns in Cyanothece ATCC51142, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using partial ("unsaturated") metabolic labeling and high mass accuracy LC-MS analysis. This dynamic proteomic profiling identified 721 actively synthesized proteins with significant temporal changes in expression throughout the light-dark cycles, of which 425 proteins matched with previously characterized cycling transcripts. The remaining 296 proteins contained a cluster of proteins uniquely involved in DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, tRNA synthesis and modification, transport and binding, and regulatory functions. Analysis of protein functions revealed that the expression of nitrogenase in the dark is mediated by higher respiration and glycogen metabolism. We have also shown that Cyanothece ATCC51142 utilizes alternative pathways for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) acquisition, particularly, aspartic acid and glutamate as substrates of C and N, respectively. Utilization of phosphoketolase (PHK) pathway for the conversion of xylulose-5P to pyruvate and acetyl-P likely constitutes an alternative strategy to compensate higher ATP and NADPH demand. In conclusion, this study provides a deeper insight into how Cyanothece ATCC51142 modulates cellular functions to accommodate photosynthesis and N2-fixation within the single cell.

  6. The sim operon facilitates the transport and metabolism of sucrose isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with M(r)s of approximately 50,000 and approximately 17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the approximately 50-kDa protein as an NAD(+)- and metal ion-dependent phospho-alpha-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-alpha-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to approximately 1.5- and approximately 1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon.

  7. Gene engineering in yeast for biodegradation: Immunological cross-reactivity among cytochrome p-450 system proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loper, J.C.; Chen, C.; Dey, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms whose cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems may be amenable to genetic engineering for the hydroxylation and detoxication of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular genetic properties of strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an n-alkane utilizing yeast, Candida tropicalis ATCC750 are examined. Standard methods were used to purify cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome c (P-450) reductase proteins from cells cultured by semi-anaerobic glucose fermentation (S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis) and by growth on tetradecane (C. tropicalis). Polyvalent antisera prepared in rabbits to some of these proteins were used in tests of immunological relatedness among the purified proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose filter immunoblots. The results provide evidence for gene relationships which should prove useful in gene isolation and subsequent engineering of P-450 enzyme systems in yeast.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosio, Margherita; Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-23

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes.

  9. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó Zsuzsanna (1973-) (biológus, biológia-kémia szakos középiskolai tanár); Szilágyi Judit (1984-) (környezettudományi vegyész); Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos Gábor (1974-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobiológus); Rozgonyi Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedigh (1980-) (népegészségügyi szakember, egészségfejlesztő); Majoros László (1966-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobológus)

    2009-01-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 ?g/mL (1?8? MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 ?g/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at ?1? MIC (0....

  10. Comparison of the clinical risk factors between Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species for bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hayama, Brian; Ohji, Goh; Iwata, Kentaro; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors and susceptibilities to antifungal agents of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species (spp.) in candidemia cases in Kobe University Hospital. We investigated all consecutive patients with candida bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2008-2013 for whose full data were available for analyses, examining clinical factors such as gender, general complications, postoperative status or susceptibilities to antifungal agents. These factors were also compared between Candida albicans spp. and Candida non-albicans by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses showed a significantly higher rate of Candida non-albicans species BSI patients cancer (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=2.29 (1.04-5.06) and P=0.040), chemotherapy (OR=4.35 (1.11-17.1) and P=0.035), fluconazole (FLCZ) resistance (OR=77.3 (4.51-1324) and P=0.003), and itraconazole (ITCZ) resistance (OR=15.6 (5.39-45.1) and PCandida albicans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. had significantly higher rate of chemotherapy (OR=4.44 (1.04-19.0) and P=0.045), FLCZ resistance (OR=5.87 (2.01-17.1) and P=0.001), and ITCZ resistance (OR=18.7(5.77-60.4) and PCandida albicans. In conclusion, this study revealed several risk factors for BSI with Candida albicans (underlying cardiovascular diseases and postoperative status) and Candida non-albicans spp. (cancer and chemotherapy), and demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. were more resistant to FLCZ and ITCZ than Candida albicans.

  11. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  12. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  13. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  14. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic exposu

  15. Rapid identification of Candida species by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Maquelin (Kees); L.P. Choo-Smith; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); H.A. Bruining (Hajo); G.J. Puppels (Gerwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCandida species are important nosocomial pathogens associated with high mortality rates. Rapid detection and identification of Candida species can guide a clinician at an early stage to prescribe antifungal drugs or to adjust empirical therapy when resistant species are

  16. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  17. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  18. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)).

  19. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  20. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  1. Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM. This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes.

  2. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  3. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  4. Cerebral candida abscess in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained pus material. The patient responded to combination of surgery (drainage and intravenous amphotericin B. Neurological development six months after hospital discharge was normal. The organism being a rare cause of cerebral abscess in pediatric population is reported here.

  5. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  6. In vitro effectiveness of 455-nm blue LED to reduce the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans biofilms in compact bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; Viana, Magda Souza; Meira, Giselle Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 455-nm blue light-emitting diode (LED), at different application times, to reduce the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans biofilms applied to compact bone tissue. The microorganisms S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and C. albicans (ATCC 18804) were used to form biofilms on 160 specimens of compact bones that had been divided into eight experimental groups (n = 10) for each microorganism, according to the times of application of the 455-nm blue LED (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 min) with an irradiance of 75 mW/cm2. After LED application, decimal dilutions of microorganisms were performed, plated on BHI or Sabouraud agar and incubated for 24 h/35 °C to obtain CFU/mL counts. The findings were statistically analyzed using a ANOVA 5 %. For the group of S. aureus biofilms, all groups of 455-nm LED application differ compared with the control group (p albicans biofilms, only those samples receiving 3, 7, and 10 min of LED application presented a significant difference compared with the control group (p albicans biofilms, especially during 10 min of application.

  7. Effects of oakmoss and its components on Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234 and the uptake of Legionella pneumophila JCM 7571 (ATCC 33152) into A. castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Harue; Isshiki, Yasunori; Sakuda, Keisuke; Sakuma, Katsuya; Kondo, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii, a ubiquitous organism in water environments, is pathogenic toward humans and also is a host for bacteria of the genus Legionella, a causative agent of legionellosis. Oakmoss, a natural fragrance ingredient, and its components are antibacterial agents specifically against the genus Legionella. In the present study, oakmoss and its components were investigated for their amoebicidal activity against A. castellanii ATCC 30234 and the inhibitory effect on the uptake of L. pneumophila JCM 7571 (ATCC 33152) into A. castellanii. The oakmoss and its components 3-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate(5), and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-pentyl-1H-isochromen-1-one (12) exhibited high amoebicidal activity (IC50 values; 10.5 ± 2.3, 16.3 ± 4.0 and 17.5 ± 2.8 μg/mL, respectively) after 48 h of treatment, which were equivalent to that of the reference compound, chlorhexidine gluconate. Pretreatment of L. pneumophila with sub-minimal inhibitory concentration of oakmoss, compound 5, 3-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methylbenzoate (10) and 8-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-pentylphenoxy)-6-hydroxy-3-pentyl-1H-isochromen-1-one (14) obviously reduced the uptake of L. pneumophila into A.castellanii (p < 0.05).The inhibitory effect of compound 5 on the uptake of L. pneumophila was almost equivalent to that of ampicillin used as a reference. Thus, the oakmoss and its components were considered to be good candidates for disinfectants against not only genus Legionella but also A. castellanii.

  8. Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesharaki, Shirinsadat Hashemi; Haghani, Iman; Mousavi, Bita; Kargar, Melika Laal; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Abbasi, Kyomars; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure.

  9. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G.; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2...

  10. Action of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on heterotypic biofilm: Candida albicans and Bacillus atrophaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Michelle Peneluppi; dos Santos, Thais Alves; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; de Camargo Ribeiro, Felipe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The increase in survival and resistance of microorganisms organized in biofilms demonstrates the need for new studies to develop therapies able to break this barrier, such as photodynamic therapy, which is characterized as an alternative, effective, and non-invasive treatment. The objective was to evaluate in vitro the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on heterotypic biofilms of Candida albicans and Bacillus atrophaeus using rose bengal (12.5 μM) and light-emitting diode (LED) (532 nm and 16.2 J). We used standard strains of B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) and C. albicans (ATCC 18804). The biofilm was formed in the bottom of the plate for 48 h. For the photodynamic therapy (PDT) experimental groups, we added 100 μL of rose bengal with LED (P+L+), 100 μL of rose bengal without LED (P+L-), 100 μL of NaCl 0.9 % solution with LED (P-L+), and a control group without photosensitizer or LED (P-L-). The plates remained in agitation for 5 min (pre-irradiation) and were irradiated with LED for 3 min, and the biofilm was detached using an ultrasonic homogenizer for 30 s. Serial dilutions were plated in BHI agar and HiChrom agar and incubated at 37 °C/48 h. There was a reduction of 33.92 and 29.31 % of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) for C. albicans and B. atrophaeus, respectively, from the control group to the group subjected to PDT. However, statistically significant differences were not observed among the P+L+, P+L-, P-L+, and P-L- groups. These results suggest that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using rose bengal (12.5 μM) with a pre-irradiation period of 5 min and LED for 3 min was not enough to cause a significant reduction in the heterotypic biofilms of C. albicans and B. atrophaeus.

  11. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  12. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  13. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  14. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

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    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  15. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts.

  16. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514(T), CBS 5366(T)) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747(T), CBS 10863(T)) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the two anamorphic species are proposed for transfer to Martiniozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 812061) with Martiniozyma abiesophila designated as type species (MycoBank MB 812062). In keeping with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which specifies that related anamorphic and teleomorphic species can be assigned to the same genus, the following Candida species are transferred to Saturnispora to conform with their phylogenetic placement: Candida diversa (NRRL Y-5713(T)), Candida halmiae (CBS 11009(T)), Candida sanitii (CBS 10864(T)), Candida sekii (CBS 10931(T)), Candida siamensis (CBS 11022(T)), Candida silvae (NRRL Y-6725(T)) and Candida suwanaritii (CBS 11021(T)).

  17. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  18. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 vanillin dehydrogenase and its impact on the biotechnical production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH(ATCC 39116)). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vanillin dehydrogenase in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was investigated for the first time by using data from our genome sequence analysis and further bioinformatic approaches. The vdh gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded vanillin dehydrogenase was characterized in detail. VDH(ATCC 39116) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and exhibited NAD(+)-dependent activity toward vanillin, coniferylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 44°C. In a next step, a precise vdh deletion mutant of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was generated. The mutant lost its ability to grow on vanillin and did not show vanillin dehydrogenase activity. A 2.3-times-higher vanillin concentration and a substantially reduced amount of vanillic acid occurred with the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant when ferulic acid was provided for biotransformation in a cultivation experiment on a 2-liter-bioreactor scale. Based on these results and taking further metabolic engineering into account, the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant represents an optimized and industrially applicable platform for the biotechnological production of natural vanillin.

  19. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  20. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  1. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  2. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  3. Dynamic proteomic profiling of a unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece ATCC51142 across light-dark diurnal cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Uma K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece are recognized for their ability to execute nitrogen (N2-fixation in the dark and photosynthesis in the light. An understanding of these mechanistic processes in an integrated systems context should provide insights into how Cyanothece might be optimized for specialized environments and/or industrial purposes. Systems-wide dynamic proteomic profiling with mass spectrometry (MS analysis should reveal fundamental insights into the control and regulation of these functions. Results To expand upon the current knowledge of protein expression patterns in Cyanothece ATCC51142, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using partial ("unsaturated" metabolic labeling and high mass accuracy LC-MS analysis. This dynamic proteomic profiling identified 721 actively synthesized proteins with significant temporal changes in expression throughout the light-dark cycles, of which 425 proteins matched with previously characterized cycling transcripts. The remaining 296 proteins contained a cluster of proteins uniquely involved in DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, tRNA synthesis and modification, transport and binding, and regulatory functions. Functional classification of labeled proteins suggested that proteins involved in respiration and glycogen metabolism showed increased expression in the dark cycle together with nitrogenase, suggesting that N2-fixation is mediated by higher respiration and glycogen metabolism. Results indicated that Cyanothece ATCC51142 might utilize alternative pathways for carbon (C and nitrogen (N acquisition, particularly, aspartic acid and glutamate as substrates of C and N, respectively. Utilization of phosphoketolase (PHK pathway for the conversion of xylulose-5P to pyruvate and acetyl-P likely constitutes an alternative strategy to compensate higher ATP and NADPH demand. Conclusion This study provides a deeper systems level insight into how

  4. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  5. 血链球菌胞内蛋白及膜蛋白分别对热带念珠菌生物膜作用的研究%Studies of the Effects of Intracellular Proteins and Membrane Proteins in Streptococcus Sanguis on Biofilm of Candida Tropicalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晟利; 闫闯; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    目的:提取血链球菌标准株ATCC10556的胞内蛋白及膜蛋白,研究血链球菌胞内蛋白及血链球菌膜蛋白对热带念珠菌生物膜的生物学作用.方法:参照Fujimura[1]方法分离血链球菌胞内蛋白有效成分,使之作用于热带念珠菌生物膜,并以激光共聚焦显微镜观察热带念珠菌生物膜厚度的变化.参照碳酸钠梯度离心法[2]提取膜蛋白,观察其对热带念珠菌及其生物膜是否具有抑制作用.结果:在胞内蛋白作用下,24 h内热带念珠菌生物膜厚度明显变薄与阴性对照组相比有显著差异,并且12 h效果最为显著(P<0.05).膜蛋白作用下的热带念珠菌生物膜厚度与阴性对照组相比未见明显差异.结论:血链球菌胞内蛋白对热带念珠菌生物膜具有显著的抑制作用.血链球菌膜蛋白对热带念珠菌及其生物膜无抑制作用.%Objective: To extract intracellular and membrane proteins from Streptococcus sanguis( ATCC10556), and investigate their mechanism of action on Candida tropicalis biofilms. Methods: Intracellular proteins were isolated from Streptococcus sanguis by the method of Fujimura and were applied to Candida tropicalis biofilms. Then observation of changes on thickness of biofilms was taken. We extract membrane proteins by sodium carbonate gradient centrifugation, and judge whether they have inhibition on Candida tropicalis and biofilms or not. Results; Thickness of Candida tropicalis biofilms changed significantly in 24h with the action of intracellular proteins, and it had the most obvious effect within 12h. There was no significant difference on thickness of Candida tropicalis biofilms between membrane proteins and negative control groups. Conclusions: Intracellular proteins of Streptococcus sanguis have notable inhibition on biofilms of Candida tropicalis. Membrane proteins of Streptococcus sanguis have no inhibition on Candida tropicalis and their biofilms.

  6. Regio-specific Microbial Hydroxylation of Phytolaccagenin by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 13273

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN, Liwu; ZHANG, Jian; LIU, Jihua; YU, Boyang

    2009-01-01

    Microbial transformation of one oleane-type pentacyclic triterpene aglycone, phytolaccagenin (2β,3β,23-trihy- droxy-olean-12-ene-28,30-dioic acid 30-methyl ester) by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 13273 was investigated for developing new bioactive derivatives. A new oxidized metabolite, through the regio-specific hydroxylation on the C-29 methyl group, was obtained from the preparative-scale biotransformation with a standard two-stage fermenta- tion protocol. The metabolite was identified as 2β,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-ene-28,30-dioic acid 30-methyl ester by mass and 2D-NMR spectra.

  7. Assessment of CcpA-mediated catabolite control of gene expression in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buist Girbe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catabolite control protein CcpA is a transcriptional regulator conserved in many Gram-positives, controlling the efficiency of glucose metabolism. Here we studied the role of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 CcpA in regulation of metabolic pathways and expression of enterotoxin genes by comparative transcriptome analysis of the wild-type and a ccpA-deletion strain. Results Comparative analysis revealed the growth performance and glucose consumption rates to be lower in the B. cereus ATCC 14579 ccpA deletion strain than in the wild-type. In exponentially grown cells, the expression of glycolytic genes, including a non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that mediates conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate in one single step, was down-regulated and expression of gluconeogenic genes and genes encoding the citric acid cycle was up-regulated in the B. cereus ccpA deletion strain. Furthermore, putative CRE-sites, that act as binding sites for CcpA, were identified to be present for these genes. These results indicate CcpA to be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, thereby optimizing the efficiency of glucose catabolism. Other genes of which the expression was affected by ccpA deletion and for which putative CRE-sites could be identified, included genes with an annotated function in the catabolism of ribose, histidine and possibly fucose/arabinose and aspartate. Notably, expression of the operons encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe and hemolytic enterotoxin (Hbl was affected by ccpA deletion, and putative CRE-sites were identified, which suggests catabolite repression of the enterotoxin operons to be CcpA-dependent. Conclusion The catabolite control protein CcpA in B. cereus ATCC 14579 is involved in optimizing the catabolism of glucose with concomitant repression of gluconeogenesis and alternative metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the results point to metabolic control

  8. INFLUENCE OF HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE CELLS OF CYANOBACTERIA ANABAENA VARIABILIS SP. ATCC 29413

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRIŞ SANDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the result of research regardind the effect of high light intensity on the cells of Anabaena variabilis sp. ATCC 29413, the main objective is to study the adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus to light stress. Samples were analyzed in the present of herbicide diuron (DCMU which blocks electron flow from photosystem II and without diuron. During treatment maximum fluorescence and photosystems efficiency are significantly reduced, reaching very low values compared with the blank, as a result of photoinhibition installation. Also by this treatment is shown the importance of the mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of light stress and react accordingly.

  9. Evaluation of gene expression SAP5, LIP9, and PLB2 of Candida albicans biofilms after photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; da Silva Ávila, Damara; Brito, Graziella Nuernberg Back; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing number of strains of Candida ssp. resistant to antifungal agents, the accomplishment of researches that evaluate the effects of new therapeutic methods, like photodynamic inactivation (PDI), becomes important and necessary. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the effects of the PDI on Candida albicans biofilms, evaluating their effects on the expression of the gene hydrolytic enzymes aspartyl proteinase (SAP5), lipase (LIP9), and phospholipase (PLB2). Clinical strains of C. albicans (n = 9) isolated from patient bearers of the virus HIV and a pattern strain ATCC 18804 were used. The quantification of gene expression was related to the production of hydrolytic enzymes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. For PDI, we used laser-aluminum-gallium arsenide low power (red visible, 660 nm) as a light source and the methylene blue at 300 μM as a photosensitizer. We assessed two experimental groups for each strain: (a) PDI: sensitization with methylene blue and laser irradiation and (b) control: without sensitization with methylene blue and light absence. The PDI decreased gene expression in 60 % of samples for gene SAP5 and 50 % of the samples decreased expression of LIP9 and PLB2. When we compared the expression profile for of each gene between the treated and control group, a decrease in all gene expression was observed, however no statistically significant difference (Tukey's test/p = 0.12). It could be concluded that PDI (photosensitization with methylene blue followed by low-level laser irradiation) showed a slight reduction on the expression of hydrolytic enzymes of C. albicans, without statistical significance.

  10. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  11. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  12. Candida infection in HIV positive patients 1985-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeder, Christian; Kowoll, Susann; Arastéh, Keikawus

    2008-09-01

    Infection with Candida species remains a major problem in HIV infected patients. The analysis of over 15,000 hospitalisations (1985-2007) in the AVK cohort shows an increasing incidence of non-albicans species in candida esophagitis. Although our analysis shows a decreasing incidence of opportunistic infections like PCP, cerebral toxoplasmosis and others since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy the incidence of candida esophagitis remains as high as in the years before the HAART era. This observation might reflect the development of resistance against fluconazole and the selection of non-albicans species as a consequence of a long-term prophylactic treatment of HIV+ patients over years.

  13. Candida arthritis in a patient diagnosed with spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Çevik

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida arthritis is an unusual manifestation that usually affects the knees. A 35-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of pain and swelling in the right knee. Swelling persisted after anti-inflammatory treatment. Peripheric spondyloarthritis was considered, but methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and methylprednisolone did not reduce the swelling. Direct examination of synovial fluid and a culture were positive for Candida albicans. Intravenous and intra-articular amphotericin-B were administered. The arthritis regressed and a culture and direct staining showed negative results. Candida arthritis should be considered in patients with arthritis that is resistant to treatment and prolonged, even if risk factors are absent.

  14. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood...... isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (

  15. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  16. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species: quantification, structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, António; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to characterize biofilms produced by three NCAC species, namely C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The biofilm forming ability of clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata recovered from different sources, was evaluated by crystal violet staining. The structure and morphological characteristics of the biofilms were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the biofilm matrix composition analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content. All NCAC species were able to form biofilms although these were less extensive for C. glabrata compared with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. It was evident that C. parapsilosis biofilm production was highly strain dependent, a feature not evident with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences for biofilms with respect to cell morphology and spatial arrangement. Candida parapsilosis biofilm matrices had large amounts of carbohydrate with less protein. Conversely, matrices extracted from C. tropicalis biofilms had low amounts of carbohydrate and protein. Interestingly, C. glabrata biofilm matrix was high in both protein and carbohydrate content. The present work demonstrates that biofilm forming ability, structure and matrix composition are highly species dependent with additional strain variability occurring with C. parapsilosis.

  17. Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to Photodynamic Therapy Using Four Dyes as the Photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasim; Yazdanpanah, Samira; Saki, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Ghapanchi, Janan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. Photodynamic therapy, as one of its proposed treatment modalities, needs a distinct dye for achieving the best effect. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate photosensitization effects of four distinct dyes on standard suspension of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida dubliniensis (C. dubliniensis) and biofilm of C. albicans considering the obtained optimum dye concentration and duration of laser irradiation. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, colony forming units (CFU) of two sets of four groups of Laser plus Dye (L+D+), Dye (L-D+), Laser (L+D-) and No Laser, No Dye (L-D-) were assessed individually with different methylene blue concentrations and laser irradiation period. The photodynamic therapy effect on standard suspension of Candida species (using methylene blue, aniline blue, malachite green and crystal violet) were studied based on the obtained results. Similar investigation was performed on biofilm of C. albicans using the spectral absorbance. Data were imported to SPSS and assessed by statistical tests of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α= 0.05). Results: CFU among the different dye concentration and irradiation time decrease in dose- and time-dependent manner (p> 0.05), all of which were significantly lower than the control groups (p 0.05) though all of them were significantly decrease CFU compared with the control groups (p< 0.05). In L+D- and L+D+ groups, biofilm was significantly destroyed more than that of L-D- (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy might be used as an effective procedure to treat Candida associated mucocutaneous diseases and killing biofilm in the infected surfaces such as dentures. PMID:27942552

  18. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections.

  19. The role of filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin in adherence and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Alipour Astaneh, Shakiba; Rasooli, Iraj; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif

    2014-09-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin adhesins (FHA) are key factors for bacterial attachment and subsequent cell accumulation on substrates. Here an FHA-like Outer membrane (OM) adhesin of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T) was displayed on Escherichia coli. The candidate autotransporter (AT) genes were identified in A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) genome. The exoprotein (FhaB1) and transporter (FhaC1) were produced independently within the same cell (FhaB1C1). The fhaC1 was mutated. In vitro adherence to epithelial cells of the recombinant FhaB1C1 and the mutant strains were compared with A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). A bivalent chimeric protein (K) composed of immunologically important portions of fhaB1 (B) and fhaC1 (C) was constructed. The mice vaccinated with chimeric protein were challenged with A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) and FhaB1C1 producing recombinant E. coli. Mutations in the fhaC1 resulted in the absence of FhaB1 in the OM. Expression of FhaB1C1 enhanced the adherence of recombinant bacteria to A546 bronchial cell line. The results revealed association of FhaB1 with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Immunization with a combination of recombinant B and K proteins proved protective against A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). The findings may be applied in active and passive immunization strategies against A. baumannii.

  20. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  1. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  2. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Celso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI, 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R-diol (AZA, and 24(R,S,25-epiminolanosterol (EIL, against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009 on the Ripening of Gouda Cheese%瑞士乳杆菌ATCC 15009对干酪成熟的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温阿祎; 王希璠; 郭慧媛; 冷小京

    2014-01-01

    干酪的成熟是形成干酪特有的风味、质地和组织状态以及影响加工成本的最关键工艺。添加辅助发酵剂是目前较为成熟的一种促进干酪成熟的方法。本文将不同剂量的瑞士乳杆菌ATCC15009作为辅助发酵剂添加到古达奶酪中,通过检测奶酪成熟过程中的乳酸菌自溶情况、可溶性氮含量以及感官评定等指标分析了ATCC15009对奶酪成熟的影响。结果证明瑞士乳杆菌ATCC15009具有很强的自溶能力,可以有效分解蛋白质并促进干酪的成熟,同时改善干酪的风味。%The ripening of cheese is the most important part that affect the lfavor, texture, and processing cost of cheese. The adding of adjunct starter is a mature way to promote the ripening of cheese. The experiment researched on the gouda cheese, which were added different amount of L. helveticus ATCC 15009, a kind of highly autolysis adjunct starter. The effect of L. helveticus ATCC 15009 on Gouda cheese ripening was analyzed by testing autolysis degree of lactobacillus, the changes of TCA-SN/TN, and making sensory evaluation of the cheese. The results showed that the L. helveticus ATCC 15009 was highly autolytic, which can accelerate the hydrolysis of protein, thereby signiifcantly promote the ripening and improve the lfavor of gouda cheese.

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans Initiation of HeLa 299 Cell-Associated Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Balbina J; Sigar, Ira M; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Halkyard, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Although herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and type-2 (HSV-2), Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans co-habit the oral and genital mucosa, their interaction is poorly understood. We determined the effect HSV has on bacterial and/or fungal adherence, the initial step in biofilm formation. HeLa229 cells were infected with HSV-1 (KOS) gL86 or HSV-2 (KOS) 333gJ (-) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 50 and 10. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and/or C. albicans (yeast forms or germ tube forms) were co-incubated for 30 min (37 °C; 5 % CO2; 5:1 organism: HeLa cell ratio; n = 16) with virus-infected HeLa cells or uninfected HeLa cell controls. Post-incubation, the monolayers were washed (3x; PBS), lysed (RIPA), and the lysate plated onto Fungisel and/or mannitol salts agar for standard colony count. The level of HeLa-associated S. aureus was significantly decreased (P HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells, as compared to virus-free HeLa cell controls (38 and 59 % of control, respectively). In contrast, HSV-1 and HSV-2 significantly (P HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells was specific for the Candida phenotype tested. Our study suggests that HSV, while antagonist towards S. aureus adherence enhances Candida adherence. Furthermore, the combination of the three pathogens results in S. aureus adherence that is either unaffected, or partially restored depending on both the herpes viral species and the fungal phenotype present.

  5. Global transcriptome analysis of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to silver nitrate stress

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    Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus cereus strains. Earlier, we had synthesized monodispersive crystalline silver nanoparticles using B. cereus PGN1 and ATCC14579 strains. These strains have showed high level of resistance to silver nitrate (1 mM but their global transcriptomic response has not been studied earlier. In this study, we investigated the cellular and metabolic response of B. cereus ATCC14579 treated with 1 mM silver nitrate for 30 & 60 min. Global expression profiling using genomic DNA microarray indicated that 10% (n = 524 of the total genes (n = 5234 represented on the microarray were up-regulated in the cells treated with silver nitrate. The majority of genes encoding for chaperones (GroEL, nutrient transporters, DNA replication, membrane proteins, etc. were up-regulated. A substantial number of the genes encoding chemotaxis and flagellar proteins were observed to be down-regulated. Motility assay of the silver nitrate treated cells revealed reduction in their chemotactic activity compared to the control cells. In addition, 14 distinct transcripts overexpressed from the 'empty' intergenic regions were also identified and proposed as stress-responsive non-coding small RNAs.

  6. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

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    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I) Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Isokallio, Marita; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  9. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, Dalia; Chen, Emily; Benso, Bruna; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro M

    2016-01-01

    Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β. In a co-culture model, oral fibroblast cells were cultured simultaneously with C. albicans for 24 hrs followed by the exposure to treatments of monolaurin (3.9-2,500 µM), positive control fluconazole (32.2 µM), and vehicle control group (1% ethanol), which was a model used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of monolaurin on fibroblasts as well as to analyze morphological characteristics of biofilms through fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the co-culture model was used for RNA extraction of oral fibroblasts to assess gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the MIC and MFC of monolaurin were in the range 62.5-125 µM and 125-250 µM, respectively. Biofilm antifungal assay showed significant reduction in Log (CFU/ml) of biofilms treated with 1,250 and 2,500 µM of 1-monolaurin when compared to the control groups . There was also a significant down-regulation of IL-1α and IL-1β in the co-culture treated with monolaurin. It can be concluded that monolaurin has a potential antifungal activity against C. albicans and can modulate the pro-inflammatory response of the host.

  10. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Seleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876 in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β. In a co-culture model, oral fibroblast cells were cultured simultaneously with C. albicans for 24 hrs followed by the exposure to treatments of monolaurin (3.9–2,500 µM, positive control fluconazole (32.2 µM, and vehicle control group (1% ethanol, which was a model used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of monolaurin on fibroblasts as well as to analyze morphological characteristics of biofilms through fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the co-culture model was used for RNA extraction of oral fibroblasts to assess gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the MIC and MFC of monolaurin were in the range 62.5–125 µM and 125–250 µM, respectively. Biofilm antifungal assay showed significant reduction in Log (CFU/ml of biofilms treated with 1,250 and 2,500 µM of 1-monolaurin when compared to the control groups . There was also a significant down-regulation of IL-1α and IL-1β in the co-culture treated with monolaurin. It can be concluded that monolaurin has a potential antifungal activity against C. albicans and can modulate the pro-inflammatory response of the host.

  11. Antifungal activity of components used for decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Lima Gouveia

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effectiveness of antimicrobial solutions employed in dental prosthesis decontamination is still uncertain. Aim: To evaluate the antifungal activity of cleaners used in the decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans. Material and method: The evaluated products were: Corega Tabs(r (S1, Sodium Hypochlorite 1% (S2, Sodium Bicarbonate 1% (S3, Hydrogen Peroxide 1% (S4, Chlorhexidine Digluconate 0.12% - Periogard (r (S5, Mouthrinse based on essential oils - Listerine(r (S6, essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary at concentrations of 1% (S7 and 2% (S8. The antifungal activity of the products was evaluated by agar diffusion technique and the determination of microbial death curve of samples of C. albicans (ATCC 90028 in concentration 1.5 × 106 CFU/mL. The tests were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was made by ANOVA Two-Way and Tukey tests, with the confidence level of 95%. Result: The average of the zones of inhibition growth, in millimeters, obtained for the products were: 0.0 (S1, 44.7 (S2, 0.0 (S3, 21.6 (S4, 10.0 (S5, 6.1 (S6, 0.0 (S7 and 2.4 (S8. Considering the determination of microbial death curve, all products showed a statistical difference (p<0.01 from control (0.85% sodium chloride and S3 groups. Fungal growth less than 2×104 CFU/mL and an accentuation of the microbial death curve were observed after 30 minutes, with exception for S3 and control groups. Conclusion: The studied compounds, with the exception of Sodium Bicarbonate, have antifungal effect against C. albicans, which contribute for dental prostheses hygiene.

  12. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benso, Bruna; Pardi, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β. In a co-culture model, oral fibroblast cells were cultured simultaneously with C. albicans for 24 hrs followed by the exposure to treatments of monolaurin (3.9–2,500 µM), positive control fluconazole (32.2 µM), and vehicle control group (1% ethanol), which was a model used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of monolaurin on fibroblasts as well as to analyze morphological characteristics of biofilms through fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the co-culture model was used for RNA extraction of oral fibroblasts to assess gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the MIC and MFC of monolaurin were in the range 62.5–125 µM and 125–250 µM, respectively. Biofilm antifungal assay showed significant reduction in Log (CFU/ml) of biofilms treated with 1,250 and 2,500 µM of 1-monolaurin when compared to the control groups . There was also a significant down-regulation of IL-1α and IL-1β in the co-culture treated with monolaurin. It can be concluded that monolaurin has a potential antifungal activity against C. albicans and can modulate the pro-inflammatory response of the host. PMID:27366648

  13. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  14. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  15. [Gastric perforation associated with Candida infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Jesús; Carrilo, Elena; Lupu, Ion; Caballero, Ferran; Trias, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Notable causes of gastroduodenal ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, neoplastic disease, acid hypersecretory states and secondary peptic ulcer disease. There are case reports of healthy patients or those with risk factors for fungal infection who develop gastroduodenal ulcer perforation associated with the presence of fungi in ascitic fluid or gastroduodenal ulcer tissue but without the above-mentioned etiological factors. Thus, other factors and pathogens may be involved in the pathogenesis of perforation. The use of antifungal agents in patients following surgery for a perforated gastroduodenal ulcer is controversial. We report two cases of healthy patients who underwent surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, in whom the most frequent causes of perforation were excluded. Only the presence of Candida in the ulcer was found.

  16. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

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    Maurício Rigo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The constants obtained for this model were µmax = 0.246 h-1, Ks = 16.95 mg/L and Ki = 604.85 mg/L.Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradação de catecol em frascos de Erlenmeyers em água residuária sintética pela levedura Candida parapsilopsis. As respostas dos ensaios cinéticos mostraram que altas concentrações de catecol ocasionaram uma fase lag longa para a levedura. Portanto, a aclimatização da cultura de levedura empregada para biodegradação de catecol é de fundamental importância, sendo possível reduzir toda a concentração inicial de catecol da água residuária sintética de 910 mg/L em 48 horas. Os dados experimentais da cinética de biodegradação do catecol foram ajustados pelo modelo de Haldane adequadamente, sobre a faixa de concentração de catecol investigada de 36 a 910 mg/L. Os parâmetros cinéticos obtidos do modelo de Haldane foram: µmax = 0,246 h-1, Ks = 16,95 mg/L e Ki = 604,85 mg/L.

  17. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  18. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

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    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  19. Fermentation of fruit juices by the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Andreia Sofia Soares de

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of the fermentation conditions required to modulate the metabolic flux in the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae and evaluate its potential to produce low-alcoholic and low-caloric fermented beverages. For that purpose, two strains, PYCC 2903 and PYCC 3191, were used and fermentation conditions as oxygenation, sugar concentration and the ratio of glucose to fructose were studied using synthetic culture media. Candida magnoliae PYCC 2903 was subsequently ...

  20. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  1. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  2. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  3. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Kevin P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB, an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1 and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http://cgob.ucd.ie.

  4. Rat indwelling urinary catheter model of Candida albicans biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Jeniel E; Brooks, Erin G; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

    2014-12-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract.

  5. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  6. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  7. Evolution and Application of Inteins in Candida species: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alex Lourenço Fernandes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species. Although absent in Candida albicans, these elements are present in different sizes, in some environmental Candida spp. and also in most of the non-albicans Candida spp. considered emergent opportunistic pathogens. Besides, the possible role of these inteins in yeast physiology was also discussed in the light of the recent findings on the importance of these elements as post-translational modulators of gene expression, reinforcing their relevance as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-albicans Candida infections, because, once the splicing of an intein is inhibited, its host protein, which is usually a housekeeping protein, becomes nonfunctional.

  8. In vitro synergistic efficacy of combination of amphotericin B with Myrtus communis essential oil against clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Ghazian Bidgoli, F

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oil from Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves against Candida albicans (eight clinical isolates and one ATCC type strains) and different species of Aspergillus sp (A. niger, A. parasiticus, six isolates of Aspergillus flavus) using broth micro dilution assay. In addition, we evaluated the synergistic effect between the essential oil and the antifungal compound amphotericin B by checkboard micro titer assay. The essential oil was obtained from myrtle leaves by hydrodistillation method and the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS methods. Chemical analysis of oil revealed the presence of 70 components, representing 99.23% of the total oil. 1,8-cineole (36.1%), alpha-pinene (22.5%), linalool (8.4%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), linalyl acetate (4.2%) and limonene (3.8%) were found to be the major components of the oil. The antifungal evaluating showed that myrtle oil exhibited good antifungal activity against fungi. Myrtle oil showed significant antifungal activity when combined with amphotericin B.

  9. The Influence of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia on Fluconazole Activity against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mertas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol. For all tested fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains TTO and terpinen-4-ol minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs were low, ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%. The 24-hour exposure of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains to fluconazole with sublethal dose of TTO enhanced fluconazole activity against these strains. Overall, 62.5% of isolates were classified as susceptible, 25.0% exhibited intermediate susceptibility, and 12.5% were resistant. For all of the tested clinical strains the fluconazole MIC decreased from an average of 244.0 μg/mL to an average of 38.46 μg/mL, and the fluconazole minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC decreased from an average of 254.67 μg/mL to an average of 66.62 μg/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was found to be more active than TTO, and strongly enhanced fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. The results of this study demonstrate that combining natural substances such as TTO and conventional drug such as fluconazole, may help treat difficult yeast infections.

  10. The influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertas, Anna; Garbusińska, Aleksandra; Szliszka, Ewelina; Jureczko, Andrzej; Kowalska, Magdalena; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO) or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol. For all tested fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains TTO and terpinen-4-ol minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were low, ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%. The 24-hour exposure of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains to fluconazole with sublethal dose of TTO enhanced fluconazole activity against these strains. Overall, 62.5% of isolates were classified as susceptible, 25.0% exhibited intermediate susceptibility, and 12.5% were resistant. For all of the tested clinical strains the fluconazole MIC decreased from an average of 244.0 μg/mL to an average of 38.46 μg/mL, and the fluconazole minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) decreased from an average of 254.67 μg/mL to an average of 66.62 μg/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was found to be more active than TTO, and strongly enhanced fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. The results of this study demonstrate that combining natural substances such as TTO and conventional drug such as fluconazole, may help treat difficult yeast infections.

  11. Killing rates for caspofungin against Candida albicans after brief and continuous caspofungin exposure in the presence and absence of serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Domán, Marianna; Berényi, Réka; Majoros, László

    2014-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that brief (≤1 h) exposures to echinocandins are as effective to kill Candida albicans cells as continuous 24-h exposure. However, killing rates after continuous and short (1 h) echinocandin exposures to C. albicans have not yet been evaluated in RPMI-1640 with and without 50 % serum. We evaluated four echinocandin susceptible C. albicans bloodstream isolates, ATCC 10231 type strain and an echinocandin-resistant isolate (DPL20, FKS F645P). Caspofungin MICs, time-kill and postantifungal effect (PAFE) tests were performed in RPMI-1640 with and without 50 % serum. Killing rates (k values) in time-kill and PAFE experiments were determined for each strain and concentration. In time-kill experiments, colony count decreases were isolate- and concentration-dependent at 0.25, 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L in RPMI-1640, but concentration-independent at 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L in 50 % serum. One-hour caspofungin exposure at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L resulted in CFU decreases comparable with the results obtained in time-kill experiments in RPMI-1640, but 50 % serum at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L allowed growth of all isolates (k values were negative) (P caspofungin exposure. As only a short growth inhibition without killing was observed in 50 % serum, clinical relevance of caspofungin PAFE in vivo is questionable.

  12. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ≤31 h with ≥0.5 μg/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails.

  13. Effect of continuous light on diurnal rhythms in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Bijoy K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life on earth is strongly affected by alternating day and night cycles. Accordingly, many organisms have evolved an internal timekeeping system with a period of approximately 24 hours. Cyanobacteria are the only known prokaryotes with robust rhythms under control of a central clock. Numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate components of the circadian clock and to identify circadian-controlled genes. However, the complex interactions between endogenous circadian rhythms and external cues are currently not well understood, and a direct and mathematical based comparison between light-mediated and circadian-controlled gene expression is still outstanding. Therefore, we combined and analyzed data from two independent microarray experiments, previously performed under alternating light-dark and continuous light conditions in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, and sought to classify light responsive and circadian controlled genes. Results Fourier Score-based methods together with random permutations and False Discovery Rates were used to identify genes with oscillatory expression patterns, and an angular distance based criterion was applied to recognize transient behaviors in gene expression under constant light conditions. Compared to previously reported mathematical approaches, the combination of these methods also facilitated the detection of modified amplitudes and phase-shifts of gene expression. Our analysis showed that the majority of diurnally regulated genes, essentially those genes that are maximally expressed during the middle of the light and dark period, are in fact light responsive. In contrast, most of the circadian controlled genes are up-regulated during the beginning of the dark or subjective dark, and are greatly enriched for genes associated with energy metabolism. Many of the circadian controlled and light responsive genes are found in gene clusters within the Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 genome. Interestingly, in

  14. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of the cases. Overall FCZ resistance rate was 5.5% and the rate of resistance according to the species was 2.8% for C.albicans and 11% for non

  15. [Candida dubliniensis studies and isolation of Candida types in oropharyngeal specimens from oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Alper; Dolapçi, Iştar; Cesur, Salih; Tekeli, Emin; Içli, Fikri

    2002-01-01

    Fungal opportunistic infections, and in particular those caused by the various Candida species, have gained considerable significance as a cause of morbidity and, often, mortality. Although Candida albicans remains to be the most frequently isolated fungal species as an opportunistic oral pathogen, other yeast species are often identified in immunocompromised patients. C. dubliniensis, the recently described species, has been recovered primarily from oropharyngeal candidasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization rates of fungal species, and especially C. dubliniensis, in the oropharyngeal samples from cancer patients. The oropharyngeal swabs of 543 patients were collected during their visits to oncology clinic in 9 months period, and a total of 209 Candida species have been isolated. Of them, 147 isolates were found to be positive for germ tube and chlamydospore formation, and they were tested for the growth inability at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, colony morphology in Staib agar and the intracellular beta-glucosidase activity, in order to identify C. dubliniensis. The results of these tests and carbohydrate assimilation tests by API 20C AUX yeast identification system, yielded that all these 147 (70.3%) isolates were C. albicans. The other isolates were identified as follows; 16 C. parapsilosis (7.6%), 13 C. tropicalis (6.2%), 10 C. glabrata (4.7%), 5 C. guilliermondii (2.3%), 4 C. krusei (1.9%), 3 C. keyfr (1.4%), 3 C. famata (1.4%), 2 S. cerevisiae (0.9%), 2 C. pelliculosa (0.9%), 1 C. utiles (0.4%), 1 C. neoformans (0.4%) and 1 Hansenula polymorpha (0.4%), while no C. dubliniensis was isolated.

  16. Candida guilliermondii as the aetiology of candidosis Candida guilliermondii como agente de candidose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii is one of the components of human microbiota. This yeast has been infrequently associated with human infections, which may be related to its low pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to provide clinical and epidemiological data for patients infected with C. guilliermondii at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. From October 1997 to October 2003, C. guilliermondii was isolated from clinical samples from 11 patients. Three patients were excluded because the isolation of the yeast represented colonisation. Specimens from the eight patients included in the study corresponded to blood (n = 5, ascitis fluid (n = 2, and oesophagus biopsy (n = 1. Three patients (37.5% had major immunosuppressed conditions, including solid organ transplantation, AIDS, and leukaemia. Previous use of antibiotics occurred in 87.5%. Main invasive medical procedures were central venous catheter (50.0%, abdominal surgery (25.0%, and peritoneal dialysis (50.0%. No susceptibility data was obtained. Although risk factors for candidaemia were similar amongst patients infected by with C. guilliermondii or other Candida species, mortality associated with C. guilliermondii was significantly lower.Candida guilliermondii é um dos componentes da microbiota humana e infecções associadas com esta levedura têm sido incomuns, o que pode ser atribuído a sua baixa patogenicidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi documentar aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos em pacientes que tiveram C. guilliermondii isolada a partir de amostras biológicas. O estudo foi conduzido na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brasil. Durante outubro de 1997 e outubro de 2003, C. guilliermondii foi isolada de 11 pacientes, três dos quais foram excluídos por se apresentarem apenas colonizados. Espécimes clínicos corresponderam a sangue (n = 5, líquido de ascite (n = 2 e biópsia de esôfago (n = 1. Três pacientes eram imunodeprimidos, incluindo transplante de órgãos sólidos, SIDA e

  17. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white–opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of ...

  18. Cloning and sequencing of the beta-glucosidase gene from Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23769.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, K; Nakajima, K; Yamashita, H; Shiba, T; Munekata, M; Takai, M

    2001-12-31

    The beta-glucosidase gene (bglxA) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23769 and its nucleotide sequence (2200 bp) was determined. This bglxA gene was present downstream of the cellulose synthase operon and coded for a polypeptide of molecular mass 79 kDa. The overexpression of the beta-glucosidase in A. xylinum caused a tenfold increase in activity compared to the wild-type strain. In addition, the action pattern of the enzyme was identified as G3ase activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the bglxA gene showed 72.3%, 49.6%, and 45.1% identity with the beta-glucosidases from A. xylinum subsp. sucrofermentans, Cellvibrio gilvus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarities, the beta-glucosidase (BglxA) was assigned to family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases.

  19. Purification and enzymatic characteristics of cysteine desulfurase, IscS, in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU An-na; ZHANG Yan-fei; ZHENG Chun-li; DAI Yun-jie; LIU Yuan-dong; ZENG Jia; GU Guo-hua; LIU Jian-she

    2008-01-01

    A cysteine desulfurase protein,IscS,was encoded by the operon iscSUA in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.The gene of IscS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli.The protein was purified by one-step affinity chromatography to homogeneity.The final protein yield after affinity chromatography was 12.9%.The enzyme was characterized for thermal stability,pH and kinetic parameters.The molecular mass of recombinant IscS was 46 ku by SDS-PAGE.The optimum pH was 8.0-8.5.The enzyme had a temperature optimum at 30 ℃ and was relatively stable at 40 ℃,with 67% loss of activity.1,5-I-AEDANS significantly inhibited IscS activity.Kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were found to be 0.11 mmol/L and 2.57 μmol/(L-min).

  20. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    primary carbon metabolism in further detail, Nonomuraea was cultivated with [1-C-13] glucose as the only carbon source and the C-13-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids were determined by GC-MS analysis. Through this method, the fluxes in the central carbon metabolism during balanced growth were......The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embden...... - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway is present in this organism. Moreover, Nonomuraea utilizes a PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, an enzyme that has been connected with anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes and higher plants, but recently has been recognized in several actinomycetes. In order to study its...

  1. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  2. Exploration of geosmin synthase from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 by deletion of doxorubicin biosynthetic gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijay; Oh, Tae-Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2009-10-01

    Thorough investigation of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 genome revealed a sesquiterpene synthase, named spterp13, which encodes a putative protein of 732 amino acids with significant similarity to S. avermitilis MA-4680 (SAV2163, GeoA) and S. coelicolor A3(2) (SCO6073). The proteins encoded by SAV2163 and SCO6073 produce geosmin in the respective strains. However, the spterp13 gene seemed to be silent in S. peucetius. Deletion of the doxorubicin gene cluster from S. peucetius resulted in increased cell growth rate along with detectable production of geosmin. When we over expressed the spterp13 gene in S. peucetius DM07 under the control of an ermE* promoter, 2.4 +/- 0.4-fold enhanced production of geosmin was observed.

  3. Microencapsulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores in gellan gum microspheres for the production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sweta; Wan Sia Heng, Paul; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide further insights on the applicability of microencapsulation using emulsification method, to immobilise Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores, for biobutanol production. The encapsulated spores were revived using heat shock treatment and the fermentation efficiency of the resultant encapsulated cells was compared with that of the free (non-encapsulated) cells. The microspheres were easily recovered from the fermentation medium by filtration and reused up to five cycles of fermentation. In contrast, the free (non-encapsulated) cells could be reused for two cycles only. The microspheres remained intact throughout repeated use. Although significant cell leakage was observed during the course of fermentation, the microspheres could be reused with relatively high butanol yield, demonstrating their role as microbial cell nurseries. Both encapsulated and liberated cells contributed to butanol production.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts. The scientific...... substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC...... 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845). The Panel considers that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “vaginal health/flora”. The target population is assumed...

  5. Characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 and its involvement in biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yeswanth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Staphylococcus aureus purine metabolism plays a crucial role in the formation of biofilm which is a key pathogenic factor. The present study is aimed in the characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600. Methods: IMPDH gene was amplified using primers designed from IMPDH gene sequence of S. aureus reported in the database. Then polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in the Sma I site of M13mp18 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant IMPDH (rIMPDH was overexpressed with 1 mM isopropyl beta-D-1- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG; Michaelis constant (Km, maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax and catalytic constant (Kcat of expressed IMPDH were determined. Results: The enzyme kinetics of IMPDH grown under aerobic conditions showed a Km of 43.71±1.56 µM, Vmax of 0.247±0.84/µM/mg/min and Kcat of 2.74±0.015/min while in anaerobic conditions the kinetics showed Km of 42.81±3.154/ µM, Vmax of 0.378±0.036 µM/mg/min and Kcat of 4.78±0.021 /min, indicating elevated levels of IMPDH activity under anaerobic conditions. Three-folds increased activity in the presence of 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP correlated with biofilm formation. The kinetics of pure rIMPDH were close to the native IMPDH of S. aureus ATCC12600 and the enzyme showed single band in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 53 KDa. Conclusions: Elevated activity of IMPDH was observed in S. aureus grown under anaerobic conditions and this was correlated with the biofilm formation indicating the linkage between purine metabolism and pathogenesis.

  6. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  7. Quantitation of Candida CFU in initial positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Samsa, Gregory P; Schell, Wiley A; Reller, L Barth; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-08-01

    One potential limitation of DNA-based molecular diagnostic tests for Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) is organism burden, which is not sufficiently characterized. We hypothesized that the number of CFU per milliliter (CFU/ml) present in an episode of Candida BSI is too low for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. In this study, we determined Candida burden in the first positive blood culture and explored factors that affect organism numbers and patient outcomes. We reviewed records of consecutive patients with a positive blood culture for Candida in the lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) from 1987 to 1991. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed. One hundred fifty-two episodes of Candida BSI were analyzed. Patient characteristics included adult age (72%), indwelling central venous catheters (83%), recent surgery (29%), neutropenia (24%), transplant (14%), and other immune suppression (21%). Rates of treatment success and 30-day mortality for candidemia were each 51%. The median CFU/ml was 1 (mode 0.1, range 0.1 to >1,000). In the multivariate analysis, pediatric patients were more likely than adults to have high organism burdens (odds ratio [OR], 10.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.3 to 26.5). Initial organism density did not affect patient outcome. Candida CFU/ml in the first positive blood culture of a BSI episode varies greatly; >50% of cultures had ≤1 CFU/ml, a concentration below the experimental yeast cell threshold for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. DNA-based diagnostics for Candida BSI will be challenged by low organism density and the need for sufficient specimen volume; future research on alternate targets is warranted.

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Type Strain ATCC 13883 and Three Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, David C; Fiester, Steven E; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Thompson, Mitchell G; Kanduru, Shrinidhi; Summers, Amy M; Roth, Amanda L; Zurawski, Daniel V; Actis, Luis A

    2015-01-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative human pathogen capable of causing hospital-acquired infections with an increasing risk to human health. The total DNA from four clinically relevant strains was sequenced to >100× coverage, providing high-quality genome assemblies for K. pneumoniae strains ATCC 13883, KP4640, 101488, and 101712.

  10. Genome-based analysis of virulence genes in a non-biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis strain (ATCC 12228).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Qing; Ren, Shuang-Xi; Li, Hua-Lin; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Yang, Jian; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Miao, You-Gang; Wang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Run-Sheng; Shen, Yan; Chen, Zhu; Yuan, Zheng-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Qu, Di; Danchin, Antoine; Wen, Yu-Mei

    2003-09-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strains are diverse in their pathogenicity; some are invasive and cause serious nosocomial infections, whereas others are non-pathogenic commensal organisms. To analyse the implications of different virulence factors in Staphylococcus epidermidis infections, the complete genome of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain ATCC 12228, a non-biofilm forming, non-infection associated strain used for detection of residual antibiotics in food products, was sequenced. This strain showed low virulence by mouse and rat experimental infections. The genome consists of a single 2499 279 bp chromosome and six plasmids. The chromosomal G + C content is 32.1% and 2419 protein coding sequences (CDS) are predicted, among which 230 are putative novel genes. Compared to the virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus, aside from delta-haemolysin and beta-haemolysin, other toxin genes were not found. In contrast, the majority of adhesin genes are intact in ATCC 12228. Most strikingly, the ica operon coding for the enzymes synthesizing interbacterial cellular polysaccharide is missing in ATCC 12228 and rearrangements of adjacent genes are shown. No mec genes, IS256, IS257, were found in ATCC 12228. It is suggested that the absence of the ica operon is a genetic marker in commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strains which are less likely to become invasive.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Nitrosomonas cryotolerans ATCC 49181, a Phylogenetically Distinct Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Arctic Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marlen C; Norton, Jeanette M; Stein, Lisa Y; Kozlowski, Jessica; Bollmann, Annette; Klotz, Martin G; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Shapiro, Nicole; Goodwin, Lynne A; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mukherjee, Supratim; Reddy, T B K; Yee Ngan, Chew; Daum, Chris; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja

    2017-03-16

    Nitrosomonas cryotolerans ATCC 49181 is a cold-tolerant marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from seawater collected in the Gulf of Alaska. The high-quality complete genome contains a 2.87-Mbp chromosome and a 56.6-kbp plasmid. Chemolithoautotrophic modules encoding ammonia oxidation and CO2 fixation were identified.

  12. Suitability of Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 as a protective culture for lightly preserved fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Stephen Wallace; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of strategy to control the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products by using food-grade lactic acid bacteria. When the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 was cultured in the same vessel as L-monocytogenes Scott A in brain...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582), an Efficient Producer of Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-08-11

    This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582). This strain was isolated by R. Malcolm Brown, Jr. in a sugar mill in North Queensland, Australia, and is an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms necessary for cellulose biosynthesis.

  14. Direct-Imaging-Based Quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Population Heterogeneity at a Low Incubation Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Garcia, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 was cultured in microcolonies on Anopore strips near its minimum growth temperature to directly image and quantify its population heterogeneity at an abusive refrigeration temperature. Eleven percent of the microcolonies failed to grow during low-temperature incubation, an

  15. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under defined conditions: temporal expression of genes for key sigma factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time

  16. Alternative sigma factor SigK has a role in stress tolerance of group I Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Kirk, David; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-06-01

    The role of the alternative sigma factor SigK in cold and osmotic stress tolerance of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by induction of sigK after temperature downshift and exposure to hyperosmotic conditions and by impaired growth of the sigK mutants under the respective conditions.

  17. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  18. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc; Glenthøj, Andreas; Borregaard, Niels; Urban, Constantin F

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On the contrary, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans and mouse strains, which facilitates a more accurate interpretation of in vivo results.

  19. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  20. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  1. Effects of Two Curcuminoids on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da; LUO Jiao-yang; YAN Dan; JIN Cheng; DONG Xiao-ping; XIAO Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the action of curcuminoids on the causal pathogens of Candida albicans growth.Methods The effects of curcumin (CUR) and demethoxycurcumin (DMC) on C.albicans growth were first investigated and compared by microcalorimetry coupled with multiple analytical methods.The quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters obtained from these curves were analyzed to show difference of the actions.Results By analyzing the main parameters screened from principal component analysis together with 50% inhibiting concentration values,it was demonstrated that both CUR and DMC showed good antifungal activities and CUR was stronger.It was further concluded from structure-activity relationship that the existence of methoxy group might enhance lipophilicity of the mother nucleus,which made it easier for the molecular to enter into the cell membrane of fungi to inhibit its growth.Conclusion This study provides a new method for screening new antifungal agents with high efficacy and low toxicity.Meanwhile,it contributes to the application of curcuminoids as food additive,colorant,and drug.Microcalorimetry is real-time,online,and dynamic,and it could be used to characterize the subtle difference among the effects of synthetic and natural products on the vital process of fungi.

  2. Functional genomics identifies type I interferon pathway as central for host defense against Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Ng, Aylwin; Kumar, Vinod; Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; van Diemen, Cleo; Arts, Peer; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Oosting, Marije; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Hoischen, Alexander; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Scott, William K.; Perfect, John R.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans. Candid

  3. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, Frans M. Verduyn; Mennink-Kersten, Monique A. S. H.; Ruegebrink, Dorien; van der Lee, Henrich A. L.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  4. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production.

  5. Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Messer, Shawn A; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2008-08-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. parapsilosis using Vitek and conventional methods. Of the 1,929 isolates of presumed C. parapsilosis tested, 117 (6.1%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis and 34 (1.8%) as C. metapsilosis. The percentage of presumed C. parapsilosis isolates found to be C. orthopsilosis varied greatly by region, with the highest percentage (10.9%) from South America and the lowest (0.7%) from Africa. The MIC distributions of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were statistically significantly lower than those of C. parapsilosis for all drugs except fluconazole, for which they were significantly higher (P orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis isolates were fluconazole resistant, and all were susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin.

  6. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  7. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  8. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  9. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  10. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  11. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  12. Eucalyptus globulus L. extract as an antifungal agent against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of botanical preparations have been prepared and used for a wide variety of conditions. Different studies have been carried out towards to confirm the effective multitude of health benefits provided by medicinal plants [I]. In parallel with these studies, in the last years, high rates of opportunistic fungal infections have been observed, namely involving Candida species. Candida albicans is the most common but, currently, other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have also b...

  13. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms: Unique Efficacy of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations and Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, D M; T. George; CHANDRA, J; P. K. Mukherjee; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-01-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have ac...

  14. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  15. Prevalence of non-albican candida infection in Maharashtrian women with leucorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema M Bankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the prevalence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. Objective: To study the prevalence of different species of Candida and the efficiency of different Candida detection methods in women from low socio-economic setup of Miraj and Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 150 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. In the control group, 50 asymptomatic women were included for comparison. Results: In 33% of the women the leucorrhea was due to Candida infection with highest incidence in women of sexually active age (20-40 years. Sabouraud′s culture was the most efficient method (100% efficiency to detect the Candida compared to wet mount, KOH and gram stain method. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida krusei was the least common one. Conclusion: Candida infection is the commonest reason for leucorrhea and non-albican candida species significantly contribute to candidiasis in women of Miraj and Sangli.

  16. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  17. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  18. 鲍曼不动杆菌ATCC19606多重耐性分析及耐药基因的克隆%Multiple resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 and cloning of genes responsible for the resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏显中; 张兴; 陈彦; 土屋友房

    2006-01-01

    Drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 was tested in this study. The result showed fairly high resistance to many antimicrobial agents tested including streptomycin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, and antimicrobial dyes. Using the drug-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli KAM32 as the host, we cloned the genes responsible for multiple resistance from chromosomal DNA of A. baumannii ATCC 19606. We obtained 9 hybrid plasmids that made host cells resistant to several antimicrobial agents. Many of the transformants harboring each of the plasmids showed multiple resistance,and one showed resistance to specific drug. The hybrid plasmids were classified into several groups based on their drug specificity. It appears that each class of plasmid carries different types of drug resistance genes.Analysis of such genes will reveal the various mechanisms involved in multiple resistance in A. baumannii ATCC 19606.%鲍曼不动杆菌已成为重要的院内感染病菌.我们测定了鲍曼不动杆菌ATCC19606的药物最小抑制浓度(MIC),结果显示该菌株对多种抗菌药物都有很高的耐性,如链霉素、诺氟沙星、氯霉素、红霉素、四环素、氨苄西林及一些其他的抗菌染剂.利用大肠埃希菌超敏菌株KAM32作为宿主,从鲍曼不动杆菌ATCC19606染色体DNA中克隆耐药基因,共获得9个使宿主细胞产生耐药性的杂合质粒,其中1个为单一耐药,其余全部为多重耐药.根据药物特异性分析可知,具有不同耐药图谱的杂合质粒携带不同类型的耐药基因.由此揭示鲍曼不动杆菌ATCC19606的多重耐药有多种机制参与.

  19. Two new anamorphic yeasts, Candida thailandica sp. nov. and Candida lignicola sp. nov., isolated from insect frass in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tuntirungkij, Manee; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nakase, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Two new yeast strains of the genus Candida were isolated from insect frass collected in Khao-Yai National Park, Nakhonrachasima, Thailand. Based on the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, these two strains were found to represent two distinct undescribed species and were named Candida thailandica sp. nov. (ST-17 = BCC 7717(T) = NBRC 102562(T)=CBS 10 610) and Candida lignicola sp. nov. (ST-33 = BCC 7733(T) = NBRC 102564(T) = CBS 10612). In the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, C. thailandica (GeneBank accession no. AY228491) differs from Candida tsuchiyae, the nearest species, in 66 nucleotide substitutions (10%) and C. lignicola (GeneBank accession no. AY845350) differs from Candida coipomoensis, the nearest species, in nine nucleotides (1.6%). These two new species are clearly distinguished from their closest species by the assimilation of several carbon compounds.

  20. Efficacy of micafungin in invasive candidiasis caused by common Candida species with special emphasis on non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Oliver A; Vazquez, Jose; De Waele, Jan; Betts, Robert; Rotstein, Coleman; Nucci, Marcio; Pappas, Peter G; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. is increasing. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidaemia caused by different Candida spp. This post hoc analysis used data obtained from two randomised phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of micafungin vs. caspofungin and micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B. Treatment success, clinical response, mycological response and mortality were evaluated in patients infected with C. albicans and NAC spp. Treatment success rates in patients with either C. albicans or NAC infections were similar. Outcomes were similar for micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Candida albicans was the most prevalent pathogen recovered (41.0%), followed by C. tropicalis (17.9%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (10.4%), multiple Candida spp. (7.3%) and C. krusei (3.2%). Age, primary diagnosis (i.e. candidaemia or invasive candidiasis), previous corticosteroid therapy and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were identified as potential predictors of treatment success and mortality. Micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B exhibit favourable treatment response rates that are comparable for patients infected with different Candida spp.

  1. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  2. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  3. [Antibiotic activity of P. aeruginosa against MRSA and Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigemi; Sato, Naotake; Yamada, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Sakiko; Oguri, Toyoko; Igari, Jun

    2002-04-01

    The antibiotic activity demonstrated by P. aeruginosa (Bacillus pyocyaneus) has been reported more than one hundred years ago by Emmerich et al (1899). Studies on such bacterial interference between P. aeruginosa and other pathogenic bacteria or fungi have not been extensively reported in recent years. In this paper, we report on the anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity demonstrated by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (34 strains). The antibiotic activity was tested by reversed agar plate method, as previously reported, and the degree of the activity was expressed as the diameter of the zone of growth inhibition. The stability of both anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity was evaluated at the time after 24 and 48-hr incubation. Also the effect of agar plate with or without 5% sheep blood on antibiotic activity was evaluated. Strong anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity was shown at the time after 24-hr incubation. At the time after 48-hr incubation, anti MRSA activities were significantly suppressed but anti Candida activities were persisted. The inhibitory activity was correlated with dye production of P. aeruginosa. Some strains having non or weak dye production, showed the inhibitory activity by 48-hr incubation. Result from these strains without suppression of anti Candida activity by additional blood may suggest that the existence of a new factor produced by P. aeruginosa. Because of frequent isolation of MRSA or Candida from clinical materials, we must consider bacterial flora and bacterial interference against pathogenic bacteria at the time of the antibiotic choice for the patients infected or colonized with P. aeruginosa.

  4. Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichert Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB, but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

  5. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  6. Radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Microbiology); Puccetti, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology)

    1982-08-13

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans.

  7. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  8. Native valve candida endocarditis complicating pregnancy after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saphina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida endocarditis is an emerging infectious disease, usually involving patients with intravascular prosthetic devices, and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. A 28-year-old primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation was admitted with low-grade fever and lower abdominal pain for 2 weeks. She had undergone open appendicectomy 2 months before admission. Echocardiogram showed a pedunculated 24 mm × 21 mm mass attached to the undersurface of anterior mitral leaflet near the tip and moderate mitral regurgitation. Repeated blood cultures showed growth of nonalbicans candida. She was immediately started on liposomal amphotericin and was taken up for surgery, but despite all efforts she succumbed to her illness.

  9. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  10. Two Master Switch Regulators Trigger A40926 Biosynthesis in Nonomuraea sp. Strain ATCC 39727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Grasso, Letizia; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Bibb, Mervyn; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide A40926, the precursor of dalbavancin. Biosynthesis of A40926 is encoded by the dbv gene cluster, which contains 37 protein-coding sequences that participate in antibiotic biosynthesis, regulation, immunity, and export. In addition to the positive regulatory protein Dbv4, the A40926-biosynthetic gene cluster encodes two additional putative regulators, Dbv3 and Dbv6. Independent mutations in these genes, combined with bioassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses, demonstrated that Dbv3 and Dbv4 are both required for antibiotic production, while inactivation of dbv6 had no effect. In addition, overexpression of dbv3 led to higher levels of A40926 production. Transcriptional and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses showed that Dbv4 is essential for the transcription of two operons, dbv14-dbv8 and dbv30-dbv35, while Dbv3 positively controls the expression of four monocistronic transcription units (dbv4, dbv29, dbv36, and dbv37) and of six operons (dbv2-dbv1, dbv14-dbv8, dbv17-dbv15, dbv21-dbv20, dbv24-dbv28, and dbv30-dbv35). We propose a complex and coordinated model of regulation in which Dbv3 directly or indirectly activates transcription of dbv4 and controls biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine and the heptapeptide backbone, A40926 export, and some tailoring reactions (mannosylation and hexose oxidation), while Dbv4 directly regulates biosynthesis of 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine and other tailoring reactions, including the four cross-links, halogenation, glycosylation, and acylation. IMPORTANCE This report expands knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms used to control the biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 in the actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727. A40926 is the precursor of dalbavancin, approved for treatment of skin infections by Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, understanding the regulation of its biosynthesis

  11. Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 as a cell factory for producing teicoplanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurino Carlo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used clinically in Europe and in Japan for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-positive infections. It is produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The pharmaceutically active principle is teicoplanin A2, a complex of compounds designated T-A2-1-A2-5 differing in the length and branching of the fatty acid moiety linked to the glucosamine residue on the heptapeptide scaffold. According to European and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, components of the drug must be reproduced in fixed amounts to be authorized for clinical use. Results We report our studies on optimizing the fermentation process to produce teicoplanin A2 in A. teichomyceticus ATCC 31121. Robustness of the process was assessed on scales from a miniaturized deep-well microtiter system to flasks and 3-L bioreactor fermenters. The production of individual factors T-A2-1-A2-5 was modulated by adding suitable precursors to the cultivation medium. Specific production of T-A2-1, characterized by a linear C10:1 acyl moiety, is enhanced by adding methyl linoleate, trilinoleate, and crude oils such as corn and cottonseed oils. Accumulation of T-A2-3, characterized by a linear C10:0 acyl chain, is stimulated by adding methyl oleate, trioleate, and oils such as olive and lard oils. Percentages of T-A2-2, T-A2-4, and, T-A2-5 bearing the iso-C10:0, anteiso-C11:0, and iso-C11:0 acyl moieties, respectively, are significantly increased by adding precursor amino acids L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine. Along with the stimulatory effect on specific complex components, fatty acid esters, oils, and amino acids (with the exception of L-valine inhibit total antibiotic productivity overall. By adding industrial oils to medium containing L-valine the total production is comparable, giving unusual complex compositions. Conclusions Since the cost and the quality of teicoplanin production depend mainly on the fermentation process, we

  12. Dinitrogenase-Driven Photobiological Hydrogen Production Combats Oxidative Stress in Cyanothece sp. Strain ATCC 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Charania, Moiz A.; Hill, Eric A.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Wright, Aaron T.; Nojiri, H.

    2016-10-14

    ABSTRACT

    Photobiologically synthesized hydrogen (H2) gas is carbon neutral to produce and clean to combust, making it an ideal biofuel.Cyanothecesp. strain ATCC 51142 is a cyanobacterium capable of performing simultaneous oxygenic photosynthesis and H2production, a highly perplexing phenomenon because H2evolving enzymes are O2sensitive. We employed a system-levelin vivochemoproteomic profiling approach to explore the cellular dynamics of protein thiol redox and how thiol redox mediates the function of the dinitrogenase NifHDK, an enzyme complex capable of aerobic hydrogenase activity. We found that NifHDK responds to intracellular redox conditions and may act as an emergency electron valve to prevent harmful reactive oxygen species formation in concert with other cell strategies for maintaining redox homeostasis. These results provide new insight into cellular redox dynamics useful for advancing photolytic bioenergy technology and reveal a new understanding for the biological function of NifHDK.

    IMPORTANCEHere, we demonstrate that high levels of hydrogen synthesis can be induced as a protection mechanism against oxidative stress via the dinitrogenase enzyme complex inCyanothecesp. strain ATCC 51142. This is a previously unknown feature of cyanobacterial dinitrogenase, and we anticipate that it may represent a strategy to exploit cyanobacteria for efficient and scalable hydrogen production. We utilized a chemoproteomic approach to capture thein situdynamics of reductant partitioning within the cell, revealing proteins and reactive thiols that may be involved in redox sensing and signaling. Additionally, this method is widely applicable across biological systems to achieve a greater understanding of how cells

  13. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  14. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  15. Alcoholic fermentation of glucose and xylose by Pichia stipitis, Candida shehatae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis: Oxygen requirement as a key factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, J.M.; Delgenes, J.P.; Moletta, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 11 - Narbonne (France). Lab. de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement); Navarro, J.M. (Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Genie Biologique et Sciences des Aliments)

    1991-11-01

    To investigate simultaneous alcoholic fermentation of glucose and xylose derived from lignocellulosic material by separate or co-culture processes, the effect of oxygen transfer rate (OTR) on the fermentation of 50 g/l xylose by Pichia stipitis NRRL Y 7124 and Candida shehatae ATCC 22984, and the fermentation of 50 g/l glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 1200 and Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988 was carried out in batch cultures. The kinetic parameters of the xylose-fermenting yeasts were greatly dependent on the OTR. The optimum OTR values were found to be 3.9 and 1.75 mmol.l{sup -1}.h{sup -1} for C. shehatae and P. stipitis, respectively. By contrast the fermentative parameters of S. cerevisiae were poorly affected by the OTR range tested (0.0-3.5 mmol.l{sup -1}.h{sup -1}). Under these conditions the ethanol yields ranged from 0.41 g.g{sup -1} to 0.45 g.g{sup -1} and the specific ethanol productivity was around 0.70 g.g{sup -1}.h{sup -1}. Z. mobilis gave the highest fermentative performance under strictly anaerobic conditions (medium continually flushed with nitrogen): Under these conditions, the ethanol yield was 0.43 g.g{sup -1} and the average specific ethanol productivity was 2.3 g.g{sup -1}.h{sup -1}. Process considerations in relation to the effect of OTR on the fermentative performance of the tested strains are discussed. (orig.).

  16. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  17. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

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    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  18. Structural elucidation of the nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. Comparison with the polysaccharides from Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 reveals both unique and common structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoff, Christine; Choudhury, Biswa; Saile, Elke; Quinn, Conrad P; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L

    2008-10-31

    Nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharides constitute a major cell wall structure in the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria. The structure of the secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a strain that is closely related to Bacillus anthracis, was determined. This polysaccharide was released from the cell wall with aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified polysaccharide, HF-PS, was characterized by glycosyl composition and linkage analyses, mass spectrometry, and one- and two-dimensional NMR analysis. The results showed that the B. cereus ATCC 10987 HF-PS has a repeating oligosaccharide consisting of a -->6)-alpha-GalNAc-(1-->4)-beta-ManNAc-(1-->4)-beta-GlcNAc-(1--> trisaccharide that is substituted with beta-Gal at O3 of the alpha-GalNAc residue and nonstoichiometrically acetylated at O3 of the N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) residue. Comparison of this structure with that of the B. anthracis HF-PS and with structural data obtained for the HF-PS from B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 revealed that each HF-PS had the same general structural theme consisting of three HexNAc and one Hex residues. A common structural feature in the HF-PSs from B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. anthracis was the presence of a repeating unit consisting of a HexNAc(3) trisaccharide backbone in which two of the three HexNAc residues are GlcNAc and ManNAc and the third can be either GlcNAc or GalNAc. The implications of these results with regard to the possible functions of the HF-PSs are discussed.

  19. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested.

  20. Comparative phenotypic analysis of the major fungal pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M; Schröder, Markus S; Turner, Siobhán A; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-09-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis.

  1. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood

  2. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  3. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  4. Occurrence of Candida species colonization in a population of denture-wearing immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, R; Pasquantonio, G; Vitali, L A; Nicoletti, M; Di Girolamo, M; Mirisola, C; Prenna, M; Condo, R; Baggi, L

    2013-01-01

    Infection of the oral cavity and dentures by Candida species are frequent in denture wearers. C. albicans is the most common pathogen; however, other emerging Candida species are also responsible for this condition. Few data are available about the occurrence of Candida species in the oral cavities of denture-wearing immigrants to Italy. In this study, we compare the Candida species found in the oral mucosa and on dentures from a population of denture wearing immigrants to Italy to a matched Italian group. Oral swabs were collected from dentures and the underlying mucosa of patients enrolled in the study and were then cultured to test for the presence of Candida species in each sample. Out of 168 patients enrolled (73 Italians and 95 immigrants), 51 Italians (69.8 percent) and 75 immigrants (78.9 percent) tested positive for the presence of Candida. Candida albicans was the most frequently observed species overall; however, we found a higher occurrence of C. glabrata among immigrants than among Italians. In addition, immigrants displayed a higher incidence of Candida – associated stomatitis and a lower mean age than Candida-positive individuals from the Italian group. Immigrants are more prone to longer colonization of the oral mucosa and dentures by Candida. In these patients, dentures must be checked periodically to prevent the presence of Candida.

  5. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit(ICU) patients.Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed.Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests.Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document.Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples: urine(43.3%), tracheal aspirate(31.1%), urinary catheter(12.2%), endotracheal tube(7.8%),abdominal drains(3.3%), sputum(2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by nonalbicans Candida(NAC) species(63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans(36.7%).The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis(41.1%), Candida glabrata(10%), Candida parapsilosis(6.7%), Candida krusei(3.3%) and Candida kefyr(2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Antifungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8% and 7.8% of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively.Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  6. CHANGES OF THE SELECTED PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM ATCC 4080 DURING STORAGE OF MALT BEVERAGE

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    Joanna Kraszewska

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to obtain malt beverage, which includes high number of viable lactic acid bacteria and has a good sensor quality for eight weeks of storage at the temperature of 22°C. L. plantarum ATCC 4080 strain after four weeks of storage did not reveal antagonistic activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. This strain after two, six and eight weeks of storage had antagonistic properties. The tested strain after two and four weeks of storage did not survive during incubation at pH 2.5 and next in malt beverage with 3 mmol/dm3 deoxycholate sodium, while survived in these conditions after six and eight weeks. In case of incubation at pH 2.5 and next in aqueous solution of deoxycholate sodium tested strain after four and six weeks of storage had survival ability. The survival ability in these conditions of the tested strain after two and eight weeks of storage were not investigated.

  7. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for isopropanol-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sung Jun; Im, Jung Ae; Song, Hyohak; Cho, Jung Hee; Seung, Do Young; Papoutsakis, E Terry; Bennett, George N; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-03-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum naturally produces acetone as well as butanol and ethanol. Since acetone cannot be used as a biofuel, its production needs to be minimized or suppressed by cell or bioreactor engineering. Thus, there have been attempts to disrupt or inactivate the acetone formation pathway. Here we present another approach, namely, converting acetone to isopropanol by metabolic engineering. Since isopropanol can be used as a fuel additive, the mixture of isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol (IBE) produced by engineered C. acetobutylicum can be directly used as a biofuel. IBE production is achieved by the expression of a primary/secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-593 (i.e., adh(B-593)) in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. To increase the total alcohol titer, a synthetic acetone operon (act operon; adc-ctfA-ctfB) was constructed and expressed to increase the flux toward isopropanol formation. When this engineering strategy was applied to the PJC4BK strain lacking in the buk gene (encoding butyrate kinase), a significantly higher titer and yield of IBE could be achieved. The resulting PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) strain produced 20.4 g/liter of total alcohol. Fermentation could be prolonged by in situ removal of solvents by gas stripping, and 35.6 g/liter of the IBE mixture could be produced in 45 h.

  9. Mutation of aspartic acid residues in the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D D; Jacques, N A

    1999-01-01

    The site-directed mutated fructosyltransferases (Ftfs) of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, D312E, D312S, D312N and D312K were all active at 37 degrees C, indicating that Asp-312 present in the 'sucrose box' was not the nucleophilic Asp residue responsible for the formation of a covalent fructosyl-enzyme intermediate required for enzyme activity. Analysis of the kinetic constants of the purified mutated forms of the enzyme showed that Asp-312 was most likely an essential amino acid involved in determining acceptor recognition and/or stabilizing a beta-turn in the protein. In contrast, when the Asp-397 of the Ftf present in the conserved triplet RDP motif of all 60 bacterial and plant family-32 glycosylhydrolases was mutated to a Ser residue, both sucrose hydrolysis and polymerization ceased. Tryptophan emission spectra confirmed that this mutation did not alter protein structure. Comparison of published data from other site-directed mutated enzymes implicated the Asp residue in the RDP motif as the one that may form a transient covalent fructosyl intermediate during the catalysis of sucrose by the Ftf of S. salivarius. PMID:10548559

  10. Uso do açafrão (Curcuma longa L. na redução da Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 em ricota The use of turmeric in the reduction of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 in ricotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ribeiro Maia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o envolvimento de queijos como veículo de microrganismos patogênicos, foi avaliada a eficiência do extrato alcoólico de cúrcuma adicionado à ricota, na redução de Escherichia coli e Enterobacter aerogenes. Foram fabricados três lotes de ricota cremosa e inoculados com 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. Às ricotas, foram adicionados 0,4% de NaCl e extrato alcoólico de Curcuma longa L., em concentrações que variaram de 0,0% a 2,0%. As ricotas foram avaliadas físico-química e microbiologicamente em 0, 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. O percentual de umidade das ricotas foi, em média, de 73%. O pH médio observado foi de 5,4 e o percentual de gordura de 3%. Pelos resultados, evidenciou-se, após 21 dias, uma redução do número de Escherichia coli de aproximadamente dois ciclos logaritmicos nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Já para Enterobacter aerogenes, a redução foi menor, de aproximadamente um ciclo logaritmico, de 105 UFC/mL para 104 UFC/mL, também nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Apesar de os resultados evidenciarem uma redução do número de células viáveis dos microrganismos avaliados, a cúrcuma não deverá ser o único meio preservativo, considerando uma contaminação inicial de 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes, pois não atenderia à legislação vigente quanto aos requisitos microbiológicos para queijos.Considering the cheese involvement as a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms it was evaluated the eficciency of the ethanolic turmeric extract added to ricotta, in the reduction of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Three lots of creamy ricotta were manufacturated and inoculated with 104 UFC/mL of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and 105 UFC/mL of Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. It was added 0,4% of NaCl and

  11. Isolation and purification of complex II from proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245

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    Khadija Shabbiri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1 containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytochrome b per mg protein. Heme staining indicated that the 19 kDa subunit was cytochrome b. Its reduced form showed absorptions peaks at 557.0, 524.8 and 424.4 nm. The α-band was shifted from 557.0 nm to 556.8 nm in pyridine ferrohemochrome spectrum. The succinate: quinone oxidoreductase activity was found to be high in this microorganism.

  12. Characterization of Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 23726 adhesins involved in strain-specific attachment to Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Park; Bhumika Shokeen; Susan K Haake; Renate Lux

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial adherence is an essential virulence factor in pathogenesis and infection. Fusobacterium nucleatum has a central role in oral biofilm architecture by acting as a bridge between early Gram-positive and late Gram-negative colonizers that do not otherwise adhere to each other. In this study, we survey a key adherence interaction of F. nucleatum with Porphyromonas gingivalis, and present evidence that multiple fusobacterial adhesins have a role in the attachment of F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 to P. gingivalis in a highly strain-dependent manner. Interaction between these species displayed varying sensitivities to arginine, galactose and lactose. Arginine was found to hamper coaggregation by at least 62%and up to 89%with several P. gingivalis strains and galactose inhibition ranged from no inhibition up to 58%with the same P. gingivalis strains. Lactose consistently inhibited F. nucleatum interaction with these P. gingivalis strains ranging from 40% to 56%decrease in coaggregation. Among the adhesins involved are the previously described Fap2 and surprisingly, RadD, which was described in an earlier study for its function in attachment of F. nucleatum to Gram-positive species. We also provide evidence for the presence of at least one additional adhesin that is sensitive to arginine but unlike Fap2 and RadD, is not a member of the autotransporter family type of fusobacterial large outer membrane proteins. The strain-specific binding profile of multiple fusobacterial adhesins to P. gingivalis highlights the heterogeneity and complexity of interspecies interactions in the oral cavity.

  13. Study of nano-fiber cellulose production by Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, D; Farhangi, A; Tolooei, S; Saffari, Z; Mehrabi, M R; Chiani, M; Ghassemi, S; Farahnak, M; Akbarzadeh, A

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial Celluloses (BC) are gaining importance in research and commerce due to numerous factors affecting the bacterial cellulose characteristics and application in different industries. The aim of the present study was to produce bacterial cellulose in different media using different cultivation vessels. Bacterial cellulose was produced by static cultivation of Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 in different culture media such as Brain Heart Agar, Luria Bertani Agar /Broth, Brain Heart Infusion, Hestrin-Schramm and medium no. 125. Cultivation of bacterium was conducted in various culture vessels with different surface area. The cellulose membrane was treated and purified with a 0.1 M NaOH solution at 90 degreesC for 30 min and dried by a freeze- drier at -40 degreesC to obtain BC. The prepared bacterial cellulose was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The amount of produced BC was related directly to the surface area of culture vessels.

  14. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  15. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  16. Agroindustrial Byproducts For The Production Of Hyaluronic Acid By Streptococcus Zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Caldas Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agroindustrial derivatives are alternative nutritional sources employed in bioprocesses that reduce costs and corroborate with social sustainability. In this study alternative carbon sugarcane juice sugarcane molasses and soy molasses and nitrogen sources corn steep liquor soy protein and whey protein were evaluated for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. The medium containing sugarcane molasses archived high yield of hyaluronic acid 0.066 g.g-1 when compared to the medium composed of glucose or sucrose. The replacement of yeast extract by soy protein was also effective for the production of the polymer resulting in 0.219 g.L-1. In general the organic acids production was also evaluated and the results showed that the main metabolic products were lactate. In contrast the acetate synthesis was detected only in the medium containing yeast extract. This study showed that sugarcane molasses is a promising carbon source for the hyaluronic acid production. This is the first study in which a culture media containing sugarcane molasses a cheap substrate extensively produced in Brazil has been successfully used for the microbial hyaluronic acid production.

  17. Effect of Environmental Parameters on hydrogen Production using Clostridium Saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4(ATCC 13564

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Alalayah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hydrogen gas production by Clostridium can be improved by several ways through media formulation, or suitable environment condition. This study was carried out to investigate the environmental factors effects on hydrogen production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564. Approach: The environmental factor studied includes initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH, temperature, sparging nitrogen and addition of Fe2+. Results: The result showed that the best yield of hydrogen produced (YP/S was 3.10 moL (moL glucose-1 when an initial glucose concentration was 10 g L-1, initial pH 6.0±0.2 at temperature 37°C. The volume of hydrogen produced was decreased when higher initial glucose concentration was applied. The yield of hydrogen increased when Fe2+ added to medium at concentration of 25 mg L-1. The yield and growth were further increased by sparging with nitrogen gas. Conclusion: It was observed that the best condition for highest hydrogen yield when initial pH 6.0±0.2 at 37°C and enhanced by adding ferrous sulfate in anaerobic process.

  18. Bactericidal Activity of TiO2 on Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Aguilar Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of semiconductors is increasingly being used to disinfect water, air, soils, and surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is widely used as a photocatalyst in thin films, powder, and in mixtures with other semiconductors or metals. This work presents the antibacterial effects of TiO2 and light exposure (at 365 nm on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. TiO2 powder was prepared from a mixture of titanium isopropoxide, ethanol, and nitric acid using a green and short time sol-gel technique. The obtained gel annealed at 450°C was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanocomposite effectively catalyzed the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following 90 minutes exposure to TiO2 and UV light, logarithm of cell density was reduced from 6 to 3. These results were confirmed by a factorial design incorporating two experimental replicates and two independent factors.

  19. Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119 strain behaviour is modulated by iron and acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Catia; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Conte, Maria Pia; Seganti, Lucilla; Iosi, Francesca; Superti, Fabiana

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the rarity of human listeriosis due to Listeria ivanovii reflects not only host tropism factors but also the rare occurrence of this species in the environment, compared with Listeria monocytogenes. In the present study we evaluate the effects on the reference strain L. ivanovii ATCC 19119 behaviour of two combined stresses, low iron availability and acid environment, that bacteria can encounter in the passage from saprophytic life to the host. In these conditions, L. ivanovii evidenced a different behaviour compared to L. monocytogenes exposed to similar conditions. L. ivanovii was not able to mount an acid tolerance response (ATR) even if, upon entry into the stationary phase in iron-loaded medium, growth phase-dependent acid resistance (AR) was evidenced. Moreover, bacteria grown in iron excess and acidic pH showed the higher invasion value in Caco-2 cells, even though it was not able to efficiently multiply. On the contrary, low iron and acidic conditions improved invasion ability in amniotic WISH cells.

  20. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 for L-valine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jinyu; Dong, Xunyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an L-valine-producing strain was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 through deletion of the three genes aceE, alaT and ilvA combined with the overexpression of six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnF and brnE. Overexpression of lrp1 alone increased L-valine production by 16-fold. Deletion of the aceE, alaT and ilvA increased L-valine production by 44-fold. Overexpression of the six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnE and brnF in the triple deletion mutant WCC003 further increased L-valine production. The strain WCC003/pJYW-4-ilvBNC1-lrp1-brnFE produced 243mM L-valine in flask cultivation and 437mM (51g/L) L-valine in fed-batch fermentation and lacked detectable amino-acid byproduct such as l-alanine and l-isoleucine that are usually found in the fermentation of L-valine-producing C. glutamicum.

  1. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on red pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus ATCC 36928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of agitation speed, N (200, 500, 600 or 700 rpm, and dissolved oxygen concentration, C (120, >70, 70, 60, 10 or < 10%, on red pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus ATCC 36928, cultivated in liquid medium by a batch process. The gas flow rate was the same for all runs with C controlled by means of the incoming gas composition control (air/N2 or air/O2. From the response surface plots it can be verified that the effect of C was greater than that of N on the production of both metabolites. The absorbance for red pigments varied from 1.6 U (C< 10%; N=200 rpm up to 3.3 U (C=60%; N=600 rpm, an increase of 106%, while citrinin concentration increased 257%, from 14.2 to 50.7 mg.L-1. The most appropriate conditions were C=60% and N=600rpm, under which the highest red pigment absorbance (3.3U and half of the highest citrinin concentration were obtained.

  3. Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305 is internalized into human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Kleine, Britta; Anders, Agnes; Kaase, Martin; Sakinç, Türkân; Schmitz, Inge; Gatermann, Sören

    2008-08-01

    Invasion of bacteria into nonphagocytic host cells is an important pathogenicity factor for escaping the host defence system. Gram-positive organisms, for example Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, are invasive in nonphagocytic cells, and this mechanism is discussed as an important part of the infection process. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus can cause acute and recurrent urinary tract infections as well as bloodstream infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus shows strong adhesion to human urinary bladder carcinoma and Hep2 cells and expresses the 'Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix molecule' (MSCRAMM)-protein SdrI with collagen-binding activity. MSCRAMMs are responsible for adhesion and collagen binding in S. aureus and are discussed as an important pathogenicity factor for invasion. To investigate internalization in S. aureus, several fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assays have been described recently. We used a previously described FACS assay, with slight modifications, in addition to an antibiotic protection assay and transmission electron microscopy to show that S. saprophyticus ATCC 15305 and the wild-type strain 7108 were internalized into the human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. The discovery of the internalization of S. saprophyticus may be an important step for understanding the pathogenicity of recurrent infections caused by this organism.

  4. Proteome data to explore the impact of pBClin15 on Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Madeira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports changes in the cellular and exoproteome of B. cereus cured from pBClin15.Time-course changes of proteins were assessed by high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS. We report all the peptides and proteins identified and quantified in B. cereus with and without pBClin15. Proteins were classified into functional groups using the information available in the KEGG classification and we reported their abundance in term of normalized spectral abundance factor. The repertoire of experimentally confirmed proteins of B. cereus presented here is the largest ever reported, and provides new insights into the interplay between pBClin15 and its host B. cereus ATCC 14579. The data reported here is related to a published shotgun proteomics analysis regarding the role of pBClin15, “Deciphering the interactions between the Bacillus cereus linear plasmid, pBClin15, and its host by high-throughput comparative proteomics” Madeira et al. [1]. All the associated mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/, with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD001568, PRIDE: PXD002788 and PRIDE: PXD002789.

  5. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing candidemia from 1996 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Tang, Ran-Bin; Fan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of 383 Candida species isolated from blood were determined. Candida albicans was the most common species (55.6%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (17.5%), Candida tropicalis (16.5%), Candida glabrata (5.2%), Candida guilliermondii (2.3%), and others (2.9%). All but three isolates, Candida ciferrii, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, one each, were susceptible to amphotericin B. A total of 367 (95.8%) and 15 (4.2%) isolates were susceptible and susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole, respectively. Only one isolate, a C. glabrata, was resistant to fluconazole. Few patients (13%) having prior fluconazole treatments may explain the low rate of resistance to fluconazole in this study.

  6. EFFECT OF Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. AND Coffea arabica L. ON THE GROWTH OF Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Scroferneker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from Ilex paraguariensis (maté and Coffea arabica (coffee combinedwith Sabouraud dextrose agar on the growth of Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428. F. pedrosoi was grown on Petri dishes containingSabouraud dextrose agar amended with aqueous extract derived from 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5g of maté or coffee powder boiled in 100mlof water for 30 min. The diameters of fungal colonies were determined after 7 days. The incorporation of maté or coffee extracts intothe growth media did not cause significant differences in the radial growth of F. pedrosoi ATCC 46428 when compared to the control.Nevertheless, nutritional requirement studies are important to the systematization of the biochemical profile, which may contribute toelucidating the functional biochemistry of F. pedrosoi.

  7. EFFECT OF Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. AND Coffea arabica L. ON THE GROWTH OF Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Scroferneker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from Ilex paraguariensis (maté and Coffea arabica (coffee combined with Sabouraud dextrose agar on the growth of Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428. F. pedrosoi was grown on Petri dishes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar amended with aqueous extract derived from 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5g of maté or coffee powder boiled in 100ml of water for 30 min. The diameters of fungal colonies were determined after 7 days. The incorporation of maté or coffee extracts into the growth media did not cause significant differences in the radial growth of F. pedrosoi ATCC 46428 when compared to the control. Nevertheless, nutritional requirement studies are important to the systematization of the biochemical profile, which may contribute to elucidating the functional biochemistry of F. pedrosoi.

  8. Development of a potential functional food prepared with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), oats and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21T. Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F

    2015-07-09

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21(T). Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure.

  11. EFECTO ANTIBACTERIANO IN VITRO DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM (CANELA) SOBRE EL FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM ATCC 25586

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA RUBIO, KHATTERYNE MARISOL

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to determine in vitro the antibacterial effect of the essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. The study was carried out in the laboratories of Pharmacognosy and microbiological laboratories in the School of Medicine at the National University of Trujillo. Samples consisted in two sets of 12 repeats for each concentration of cinnamon and sample control (penicillin). One set was used to determine the se...

  12. Co-fermentation of carbon sources by Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 to enhance the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Yang, Xiao Guang; Yoo, Hah Young; Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the enhancement of bioethanol production in Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 by co-fermentation of carbon sources such as glycerol, glucose, galactose, sucrose, fructose, xylose, starch, mannitol and citric acid. Biofuel production increases with increasing growth rate of microorganisms; that is why we investigated the optimal growth rate of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007, using mixtures of different carbon sources with glycerol. E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 was incubated in media containing each carbon source and glycerol; growth rate and bioethanol production improved in all cases compared to those in medium containing glycerol alone. The growth rate and bioethanol production were highest with mannitol. Fermentation was carried out at 37 °C for 18 h, pH 7, using 50 mL defined production medium in 100 mL serum bottles at 200 rpm. Bioethanol production under optimized conditions in medium containing 16 g/L mannitol and 20 g/L glycerol increased sixfold (32.10 g/L) than that containing glycerol alone (5.23 g/L) as the carbon source in anaerobic conditions. Similarly, bioethanol production using free cells in continuous co-fermentation also improved (27.28 g/L) when 90.37 % of 16 g/L mannitol and 67.15 % of 20 g/L glycerol were used. Although naturally existing or engineered microorganisms can ferment mixed sugars sequentially, the preferential utilization of glucose to non-glucose sugars often results in lower overall yield and productivity of ethanol. Here, we present new findings in E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 that can be used to improve bioethanol production by simultaneous co-fermentation of glycerol and mannitol.

  13. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 Vanillin Dehydrogenase and Its Impact on the Biotechnical Production of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDHATCC 39116). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vani...

  14. Genome mining of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 for heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tian; Zhou, Yuanjie; Li, Xiaowei; Zhu, Fayin; Cheng, Yongbo; Liu, Yi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a highly valued keto‐carotenoid, astaxanthin is widely used in nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for biosynthetic astaxanthin and improved efficiency of astaxanthin biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native astaxanthin producers and heterologous hosts. However, microbial resources for astaxanthin are limited. In this study, we found that the α‐Proteobacterium Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 could produce astaxanthin n...

  15. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  16. Broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility to ketoconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C E; Bennett, R L; Beggs, W H

    1987-01-01

    We performed a detailed investigation of the kinetics of ketoconazole activity in the setting of broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility. Turbidimetric readings reflected parallel quantitative colony counts. The method of endpoint determination markedly affected the results. Determinations of 50% inhibitory concentrations clearly separated the ketoconazole-resistant strains from the susceptible strains.

  17. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  18. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  19. Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya E.; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Ceballos-Garzón, Andrés; Martínez, Heidys P.; Rodríguez, Gerson J.; Álvarez-Moreno, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungus that causes a wide range of symptoms. We report finding 17 cases of C. auris infection that were originally misclassified but correctly identified 27.5 days later on average. Patients with a delayed diagnosis of C. auris had a 30-day mortality rate of 35.2%. PMID:27983941

  20. [Candida and the gastrointestinal tract. A medical-research evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, S; Stanescu-Siegmund, A; Schwantes, P A

    1998-02-28

    In immunocompetent persons, Candida species are members of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Budding yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, can, however, in patients with a corresponding disposition, spread topically and systemically, that is, they may become pathogenic. In hematological/oncological patients with severe immunodeficiency, for example, the mycelium may infiltrate the muscularis mucosae, with involvement also of the vascular system. The relationships between recurrent diarrhea and Candida are still discussed controversial; various data do, however, suggest that massive colonization with Candida might well represent a(n additional) diarrhea-provoking factor. Similar considerations may also be assumed to apply to diarrhea induced by antibiotic therapy. For immunocompetent persons, guidelines exist for the yeast cell count in the stools. The interpretation of quantitative findings must, however, always be made on an individual basis and against the background of clinical symptoms and/or any particular predisposition of the patient. Reliable treatment of superficial candidasis can be achieved with oral polyene antifungal antibiotics (nystatin, amphotericin B).

  1. New clonal strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Sharma, Cheshta; Duggal, Shalini; Agarwal, Kshitij; Prakash, Anupam; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Sarika; Kathuria, Shallu; Randhawa, Harbans S; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-10-01

    A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

  2. New clonal strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

  3. Al-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Jarosz, Lucja M.; Amir, Lisa R.; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (Al

  4. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K

    2015-01-01

    and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were...

  5. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 1

  6. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  7. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  8. PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PERMUKAAN POLIESTER EBP-2421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin has been the only polymeric material for denture base for many years. One of the requirements for an ideal polymeric denture base material. It should be resistant to bacterial growth. The growth of Candida albicans on the surface of dentures is a concern for many denture wearers. This organism often is associated with denture stomatitis. A preliminary study showed polyester EBP-2421, a polymeric material for statues can also be manipulated to denture base. This research examined the growth of Candida albicans on the surface of EBP-2421. Research was carried out on strips of polyester EBP-2421 and Selton acrylic resin. Strips were contaminated with Candida albicans for 24 hours. Examinations on polyester EBP-2421 and acrylic resin immersed in saliva significantly differ from the not immersed strips (p<0,05. The lowest frequency were Candida albicans adhered on stripes of polyester EBP-2421 immersed in saliva. This result related with the fact that polyester EBP-2421 has smoother surface topography than acrylic resin.

  9. Growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 on mixed substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick V. Gurgel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown on a mixed substrate comprising glucose and xylose. Inocula were grown using xylose or glucose as carbon source. Results showed that xylose utilization was delayed until glucose was utilized. Inoculum prepared on glucose showed a lag phase in xylose consumption. Cell mass production was higher when glucose was utilized during fermentation.

  10. A naturally occurring proline-to-alanine amino acid change in Fks1p in Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis accounts for reduced echinocandin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Katiyar, Santosh K; Park, Steven; Edlind, Thomas D; Perlin, David S

    2008-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a common cause of invasive fungal infection, especially in Latin America and in the neonatal setting. C. parapsilosis is part of a closely related group of organisms that includes the species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. All three species show elevated MICs for the new echinocandin class drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin relative to other Candida species. Despite potential impacts on therapy, the mechanism behind this reduced echinocandin susceptibility has not been determined. In this report, we investigated the role of a naturally occurring Pro-to-Ala substitution at amino acid position 660 (P660A), immediately distal to the highly conserved hot spot 1 region of Fks1p, in the reduced-echinocandin-susceptibility phenotype. Kinetic inhibition studies demonstrated that glucan synthase from the C. parapsilosis group was 1 to 2 logs less sensitive to echinocandin drugs than the reference enzyme from C. albicans. Furthermore, clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata which harbor mutations at this equivalent position also showed comparable 2-log decreases in target enzyme sensitivity, which correlated with increased MICs. These mutations also resulted in 2.4- to 18.8-fold-reduced V(max) values relative to those for the wild-type enzyme, consistent with kinetic parameters obtained for C. parapsilosis group enzymes. Finally, the importance of the P660A substitution for intrinsic resistance was confirmed by engineering an equivalent P647A mutation into Fks1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant glucan synthase displayed characteristic 2-log decreases in sensitivity to the echinocandin drugs. Overall, these data firmly indicate that a naturally occurring P660A substitution in Fks1p from the C. parapsilosis group accounts for the reduced susceptibility phenotype.

  11. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  12. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers’ Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers’ spent grain (BSG into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46% glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g, 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  13. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  14. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

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    Arman Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were investigated using a weight loss method, an open circuit potential method (OCP, and a potentiodynamic polarization curves method in anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS were then used to determine the corrosion morphology in verifying the SRB activity and corrosion products formation. Results from the study show that the corrosion rate (CR of weight loss method for the isolated SRB is recorded as 0.2017 mm/yr compared to 0.2530 mm/yr for ATCC 7757. The Tafel plot recorded the corrosion rate of 0.3290 mm/yr for Sg. Ular SRB and 0.2500 mm/yr for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results showed that the consortia of isolated SRB were of comparable effects and features with the single ATCC 7757 strain.

  15. Transcription profiling of interactions between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 during Cheddar cheese simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfossés-Foucault, Émilie; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2014-05-16

    The starter cultures (Lactococcus sp.) and non-starter lactic acid bacteria (mostly Lactobacillus spp.) are essential to flavor development of Cheddar cheese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional interaction between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 in mixed cultures during simulated Cheddar cheese manufacture (Pearce activity test) and ripening (slurry). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify the expression of 34 genes common to both bacteria and for eight genes specific to either L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 or L. paracasei ATCC 334. The multifactorial analysis (MFA) performed on fold change results for each gene revealed that the genes linked to stress, protein and peptide degradation as well as carbohydrate metabolism of L. paracasei ATCC 334 were especially overexpressed in mixed culture with L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 during the ripening simulation. For L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11, genes coding for amino acid metabolism were more expressed during the cheese manufacture simulation, especially in single culture. These results show how complementary functions of starter and NSLAB contribute to activities useful for flavor development.

  16. Genome mining of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 for heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian; Zhou, Yuanjie; Li, Xiaowei; Zhu, Fayin; Cheng, Yongbo; Liu, Yi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-02-01

    As a highly valued keto-carotenoid, astaxanthin is widely used in nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for biosynthetic astaxanthin and improved efficiency of astaxanthin biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native astaxanthin producers and heterologous hosts. However, microbial resources for astaxanthin are limited. In this study, we found that the α-Proteobacterium Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 could produce astaxanthin naturally. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway using a combined PacBio-Illumina approach. The putative astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 was predicted. For further confirmation, a high-efficiency targeted engineering carotenoid synthesis platform was constructed in E. coli for identifying the functional roles of candidate genes. All genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis showed discrete distributions on the chromosome. Moreover, the overexpression of exogenous E. coli idi in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 increased astaxanthin production by 5.4-fold. This study described a new astaxanthin producer and provided more biosynthesis components for bioengineering of astaxanthin in the future.

  17. The two-component system CBO2306/CBO2307 is important for cold adaptation of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Yağmur; Isokallio, Marita; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a notorious foodborne pathogen. Its ability to adapt to and grow at low temperatures is of interest for food safety. Two-component systems (TCSs) have been reported to be involved in cold-shock and growth at low temperatures. Here we show the importance of TCS CBO2306/CBO2307 in the cold-shock response of C. botulinum ATCC 3502. The relative expression levels of the cbo2306 and cbo2307 were up to 4.4-fold induced in the cold-shocked cultures but negatively regulated in the late-log and stationary growth phase in relation to early logarithmic growth phase in non-shocked cultures. Importance of the CBO2306/CBO2307 in the cold stress was further demonstrated by impaired growth of insertional cbo2306 or cbo2307 knockout mutants in relation to the wild-type strain ATCC 3502. The results suggest that the TCS CBO2306/CBO2307 is important for cold-shock response and adaptation of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to low temperature.

  18. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ∼50,000 and ∼17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the ∼50-kDa protein as an NAD+- and metal ion-dependent phospho-α-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-α-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to ∼1.5- and ∼1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon. PMID:18310337

  19. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  20. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsa; Szilágyi, Judit; Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos, Gábor; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedique; Majoros, László

    2009-07-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 microg/mL (1-8x MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 microg/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at > or =1x MIC (0.5-2 microg/mL) against C. parapsilosis and at > or =2x MIC (4-8 microg/mL) against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. Voriconazole inhibited C. parapsilosis at > or =1x MIC (0.015-0.12 microg/mL), but the other 2 species were inhibited only at 4 to 8x MIC (0.25-0.5 microg/mL). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, posaconazole was fungistatic close to the MIC (0.03-0.06 and 0.015-0.03 microg/mL, respectively). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, fluconazole and voriconazole, but not posaconazole, seem to be less active in vitro than against C. parapsilosis.

  1. Functional characterization of a cadmium resistance operon in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600: CadC does not function as a repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Dyk, Lisa A Van; Buit, Tyler S; Roukema, David; Resseguie, Emily; Plaisier, Christina; Le, Nga; Heeringa, Lee; Griend, Douglas A Vander

    2015-02-01

    Sequencing of a cadmium resistance operon from a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 plasmid revealed that it is identical to a cadCA operon found in MRSA strains. Compared to plasmid-cured and cadC-mutant strains, cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells had increased resistance to cadmium (1 mg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate) and zinc (4 mg ml(-1) zinc sulfate), but not to other metal ions. After growth in media containing 20 µg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate, cadC-mutant cells contained more intracellular cadmium than cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells, suggesting that cadC absence results in impaired cadmium efflux. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with CadC proteins encoded by the S. aureus ATCC12600 plasmid and by the cadC gene of pI258, which is known to act as a transcriptional repressor and shares only 47% protein sequence identity with ATCC12600 CadC. Mobility shifts occurred when pI258 CadC protein was incubated with the promoter DNA-regions from the pI258 and S. aureus ATCC12600 cadCA operons, but did not occur with S. aureus ATCC12600 CadC protein, indicating that the ATCC12600 CadC protein does not interact with promoter region DNA. This cadCA operon, found in MRSA strains and previously functionally uncharacterized, increases resistance to cadmium and zinc by an efflux mechanism, and CadC does not function as a transcriptional repressor.

  2. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis.

  3. Metabolic flux analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagesan, Swathi; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Sinha, Avinash; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes capable of utilizing solar energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide to biomass. Despite several "proof of principle" studies, low product yield is an impediment in commercialization of cyanobacteria-derived biofuels. Estimation of intracellular reaction rates by (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) would be a step toward enhancing biofuel yield via metabolic engineering. We report (13)C-MFA for Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, known for enhanced hydrogen yield under mixotrophic conditions. Rates of reactions in the central carbon metabolism under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions were estimated by monitoring the competitive incorporation of (12)C and (13)C from unlabeled CO2 and uniformly labeled glycerol, respectively, into terminal metabolites such as amino acids. The observed labeling patterns suggest mixotrophic growth under both the conditions, with a larger fraction of unlabeled carbon in nitrate-sufficient cultures asserting a greater contribution of carbon fixation by photosynthesis and an anaplerotic pathway. Indeed, flux analysis complements the higher growth observed under nitrate-sufficient conditions. On the other hand, the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle was greater in nitrate-deficient conditions, possibly to supply the precursors and reducing equivalents needed for nitrogen fixation. In addition, an enhanced flux through fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase possibly suggests the organism's preferred mode under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The (13)C-MFA results complement the reported predictions by flux balance analysis and provide quantitative insight into the organism's distinct metabolic features under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions.

  4. Pseudosymmetry, high copy number and twinning complicate the structure determination of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 29577) flavodoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelker, Megan; Stagg, Loren; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Shamoo, Yousif

    2009-06-01

    The crystal structure of oxidized flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 29577) was determined by molecular replacement in two crystal forms, P3(1)21 and P4(3), at 2.5 and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. Structure determination in space group P3(1)21 was challenging owing to the presence of pseudo-translational symmetry and a high copy number in the asymmetric unit (8). Initial phasing attempts in space group P3(1)21 by molecular replacement using a poor search model (46% identity) and multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion were unsuccessful. It was necessary to solve the structure in a second crystal form, space group P4(3), which was characterized by almost perfect twinning, in order to obtain a suitable search model for molecular replacement. This search model with complementary approaches to molecular replacement utilizing the pseudo-translational symmetry operators determined by analysis of the native Patterson map facilitated the selection and manual placement of molecules to generate an initial solution in the P3(1)21 crystal form. During the early stages of refinement, application of the appropriate twin law, (-h, -k, l), was required to converge to reasonable R-factor values despite the fact that in the final analysis the data were untwinned and the twin law could subsequently be removed. The approaches used in structure determination and refinement may be applicable to other crystal structures characterized by these complicating factors. The refined model shows flexibility of the flavin mononucleotide coordinating loops indicated by the isolation of two loop conformations and provides a starting point for the elucidation of the mechanism used for protein-partner recognition.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC 19707

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klots, Martin G. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Arp, D J [Oregon State University; Chain, Patrick S [ORNL; El-Sheikh, Amal F. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Hommes, Norman G. [Oregon State University; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Norton, Jeanette M. [Utah State University (USU); Poret-Peterson, Amisha T. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ward, Bess B. [Princeton University

    2006-01-01

    The gammaproteobacterium Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707) is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; G+C content of 50.4%) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3,052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. Contrary to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor, were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance, and ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H+-dependent F0F1 type, one Na+-dependent V type).

  6. Characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster of rebeccamycin from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes ATCC 39243.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster for rebeccamycin, an indolocarbazole antibiotic, from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes ATCC 39243 has 11 ORFs. To clarify their functions, mutants with rebG, rebD, rebC, rebP, rebM, rebR, rebH, rebT, or orfD2 disrupted were constructed, and the gene products were examined. rebP disruptants produced 11,11'-dichlorochromopyrrolic acid, found to be a biosynthetic intermediate by a bioconversion experiment. Other genes encoded N-glycosyltransferase (rebG), monooxygenase (rebC), methyltransferase (rebM), a transcriptional activator (rebR), and halogenase (rebH). rebT disruptants produced rebeccamycin as much as the wild strain, so rebT was probably not involved in rebeccamycin production. Biosynthetic genes of staurosporine, an another indolocarbazole antibiotic, were cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0274. staO, staD, and staP were similar to rebO, rebD, and rebP, respectively, all of which are responsible for indolocarbazole biosynthesis, But a rebC homolog, encoding a putative enzyme oxidizing the C-7 site of pyrrole rings, was not found in the staurosporine biosynthetic gene cluster. These results suggest that indolocarbazole is constructed by oxidative decarboxylation of chromopyrrolic acid (11,11'-dichlorochromopyrrolic acid in rebeccamycin) generated from two molecules of tryptophan by coupling and that the oxidation state at the C-7 position depends on the additional enzyme(s) encoded by the biosynthetic genes.

  7. Cloning, expression and characterization of D-aminoacylase from Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans ATCC 15173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Huange; Bi, Qirui; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Ni, Mengxiang

    2013-07-19

    D-Aminoacylase catalyzes the conversion of N-acyl-D-amino acids to d-amino acids and fatty acids. The aim of this study was to identify the D-aminoacylase gene from Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans ATCC 15173 and investigate the biochemical characterization of the enzyme. A previously uncharacterized D-aminoacylase gene (ADdan) from this organism was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame (ORF) of ADdan was 1467 bp in size encoding a 488-amino acid polypeptide. ADdan, with a high amino acid similarity to N-acyl-D-aspartate amidohydrolase from Alcaligenes A6, showed relatively low sequence similarities to other characterized D-aminoacylases. The recombinant ADdan protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-28a with a T7 promoter. The enzyme was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The molecular mass of the expressed protein, calculated by SDS-PAGE, was about 52 kDa. The purified ADdan showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 50°C, and was stable at pH 6.0-8.0 and up to 45°C. Its activity was inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Hg(2+), whereas Mg(2+) had no significant influence on this recombinant D-aminoacylase. This is the first report on the characterization of D-aminoacylase with activity towards both N-acyl derivatives of neutral D-amino acids and N-acyl-D-aspartate. The characteristics of ADdan could prove to be of interest in industrial production of D-amino acids.

  8. A Model of Cyclic Transcriptomic Behavior in Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; McCue, Lee Ann; Hill, Eric A.; Choi, Daniel M.; Stockel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle L.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Sherman, Louis A.

    2011-07-01

    Systems biology attempts to reconcile large amounts of disparate data with existing knowledge to provide models of functioning biological systems. Useful and predictive models aim to summarize complex and dynamic processes and represent the relationships between these processes. The cyanobacterial Cyanothece species Strain sp. ATCC 51142 is an excellent candidate for such systems studies because: (i) it displays tight functional regulation as it must separate the opposing processes of oxygen-generating photosynthesis and oxygen-sensitive nitrogen fixation temporally in the same cell, ; (ii) it has robust cyclic patterns at the genetic, protein and metabolomic levels, ; and (iii) and it has potential applications for bioenergy and carbon sequestration, and thus a predictive model of its function is of practical use. We have represented the transcriptomic data from Cyanothece 51142 under diurnal light/dark cycles as a high-level functional abstraction and describe development of a predictive in silico model of diurnal and circadian behavior in terms of regulatory and metabolic processes in Cyanothece 51142. Our model provides a way to integrate disparate data types into a framework that can be used to explain behavior, generate high-quality predictions for validation, and to suggest future experiments. We show that incorporating network topology into the model improves performance in terms of our ability to explain the behavior of the system under new conditions. The model presented robustly describes transcriptomic behavior of Cyanothece 51142 under different cyclic and non-cyclic growth conditions robustly, and represents a significant advance in the understanding of gene regulation in this important organism.

  9. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC19707

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, M G; Arp, D J; Chain, P S; El-Sheikh, A F; Hauser, L J; Hommes, N G; Larimer, F W; Malfatti, S A; Norton, J M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Vergez, L M; Ward, B B

    2006-08-03

    The Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707), is a Gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; 50.4% G+C) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. In contrast to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance and the ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I RuBisCO was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H{sup +}-dependent F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-type, one Na{sup +}-dependent V-type).

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 on allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.

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    Wenhui Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hygiene hypothesis demonstrates that the lack of microbial exposure would promote the development of allergic airway disease (AAD. Therefore, the gut microbiota, including Escherichia coli (E. coli, would probably offer a potential strategy for AAD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether E. coli infection is able to suppress the induction of AAD and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Nonpathogenic E. coli ATCC 25922 was infected by gavage before AAD phase in three patterns: 10(8 or 10(6 CFU in neonates or 10(8 CFU in adults. Then mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to induce allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Hallmarks of AAD, in terms of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, Th2 skewing of the immune response, and levels of T regulate cells (Tregs, were examined by histological analysis, ELISA, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: E. coli, especially neonatally infected with an optimal dose, attenuated allergic responses, including a decrease in nasal rubbing and sneezing, a reduction in eosinophil inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, decreased serum levels of OVA-specific IgE, and reduced Th2 (IL-4 cytokines. In contrast, this effect came with an increase of Th1 (IFN-r and IL-2 cytokines, and an enhancement of IL-10-secreting Tregs in paratracheal lymph nodes (PTLN. CONCLUSION: E. coli suppresses allergic responses in mice, probably via a shift from Th1 to Th2 and/or induction of Tregs. Moreover, this infection is age- and dose-dependent, which may open up novel possibilities for new therapeutic interventions.

  11. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  12. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  14. Elevated chitin content reduces the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species.

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system plus PDT against intracanal Candida albicans: an ex vivo study

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    Rachel Garcia de MIRANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ex vivoantimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system and the photodynamic therapy (PDT associated with chemomechanical debridement (CMD and intracanal medication on Candida albicans. Seventy-eight sterile premolars were contaminated withC. albicans (ATCC 21433 for 30 days. The teeth were randomly assigned into four groups: Control (CMD with conventional irrigation; Endovac (CMD with EndoVac system; PDT (CMD with conventional irrigation and PDT; and Endovac + PDT (CMD with EndoVac and PDT. After the therapies, intracanal dressing (calcium hydroxide was applied to all teeth for seven days. Samples were obtained before (T1 and after the therapeutic procedures (T2, and after intracanal medication (T3, plated onto BHI agar and incubated (37°C, 48 h to determine the colony-forming units (CFU/mL. The overall mean level ofC. albicans at baseline was relatively high (1.85 x 106 ± 2.7 x 106 CFU mL-1. A significant reduction of C. albicans(p < 0.05 was observed over time (T1 to T2 and T1 to T3 in all groups. An additional significant reduction from T2 to T3 was observed only in the Endovac group (p < 0.05. No differences in mean reduction of C. albicans were observed among groups. However, the Endovac group presented the lowest mean counts of C. albicans at T3, whereas the PDT group had the highest counts of this microorganism (p < 0.05. The EndoVac system of irrigation/aspiration associated with CMD was the most effective therapeutic protocol for reducing intracanal levels of C. albicans. PDT showed a very limited efficacy against this species.

  16. Killing Rates of Caspofungin in 50 Percent Serum Correlate with Caspofungin Efficacy Against Candida albicans in a Neutropenic Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domán, Marianna; Kovács, Renátó; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Juhász, Béla; Bozó, Aliz; Kardos, Tamás; Saleh, Qasem; Majoros, László

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that caspofungin dose escalation against Candida species is more beneficial than currently used lower daily doses. Thus, we determined in vitro and in vivo activity of caspofungin against six wild-type C. albicans clinical isolates, the ATCC 10231 strain and an echinocandin resistant strain. MIC ranges of clinical isolates in RPMI-1640 with and without 50% serum were 0.125-0.25 and 0.015-0.06 mg/L, respectively. Two and three isolates showed paradoxical growth in MIC and time-kill tests, respectively, in RPMI-1640 but not in 50% serum. Caspofungin killing rate (k) in RPMI-1640 at 1 mg/L was higher than at 16 and 32 mg/L for all isolates (p0.05 for all comparisons), but for one isolate k value at 32 mg/L was significantly lower than at 1-16 mg/L. Although k values at 1-32 mg/L showed a great variability in 50% serum (the lowest and highest k value ranges were 0.085-0.109 and 0.882-0.985 1/h, respectively), daily 3, 5 and 15 mg/kg caspofungin was effective in a neutropenic murine model against all isolates, without significant differences between the effective doses. This study confirms that paradoxical growth does not affect the in vivo efficacy of caspofungin. We demonstrated that dose escalation did not increase the efficacy of caspofungin against C. albicans either in vitro or in vivo. These results are in concordance with the clinical experience that efficacy of echinocandins does not increase at larger doses.

  17. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

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    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  18. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Esra

    2010-04-01

    In this study, identification of 207 Candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using API 20 C AUX system. The most frequently isolated species were Candida krusei (34.8%), followed by Candida rugosa (16.4%), Candida kefyr (12.6%), Candida albicans (10.1%), and Candida tropicalis (9.2%). Less common isolates were Candida zeylanoides (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%), Candida guilliermondii (3.4%), Candida famata (1.9%), and Candida glabrata (1.5%). Additionally, in vitro hemolytic activity of all Candida strains were also examined in the present study. C. krusei (72 isolates), C. kefyr (26), C. albicans (21), C. tropicalis (19), C. zeylanoides (12), and C. glabrata (3) demonstrated both alpha and beta hemolysis at 48-h postinoculation. Only alpha hemolysis was detected in C. rugosa (34), C. guilliermondii (7), and C. famata (4), while C. parapsilosis (9) did not show any hemolytic activity after incubation for 72 h. Statistically significant difference (P hemolytic activities of Candida strains. The hemolytic activities of C. zeylanoides, C. albicans and C. kefyr were higher than other strains. This is the first study to describe variable hemolysis types exhibited by different Candida strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk in Turkey.

  19. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

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    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  20. Comparison of the effect of rose bengal- and eosin Y-mediated photodynamic inactivation on planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida albicans.

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    Freire, Fernanda; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Beltrame Junior, Milton; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2014-05-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast that can cause oral candidosis through the formation of a biofilm, an important virulence factor that compromises the action of antifungal agents. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of rose bengal (RB)- and eosin Y (EY)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using a green light-emitting diode (LED; 532 ± 10 nm) on planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans (ATCC 18804). Planktonic cultures were treated with photosensitizers at concentrations ranging from 0.78 to 400 μM, and biofilms were treated with 200 μM of photosensitizers. The number of colony-forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) was compared by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.05). After treatment, one biofilm specimen of the control and PDI groups were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The photosensitizers (6.25, 25, 50, 200, and 400 μM of EY, and 6.25 μM of RB or higher) significantly reduced the number of CFU/mL in the PDI groups when compared to the control group. With respect to biofilm formation, RB- and EY-mediated PDI promoted reductions of 0.22 log10 and 0.45 log10, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the two photosensitizers reduced fungal structures. In conclusion, EY- and RB-mediated PDI using LED irradiation significantly reduced C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilms.

  1. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  2. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  3. Efecto de la microencapsulación con agentes prebióticos sobre la viabilidad de microorganismos probióticos (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 y Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9469)

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Ramírez, Luz Mary

    2013-01-01

    Las tecnologías de microencapsulación de microorganismos probióticos han permitido el desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales al mejorar su estabilidad durante el procesamiento, almacenamiento y en la superviviencia durante su paso a través del tracto gastrointestinal. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la microencapsulación mediante secado por aspersión y liofilización sobre la viabilidad de los microorganismos probióticos Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 y Lactobacillu...

  4. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Naohito; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshioka, Shinji; Yamano, Masahiro; Henmi, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole. PMID:25215255

  5. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

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    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  6. Characterization of extracellular nucleotide metabolism in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gonçalves, Teresa; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of human disseminated fungal infection. Ectophosphatase and ectonucleotidase activities are known to influence the infectious potential of several microbes, including other non-albicans species of Candida. With the present work we aim to characterize these ecto-enzymatic activities in C. albicans. We found that C. albicans does not have a classical ecto-5'-nucleotidase enzyme and 5'AMP is cleaved by a phosphatase instead of exclusively by a nucleotidase that also can use 3'AMP as a substrate. Moreover, these enzymatic activities are not dependent on secreted soluble enzymes and change when the yeast cells are under infection conditions, including low pH, and higher temperature and CO2 content.

  7. Phenotypic consequences of LYS4 gene disruption in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Kur, Krzysztof; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Pulickal, Anoop S; Bliss, Joseph M; Milewski, Sławomir

    2014-08-01

    A BLAST search of the Candida Genome Database with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYS4 sequence known to encode homoaconitase (HA) revealed ORFs 19.3846 and 19.11327. Both alleles of the LYS4 gene were sequentially disrupted in Candida albicans BWP17 cells using PCR-based methodology. The null lys4Δ mutant exhibited lysine auxotrophy in minimal medium but was able to grow in the presence of l-Lys and α-aminoadipate, an intermediate of the α-aminoadipate pathway, at millimolar concentrations. The presence of d-Lys and pipecolic acid did not trigger lys4Δ growth. The C. albicans lys4Δ mutant cells demonstrated diminished germination ability. However, their virulence in vivo in a murine model of disseminated neonatal candidiasis appeared identical to that of the wild-type strain. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in fungal burden of infected tissues between the strains.

  8. Use of Amorolfine in Candida- associated Denture Stomatitis

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    S.Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis (DS is an inflammatory lesion, in which there is redness of theoral mucosa underneath a removable denture. Although Candida albicans is a component ofnormal microbial flora, local and systemic factors can cause opportunistic infections. Poorlyfitting or unhygienic dentures leads to the presence of yeasts attached to it., and causeinflammation. Treatment procedures include correction of ill-fitting dentures, plaquecontrol, and topical and systemic antifungal therapy. Nystatin and Amphoteresin B are usedtopically as suspension. Since candidiasis is highly resistant to antifungal agents, systemicusage of ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole are necessary. But the systemic use ofthese drugs can cause side effects like liver toxicity, drug interactions etc. Lucio; Lorengoetal had conducted a study of the efficacy of amorolfine antifungal varnish, by localapplication, and found that it suppresses the nystatin resistant Candida associated denturestomatitis.

  9. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  10. Prospective multicenter study of the epidemiology, molecular identification, and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis isolated from patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen; Velasco, David

    2011-12-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species

  11. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.

  12. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan,, V.; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  13. The Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Isolated From Urine Samples to Posaconazole and Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; REZAEI-MATEHKOLAEI, Ali; Ghanavati, Fataemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candiduria is a rising condition among hospitalized patients and Candida albicans is the most common recovered agent. However, non-albicans Candida species (NACs) such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also important. Although most Candida species especially C. albicans are sensitive to routinely used antifungals, an increasing trend in resistance has been observed among NACs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility...

  14. Evolution of Mating within the Candida parapsilosis Species Group▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M.; McGee, Conor F.; Lynch, Denise B.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MT...

  15. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms.

  16. STUDY OF CHARACTERIZATION & ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT CANDIDA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades Candida has accounted for the most serious opportunistic infections especially in the immuno-compromised individuals. Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections & the rates of resistance to standard antifungal therapies are on the rise. Awareness regarding fungal infections has compelled the clinicians and laboratories to lay more emphasis on the detection of fungi; as speciation and antifungal tests are not routinely done. Over the past decade significant progress has been made with standardization of the methods for antifungal susceptibility testing, correlation between in-vitro results & patient outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate, identify & determine the susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Candida species and study the spectrum of Non-albicans Candida species, thus contributing to overall reduction in the cost of treatment and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: The study was carried out at department of microbiology MVJ Medical Hospital Bangalore for one year from Aug 2010 – July 2011. 50 Candida species which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. They were identified by using various media & identification methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done on Yeast nitrogen base agar by disk diffusion method & analyzed. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida (NAC emerged as the commonest species with [39(22%] causing fungal infection followed by Candida albicans [11(22%]. Among the NAC isolates Candida tropicalis was predominant followed by Candida krusei, Candida glabrata & Candida guilliermondi. CONCLUSION: Studying the speciation & susceptibility patterns of Candida will help us understand the etio-pathology and might assist in better patient care

  17. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna; Shilpa Patel; Madhusudan Astekar Sundarrao; Ravindra Setru Veerabhadrappa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additio...

  18. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  19. Echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis: 12 cases and a review of published reports

    OpenAIRE

    Donal, E.; Abgueguen, P; Coisne, D.; Gouello, J; McFadden, E; Allal, J.; Corbi, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the specific echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis.
DESIGN—Retrospective review of the case records of patients with confirmed candida endocarditis.
SETTING—Cases referred to three French university centres over an eight year period were studied.
DESIGN—12 patients with confirmed Candida species endocarditis infection were identified. The transthoracic (n = 12) and transoesophageal (n = 12) echocardiographic appearances were compared with the surgica...

  20. Evolution of mating within the Candida parapsilosis species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M; McGee, Conor F; Lynch, Denise B; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MTLα, and 2 were MTLa/α heterozygotes. The C. orthopsilosis isolates belonged to two divergent groups, as characterized by restriction patterns at MTL, which probably represent subspecies. We sequenced both idiomorphs from each group and showed that they are 95% identical and that the regulatory genes are intact. In contrast, 18 isolates of C. metapsilosis contain only MTLα idiomorphs. Our results suggest that the role of MTL in determining cell type is being eroded in the C. parapsilosis species complex. The population structure of C. orthopsilosis indicates that mating may occur. However, expression of genes in the mating signal transduction pathway does not respond to exposure to alpha factor. C. parapsilosis is also nonresponsive, even when the GTPase-activating protein gene SST2 is deleted. In addition, splicing of introns in MTLa1 and MTLa2 is defective in C. orthopsilosis. Mating is not detected. The alpha factor peptide, which is the same sequence in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, can induce a mating response in Candida albicans. It is therefore likely either that mating of C. orthopsilosis takes place under certain unidentified conditions or that the mating pathway has been adapted for other functions, such as cross-species communication.