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Sample records for candida oleophila atcc

  1. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a post...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1144 - Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila isolate I-182... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1144 Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Candida oleophila isolate I-182, when used as a post-harvest biological fungicide...

  3. Sequential application of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and Candida oleophila (isolate 13L) affects significantly Penicillum expansum growth and the infection degree in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2011-01-01

    The employment of biocontrol agents to restrain postharvest pathogens is an encouraging approach, although, efficacy and consistency are still below those of synthetic pesticides. Up to date, the 'integrated control strategy' seems to be the most promising way to overcome this gap. Here, we report the feasibility to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in apples by a 2 min, single or sequential, immersion in water with an antagonistic yeast (Candida oleophila, isolate '13L'), 2% NaHCO3 (SBC) or 1% CaCl2. The treatments were carried out, on appels cv 'Miali' either un-wounded, wounded or wound-pathogen inoculated and then stored at 2 degrees C for 30 d followed by a 6 d simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C or alternatively stored only for 7 d at 20 degrees C. As a general role, the best results were attained when CaCl2 was applied with the yeast or when preceded by the SBC treatment. When the wounding and inoculation took place 24 h before the treatment, the latter application sequence of the two salts was three times more effective compared to the treatment with the sole antagonist, and one time when performed 24 h after the treatment. Interestingly, apples immersed in the sole 2% SBC solution had the highest percentage of decay during storage and when inoculated before moving to the simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C.

  4. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 Displays In vitro Inhibitory Activities against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Monique S.; Noronha, Francisca M. F.; Arruda, Mariana O.; Costa, Ênnio P. da Silva; Bomfim, Maria R. Q.; Monteiro, Andrea S.; Ferro, Thiago A. F.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Girón, Jorge A.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L. paracasei (ATCC 335), L. plantarum (ATCC 8014), and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595), against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826), and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813). The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: (i) adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, (ii) biofilm formation, (iii) co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, (iv) inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and (v) antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001), likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidiasis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidiasis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains. PMID:27833605

  5. Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 23271 displays in vitro inhibitory activities against Candida spp.

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    Monique Santos Carmo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356, L. brevis (ATCC 367, L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645, L. fermentum (ATCC 23271, L. paracasei (ATCC 335, L. plantarum (ATCC 8014, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 9595, against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (ATCC 9826, and Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC 13813. The probiotic potential was investigated by using the following criteria: i adhesion to host epithelial cells and mucus, ii biofilm formation, iii co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens, iv inhibition of pathogen adhesion to mucus and HeLa cells, and v antimicrobial activity. Tested lactobacilli adhered to mucin, co-aggregated with all genital microorganisms, and displayed antimicrobial activity. With the exception of L. acidophilus and L. paracasei, they adhered to HeLa cells. However, only L. fermentum produced a moderate biofilm and a higher level of co-aggregation and mucin binding. The displacement assay demonstrated that all Lactobacillus strains inhibit C. albicans binding to mucin (p < 0.001, likely due to the production of substances with antimicrobial activity. Clinical isolates belonging to the most common Candida species associated to vaginal candidosis were inhibited by L. fermentum. Collectively, our data suggest that L. fermentum ATCC 23271 is a potential probiotic candidate, particularly to complement candidosis treatment, since presented with the best probiotic profile in comparison with the other tested lactobacilli strains.

  6. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of lactose-fermenting yeast for ethanol production from whey. [Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, M E; Castillo, F J

    1982-01-01

    Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 was selected from among 9 strains of lactose-fermenting yeasts on the basis of its ability to ferment concentrated whey. In 28% deproteinized whey solutions it produced an average of 12.4% EtOH. This yeast could be used in a process for whey treatment.

  8. POTENSI ANTIMIKROBIA KRIM EKSTRAK RANTING PATAH TULANG (Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. TERHADAP Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 11827 DAN Candida albicans ATCC 24433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Scandinovita Setiorini

    2016-04-01

    extracts with cream for testing Candida albicans.The final results were 10% test extract had MIC to Propionibacterium acnes and 6% test extract had MIC in cream to Candida albicans. Keywords: Euphorbia tirucalli L., DMSO, Thymol, antimicrobial potency, cream (o/w, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans

  9. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

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    Sheir DH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6 was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.

  10. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  11. Binding and Conversion of Selenium in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeasts in Bioreactor Culture

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    Marek Kieliszek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is considered an essential component of all living organisms. The use of yeasts as a selenium supplement in human nutrition has gained much interest over the last decade. The accumulation and biochemical transformation of selenium in yeast cells is particularly interesting to many researchers. In this article, we present the results of the determination of selenium and selenomethionine content in the biomass of feed yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 obtained from the culture grown in a bioreactor. The results indicated that C. utilis cells performed the biotransformation of inorganic selenium(IV to organic derivatives (e.g., selenomethionine. Selenium introduced (20–30 mg Se4+∙L−1 to the experimental media in the form of sodium(IV selenite (Na2SeO3 salt caused a significant increase in selenium content in the biomass of C. utilis,irrespective of the concentration. The highest amount of selenium (1841 μg∙gd.w.−1 was obtained after a 48-h culture in media containing 30 mg Se4+∙L−1. The highest content of selenomethionine (238.8 μg∙gd.w.−1 was found after 48-h culture from the experimental medium that was supplemented with selenium at a concentration of 20 mg Se4+∙L−1. Biomass cell in the cultures supplemented with selenium ranged from 1.5 to 14.1 g∙L−1. The results of this study indicate that yeast cell biomass of C. utilis enriched mainly with the organic forms of selenium can be a valuable source of protein. It creates the possibility of obtaining selenium biocomplexes that can be used in the production of protein-selenium dietary supplements for animals and humans

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Mandal, P. K.; Gautham, Namasivayam; Chadha, Anju

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies on C. parapsilosis carbonyl reductase are reported. The NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 catalyses the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-phenyl-2-oxobutanoate to ethyl (R)-4-phenyl-2-hydroxybutanoate, a precursor of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors such as Cilazapril and Benazepril. The carbonyl reductase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by GST-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 1.86 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of carbonyl reductase, with a solvent content of 48%. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a search model

  13. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

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    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  14. Cell wall damage and oxidative stress in Candida albicans ATCC10231 and Aspergillus niger caused by palladium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athie-García, Martha Samira; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda Amelia; Muñoz-Castellanos, Laila Nayzzel; Ulloa-Ogaz, Ana Laura; Martínez-Varela, Perla Ivonne; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Duran, Robert; Murillo-Ramirez, José Guadalupe; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2018-04-01

    In this work the toxic effect of Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was investigated in two eukaryotic cell models, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. PdNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method, obtaining spherical NPs with a primary size ranging from 3 to 15 nm. PdNPs showed a hydrodynamic size of 1548 nm in Lee's minimum media. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 200 and 250 ppm for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively, revealing a significant cell growth inhibition (ANOVA and tukey analysis, α = 0.5). Reactive Oxygen Species levels were increased in both microorganisms. Confocal, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed cell wall damage and cellular morphology changes, induced by the interaction of PdNPs, in both microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FORMULATION OF NANOEMULSION MOUTHWASH COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS OIL (Cymbopogon citratus AND KAFFIR LIME OIL (Citrus hystrix FOR ANTICANDIDIASIS AGAINST Candida albicans ATCC 10231

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    Meta Juniatik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a fungal infection disease that still become health problem in Indonesia, especially oral candidiasis that largerly caused by Candida albicans abnormal growth on oral cavity. Lemongrass oil and kaffir lime oil have been proven to have antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The composition of limonen, α-terpineol, sitronelil acetate, terpineol, β-pinene, on kaffir lime oil and citronelal on lemongrass oil make the combination of both oils have the potential as an alternative theraphy for oral candidiasis. It formulates in the form of nanoemulsion mouthwash. Nanoemulsion is chosen because it has some advantages like clear, stable, and increasing the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and kaffir lime oil. The study begins with plants determination, essential oils charecterization tests (solubility, refractative index, and specific gravity, and essential oil content analysis by GC-MS. Nanoemulision formulates by water titration method. Optimization of oil mix and VCO do to get a clear and stable nanoemulsion. The best formula is characterized (transmittance, particle size, viscosity, zeta potential, and stability test, then analyze the essential oil chemical compounds in the optimum formula and test the inhibitory effect of the formula by microdilution method. Inhibiton data analysis use One Way ANOVA. Based on the results of the study, 0.4 % oil mix, 3.6 % VCO, 17.3 % tween 80, 8.7 % PEG 400 dan 70 % water is the best formula that can form a nanoemulsion system with an average particle size 21,4 nm, low viscosity, low zeta potential and stable during freez-thaw storage. Nanoemulsion significantly has inhibitory effect more effective than positive control.

  16. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  17. Candida auris

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  18. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

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    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  19. Evaluation of Lactobacillus sanfransicencis (ATCC 14917)and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sourdoughs, produced with Lactobacillus sanfransicencis (ATCC 14917) and Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 43332) at different fermentation time, fermentation temperature and type of starter culture on the staling and microbiological shelf life of Iranian Barbari wheat bread was studied. For statistical analysis a ...

  20. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. An open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. This ORF includes a charact...

  1. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  2. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R; Ziola, Barry

    2012-02-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences.

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 8530

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Bushell, Barry R.; Ziola, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is important for probiotics. We became interested in L. rhamnosus isolate ATCC 8530 in relation to beer spoilage and hops resistance. We report here the genome sequence of this isolate, along with a brief comparison to other available L. rhamnosus genome sequences.

  4. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  5. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida . Methods  By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida ( Candida albicans ; Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results  There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non- Candida albicans ( Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant ( p  Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  6. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans

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    Bouzid Djihane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%. The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%, α-Curcumene (11.41%, Geranyl acetate (10.05%, Limonene (6.07%, Nerol (5.04%, Neryl acetate (4.91% and α-Pinene (3.78%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Ascochyta rabiei. H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml−1. A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml−1 and 12.65 μg ml−1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml−1 to 50.6 μg ml−1 and a fungicide minimum

  7. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djihane, Bouzid; Wafa, Nouioua; Elkhamssa, Soltani; Pedro, De Haro Juan; Maria, Angeles Esteban; Mohamed Mihoub, Zerroug

    2017-07-01

    The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w) and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%). The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%), α-Curcumene (11.41%), Geranyl acetate (10.05%), Limonene (6.07%), Nerol (5.04%), Neryl acetate (4.91%) and α-Pinene (3.78%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum , Aspergillus niger , Alternaria alternata , Ascochyta rabiei . H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml -1 . A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml -1 and 12.65 μg ml -1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml -1 to 50.6 μg ml -1 and a fungicide minimum concentration of 50

  8. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  9. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  10. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli .

  11. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  12. Candida ethanolica n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybárová, J; Stros, F; Kocková-Kratochvílová, A

    1980-01-01

    A new yeast, Candida ethanolica, isolated from industrial fodder yeast cultivated on synthetic ethanol as the only source of carbon, originally designated III-5 and III-6, is described. This species differs from all recently accepted Candida species in not assimilating nitrate, not producing urease and not fermenting sugars.

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  14. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a daily intake of probiotic lactobacilli on the prevalence and counts of oral Candida in frail elderly patients living in nursing homes. The study had a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design with 2 parallel arms. The study group...... consisted of 215 older adults (range, 60 to 102 y) who were enrolled after informed consent. After baseline examination and randomization, the subjects were given 1 lozenge containing 2 strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo twice daily (morning...... balanced at baseline. The attrition rate to follow-up was 19%. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of high Candida counts in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group, and the difference was statistically significant in both saliva and plaque (P

  15. In vitro activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691, C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. krusei (ATCC 34135, C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449 and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646. Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 10(6 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC. All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%, carvacrol (9.42%, thymol (8.42% and □-terpineol (7.57%. C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 µL mL-1 and 5 µL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 µL mL-1 and 3.54 µL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 µL mL-1 and 2.97 µL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of the Secretome of Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W Wakarchuk

    Full Text Available The bacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are known for their ability to degrade plant cell wall biomass. Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 have been the subject of much research into secreted cellulases and hemicellulases. Recently the genome sequences of both C. fimi ATCC 484 and C. flavigena ATCC 482 were published, and a genome comparison has revealed their full spectrum of possible carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Using mass spectrometry, we have compared the proteins secreted by C. fimi and C. flavigena during growth on the soluble cellulose substrate, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, as well as a soluble xylan fraction. Many known C. fimi CAZymes were detected, which validated our analysis, as were a number of new CAZymes and other proteins that, though identified in the genome, have not previously been observed in the secretome of either organism. Our data also shows that many of these are co-expressed on growth of either CMC or xylan. This analysis provides a new perspective on Cellulomonas enzymes and provides many new CAZyme targets for characterization.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of infect......Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis...

  18. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 10798)

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Daniela; Engelbrecht, Kathleen C.; Putonti, Catherine; Koenig, David W.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli ATCC 10798. E.?coli ATCC 10798 is a K-12 strain, one of the most well-studied model microorganisms. The size of the genome was 4,685,496?bp, with a G+C content of 50.70%. This assembly consists of 62 contigs and the F plasmid.

  20. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body ... tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms ...

  1. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  2. Differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts by analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.D.; Choo, K.B.; Tsai, W.C.; Jen, T.M.; Yeh, J.Y.; Han, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts based on autoradiographic analysis of protein profiles of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cellular proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using ATCC strains as references, protein profile analysis showed that different Candida and other yeast species produced distinctively different patterns. Good agreement in results obtained with this approach and with other conventional systems was observed. Being accurate and reproducible, this approach provides a basis for the development of an alternative method for the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens

  3. Rapid Discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis by Use of a Singleplex PCR ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Enache-Angoulvant, A.; Guitard, J.; Grenouillet, F.; Martin, T.; Durrens, P.; Fairhead, C.; Hennequin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based assay using a single primer pair targeting the RPL31 gene that allows discrimination between Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis according to the size of the generated amplicon.

  4. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar V; Mathur M; Kumar S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore for...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 10798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Daniela; Engelbrecht, Kathleen C; Putonti, Catherine; Koenig, David W; Wolfe, Alan J

    2017-07-06

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli ATCC 10798. E. coli ATCC 10798 is a K-12 strain, one of the most well-studied model microorganisms. The size of the genome was 4,685,496 bp, with a G+C content of 50.70%. This assembly consists of 62 contigs and the F plasmid. Copyright © 2017 Dimitrova et al.

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus inhibits Candida albicans virulence factors in vitro and modulates immune system in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F C; de Barros, P P; Rossoni, R D; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anti-Candida effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 on Candida albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. rhamnosus on C. albicans's biofilm formation by CFU count and metabolic activity, filamentation capacity, and adhesion (ALS3 and HWP1) and transcriptional regulatory gene (BCR1 and CPH1) expression. The in vitro results showed that both the L. rhamnosus cells and supernatant reduced C. albicans biofilm formation, filamentation and gene expression. In the in vivo study, the treatment with L. rhamnosus supernatant increased 80% the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans. Furthermore, the supernatant of L. rhamnosus recruited haemocytes into the haemolymph (2·1-fold increase). Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced the biofilm formation and filamentation of C. albicans in vitro by negatively regulating all studied C. albicans genes. Lactobacillus rhamnosus protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. This study is the first study to report the anti-Candida properties of L. rhamnosus ATCC 9595. The supernatant of this strain has immunomodulatory effects on the G. mellonella model and protects the larvae against pathogens. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of fungal infections worldwide. In the U.S., Candida is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream ...

  9. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  10. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (Pbetle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  11. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains ATCC PTA 5289 and ATCC 55730 differ in their cariogenic properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalasvuori, Heli; Haukioja, Anna; Tenovuo, Jorma

    2012-12-01

    The effects of probiotics on cariogenic biofilms remain controversial. Our aim was to characterise two probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains, ATCC PTA 5289 and ATCC 55730 from a cariogenic standpoint in vitro. These strains are used in commercial products designed for oral health purposes. The adhesion and biofilm formation were studied on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The effects of glucose or sucrose on the biofilm formation were also tested. Arginine metabolism was assessed by measuring the pH in the presence of glucose and arginine. The degradation of hydroxyapatite was measured in three different growth media. Streptococcus mutans strains Ingbritt and MT 8148 were used as positive controls for bacterial adhesion and degradation of hydroxyapatite. Strain ATCC PTA 5289 adhered on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and formed detectable biofilm, but strain ATCC 55730 was poor in both adhesion and biofilm formation. Both strains were arginolytic and raised the pH in the presence of arginine. The amount of dissolved calcium from hydroxyapatite correlated with bacterial growth rate and the final pH of the growth medium. L. reuteri strains ATCC PTA 5289 and ATCC 55730 differed in their adhesion, biofilm formation and arginine metabolism in vitro. Thus, these probiotic lactobacilli are likely to differ in their behaviour and cariogenic potential also in an oral environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeito antifúngico de tinturas de própolis e romã sobre espécies de Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de produtos naturais na odontologia tem se mostrado como uma fonte alternativa no combate às patologias orais, incluindo as infecções fúngicas, causadas, geralmente, por Candida spp. Avaliar a ação antifúngica de tinturas de própolis Apis milifera e romã Punica granatum sobre Candida albicans (ATCC 76618, Candida krusei (ATCC 6538 e Candida tropicalis (ATCC 13803. A ação antifúngica das tinturas foi avaliada pelo método da Concentração Inibitória Mínima em meio de cultura sólido Ágar Saburaud Dextrose (Difco®. Foram confeccionados poços, com 6 mm de diâmetro, destinados a inserção de 50 µL das tinturas. Foram avaliadas seis concentrações seriadas das tinturas, sendo a concentração inicial para a tintura de própolis 200 mg/mL e 300 mg/mL a concentração inicial para a tintura de romã. Posteriormente, as placas de Petri foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica por 48 h a 37 ºC. A análise dos dados para a Concentração Inibitória Mínima foi feita através da mensuração dos halos de inibição, sendo considerados quando iguais ou superiores a 10 mm de diâmetro. Para a tintura de romã observou-se que as Concentração Inibitória Mínima sobre Candida albicans, Candida krusei e Candida tropicalis foram 9,37 mg/mL, 9,37 mg/mL e 18,75 mg/mL, respectivamente. Em relação à tintura da própolis, constatou-se que apenas em sua forma pura apresentou ação antifúngica sobre Candida krusei e Candida tropicalis, entretanto a mesma ação não foi observada sobre Candida albicans. As tinturas avaliadas apresentam ação antifúngica sobre as cepas avaliadas, exceto a tintura da própolis sobre Candida albicans.

  13. FarnesoI beyond morphogenesis controI: effect in Non- Candida albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    Candididasis is one of the most important life-tbreatening opportunistic mycosis mainly occurring in individuais with impaired immunity. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungai isolate, an increase in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species is being reported. ln fact, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are emerging as clinically relevant pathogens. So it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of infection b...

  14. Conversion of hexadecan-1-ol by extracts of candida lipolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Cell extracts from the yeast Candida lipolytica ATCC 8661 grown on hexadecane were prepared by agitation with glass beads in phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. On incubation with radioactive hexadecane and hexadecan-1-ol and analysis of the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography the extracts showed only low conversion of the hexadecane to hexadecanol and hexadecanoic acid and no formation of the corresponding aldehyde or hexadecanoic acid with hexadecan-1-ol as substrate. However the microsomal fraction was capable of converting hexadecan-1-ol to an unidentified compound, believed to be either a wax ester or acyloin. Up to 70 % of the radioactivity was incorporated into the product. (author)

  15. Hichrom candida agar for identification of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradkar, V P; Mathur, M; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%); C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%), C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%), C. tropicalis (100 and 100%) and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55%) respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  16. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  17. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and

  18. The Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Teucrium polium on Candida Albicans and Two Species of Malassezia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nadimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teucrium polium L. is a medicinal plant, which due to its antimicrobial, antispasmodic and anti-tumor properties has been used in traditional medicine for over 2000 years. The aim of this research was to study the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L. against three strains of Candida albicans (ATCC 62061, ATCC 1677, and NCPF 3153, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa using pour plate method. Materials and Methods: Teucrium polium L. was collected from Broojen area during the spring. The plant was dried and powdered. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared from the fine powder. Different concentrations of extracts (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml were made in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and modified Leeming-Notman Agar (MLNA medium for Candida albicans, Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa. 1.5×106 cfu/ml of yeasts, were cultured on media and incubated at 37ºC and 32ºC respectively. Pour plate method was used to assess the antifungal activity of these extracts.Results: The inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of Teucrium polium L. on the three strains of Candida albicans was depended on concentration level of extracts in media. Aqueous extract had inhibitory effect on Candida albicans (NCPF 3153 only, and with increasing of the extract concentration, the number of colonies was decreased, so that in concentration of 8 mg/ml, no growth was seen. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts had no inhibitory effect on Malassezia species. Conclusion: Teucrium polium L. extracts have considerable inhibitory effect on different strains of Candida albicans. Further investigations are needed to detect the effectiveness of this plant in treatment of Candida infections.

  19. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism Candida...

  20. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri has antifungal effects on oral Candida species in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: An alternative approach for managing Candida infections in the oral cavity by modulating the oral microbiota with probiotic bacteria has been proposed.  Objective: The aim was to investigate the antifungal potential of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC...... PTA 5289) against six oral Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, and C. parapsilosis).  Design: The lactobacilli were tested for their ability to co-aggregate with and inhibit the growth of the yeasts assessed by spectrophotometry and the agar overlay...... inhibition assay. Additionally, the pH was evaluated with microsensors, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the lactobacilli was verified.  Results: Both L. reuteri strains showed co-aggregation abilities with the yeasts. The lactobacilli almost completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans...

  1. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the

  2. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.; Adroub, S. A.; Abadi, Maram; Al Alwan, B.; Alkhateeb, R.; Gao, G.; Ragab, A.; Ali, Shahjahan; van Soolingen, D.; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab; Abdallah, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  5. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also

  6. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  7. Efeitos das cepas probioticas de Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 1465 e ATCC 7469 sobre o crescimento planctonico e formação de biofilme de Streptococcus mutans UA 159

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Tamara Rodrigues de Andrade [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Most probiotic bacteria used in commercial products belong to the genus Lactobacillus. However, the effects of Lactobacillus probiotic strains in the oral health need to be further investigated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus strains, on Streptococcus mutans. Lactobacillus strains acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 1465, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were tested on planktonic and biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans (UA...

  8. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  9. Inactivation of Bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. Thyphimurium ATCC 14 028 Influence of UV-HPEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, A.; Hariono, B.; Utami, M. M. D.; Sutrisno

    2018-01-01

    The research was objected to study the performance of the UV unit - HPEF in inactivating bacteria population of Gram-positive (S aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative (S Thyphimurium ATCC 14028) inoculated in sterilized goat’s milk. UV pasteurization instrument employed three reactors constructed in series UV-C system at 10 W, 253.7 nm wavelength made in Kada (USA) Inc. with 1.8 J/cm2 dose per reactor. HPEF instrument used high pulsed electric field at 31.67 kV/cm, 15 Hz and goat’s milk rate at 4:32 ± 0.71 cc/second. Pathogenic bacteria was observed According to Indonesian National Standard 01-2782-1998. Inactivation rate of pathogenic bacteria ie S Thyphimurium ATCC 14028 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 was 0.28 and 0.19 log cycle or 6.35 and 4.34 log cfu/ml/hour, respectively; D value was 0.16 and 0.23 hour with k value was 14.62 and 10 hour-1 respectively.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1205 - Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1205 Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the... the insecticide Beauveria bassiana (ATCC #74040) in or on all food commodities when applied or used as...

  11. Saponins of Trifolium spp. Aerial Parts as Modulators of Candida Albicans Virulence Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Budzyńska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to provide the insight into the biology of C. albicans influenced by undescribed yet properties of saponin-rich (80%–98% fractions (SAPFs, isolated from extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum, T. incarnatum, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum aerial parts. Their concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL were arbitrarily considered as subMICs for C. albicans ATCC 10231 and were further used. SAPFs affected yeast enzymatic activity, lowered tolerance to the oxidative stress, to the osmotic stress and to the action of the cell wall disrupting agent. In their presence, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly inhibited, as well as Candida invasive capacity. The evaluation of SAPFs interactions with anti-mycotics showed synergistic activity, mainly with azoles. Fluconazole MIC was lowered—susceptible C. albicans ATCC 10231 was more susceptible, and resistant C. glabrata (clinical strain become more susceptible (eightfold. Moreover, the tested samples showed no hemolytic activity and at the concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL did not reduce viability of fibroblasts L929. This study provided the original evidence that SAPFs of Trifolium spp. aerial part exhibit significant antimicrobial activity, by reduce the expression/quantity of important Candida virulence factors and have good potential for the development of novel antifungal products supporting classic drugs.

  12. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei: a case report and an updated literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, R; Moilanen, E; Saxelin, M; Vapaatalo, H

    1997-06-17

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an experimentally and clinically well documented probiotic used in different dairy products. The present study aimed to investigate the safety aspects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, particularly with respect to platelet aggregation, the initiating event in thrombosis. Platelet rich plasma was separated from the blood of healthy volunteers, and the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and Enterococcus faecium T2L6 in different dilutions on spontaneous, ADP- and adrenaline-induced aggregation were tested. The bacteria did not influence spontaneous aggregation. Only Enterococcus faecium T2L6 enhanced the adrenaline-induced aggregation, with a less clear effect on ADP-induced aggregation.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBA Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with fungicide action, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. on strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans and Candida spp. with planktonic and biofilm growth. To study the micro-organisms in planktonic cells, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by using 9 clinical strains for each species and 1 ATCC (American Type Culture Collection from C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. mutans. In order to evaluate the effects of the essential oils on biofilms, strains of S. aureus (ATCC 6538, S. mutans (ATCC 35688 and C. albicans (ATCC 18804 were used. The biofilm was formed on acrylic resin discs with isolated micro-organisms or in associations. The number of colony-forming-units (CFU obtained in each biofilm (CFU/ml was submitted to Student's t statistical test. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus showed microbiostatic and microbicidal activity against all tested strains. The average CFU/ml for the biofilm of S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans, whether isolated or in association, was lower in the group treated with essential oil than in the control group.

  15. Inducible transport of citrate in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueroa, R M; Benito de Cárdenas, I L; Sesma, F; Alvarez, F; de Ruiz Holgado, A P; Oliver, G

    1996-10-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exhibited diauxie when grown in a medium containing both glucose and citrate as energy source. Glucose was used as the primary energy source during the glucose-citrate diauxie. Uptake of citrate was carried out by an inducible citrate transport system. The induction of citrate uptake system was repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression was reversible and mediated by cAMP.

  16. Effect of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis planktonic/biofilm quorum sensing molecules on yeast morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of this work was to study the effect of farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule for Candida albicans, on morphologic inhibition of Candida dubliniensis. The second goal of this work was to confirm if Candida dubliniensis also excreted quorum sensing molecules, on both planktonic and biofilm forms. The results clearly demonstrate that Candida dubliniensis undergoes morphological alterations triggered by farnesol. It was also found that supernatants of Candida dubliniensis and Ca...

  17. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm -1 . All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Candida Infections and Human Defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Vania; Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio; Zupin, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi. The aim of the current work was to review all previous studies in literature that analysed defensins in the context of Candida spp. infections, in order to investigate and clarify the exact mechanisms of defensins anti-fungal action. Several studies were identified from 1985 to 2017 (9 works form years 1985 to 1999, 44 works ranging from 2000 to 2009 and 35 from 2010 to 2017) searched in two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar). The main key words used for the research were "Candida", "Defensins"," Innate immune system","fungi". The findings of the reviewed studies highlight the pivotal role of defensins antimicrobial peptides in the immune response against Candida infections, since they are able to discriminate host cell from fungi: defensins are able to recognize the pathogens cell wall (different in composition from the human ones), and to disrupt it through membrane permeabilization. However, further research is needed to explain completely defensins' mechanisms of action to fight C. albicans (and other Candida spp.) infections, being the information fragmentary and only in part elucidated. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  20. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  1. Diminished Antimicrobial Peptide and Antifungal Antibiotic Activities against Candida albicans in Denture Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Bates

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of denture stomatitis may be related to the long-term use of adhesives, which may predispose individuals to oral candidiasis. In this study, we hypothesize that antimicrobial peptides and antifungal antibiotics have diminished anti-Candida activities in denture adhesive. To show this, nine antimicrobial peptides and five antifungal antibiotics with and without 1.0% denture adhesive were incubated with Candida albicans strains ATCC 64124 and HMV4C in radial diffusion assays. In gels with 1.0% adhesive, HNP-1, HBD2, HBD3, IP-10, LL37 (only one strain, histatin 5 (only one strain, lactoferricin B, and SMAP28 showed diminished activity against C. albicans. In gels with 1.0% adhesive, amphotericin B and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride were active against both strains of C. albicans. These results suggest that denture adhesive may inactivate innate immune mediators in the oral cavity increasing the risk of C. albicans infections, but inclusion of antifungal antibiotics to denture adhesive may aid in prevention or treatment of Candida infections and denture stomatitis.

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão against human vaginal Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO A. DE OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myracrodruon urundeuva is a plant native to Brazil, which is used by the indigenous population for the treatment of candidiasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activity of extract against human vaginal Candida species and evaluate the possible toxicological activities of M. urundeuva. Initially, ethanol extracts, ethyl acetate fractions, and hydroalcoholic fractions of the bark and leaf of M. urundeuva were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts that showed antifungal activity were characterized by liquid chromatography and subjected to toxicity assessment. Toxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic testing were performed using Allium cepa and Ames assays with the ethanol extracts of the bark and leaves. Hemolytic activity was evaluated in erythrocytes and acute toxicity in rats. The ethanol bark extracts showed best activity against Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ATCC (4-512 µg/mL. Chemical characterization indicated the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Hemolytic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity were not observed. The results of the Ames and A. cepa tests were also in agreement, ethanol bark extracts and ethanol leaf extracts of M. urundeuva showed absence of mutagenic activity. Similar results were observed in the A. cepa assay and acute toxicity test in rats. M. urundeuva bark extracts showed potential for the treatment of vaginal infections caused Candida species, as a topical.

  3. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri has antifungal effects on oral Candida species in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Twetman, Svante

    2017-01-01

    Background: An alternative approach for managing Candida infections in the oral cavity by modulating the oral microbiota with probiotic bacteria has been proposed. Objective: The aim was to investigate the antifungal potential of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) against six oral Candida species ( C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis , and C. parapsilosis ). Design: The lactobacilli were tested for their ability to co-aggregate with and inhibit the growth of the yeasts assessed by spectrophotometry and the agar overlay inhibition assay. Additionally, the pH was evaluated with microsensors, and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the lactobacilli was verified. Results: Both L. reuteri strains showed co-aggregation abilities with the yeasts. The lactobacilli almost completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis , but did not affect C. krusei . Statistically significant differences in co-aggregation and growth inhibition capacities between the two L. reuteri strains were observed (preuteri exhibited antifungal properties against five of the six most common oral Candida species. Further, the results reconfirms that the probiotic capacity of L. reuteri is strain specific.

  5. Special Issue: Candida and Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue highlights emerging topics related to Candida, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in the hospital setting. The advantages and limitations of new, non-culture based diagnostic techniques are discussed. The issue reviews mammalian and non-mammalian infection models. The manuscripts present updates on several molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, including filamentation, biofilm formation, and phospholipid production.

  6. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins.

  7. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  8. The comparative study of antifungal activity of Syzygium aromaticum, Punica granatum and nystatin on Candida albicans; an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, A; Boojarpour, N; Ashnagar, S; Momen Beitollahi, J; Shamshiri, A R

    2014-12-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi, among which, Candida albicans is the most important species responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients with invasive fungal disease. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal drugs has led scientists to pay more attention to traditional medicine herbs. Due to the limitations in the treatment of fungal diseases such as shortages, high prices, antifungal side effects and drug resistance or reduced susceptibility to fungal drugs we decided to study the antifungal effects of herbal extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Punica granatum. Twenty-one isolates of oral C. albicans in patients with denture stomatitis referred to prosthesis department, Dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were prepared and cultured. Plant extracts were prepared from the herbs market. Tests on patient samples and standard strains 5027ATCC (PTCC10231) yeast C. albicans were performed via well diffusion method. In addition, nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Finally, the antifungal effect of extracts using Statistical Repeated measurement ANOVA test was investigated. Both S. aromaticum and P. granatum showed noticeable antifungal activity in well method. Syzygium aromaticum showed better anti candida activity than nystatin (Pgranatum showed good antifungal effects (P-value<0.001). S. aromaticum (inhibition zone diameter: 29.62) showed better antifungal effects than nystatin (inhibition zone diameter: 28.48). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either

  10. [Distribution of Candida species in vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Berna; Yazici, Vesile; Aydin, Neriman

    2005-07-01

    Identification of Candida species is important to guide treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis which is seen frequently and needs long-term therapy due to recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the species distribution of Candida isolated from vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium in the laboratory diagnosis. Samples from 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed as vaginitis have been analysed in our laboratory. Colonies appeared on CHROMagar Candida media after 48 hours of incubation at 35 degrees C were evaluated for their colors and characteristics. Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, growth on corn meal Tween 80 agar and when necessary also by API 20 C AUX commercial kit. A total of 84 Candida strains were isolated from 80 patients. Two different Candida species have been isolated from four (5%) of the samples. Among Candida strains isolated, 45 (53.6%) were C. albicans, 29 (34.5%) C. glabrata, 7 (8.3%) C. krusei, and 3 (3.6%) C. kefyr. All of the C. albicans and six of the seven C. krusei isolates have been identified correctly by CHROMagar Candida medium. These results showed that C. albicans is still the most frequently isolated species from vaginal samples. It was concluded that CHROMagar Candida medium is useful for identification of colonies due to frequently seen Candida species and also in differentiation of multiple Candida species grown on the same culture.

  11. Antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Calvijo, María A; Leal-Castro, Aura L; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E; García-Castañeda, Javier E; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4-33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10-33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. León-Calvijo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii reduction or (iii elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR and I.4 ((RRWQWR4K2Ahx2C2 exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4–33 μM and E. faecalis (MIC 10–33 μM when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE. It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield.

  13. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  14. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, Janneke; Mols, M.; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic and biofilm cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were studied using microscopy and transcriptome analysis. By microscopy, clear differences could be observed between biofilm and planktonic cells as well as between the two strains. By using hierarchical clustering of the

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, Janneke; Mols, M.; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic and biofilm cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were studied using microscopy and transcriptome analysis. By microscopy, clear differences could be observed between biofilm and planktonic cells as well as between the two strains. By using hierarchical clustering of the

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro activity against Candida spp. of fluconazole encapsulated on cationic and conventional nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Sequeda N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás Gómez-Sequeda,1 Rodrigo Torres,2 Claudia Ortiz3 1School of Biology, 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, 3School of Microbiology, Faculty of Health, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia Abstract: In this study, nanoparticles (NPs of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with fluconazole (FLZ and FLZ-NPs coated with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI (FLZ-NP-PEI were synthetized in order to improve antimycotic activity against four strains of Candida spp. of clinical relevance. FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI were synthesized by double emulsion solvent-diffusion (DES-D and characterized. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC were determined in vitro by culturing Candida strains in the presence of these nanocompounds. FLZ-NPs were spherical in shape with hydrodynamic sizes of ~222 nm and surface charge of -11.6 mV. The surface charges of these NPs were successfully modified using PEI (FLZ-NP-PEI with mean hydrodynamic sizes of 281 nm and surface charge of 23.5 mV. The efficiency of encapsulation (~53% and a quick release of FLZ (≥90% after 3 h were obtained. Cytotoxicity assay showed a good cell viability for FLZ-NPs (≥86%, and PEI-modified NPs presented a decrease in cell viability (~38%. FLZ-NPs showed an increasing antifungal activity of FLZ for sensitive (Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida albicans ATCC10231, MIC50 =0.5 and 0.1 µg/mL, respectively and resistant strains (Candida glabrata EMLM14 and Candida krusei ATCC6258, MIC50 =0.1 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. FLZ-NP-PEI showed fungicidal activity even against C. glabrata and C. krusei (MFC =4 and 8 µg/mL, respectively. MIC50 values showed best results for FLZ-NPs and FLZ-NP-PEI. Nevertheless, only FLZ-NP-PEI displayed fungicidal activity against the studied strains. Keywords: drug delivery systems, double emulsion diffusion, nanoparticles, minimal inhibitory concentration

  18. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  19. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbery, Peter E

    2011-08-16

    The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. This Review describes our current understanding of the network of signal transduction pathways that monitors environmental cues to activate a programme of hypha-specific gene transcription, and the molecular processes that drive the highly polarized growth of hyphae.

  20. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravin Charles, M V; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-06-01

    In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  1. A genomic island provides Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 additional copper resistance: a possible competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Luis H; Jerez, Carlos A

    2011-11-01

    There is great interest in understanding how extremophilic biomining bacteria adapt to exceptionally high copper concentrations in their environment. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 genome possesses the same copper resistance determinants as strain ATCC 23270. However, the former strain contains in its genome a 160-kb genomic island (GI), which is absent in ATCC 23270. This GI contains, amongst other genes, several genes coding for an additional putative copper ATPase and a Cus system. A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 showed a much higher resistance to CuSO(4) (>100 mM) than that of strain ATCC 23270 (<25 mM). When a similar number of bacteria from each strain were mixed and allowed to grow in the absence of copper, their respective final numbers remained approximately equal. However, in the presence of copper, there was a clear overgrowth of strain ATCC 53993 compared to ATCC 23270. This behavior is most likely explained by the presence of the additional copper-resistance genes in the GI of strain ATCC 53993. As determined by qRT-PCR, it was demonstrated that these genes are upregulated when A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53993 is grown in the presence of copper and were shown to be functional when expressed in copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants. Thus, the reason for resistance to copper of two strains of the same acidophilic microorganism could be determined by slight differences in their genomes, which may not only lead to changes in their capacities to adapt to their environment, but may also help to select the more fit microorganisms for industrial biomining operations. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  2. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  3. Simple low cost differentiation of Candida auris from Candida haemulonii complex using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Sachu, Arun; Mohan, Karthika; Vinod, Vivek; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, Shamsul

    Candida auris is unique due to its multidrug resistance and misidentification as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Its correct identification is important to avoid inappropriate treatments. To develop a cheap method for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Fifteen C. auris isolates, six isolates each of C. haemulonii and Candida duobushaemulonii, and one isolate of Candida haemulonii var. vulnera were tested using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for better differentiation. On CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar all C. auris strains showed confluent growth of white to cream colored smooth colonies at 37°C and 42°C after 24 and 48h incubation and did not produce pseudohyphae. The isolates of the C. haemulonii complex, on the contrary, showed poor growth of smooth, light-pink colonies at 24h while at 48h the growth was semiconfluent with the production of pseudohyphae. C. haemulonii complex failed to grow at 42°C. We report a rapid and cheap method using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniela; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

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    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  6. Radiation resistance of Candida parapsilosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation resistance of 30 strains classified as Candida parapsilosis was examined. The strains originated partly from environments where ionizing radiation was used for research or routine purposes, partly from environments with no known possibility for selection of strains with unusually high radiation resistance. D-6 values between 1.5 and 2.4 Megarads were found when the cells were irradiated in the dried state, a D-6 value being the dose necessary to reduce the initial number of colony-forming units with a factor of 10 6 . The majority of D-6 values were between 1.9 and 2.1 Megarads. D-6 values for the cells irradiated in liquid media were about 2/3 of tose in the dried state. No difference in resistance was revealed depending on the origin of the strains examined. For radiation sterilization of medical products the demonstrated resistance of Candida parapsilosis might be of importance of routine use of minimum doses below 2.5 Megarads were to be accepted. (author)

  7. Adhesion of Candida albicans to Vanillin Incorporated Self-Curing Orthodontic PMMA Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, K.; Sawaengkit, P.; Thaweboon, S.; Thaweboon, B.

    2018-02-01

    It has been observed that there is an increase in Candida carriers during the treatment with orthodontic removable appliance. Vanillin is flavouring agent, which is known to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vanillin incorporated PMMA on adhesion of Candida albicans. A total of 36 orthodontic self-curing PMMA resin samples were fabricated. The samples were divided into 3 groups depending on percentage of vanillin incorporated (0.1%, 0.5% and PMMA without vanillin as control). PMMA samples were coated with saliva. The adhesion assay was performed with C. albicans (ATCC 10231). The adherent yeast cells were stained with crystal violet and counted under microscope by random selection of 3 fields at 10X magnification. The statistical analyses performed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney non-parametric test. It was found that the PMMA resin samples with vanillin incorporation significantly reduced the adhesion of C. albicans as compared to the control group. This study indicates that vanillin incorporated resin can impede the adhesion of C. albicans to about 45 - 56 %. With further testing and development, vanillin can be employed as an antifungal agent to prevent adhesion of C. albicans to orthodontic self-curing PMMA resin.

  8. L-Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has been shown to have the most promising application in biomaterials as poly(lactic acid. L. rhamnosus ATCC 10863 that produces L-lactic acid was used to perform the fermentation and molasses was used as substrate. A solution containing 27.6 g/L of sucrose (main composition of molasses and 3.0 g/L of yeast extract was prepared, considering the final volume of 3,571 mL (14.0% (v/v inoculum. Batch and fed batch fermentations were performed with temperature of 43.4°C and pH of 5.0. At the fed batch, three molasses feed were applied at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Samples were taken every two hours and the amounts of lactic acid, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were determined by HPLC. The sucrose was barely consumed at both processes; otherwise the glucose and fructose were almost entirely consumed. 16.5 g/L of lactic acid was produced at batch and 22.0 g/L at fed batch. Considering that lactic acid was produced due to the low concentration of the well consumed sugars, the final amount was considerable. The cell growth was checked and no substrate inhibition was observed. A sucrose molasses hydrolysis is suggested to better avail the molasses fermentation with this strain, surely increasing the L-lactic acid.

  9. Studies of linear Gramicidin synthesis in Bacillus brevis ATCC 8185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kou; Kagawa, Kenichi

    1976-01-01

    Bacillus brevis ATCC 8185 was grown in polypepton and Ehrlich's meat extract medium, and this strain produced two kinds of peptide antibiotics, Tyrocidine and linear Gramicidin. A simple chromatographic method was developed for the isolation of linear Gramicidin from mixture Tyrothricin, applied on the column. Trimethoprim, an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, inhibits the synthesis of both peptides in the growing culture with slight inhibition to cell growth. Serine- 14 C is incorporated in the Gramicidin, and recovered as ethanol amine and glycine by the hydrolysis of 14 C-labeled Gramicidin, but deoxypyridoxine-HCl, B 6 antagonist, has no effect on the production of antibiotics in the culture. Linear Gramicidin gives two spots on the thin layer chromatogram (TLC) developed by ethyl acetate-pyridine-water system of 16:4:2, and by chloroform-methanol-water system of 17:3:0.3. The incorporations of constitutive 14 C-labeled amino acids, ethanol amine, and sodium formate into linear Gramicidin were studied by growing cells. These labeled specimens were identified to correspond to authentic specimens which migrated on TLC. Cells were hydrolysed with Lysozyme, and the crude extract was prepared between 0.33 and 0.45 saturation of ammonium sulfate. It activated constituent amino acids including D-leucine by ATP- 32 PPi exchange reaction, but hardly activated L-serine, D-valine, and formyl L-valine. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  11. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  12. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Koh, Yoon-Woo; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Park, Jung-Mi

    2008-01-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  13. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media

    OpenAIRE

    Citiulo, Francesco; Moran, Gary; COLEMAN, DAVID; SULLIVAN, DEREK

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida species that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that...

  14. Characterisation of the nitrile biocatalytic activity of rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frederick, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870, was explored. The biocatalyst expressed a two enzyme system with sequential nitrile-converting activity: nitrile hydratase and amidase. This biocatalytic nitrile hydrolysis affords valuable applications in industry, including...

  15. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: effect on matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Silva, S; Negri, M; Gorup, L F; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different silver nanoparticles (SN) concentrations on the matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. Candida biofilms were developed in 6-well microtiter plates during 48 h. After, these biofilms were exposed to 13.5 or 54 μg SN ml(-1) for 24 h. Then, extracellular matrices were extracted from biofilms and analysed chemically in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. To investigate the biofilm structure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used. SN interfered with the matrix composition of Candida biofilms tested in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA, except for the protein content of C. albicans biofilm. By SEM, Candida biofilms treated with SN revealed structural differences, when compared with the control groups. Further, SN showed a trend of agglomeration within the biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopy images suggest that SN induced damage on cell walls of the Candida isolates tested. In general, irrespective of concentration, SN affected the matrix composition and structure of Candida biofilms and these findings may be related to the mechanisms of biocide action of SN. This study reveals new insights about the behaviour of SN when in contact with Candida biofilms. SN may contribute to the development of therapies to prevent or control Candida infections. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  18. Identification of Candida dubliniensis in a study of HIV-seropositive pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D M; Jabra-Rizk, M A; Falkler, W A; Baqui, A A; Meiller, T F

    2000-01-01

    The combination of an immature immune system and suppressed cellular immunity in children with HIV infections provides optimal conditions for rapid disease progression. As a result, pediatric AIDS has become a major epidemiological challenge. Oral fungal colonization remains one of the most common opportunistic infections observed in both adult and pediatric HIV infected patients. Although Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated opportunistic fungal species, a recently characterized Candida species, C. dubliniensis, has gained considerable attention due to its almost exclusive association with HIV-seropositive individuals. The purpose of this study was to prospectively screen for the presence of C. dubliniensis among pediatric HIV+ patients. Oral samples taken from twenty-seven children were cultured for the presence of yeast. All positive yeast isolates obtained were screened for the presence of C. dubliniensis by use of tests for germ tube and chlamydospore production, detection of inability to grow at 45 degrees C, by colony color on CHROMagar Candida medium, coaggregation with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 49256 and by the results of sugar assimilation testing with the API 20C AUX yeast identification system. Among the 27 patients tested, 3 patients were found to harbor C. dubliniensis, one of which also grew C. glabrata; 12 patients were colonized with C. albicans, while the remaining 12 patients were negative for yeast. Identification of the three C. dubliniensis isolates was genetically confirmed by electrophoretic karyotyping. All three C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be susceptible to fluconazole (MIC pediatric HIV seropositive population and support the need for further investigation into the prevalence and pathogenesis of C. dubliniensis.

  19. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a fundamental concern of both consumers and the food industry. The increasing incidence of foodborne diseases increases the demand of using antimicrobials in foods. Spices and plants are rich in essential oils and show inhibition activity against microorganisms, which are composed of many compounds. In this research, effects of garlic, bay, black pepper, origanum, orange, thyme, tea tree, mint, clove, and cumin essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes AUFE 39237, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Proteus mirabilis AUFE 43566, Bacillus cereus AUFE 81154, Saccharomyces uvarum UUFE 16732, Kloeckera apiculata UUFE 10628, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida oleophila UUPP 94365, and Metschnikowia fructicola UUPP 23067 and effects of thyme oil at a concentration of 0.5% on L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice during +4 degrees C storage (first to fifth day) were investigated. Strong antibacterial and antifungal activities of some essential oils were found. Thyme, origanum, clove, and orange essential oils were the most inhibitory against bacteria and yeasts. Cumin, tea tree, and mint oils inhibited the yeasts actively. It is concluded that some essential oils could be used as potential biopreservatives capable of controlling foodborne pathogens and food spoilage yeasts.

  20. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  1. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtman, E.A.

    1983-09-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole.

  2. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  3. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, E.A.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, New York

    1983-01-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole. (orig.)

  4. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  5. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  6. Ecology of Candida-associated Denture Stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Ejvind

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of a prosthesis into the oral cavity results in profound alterations of the environmental conditions as the prosthesis and the underlying mucosa become colonized with oral microorganisms, including Candida spp. This may lead to denture stomatitis, a non-specific inflammatory reaction against microbial antigens, toxins and enzymes produced by the colonizing microorganisms. The role of Candida in the etiology of denture stomatitis is indicated by an increased number of yeasts on th...

  7. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Claudio Maranhão; Pires,Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa,Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior,Osvaldo; Almeida,Oslei Paes de

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  8. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  9. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; O, Joo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  10. Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from bekasam against staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and salmonella sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Melia; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Bekasam is an Indonesian fermented food made of fish. As a fermented food, this food may contain some beneficial bacteria like lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which usually have antimicrobial properties such as organic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and a bacteriocin. A study on antimicrobial activity of LAB isolated from bekasam against some pathogenic bacteria has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to know the ability of crude bacteriocin produced LAB of bekasam against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella sp. Bekasam sample was taken from South Sumatera. LAB isolation was done using de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar. A bacterial colony with clear zone was selected and purified to get a single colony. The antagonistic assay of the LAB was conducted in Muller-Hinton agar Selected isolates with higher clearing zone were assayed for antibacterial effect of their crude bacteriocin of different culture incubation time of 6, 9, and 12 hours. The results showed that the crude extract bacteriocin of isolate MS2 of 9 hours culture incubation time inhibited more in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with inhibition zone of 13.1 mm, whereas isolate MS9 of 9 hours culture incubation time inhibited more in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella sp. with inhibition zone of 12.7 and 7.3 mm, respectively.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Truncated and Polyvalent Peptides Derived from the FKCRRQWQWRMKKGLA Sequence against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly de Jesús Huertas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from LfcinB were designed and synthesized, and their antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Specifically, a peptide library was constructed by systemically removing the flanking residues (N or C-terminal of Lfcin 17–31 (17FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA31, maintaining in all peptides the 20RRWQWR25 sequence that corresponds to the minimal antimicrobial motif. For this research, also included were (i a peptide containing an Ala instead of Cys ([Ala19]-LfcinB 17–31 and (ii polyvalent peptides containing the RRWQWR sequence and a non-natural amino acid (aminocaproic acid. We established that the lineal peptides LfcinB 17–25 and LfcinB 17–26 exhibited the greatest activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923, respectively. On the other hand, polyvalent peptides, a dimer and a tetramer, exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity, indicating that multiple copies of the sequence increase the activity. Our results suggest that the dimeric and tetrameric sequence forms potentiate the antibacterial activity of lineal sequences that have exhibited moderate antibacterial activity.

  12. Adherence to HeLa cells, typing by killer toxins and susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida dubliniensis strains Adesão a células HeLa, tipagem pelas toxinas "killer" e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismari Miranda da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777 was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035. No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia. O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padr��o produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777 de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035. Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.

  13. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    2018-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast isolates,

  14. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  15. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts : Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, Tahereh; Aslani, Narges; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Meyabadi, Masoumeh Fatahi; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.; Boekhout, Teun; Kolecka, Anna; Badali, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  16. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as

  17. Oral candidosis by Candida albicans in normal and xerostomic mice Candidose oral por Candida albicans em camundongos normais e xerostômicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Aparecida Gonçalves Totti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sialoadenectomy on the development of oral candidosis after one or four inoculations of Candida albicans. Initially, a suspension containing 10(8 cells/ml of C. albicans ATCC 36801 was prepared. Seventy-eight sialoadenectomized mice and a similar amount of mice with normal salivary flow received a single inoculation of C. albicans suspension. Another group with a similar number of mice received 4 inoculations. The control group consisted of 6 sialoadenectomized mice and 6 mice with normal salivary flow that were not inoculated with C. albicans. Candidosis development was studied histologically in the tongue of the animals 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 days after inoculation and at 15-day intervals up to 165 days. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that sialoadenectomy and a higher frequency of yeast inoculation influenced the presence and extension of candidosis lesions.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito da sialoadenectomia sobre o desenvolvimento da candidose oral após uma ou quatro inoculações de Candida albicans. Inicialmente, uma suspensão contendo 10(8 células/ml de C. albicans ATCC 36801 foi preparada. Setenta e oito camundongos sialoadenectomizados e mesma quantidade de camundongos com fluxo salivar normal receberam uma única inoculação de suspensão de C. albicans. Outro grupo, com o mesmo número de camundongos, recebeu 4 inoculações. O grupo controle consistiu de 6 camundongos sialoadenectomizados e 6 com fluxo salivar normal que não foram inoculados com C. albicans. O desenvolvimento de candidose foi estudado histologicamente na língua dos animais em períodos de 1, 2, 3, 5 e 8 dias após a inoculação e em intervalos de 15 dias até 165 dias. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a sialoadenectomia e uma maior freqüência de inoculação influenciaram na presença e extensão das lesões de candidose.

  18. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on C. albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  19. Thinking beyond the Common Candida Species: Need for Species-Level Identification of Candida Due to the Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Jackson, Brendan R; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Pappas, Peter G; Chiller, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Candida species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Because much of the treatment for Candida infections is empirical, some institutions do not identify Candida to species level. With the worldwide emergence of the multidrug-resistant species Candida auris , identification of Candida to species level has new clinical relevance. Species should be identified for invasive candidiasis isolates, and species-level identification can be considered for selected noninvasive isolates to improve detection of C. auris . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Ahmad A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Al-Aboosi, Mustafa M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oral Candida colonization and candidosis in a group of patients with psoriasis and controls. A total of 100 patients with psoriasis and matched controls underwent the concentrated oral rinse test for Candida isolation. Candida species were identified by the VITEK 2 Identification System. Categorical variables were evaluated using the χ(2) test. The median Candida count was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 3% of the patients with psoriasis. The Candida count and prevalence were significantly higher in the patients with psoriasis compared with controls (69% vs 44%, P Oral Candida was significantly higher in late-onset (at age ≥30 years) compared with early-onset psoriasis (at age oral Candida colonization and candidiasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the predisposing factor(s) for oral Candida in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... This study compared the susceptibility of six dental restorative materials to Candida albicans adhesion. ... found for the composite and the compomer samples. ..... Candida colonization on acrylic resins and denture liners:.

  2. Plasticity of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karla J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Candida albicans, the most pervasive fungal pathogen that colonizes humans, forms biofilms that are architecturally complex. They consist of a basal yeast cell polylayer and an upper region of hyphae encapsulated in extracellular matrix. However, biofilms formed in vitro vary as a result of the different conditions employed in models, the methods used to assess biofilm formation, strain differences, and, in a most dramatic fashion, the configuration of the mating type locus (MTL). Therefore, integrating data from different studies can lead to problems of interpretation if such variability is not taken into account. Here we review the conditions and factors that cause biofilm variation, with the goal of engendering awareness that more attention must be paid to the strains employed, the methods used to assess biofilm development, every aspect of the model employed, and the configuration of the MTL locus. We end by posing a set of questions that may be asked in comparing the results of different studies and developing protocols for new ones. This review should engender the notion that not all biofilms are created equal. PMID:27250770

  3. Chemical constituents from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra and evaluation of their antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Francisco de Araujo

    Full Text Available From the hexanic extract of the stem from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra were isolated one stilbene (1, one flavanone (2, one pterocarpan (3, one triterpene (4 and a mixture of three steroids (5 to 7. The crude extract and the compounds isolated were submitted to evaluation of the antifungal activity against nine yeast standard ATCC of the Candida genus. Among the compounds only the triterpene (4 and the mixture of steroids (5 to 7 showed no activity. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectral data analysis of GC/MS and ¹H and 13C NMR (1D and 2D experiments, as well as comparison with literature values.

  4. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-12-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  5. Prevalence of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana in pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, María Josefina; Cuestas, María Luján; Landanburu, María Fernanda; Mujica, María Teresa

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulvovaginitis commonly diagnosed in gynecology care. In recent years, the taxonomy of the most important pathogenic Candida species, such as Candida albicans have undergone significant changes. This study examined the prevalence of C. albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal specimens from 210 pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginitis or having asymptomatic colonization. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used for the identification of the species. During the studied period, 55 isolates of Candida or other yeasts were obtained from specimens collected from 52 patients suffering from vulvovaginitis (24.8%). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species in 42 isolates (80.7%), either alone or in combination with other species of the genus (5.7%, n=3). Additionally, nine isolates of C. albicans (50%) were obtained from asymptomatic patients (n=18). C. dubliniensis was the causative agent in 2 (3.8%) cases of VVC, and was also isolated in one asymptomatic patient. Molecular assays were carried out using specific PCR to amplify the ACT1-associated intron sequence of C. dubliniensis. The amplification of the HWP1 gene also correctly identified isolates of the species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was isolated in this work. Some C. albicans isolates were either homozygous or heterozygous at the HWP1 locus. The distribution of heterozygous and homozygous C. albicans isolates at the HWP1 locus was very similar among patients suffering from VVC and asymptomatic patients (p=0.897). The presence of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, and the absence of C. africana in pregnant is noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  7. Investigation of Association between Slime Production by Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the susceptibilities of fluconazole and voriconazole based on slime production by Candida spp. Methods: Candida strains (115) isolated in the period between January 2011 and January 2012 were included in this study. ... Yıldırım Beyazıt Training Hospital, were included in this study. Candida ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., Strains OUH 308042T (= ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= ATCC BAA-2682), Isolated from Blood Cultures from Two Different Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Hasman, Henrik; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., strains OUH 308042T (= DSM 28342T = ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= DSM 28341 = ATCC BAA-2682), isolated from blood cultures from two different patients and composed of 51 and 39 contigs for totals...

  9. Efficiency of four currently used decontamination conditionings in Romania against Aspergillus and Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, D; Cristina, R T; Teusdea, V; Mitrănescu, E; Muselin, F; Butnariu, M; David, G; Dumitrescu, E

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy of four commercial biocidal products (noted A to D), using manufacturers' recommendations, and a contact time of 30minutes, were evaluated in the purpose of standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted. Were used four strains, two as reference: Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) (ATCC 16404) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and two isolates: Aspergillus flavus and respectively Aspergillus fumigatus. The inoculum plates containing Malt Extract Agar (MEA) were incubated 48h for C. albicans and 72hours for Aspergillus spp. The standard SR EN1657: 2006 adapted was conducted in two phases: the test cultures preparation and the method validation. Method validation included: the control of experimental conditions and of neutralizant solution, and the method verification. Results revealed that three from the four tested products (A, B and D) had exerted biocidal effect on the studied strains at the recommended concentrations, the registered CFU values being reduced by more than 4 log 10 , conversely in the case of the product (C), applied against A. fumigatus at the recommended concentration of 2%, the biocidal effect was not detected, fact confirmed also by the CFU's value (3.59 log 10 ). The biocide retested at a greater concentration (of 5%), showed a biocidal effect against A. fumigatus after 30minutes, the CFU value being reduced, by more than 5.29 log 10 , evidencing the resistance emergence of A. fumigatus under the repeated pressure of biocides. It is re-confirming that merely the "chemical" defense measures to defuse the fungi's strategies become unproductive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Barbara D; Zazove, Philip; Pierson, Carl L; Gorenflo, Daniel W; Horrocks, Julie

    2003-12-01

    To assess associations between female and male factors and the risk of recurring Candida vulvovaginitis. A prospective cohort study of 148 women with Candida vulvovaginitis and 78 of their male sexual partners was conducted at two primary care practices in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area. Thirty-three of 148 women developed at least one further episode of Candida albicans vulvovaginitis within 1 year of follow-up. Cultures of Candida species from various sites of the woman (tongue, feces, vulva, and vagina) and from her partner (tongue, feces, urine, and semen) did not predict recurrences. Female factors associated with recurrence included recent masturbating with saliva (hazard ratio 2.66 [95% CI 1.17-6.06]) or cunnilingus (hazard ratio 2.94 [95% CI 1.12-7.68]) and ingestion of two or more servings of bread per day (p vulvovaginitis.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC...

  12. Monitoring the ethanol stress response of a sigM deletion strain of B. cereus ATCC 14579.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.

    2008-01-01

    Here, the role of σM and its regulon in stress response and survival of B. cereus ATCC 14579 was assessed by comparative transciptome and phenotypic analysis of this strain and its sigM deletion strain. Exposure of B. cereus ATCC 14579 to a wide range of stresses revealed expression of sigM,

  13. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Sana; Jamil, Naz; Saad, Uzma; Hafiz, Saleem; Siddiqui, Sualleha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida albicansin patients with funguria. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Patients’ urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candidaspecies was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6%) were male patients and 85 (29.4%) were female patients, with 165 (57.1%) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9%) from the in-patients. Five species of Candidawere found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1%) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9%) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8%) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8%) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4%) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2%). In the present study, 30.1% patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis(60.9%), followed by other non-albicansCandida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candidaas a major cause of candiduria.

  14. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  15. Decreased Killing Activity of Micafungin Against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr in the Presence of Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Qasem; Kovács, Renátó; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kardos, Tamás; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2017-09-01

    Currently, echinocandins are first-line drugs for treatment of invasive candidiasis. However, data on how serum influences killing activity of echinocandins against uncommon Candida species are limited. Therefore, the killing activity of micafungin in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum was compared against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges in RPMI-1640 were 0.5-1, 0.12-0.25, and 0.06-0.12 mg/L, respectively. In 50% serum, MICs increased 32- to 256-fold. In RPMI-1640 ≥ 0.25, ≥4, and 32 mg/L micafungin was fungicidal against all four C. kefyr (≤4.04 hours), two of three C. lusitaniae (≤16.10 hours), and two of three C. guilliermondii (≤12.30 hours), respectively. In 50% serum, all three species grew at ≤4 mg/L. Micafungin at 16-32 mg/L was fungicidal against all C. kefyr isolates (≤3.03 hours) and at 32 mg/L was fungistatic against one of three C. lusitaniae isolates. Two C. lusitaniae isolates and all three C. guilliermondii grew at all tested concentrations. Adding human serum to susceptibility test media drew attention to loss of fungicidal or fungistatic activity of micafungin in the presence of serum proteins, which is not predicted by MICs in case of C. kefyr and C. lusitaniae in RPMI-1640. Our results strongly suggest that micafungin and probably other echinocandins should be used with caution against rare Candida species.

  16. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Jamil, N.; Hafiz, S.; Siddiqui, S.; Saad, U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Candida albicans in patients with funguria. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Patients urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candida species was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Results: Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6 percentage) were male patients and 85 (29.4 percentage) were female patients, with 165 (57.1 percentage) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9 percentage) from the in-patients. Five species of Candida were found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1 percentage) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9 percentage) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8 percentage) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8 percentage) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4 percentage) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2 percentage). Conclusion: In the present study, 30.1 percentage patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis (60.9 percentage), followed by other non-albicans Candida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of candiduria. (author)

  17. Clinical strains of Lactobacillus reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans and protect Galleria mellonella against experimental candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Dos Santos Velloso, Marisol; Figueiredo, Lívia Mara Alves; Martins, Carolina Pistille; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2018-05-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and can grow as yeast or filaments, depending on the environmental conditions. The filamentous form is of particular interest because it can play a direct role in adherence and pathogenicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three clinical strains of Lactobacillus on C. albicans filamentation as well as their probiotic potential in pathogen-host interactions via an experimental candidiasis model study in Galleria mellonella. We used the reference strain Candida albicans ATCC 18804 and three clinical strains of Lactobacillus: L. rhamnosus strain 5.2, L. paracasei strain 20.3, and L. fermentum strain 20.4. First, the capacity of C. albicans to form hyphae was tested in vitro through association with the Lactobacillus strains. After that, we verified the ability of these strains to attenuate experimental candidiasis in a Galleria mellonella model through a survival curve assay. Regarding the filamentation assay, a significant reduction in hyphae formation of up to 57% was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of the Lactobacillus strains, compared to a control group composed of only C. albicans. In addition, when the larvae were pretreated with Lactobacillus spp. prior to C. albicans infection, the survival rate of G. mellonela increased in all experimental groups. We concluded that Lactobacillus influences the growth and expression C. albicans virulence factors, which may interfere with the pathogenicity of these microorganisms.

  18. Undecylenic Acid Inhibits Morphogenesis of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    McLain, Nealoo; Ascanio, Rhoda; Baker, Carol; Strohaver, Robert A.; Dolan, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  19. Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, N; Ascanio, R; Baker, C; Strohaver, R A; Dolan, J W

    2000-10-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  20. Growth-dependent secretome of Candida utilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buerth, C.; Heilmann, C.J.; Klis, F.M.; de Koster, C.G.; Ernst, J.F.; Tielker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the food yeast Candida utilis has emerged as an excellent host for production of heterologous proteins. Since secretion of the recombinant product is advantageous for its purification, we characterized the secreted proteome of C. utilis. Cells were cultivated to the exponential or

  1. Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Melis, van Clint; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus is found in environments that often have a low pH, such as food and soil. The physiological response upon exposure to several levels of acidity were investigated of B. cereus model strain ATCC 14579, to elucidate the response of B. cereus to acid stress.

  2. Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 10987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Melis, van Clint; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus is found in environments that often have a low pH, such as food and soil. The physiological response upon exposure to several levels of acidity were investigated of B. cereus model strain ATCC 10987, to elucidate the response of B. cereus to acid stress.

  3. Optimization of the medium composition for production of antimicrobial substances by bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the effort to overcome the increase in antimicrobial resistance of different pathogens, natural products from microbial sources appear to be the most favorable alternative to current antibiotics. Production of antimicrobial compounds is highly dependent on the nutritional conditions. Hence, in order to achieve high product yields, selection of the media constituents and optimization of their concentrations are required. In this research, the possibility of antimicrobial substances production using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 was investigated. Also, optimization of the cultivation medium composition in terms of contents of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates was done. Response surface methodology and the method of desirability function were applied for determination of optimal values of the examined factors. The developed model predicts that the maximum inhibition zone diameters for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 (33.50 mm and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (12.00 mm are achieved when the initial contents of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates were 43.72 g/L, 1.93 g/L and 5.64 g/L, respectively. The results of these experiments suggest that further research should include the utilization of crude glycerol as a carbon source and optimization of composition of such media and cultivation conditions in order to improve production of antimicrobial substances using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  4. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Mengying; Wu, Ting; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  5. Identification of proteins involved in the heat stress response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periago, P.M.; Schaik, van W.; Abee, T.; Wouters, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    To monitor the ability of the food-borne opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus to survive during minimal processing of food products, we determined its heat-adaptive response. During pre-exposure to 42°C, B. cereus ATCC 14579 adapts to heat exposure at the lethal temperature of 50°C (maximum

  6. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  7. Antimicrobial mechanism of flavonoids against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by model membrane study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mengying; Wu, Ting; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: xiaoyunxu88@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobial mechanism of four flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperitin, (+)-catechin hydrate, biochanin A) against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was investigated through cell membranes and a liposome model. The release of bacterial protein and images from transmission electron microscopy demonstrated damage to the E. coli ATCC 25922 membrane. A liposome model with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) (0.6 molar ratio) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) (0.4 molar ratio), representative of the phospholipid membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922, was used to specify the mode of action of four selected flavonoids through Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. It is suggested that for flavonoids, to be effective antimicrobials, interaction with the polar head-group of the model membrane followed by penetration into the hydrophobic regions must occur. The antimicrobial efficacies of the flavonoids were consistent with liposome interaction activities, kaempferol > hesperitin > (+)-catechin hydrate > biochanin A. This study provides a liposome model capable of mimicking the cell membrane of E. coli ATCC 25922. The findings are important in understanding the antibacterial mechanism on cell membranes.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  9. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 Disk Diffusion and Associated Breakpoint Testing of Caspofungin and Micafungin Using a Well-Characterized Panel of Wild-Type and fks Hot Spot Mutant Candida Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus −4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species. PMID:21357293

  10. Improvement of endophytic Azospirillum colonization by co-inoculation with Cellulomonas Uda ATCC 491

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR such as Azopirillum if accompanied with strong cellulase producing bacteria such as Cellulomonas, their colonization may be increased and their host plants growth improved. Materials and methods: Six endophytic Azospirilla which isolated from three rice and three wheat cultivars and also one strain from commercial biofertilizer (Green Biotech Co., identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis and were studied on the basis of cellulase, pectinase and auxin production and also their chemotaxis toward rice and wheat cultivars exudates was investigated. Two cellulase positive (A5 and A6 and two negative (A2 and A3 strains were selected and their interaction with C. uda ATCC 491 on auxin production and colonization on roots were compared. Results: This study showed that none of the strains had pectinase activity, but the strain isolated from rice had more Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase activity. Selected isolates and C. uda ATCC 491 showed chemotaxis toward roots exudates. In most of the isolates, rate of auxin production increased by coculture with C. uda ATCC 491. Also, it was determined that C. uda ATCC 491 promoted the colonization of Azospirillum without or with cellulase activity on rice and wheat roots, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Co-inoculation Azospirillum with C. uda ATCC 491 improves plant root system due to stimulation or additive effect of auxin production and cellulase activity, followed by more uptakes of water and minerals by roots. Also, it raises the number of colonization niches for useful bacteria such as Azospirillum and finally quantitative and qualitative plant parameters.

  11. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2017-06-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome.Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using the Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio) technology and Illumina sequencing platform. We found that accessory genes of ATCC 27853 including prophages and genomic islands (GIs) mainly contribute to the difference between P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and other P. aeruginosa strains. Seven prophages were identified within the genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Of the predicted 25 GIs, three contain genes that encode monoxoygenases, dioxygenases and hydrolases that could be involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds. Surveying virulence-related genes revealed that a series of genes that encode the B-band O-antigen of LPS are lacking in ATCC 27853. Distinctive SNPs in genes of cellular adhesion proteins such as type IV pili and flagella biosynthesis were also observed in this strain. Colony morphology analysis confirmed an enhanced biofilm formation capability of ATCC 27853 on solid agar surface compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We then performed transcriptome analysis of ATCC 27853 and PAO1 using RNA-seq and compared the expression of orthologous genes to understand the functional genome and the genomic details underlying the distinctive colony morphogenesis. These analyses revealed an increased expression of genes involved in cellular adhesion and biofilm maturation such as type IV pili, exopolysaccharide and electron transport chain components in ATCC 27853 compared with PAO1. In addition, distinctive expression profiles of the

  12. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  13. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  14. Reclassification of the Specialized Metabolite Producer Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 as a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, E Joel; Jones, Cerith; Bull, Matthew J; Moody, Suzy C; Kahl, Małgorzata W; Khan, Zainab; Neilson, Louis; Tomeva, Marina; Adams, Sarah E; Wood, Andrew C; Rodriguez-Martin, Daniel; Pinel, Ingrid; Parkhill, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Crosby, John

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is a Gram-negative bacterium, first isolated from Japanese soil samples, that produces the monobactam isosulfazecin and the β-lactam-potentiating bulgecins. To characterize the biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, its complete genome was determined using single-molecule real-time DNA sequence analysis. The 7.8-Mb genome comprised four replicons, three chromosomal (each encoding rRNA) and one plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 was misclassified at the time of its deposition and is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to Burkholderia ubonensis The sequenced genome shows considerable additional biosynthetic potential; known gene clusters for malleilactone, ornibactin, isosulfazecin, alkylhydroxyquinoline, and pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis and several uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters for polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and other metabolites were identified. Furthermore, P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 harbors many genes associated with environmental resilience and antibiotic resistance and was resistant to a range of antibiotics and metal ions. In summary, this bioactive strain should be designated B. cepacia complex strain ATCC 31433, pending further detailed taxonomic characterization. IMPORTANCE This work reports the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila ATCC 31433, a known producer of bioactive compounds. Large numbers of both known and novel biosynthetic gene clusters were identified, indicating that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is an untapped resource for discovery of novel bioactive compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is in fact a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, most closely related to the species Burkholderia ubonensis Further investigation of the classification and biosynthetic potential of P. mesoacidophila ATCC 31433 is warranted. Copyright © 2017

  15. Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortakci, F; Sert, S

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The determination of optimal cells disintegration method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rybalkyn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is common infectious disease that affects the mucous membranes, skin, nails, hair, and internal organs. Now Ukraine has neither domestic nor registered imported vaccine against candidiasis. The development of vaccine for prevention and treatment of candidiasis is a key issue in modern medicine and pharmacy. Similar research is actively conducted in many countries of the world: Russia, USA, Japan and others. It should be noted that researchers have not yet reached a consensus view which vaccine is most effective with candidiasis. There are several types of vaccines: live, inactivated, subunit and others. In this article, we consider getting the potential subunit vaccine from Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Subunit vaccine is composed of fragments of antigens that can provide an adequate immune response. These vaccines can be represented by particles of microbes. It is known that the main substances in cells of genus Candida fungi, which have antigenic properties, are proteins and polysaccharides. However, the question of their localization in the layers of the cell wall and cytoplasm nowadays require more detailed studies. Many researchers to highlight cytoplasm antigens and all the other layers of the cell use the following methods: grinding cells with quartz sand, destroying them in different machine disintegrating, freezing and thawing a multi others. To obtain potential subunit vaccine fungi were rejected by methods that are based on the processing of biomass fungi chemicals (extraction, hydrolysis. The aim of this work was to study experimentally the destruction method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Cells of Candida albicans fungi strain CCM 335-867 and Candida tropicalis fungi strain 20336 ATTS have been separately cultured in vitro on agar Sabouraud at 25 ± 2º C for 48 hours and then washed by 10 ml of sterile 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution. Cell suspension of Candida albicans and

  17. Optimization of fed-batch fermentation for xylitol production by Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-H; Han, K-C; Koh, Y-H; Ryu, Y-W; Seo, J-H

    2002-07-01

    Xylitol, a functional sweetener, was produced from xylose by biological conversion using Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. Based on a two-substrate fermentation using glucose for cell growth and xylose for xylitol production, fed-batch fermentations were undertaken to increase the final xylitol concentration. The effects of xylose and xylitol on xylitol production rate were studied to determine the optimum concentrations for fed-batch fermentation. Xylose concentration in the medium (100 g l(-1)) and less than 200 g l(-1) total xylose plus xylitol concentration were determined as optimum for maximum xylitol production rate and xylitol yield. Increasing the concentrations of xylose and xylitol decreased the rate and yield of xylitol production and the specific cell growth rate, probably because of an increase in osmotic stress that would interfere with xylose transport, xylitol flux to secretion to cell metabolism. The feeding rate of xylose solution during the fed-batch mode of operation was determined by using the mass balance equations and kinetic parameters involved in the equations in order to increase final xylitol concentration without affecting xylitol and productivity. The optimized fed-batch fermentation resulted in 187 g l(-1) xylitol concentration, 0.75 g xylitol g xylose(-1) xylitol yield and 3.9 g xylitol l(-1) h(-1) volumetric productivity.

  18. Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius on Candida albicans growth kinetics, cell wall formation and micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia Araújo; Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Pereira, Tricia Murielly; de Souza, Andrade; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-fungal activity of a tincture from Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) on Candida albicans (ATCC 289065), a micro-organism associated with fungal infections of the oral cavity. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined through microdilution technique, as well as the microbial growth curve of C. albicans promoted by S. terebinthifolius. In addition, this study investigated a possible activity of the product on the fungal cell wall and its biological activity on fungal morphology. Nystatin was used as control and all tests were performed in triplicate. S. terebinthifolius showed MIC of 312.5 µg/mL and MFC of 2500 µg/mL upon the strain tested, while Nystatin showed MIC and MFC of 6.25 µg/mL. As regards the microbial growth curve, S. terebinthifolius was able to significantly reduce the number of CFU/mL when compared to growth control until the time of 60 min. In the times 120 and 180 min there was no statistically significant difference between the growth control and the experimental product. S. terebinthifolius possibly acts on the fungal cell wall, once the sorbitol test indicated a MIC of 1250 µg/mL. In the fungal morphology, a reduction was observed of pseudo-hyphae, chlamydoconidia and blastoconidia in the presence of the experimental product. S. terebinthifolius showed anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, inhibiting, probably, the fungal cell wall formation.

  19. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p Candida counts. Unstimulated whole saliva significantly (p Candida counts of 0 versus or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  20. Expression of arsenic resistance genes in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a gut microbiome bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaojiao; Mandal, Goutam; Rosen, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    The response of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a common human gut microbiota, to arsenic was determined. B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 is highly resistant to pentavalent As(V) and methylarsenate (MAs(V)). It is somewhat more sensitive to trivalent inorganic As(III) but 100-fold more sensitive to methylarsenite (MAs(III)) than to As(III). B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 has eight continuous genes in its genome that we demonstrate form an arsenical-inducible transcriptional unit. The first...

  1. Azasordarins: Susceptibility of Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. to GW 471558

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Monzón, Araceli; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the azasordarin GW 471558 was compared with those of amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 177 clinical isolates of Candida spp. GW 471558 showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis, even against isolates with decreased susceptibility to azoles. Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida guilliermondii are resistant to GW 471558 in vitro (MICs, >128 μg/ml).

  2. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  3. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  4. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  5. Candida albicans importance to denture wearers. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiznys, Alvydas; Zdanavičienė, Eglė; Žilinskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic oral fungal infections have spred, especially in denture wearers. Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory reaction, multifactorial etiology, which is usually associated with Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, due to its high virulence, ability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity tissues and denture surfaces. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management strategies of Candida-associated denture stomatitis commonly encountered in dental practice.

  6. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  7. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, K.; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Holá, Miroslava; Mahelová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2014), s. 23924-23935 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * Candida parapsilosis * biofilm Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2014

  8. Enzymes of Candida tropicalis yeast biodegrading phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Effluents of industrial wastewaters from oil refineries, paper mills, dyes, ceramic factories, resins, textiles and plastic contain high concentrations of aromatic compounds, which are toxic to organisms. Degradation of these compounds to tolerant limits before releasing them into the environment is an urgent requirement. Candida tropicalis yeast is an important representative of eucaryotic microorganisms that are able to utilize phenol. During the first phase of phenol biodegradation, cytopl...

  9. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  10. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities

  11. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans...

  12. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Hua Xinfeng

    2003-01-01

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241 Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241 Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241 Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241 Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C 0 ), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241 Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C 0 ) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241 Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  13. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  14. Mesosomes are a definite event in antibiotic-treated Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Raj, L; Hing, H L; Baharudin, Omar; Teh Hamidah, Z; Aida Suhana, R; Nor Asiha, C P; Vimala, B; Paramsarvaran, S; Sumarni, G; Hanjeet, K

    2007-06-01

    Mesosomes of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 treated with antibiotics were examined morphologically under the electron microscope. The Transmission Electron Microscope Rapid Method was used to eliminate the artifacts due to sample processing. Mesosomes were seen in all the antibiotic treated bacteria and not in the control group. The main factor that contributes to the formation of mesosomes in the bacteria was the mode of action of the antibiotics. The continuous cytoplasmic membrane with infolding (mesosomes) as in the S. aureus ATCC 25923 is therefore confirmed as a definite pattern of membrane organization in gram positive bacteria assaulted by amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and oxacillin antibiotics. Our preliminary results show oxacillin and vancomycin treated bacteria seemed to have deeper and more mesosomes than those treated with amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the deep invagination and the number of mesosomes formed is associated with the types of antibiotic used.

  15. Glycerol metabolism of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469: cloning and expression of two glycerol kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María de Fátima; Medina, Roxana; Pasteris, Sergio E; Strasser de Saad, Ana M; Sesma, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was able to grow in glycerol as the sole source of energy in aerobic conditions, producing lactate, acetate, and diacetyl. A biphasic growth was observed in the presence of glucose. In this condition, glycerol consumption began after glucose was exhausted from the culture medium. Glycerol kinase activity was detected in L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, a characteristic of microorganisms which catabolize glycerol in aerobic conditions. Genetic analysis revealed that this strain possesses two glycerol kinase genes: gykA and glpK, that encode for two different glycerol kinases GykA and GlpK, respectively. The glpK geneis associated in an operon with alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase (glpO) and glycerol facilitator (glpF) genes. Transcriptional analysis revealed that only glpK is expressed when L. rhamnosus was grown on glycerol. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfa

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749. Curdlan production fell when excess nitrogen source was present, while biomass accumulation increased as the level of nitrogen source raised. Curdlan production and biomass accumulation were greater with urea compared with those with other nitrogen sources. The highest production of curdlan and biomass accumulation by A. faecalis ATCC 31749 was 28.16 g L(-1) and 9.58 g L(-1), respectively, with urea, whereas those with NH(4)Cl were 15.17 g L(-1) and 6.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimum fermentation time for curdlan production was also affected by the nitrogen source in the medium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  18. Improvement in citric acid production of Aspergillus niger ATCC 11414 by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, Wachiraporn; Sansakorn, Sujittra; Puntharakratchadej, Chanin

    2003-10-01

    Ultraviolet and gamma irradiation were used to induce mutation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 11414 in order to increase ability of citric acid production. Five mutants of high-producing citric acid were 7UV-18, A2-14, 9UV-2, 9UV-27 and 8UV-10. The yields of citric acid were 2.0 to 3.84 fold higher than that of the wild type strain

  19. Metabolic Engineering of the Actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 towards Enhanced Production of Natural Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleige, Christian; Meyer, Florian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is used for the fermentative production of natural vanillin from ferulic acid on an industrial scale. The strain is known for its outstanding tolerance to this toxic product. In order to improve the productivity of the fermentation process, the strain's metabolism was engineered for higher final concentrations and molar yields. Degradation of vanillin could be decreased by more than 90% through deletion of the vdh gene, which codes for ...

  20. Rare 1,2’-binaphthyls Produced by Nodulisporium hinnuleum Smith (ATCC 36102

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Schlingman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of processing extracts from fermentations with Nodulisporium hinnuleum Smith (ATCC 36102 to obtain demethoxyvirdin, we noticed that this fungus produced several other secondary metabolites as well. In an effort to identify these components, four new, related natural products designated hinnulin A-D (1-4 were isolated and characterized. Structure elucidation of the hinnulins, primarily by NMR spectroscopy, revealed that these belong to the rare class of 1,2’-binaphthyl natural products.

  1. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  2. Murein Hydrolase Activity in the Surface Layer of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356▿

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Palomino, María Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Rivas, Carmen Sanchez; Ruzal, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new enzymatic functionality for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, namely, an endopeptidase activity against the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, assayed via zymograms and identified by Western blotting. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons, the hydrolase activity was predicted to be located at the C terminus. Subsequent cloning and expression of the C-terminal domain in Bacillus subtilis resulted in the functional verificati...

  3. A hydrogen-producing, hydrogenase-free mutant strain of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, P.; Lindblad, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physiological Botany; Schuetz, K.; Happe, T. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    2002-12-01

    The hupL gene, encoding the uptake hydrogenase large subunit, in Nostoc sp. strain ATCC 29133, a strain lacking a bidirectional hydrogenase, was inactivated by insertional mutagenesis. Recombinant strains were isolated and analysed, and one hupL{sup -} strain, NHM5, was selected for further study. Cultures of NHM5 were grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions and H{sub 2} evolution under air was observed using an H{sub 2} electrode. (Author)

  4. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The production of lactic acid on liquid distillery stillage by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469

    OpenAIRE

    Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mojović, Ljiljana; Pejin, Dušanka; Vukašinović-Sekulić, Maja; Rakin, Marica; Nikolić, Svetlana; Pejin, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The production of lactic acid on a liquid distillery stillage remaining after the bioethanol production on a mixture of waste bread and waste water from the production of wheat gluten was studied in this work. The lactic acid fermentation was performed with a probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. During the fermentation, parameters such as the concentration of lactic acid (according to Taylor method), the concentration of reducing sugars (spectrophotometric method ...

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of (Group I) Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Cold Shock Response

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlsten, Elias; Isokallio, Marita; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon t...

  7. Characterization of the Phthalate Permease OphD from Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17616†

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hung-Kuang; Zylstra, Gerben J.

    1999-01-01

    The ophD gene, encoding a permease for phthalate transport, was cloned from Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17616. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli results in the ability to transport phthalate rapidly into the cell. Uptake inhibition experiments show that 4-hydroxyphthalate, 4-chlorophthalate, 4-methylphthalate, and cinchomeronate compete for the phthalate permease. An ophD knockout mutant of 17616 grows slightly more slowly on phthalate but is still able to take up phthalate at rates eq...

  8. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  9. [Influence of cross-protection on the survival of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the cross-protection of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 under multi-stress conditions. Cells pre-adapted to mild conditions (heat, H2O2, acid or bile salts) were then treated at lethal temperature (> 60 degrees C) or hydrogen peroxide stress (> 5 mmol/L). Furthermore, the changes of survival rate intracellular pH and membrane fatty acid under lethal conditions with or without acid adaption were compared. The cross-protection in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 were affected by different stress conditions. Acid pre-adaption, especially hydrochloride treatment, would increase the resistance of cells to lethal heat and peroxide stresses significantly, with the survival rate of 305-fold and 173-fold, respectively. Further study suggested that the effect of acid pre-adaption might be related to the regulation on intracellular pH and the saturation of cell membrane. Hydrochloride adaption was the best inducer for the cross-protection of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 to maintain relatively stable physiological status of cells. The results supplied a novel way to investigate the relationship between different protective mechanisms in L. casei under different kinds of stresses.

  10. Genome-scale reconstruction of metabolic networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vinay-Lara

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications.

  11. Influence of controlled atmosphere on thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in almond powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Teng; Li, Rui; Kou, Xiaoxi; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-06-01

    Heat controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments hold potential to pasteurize Salmonella enteritidis PT 30 in almonds. Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as a surrogate species of pathogenic Salmonella for validation of thermal pasteurization to meet critical safety requirements. A controlled atmosphere/heating block system (CA-HBS) was used to rapidly determine thermal inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922. D- and z-values of E. coli ATCC 25922 inoculated in almond powder were determined at four temperatures between 65 °C and 80 °C under different gas concentrations and heating rates. The results showed that D- and z-values of E. coli under CA treatment were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those under regular atmosphere (RA) treatment at 4 given temperatures. Relatively higher CO 2 concentrations (20%) and lower O 2 concentrations (2%) were more effective to reduce thermal inactivation time. There were no significant differences in D-values of E. coli when heating rates were above 1 °C/min both in RA and CA treatments. But D-values significantly (P < 0.05) increased under RA treatment and decreased under CA treatment at lower heating rates. Combination of rapid heat and CA treatments could be a promising method for thermal inactivation of S. enteritidis PT 30 in almond powder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Emerging pathogen: Candida kefyr (Kluvyeromyces marxianus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, Tuğba; Kalkancı, Ayşe

    2017-10-01

    In the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital Candida kefyr was isolated from different clinical samples as 5.3% in 2016 and in 2017 this rate increased to 9.3% which was nearly two-fold and this has drawn our attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the special characteristics, antifungal susceptibility and virulence properties of C.keyfr species. Germ tube, corn meal-tween 80 agar morphology and carbohydrate assimilation profiles on ID32C yeast identification system were used for the diagnosis of Candida species. In this study, DNA sequencing was performed using ITS1 and ITS4 primers amplifying fungal gene between 5.8S and 18S regions of rRNA. Antifungal susceptibility was performed using M27A microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole were determined. MIC distribution, MIC50 and MIC90 values and geometric mean (GM) were detected. The existence of virulence factors caseinase, secreted aspartyl proteinase, esterase and phospholipase were investigated in vitro. A total of 865 Candida species were isolated from different clinical samples in the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital in 2016. Among them, 46 (5.3%) were C.kefyr. In the first four months of 2017, 30 (9.3%) C.kefyr were identified among 320 Candida isolates. Ten isolates which have shown atypical morphology on corn meal agar were selected. Among these 10 isolates, nine of them were identified as C.kefyr by using ID32C system and DNA sequencing method. Amphotericin B MIC value was 2 µg/ml for one isolate, and fluconazole MIC value was 8 µg/ml for another isolate among 46 isolates. Among the 30 isolates of the year 2017, one of them presented MIC value for fluconazole as 8 µg/ml. No marked antifungal resistance was detected in our isolate group. Caseinase was positive in one C.kefyr isolate, and

  13. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo; Lai, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four

  14. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  15. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  16. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyada Ghufrana Nadeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods: A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results: The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion: The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  17. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-02-09

    Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal-tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  18. Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Members of the Genus Candida II. Oxidation of n-Alkanes and 1-Alkenes by Candida lipolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, M. J.; Markovetz, A. J.

    1967-01-01

    Candida lipolytica ATCC 8661 was grown in a mineral-salts hydrocarbon medium. n-Alkanes and 1-alkenes with 14 through 18 carbon atoms were used as substrates. Ether extracts of culture fluids and cells obtained from cultures grown on the various substrates were analyzed by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Analyses of fluids from cultures grown on n-alkanes indicated a predominance of fatty acids and alcohols of the same chain length as the substrate. In addition, numerous other fatty acids and alcohols were present. Analyses of saponifiable and nonsaponifiable material obtained from the cells revealed essentially the same products. The presence of primary and secondary alcohols, as well as fatty acids, of the same chain length as the n-alkane substrate suggested that attack on both the methyl and α-methylene group was occurring. The significance of these two mechanisms in the degradation of n-alkanes by this organism was not evident from the data presented. Analyses of fluids from cultures grown on 1-alkenes indicated the presence of 1,2-diols, as well as ω-unsaturated fatty acids, of the same chain length as the substrate. Alcohols present were all unsaturated. Saponifiable and nonsaponifiable material obtained from cells contained essentially the same products. The presence of 1,2-diols and ω-unsaturated fatty acids of the same chain length as the substrate from cultures grown on 1-alkenes indicated that both the terminal methyl group and the terminal double bond were being attacked. PMID:6025303

  19. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-11-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories.

  20. prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of candida species isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Candida species isolated from HVS specimens were Candida albicans (n=19, 48.7%), Can- dida glabrata .... C test kits. The isolates were stored ... problem that causes significant morbidity and affects the .... from both urinary and high vaginal specimens followed by ... drugs that are used in the treatment of infec- tions due ...

  1. Incidence and Speciation of Candida Species among Non-gravid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the incidence and speciation of Candida species among non-gravid young females, using commercially available chromogenic Candida speciation media (CHROM agar) for the identification/speciation of medically important yeast and yeastlike organisms in a routine clinical mycology laboratory.

  2. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with ...

  3. Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mionić Ebersold, Marijana; Petrović, Milica; Fong, Wye-Khay; Bonvin, Debora; Hofmann, Heinrich; Milošević, Irena

    2018-02-07

    Due to the growing issues with fungal infections, especially with Candida , there is still a need to develop novel anti- Candida materials. One of the known antifungal agents is undecylenic acid (UA), which still cannot be efficiently used due to its oily nature, and thus limited solubility. By taking advantage of the properties of UA, we developed an emulsion with hexagonal phase, i.e., hexosomes, whose structure and morphology was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. The presence of UA in the hexosome was confirmed by spectroscopy. Moreover, we studied the anti- Candida effect of hexosomes and their cytotoxicity toward human cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the 50% and 90% Candida -growth reduction was found at 0.01 and 0.16 wt % hexosomes, respectively (i.e., 2 and 32 pg hex / C.a. cell, respectively). The percentage of metabolically active Candida was reduced by 72-96% at hexosome concentrations of 1.0-8.2 pg hex / C.a. cell as compared to untreated Candida . Furthermore, at the same concentration range the embedded filamentation test after 24 and 48 h showed the inhibition of both the filamentation and growth of Candida , while the preliminary toxicity test showed that hexosomes were nontoxic for human cells. All these render the here-developed hexosomes with UA efficient and promising anti- Candida agents.

  4. Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Mionić Ebersold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing issues with fungal infections, especially with Candida, there is still a need to develop novel anti-Candida materials. One of the known antifungal agents is undecylenic acid (UA, which still cannot be efficiently used due to its oily nature, and thus limited solubility. By taking advantage of the properties of UA, we developed an emulsion with hexagonal phase, i.e., hexosomes, whose structure and morphology was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. The presence of UA in the hexosome was confirmed by spectroscopy. Moreover, we studied the anti-Candida effect of hexosomes and their cytotoxicity toward human cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the 50% and 90% Candida-growth reduction was found at 0.01 and 0.16 wt % hexosomes, respectively (i.e., 2 and 32 pghex/C.a.cell, respectively. The percentage of metabolically active Candida was reduced by 72–96% at hexosome concentrations of 1.0–8.2 pghex/C.a.cell as compared to untreated Candida. Furthermore, at the same concentration range the embedded filamentation test after 24 and 48 h showed the inhibition of both the filamentation and growth of Candida, while the preliminary toxicity test showed that hexosomes were nontoxic for human cells. All these render the here-developed hexosomes with UA efficient and promising anti-Candida agents.

  5. Multigeneration toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; de Lima e Silva, Claudia; Lam, Thao; Koekkoek, Jacco C.; Lamoree, Marja H.; Verweij, Rudo A.

    2017-01-01

    In a recent study, we showed that the springtail Folsomia candida was quite sensitive the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid. This study aimed at determining the toxicity of both compounds to F. candida following exposure over three generations, in natural LUFA 2.2 standard

  6. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  7. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results. Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion. Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite antifungal therapy. PMID:26858961

  8. Speciation of Candida isolates obtained from diarrheal stool

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    Beena Uppal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Candida diarrhea was mostly seen in individuals younger than 12 years, most commonly caused by C. krusei. Resistance to fluconazole was high. A rising resistance to amphotericin B is alarming. Speciation of Candida is important to see the difference in antifungal susceptibility in different species.

  9. Emerging azole resistance among Candida albicans from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequently isolated yeasts in clinical laboratories and accounts for up to 80 % of the yeasts recovered from sites of infection. The study was set out to determine antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) to ...

  10. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nota, B.; Vooijs, H.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2011-01-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing

  11. Oral candida infection among HIV patients at Kilimanjaro Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    candida infection in HIV positive patients and investigate the relationship between oral manifestations ... and prescription at Child Centred Family Care Clinic at KCMC for a period of 12 months. .... et al., 2013) compared candida colonization in asymptomatic HIV patients and control. .... Journal of Dental Research, Dental.

  12. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

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    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  13. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  14. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species

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    Tang Ran-Bin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40% but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Results There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %. There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU, and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC.

  15. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yang, Yun-Liang; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Lin, Chin-Yu; Liu, Jih-Shin; Tang, Ran-Bin; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Fan, Yu-Hua; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC) are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Results There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %). There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU), and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC. PMID:15813977

  16. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  17. [Does the sampling locality influence on the antifungal activity of the flavonoids of Marrubium vulgare against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterfas, K; Mehdadi, Z; Aouad, L; Elaoufi, M M; Khaled, M B; Latreche, A; Benchiha, W

    2016-09-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of the sampling locality on the antifungal activity of the flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Marrubium vulgare L. against two fungal strains; Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The leaves were collected from three different sampling localities belonging northwest Algeria: Tessala mount, M'sila forest and Ain Skhouna. The flavonoid extraction was carried out by using organic solvents with increasing polarity. A phytochemical screening was performed by staining test tubes. The inhibition diameters were measured by solid medium diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by dilution method on solid medium. The antifungal activity varied significantly (Pflavonoid extract and its concentration, and the strain fungal type. The inhibition diameters varied between 8.16 and recorded 37.5mm even recording a total inhibition of fungal growth and often exceed those induced marketed antifungals (Amphotericin, Fluconazole, Terbinafine and econazole nitrate). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained range between 6.25 and 100μg/mL; experiencing strong antifungal inhibition. The phytochemical screening revealed the existence of certain flavonoids classes such as flavans and flavanols which may be responsible of this remarkable antifungal power. The sampling locality of Marrubium vulgare leaves influenced on the antifungal activity of flavonoids. These have proven very good fungistatic and worth valuing in pharmacology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Germ Tube Induction in Candida albicans: An Evaluation of the Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on Morphogenesis and Comparison with Pooled Human Serum

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    Tapiwa Matare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The potential of NaHCO3 versus human serum to induce germ tube formation in Candida albicans was investigated. Specimens. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from oral swabs of patients presenting with thrush. Approval for the study was granted by the Joint Research Ethics Committee (JREC/23/08. Method. Confirmed C. albicans isolates by routine methods were tested for germ tube induction using 5 different concentrations of Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 and Tris-maleate buffer control. Standard control strains included were C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and C. krusei (ATCC 6258. Microculture was done in 20 μL inoculums on microscope slides for 3 hours at 37°C. The rate of germ tube formation at 10-minute intervals was determined on 100 isolates using the optimum 20 mM Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 concentration. Parallel germ tube formation using human serum was done in test tubes. Results. The optimum concentration of NaHCO3 in Tris-maleate buffer for germ tube induction was 20 mM for 67% of isolates. Only 21% of isolates formed germ tubes in Tris-maleate buffer control. There was no significant difference in induction between human serum and Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3. Conclusion. Tris-maleate buffered NaHCO3 induced germ tube formation in C. albicans isolates at rates similar to human serum.

  19. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  20. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay

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    J Pratiba Dalal

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  1. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 vanillin dehydrogenase and its impact on the biotechnical production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH(ATCC 39116)). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vanillin dehydrogenase in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was investigated for the first time by using data from our genome sequence analysis and further bioinformatic approaches. The vdh gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded vanillin dehydrogenase was characterized in detail. VDH(ATCC 39116) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and exhibited NAD(+)-dependent activity toward vanillin, coniferylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 44°C. In a next step, a precise vdh deletion mutant of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was generated. The mutant lost its ability to grow on vanillin and did not show vanillin dehydrogenase activity. A 2.3-times-higher vanillin concentration and a substantially reduced amount of vanillic acid occurred with the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant when ferulic acid was provided for biotransformation in a cultivation experiment on a 2-liter-bioreactor scale. Based on these results and taking further metabolic engineering into account, the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant represents an optimized and industrially applicable platform for the biotechnological production of natural vanillin.

  2. Enhancing fructooligosaccharides production by genetic improvement of the industrial fungus Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Caixia; Xie, Yijia; Li, Ning; Ning, Zhanguo; Du, Na; Huang, Xirong; Zhong, Yaohua

    2017-05-10

    Aspergillus niger ATCC20611 is one of the most potent filamentous fungi used commercially for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are prospective components of functional food by stimulating probiotic bacteria in the human gut. However, current strategies for improving FOS yield still rely on production process development. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial strains to increase FOS production level. Here, an optimized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system was established in A. niger ATCC 20611 and used for further strain improvement. The pyrithiamine resistance gene (ptrA) was selected as a dominant marker and protoplasts were prepared with high concentration (up to 10 8 g -1 wet weight mycelium) by using mixed cell wall-lysing enzymes. The transformation frequency with ptrA can reach 30-50 transformants per μg of DNA. In addition, the efficiency of co-transformation with the EGFP reporter gene (egfp) was high (approx. 82%). Furthermore, an activity-improved variant of β-fructofuranosidase, FopA(A178P), was successfully overexpressed in A. niger ATCC 20611 by using the transformation system. The transformant, CM6, exhibited a 58% increase in specific β-fructofuranosidase activity (up to 507U/g), compared to the parental strain (320U/g), and effectively reduced the time needed for completion of FOS synthesis. These results illustrate the feasibility of strain improvement through genetic engineering for further enhancement of FOS production level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of lactose phosphotransferase systems in Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 required for lactose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francl, Alyssa L; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Miller, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Improving the annotation of sugar catabolism-related genes requires functional characterization. Our objective was to identify the genes necessary for lactose utilization by Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 (NCK334). The mechanism of lactose transport in many lactobacilli is a lactose/galactose-specific permease, yet no orthologue was found in NCK334. Characterization of an EI knockout strain [EI (enzyme I) is required for phosphotransferase system transporter (PTS) function] demonstrated that L. gasseri requires PTS(s) to utilize lactose. In order to determine which PTS(s) were necessary for lactose utilization, we compared transcript expression profiles in response to lactose for the 15 complete PTSs identified in the NCK334 genome. PTS 6CB (LGAS_343) and PTS 8C (LGAS_497) were induced in the presence of lactose 107- and 53-fold, respectively. However, L. gasseri ATCC 33323 PTS 6CB, PTS 8C had a growth rate similar to that of the wild-type on semisynthetic deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) medium with lactose. Expression profiles of L. gasseri ATCC 33323 PTS 6CB, PTS 8C in response to lactose identified PTS 9BC (LGAS_501) as 373-fold induced, whereas PTS 9BC was not induced in NCK334. Elimination of growth on lactose required the inactivation of both PTS 6CB and PTS 9BC. Among the six candidate phospho-β-galactosidase genes present in the NCK334 genome, LGAS_344 was found to be induced 156-fold in the presence of lactose. In conclusion, we have determined that: (1) NCK334 uses a PTS to import lactose; (2) PTS 6CB and PTS 8C gene expression is strongly induced by lactose; and (3) elimination of PTS 6CB and PTS 9BC is required to prevent growth on lactose.

  4. Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Heather T; Mitchell, Kaitlin F; Edward, Jessica A; Andes, David R

    2013-01-01

    Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involving both mechanisms similar to conventional, planktonic antifungal resistance, such as increased efflux pump activity, as well as mechanisms specific to the biofilm lifestyle. A unique biofilm property is the production of an extracellular matrix. Two components of this material, β-glucan and extracellular DNA, promote biofilm resistance to multiple antifungals. Biofilm formation also engages several stress response pathways that impair the activity of azole drugs. Resistance within a biofilm is often heterogeneous, with the development of a subpopulation of resistant persister cells. In this article we review the molecular mechanisms underlying Candida biofilm antifungal resistance and their relative contributions during various growth phases. PMID:24059922

  5. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  6. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  7. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão; Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  8. INFLUENCE OF HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE CELLS OF CYANOBACTERIA ANABAENA VARIABILIS SP. ATCC 29413

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRIŞ SANDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the result of research regardind the effect of high light intensity on the cells of Anabaena variabilis sp. ATCC 29413, the main objective is to study the adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus to light stress. Samples were analyzed in the present of herbicide diuron (DCMU which blocks electron flow from photosystem II and without diuron. During treatment maximum fluorescence and photosystems efficiency are significantly reduced, reaching very low values compared with the blank, as a result of photoinhibition installation. Also by this treatment is shown the importance of the mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of light stress and react accordingly.

  9. Oxygen-Inducible Conversion of Lactate to Acetate in Heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Xin, Yongping; Xu, ZhenShang; He, Huiying; Kong, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that produces high levels of acetate, which improve the aerobic stability of silages against deterioration caused by yeasts and molds. However, the mechanism involved in acetate accumulation has yet to be elucidated. Here, experimental evidence indicated that aerobiosis resulted in the conversion of lactate to acetate after glucose exhaustion in L. brevis ATCC 367 (GenBank accession number NC_008497). To elucidate the conversion pathway, in silico analysis showed that lactate was first converted to pyruvate by the reverse catalytic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); subsequently, pyruvate conversion to acetate might be mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or pyruvate oxidase (POX). Transcriptional analysis indicated that the pdh and pox genes of L. brevis ATCC 367 were upregulated 37.92- and 18.32-fold, respectively, by oxygen and glucose exhaustion, corresponding to 5.32- and 2.35-fold increases in the respective enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type strain, the transcription and enzymatic activity of PDH remained stable in the Δ pox mutant, while those of POX increased significantly in the Δ pdh mutant. More lactate but less acetate was produced in the Δ pdh mutant than in the wild-type and Δ pox mutant strains, and more H 2 O 2 (a product of the POX pathway) was produced in the Δ pdh mutant. We speculated that the high levels of aerobic acetate accumulation in L. brevis ATCC 367 originated mainly from the reuse of lactate to produce pyruvate, which was further converted to acetate by the predominant and secondary functions of PDH and POX, respectively. IMPORTANCE PDH and POX are two possible key enzymes involved in aerobic acetate accumulation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is currently thought that POX plays the major role in aerobic growth in homofermentative LAB and some heterofermentative LAB, while the impact of PDH remains unclear. In this study, we

  10. Pathway analysis for intracellular Porphyromonas gingivalis using a strain ATCC 33277 specific database

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    Wang Tiansong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen associated with periodontal disease. We have previously reported on whole-cell quantitative proteomic analyses to investigate the differential expression of virulence factors as the organism transitions from an extracellular to intracellular lifestyle. The original results with the invasive strain P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 were obtained using the genome sequence available at the time, strain W83 [GenBank: AE015924]. We present here a re-processed dataset using the recently published genome annotation specific for strain ATCC 33277 [GenBank: AP009380] and an analysis of differential abundance based on metabolic pathways rather than individual proteins. Results Qualitative detection was observed for 1266 proteins using the strain ATCC 33277 annotation for 18 hour internalized P. gingivalis within human gingival epithelial cells and controls exposed to gingival cell culture medium, an improvement of 7% over the W83 annotation. Internalized cells showed increased abundance of proteins in the energy pathway from asparagine/aspartate amino acids to ATP. The pathway producing one short chain fatty acid, propionate, showed increased abundance, while that of another, butyrate, trended towards decreased abundance. The translational machinery, including ribosomal proteins and tRNA synthetases, showed a significant increase in protein relative abundance, as did proteins responsible for transcription. Conclusion Use of the ATCC 33277 specific genome annotation resulted in improved proteome coverage with respect to the number of proteins observed both qualitatively in terms of protein identifications and quantitatively in terms of the number of calculated abundance ratios. Pathway analysis showed a significant increase in overall protein synthetic and transcriptional machinery in the absence of significant growth. These results suggest that the interior of host cells

  11. Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, D W [CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Duvnjak, Z [Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-01-01

    A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

  12. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg2+ Fe2+, and Zn2+ caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH2-Ala-Lys- Asn...

  13. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah

    2011-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  14. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  15. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  16. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  17. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Reena; Rathod, G P

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud's dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram's stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori's methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  18. Prevalence of Candida Species in Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The clinical management of oral lichen planus poses considerable difficulties to the clinician. In recent years, researchers have focused on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Candida albicans in the patients with refractory lichen planus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of candida species in the erosive oral lichen planus lesions. Materials and methods. Twenty-one patients with erosive oral lichen planus and twenty-one healthy individuals aged 18-60 were randomly selected; samples were taken from the tongue, saliva and buccal mucosa with swab friction. Theses samples were sent to the laboratory for determining the presence of candida species in cultures and direct examination method. Results. No significant difference was found between healthy individuals and patients with erosive lichen planus regarding presence of candida species. The type of candida in the evaluated samples was Candida albicans in both healthy and patient groups. Conclusion. According to the results, candida was not confirmed as an etiologic factor for erosive lichen planus lesions.

  19. Fluconazole resistance in Candida species: a current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkow EL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth L Berkow, Shawn R Lockhart Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Candida albicans and the emerging non-albicans Candida spp. have significant clinical relevance among many patient populations. Current treatment guidelines include fluconazole as a primary therapeutic option for the treatment of these infections, but it is only fungistatic against Candida spp. and both inherent and acquired resistance to fluconazole have been reported. Such mechanisms of resistance include increased drug efflux, alteration or increase in the drug target, and development of compensatory pathways for producing the target sterol, ergosterol. While many mechanisms of resistance observed in C. albicans are also found in the non-albicans species, there are also important and unexpected differences between species. Furthermore, mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in emerging Candida spp., including the global health threat Candida auris, are largely unknown. In order to preserve the utility of one of our fundamental antifungal drugs, fluconazole, it is essential that we fully appreciate the manner by which Candida spp. manifest resistance to it. Keywords: Candida, fluconazole resistance, ERG11, drug efflux, ergosterol

  20. Characterization of the newly isolated ω-oxidizing yeast Candida sorbophila DS02 and its potential applications in long-chain dicarboxylic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeseok; Sugiharto, Yohanes Eko Chandra; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Gyuyeon; Han, Changpyo; Jang, Hyeran; Jeon, Wooyoung; Park, Heejoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kang, Kyungbo; Lee, Hongwoen

    2017-08-01

    α, ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) are multipurpose chemicals widely used in polymers, perfumes, plasticizers, lubricants, and adhesives. The biotransformation of DCAs from alkanes and fatty acids by microorganisms has attracted recent interest, since synthesis via chemical oxidation causes problems in terms of the environment and safety. We isolated an ω-oxidizing yeast from a wastewater disposal facility of a petrochemical factory by chemostat enrichment culture. The haploid strain identified as Candida sorbophila DS02 grew on glucose and dodecane, exhibiting greater cell shrinkage on the latter. In flask cultures with mixed alkanes (C10-16) and fatty acid methyl esters (C10-16), DS02 used mixed alkanes simultaneously unlike Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica and showed high substrate resistance. In flask cultures with acrylic acid-a known inhibitor of β-oxidation-DS02 produced 0.28 g/l dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) from dodecane, similar to wild-type C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. In fed-batch fermentation, DS02 produced 9.87 g/l DDDA, which was 5.7-fold higher than wild-type C. tropicalis. These results suggest that C. sorbophila strain DS02 has potential applications for the large-scale production of DCA.

  1. The role of filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin in adherence and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Alipour Astaneh, Shakiba; Rasooli, Iraj; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif

    2014-09-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin adhesins (FHA) are key factors for bacterial attachment and subsequent cell accumulation on substrates. Here an FHA-like Outer membrane (OM) adhesin of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T) was displayed on Escherichia coli. The candidate autotransporter (AT) genes were identified in A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) genome. The exoprotein (FhaB1) and transporter (FhaC1) were produced independently within the same cell (FhaB1C1). The fhaC1 was mutated. In vitro adherence to epithelial cells of the recombinant FhaB1C1 and the mutant strains were compared with A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). A bivalent chimeric protein (K) composed of immunologically important portions of fhaB1 (B) and fhaC1 (C) was constructed. The mice vaccinated with chimeric protein were challenged with A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) and FhaB1C1 producing recombinant E. coli. Mutations in the fhaC1 resulted in the absence of FhaB1 in the OM. Expression of FhaB1C1 enhanced the adherence of recombinant bacteria to A546 bronchial cell line. The results revealed association of FhaB1 with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Immunization with a combination of recombinant B and K proteins proved protective against A. baumanni ATCC19606(T). The findings may be applied in active and passive immunization strategies against A. baumannii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 grown on prairie cordgrass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or on a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 hr. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 hr was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 hr from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate.

  3. Rapid identification of drug resistant Candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diba, Kambiz; Namaki, Atefeh; Ayatolahi, Haleh; Hanifian, Haleh

    2012-01-01

    Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37℃, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  4. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  5. [Fungal (Candida) infections in the immunocompromised pediatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Diemond, J; Lopez, C; Huerta Romano, F; Montiel Castillo, C

    2008-11-01

    Today, mycotic infections in immunocompromised patients are mainly caused by Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. The patients most sensitive to these infections are those with some kind of cell-mediated immunity quantitative or qualitative alteration (i.e., blood-related cancer, primary or secondary neutropenia, immunosuppressive disease or therapy, etc.). Candida infection in the immunosupressed patient comprises a wide range of serious diseases such as candidemia, chronic disseminated candididasis, endocarditis, meningitis and endophthalmitis. Therefore, infection by Candida spp. is considered secondary to the technological and medical advances which extend the life of patients with chronic diseases. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  6. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Charles, M. V.; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media ...

  8. [Proteomic analysis of curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 in response to dissolved oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaomeng; Yang, Libo; Zheng, Zhiyong; Chen, Haiqin; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2015-08-04

    Curdlan is produced by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 under nitrogen limiting condition. The biosynthesis of crudlan is a typical aerobic bioprocess, and the production of curdlan would be severely restricted under micro-aerobic and anoxic conditions. Proteomic analysis of Agrobacterium sp. was conducted to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on the crucial enzymes involved in curdlan biosynthesis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed to separate and visualize the differential expression of the intracellular proteins extracted from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 cultured under various dissolved oxygen levels (75%, 50%, 25% and 5%). In addition, a comparative proteomic analysis of the intracellular proteins expression level under various dissolved oxygen levels was done. Significant differently expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Finally, we identified 15 differently expressed proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis pathway. Among these proteins, phosphoglucomutase and orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylase were the key metabolic enzymes directing curdlan biosynthesis. Oxygen could affect the expression of the proteins taking charge of curdlan synthesis significantly.

  9. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in nostoxanthin biosynthesis of Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhu

    Full Text Available Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2'-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2'-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.

  10. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in nostoxanthin biosynthesis of Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Wu, Xuechang; Li, Ou; Qian, Chaodong; Gao, Haichun

    2012-01-01

    Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB) and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2'-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2'-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.

  11. Different nitrogen sources change the transcriptome of welan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Nie, Zuoming; Zheng, Zhiyong; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2017-09-01

    To reveal effects of different nitrogen sources on the expressions and functions of genes in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555, it was cultivated in medium containing inorganic nitrogen (IN), organic nitrogen (ON), or inorganic-organic combined nitrogen (CN). Welan gum production and bacterial biomass were determined, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the different ATCC 31555 groups were identified, and their functions were analyzed. Welan gum production and bacterial biomass were significantly higher in the ON and CN groups compared with those in the IN group. RNA-seq produced 660 unigenes, among which 488, 731, and 844 DEGs were identified between the IN vs. ON, IN vs. CN, and ON vs. CN groups, respectively. All the DEGs were related significantly to metabolic process and signal transduction. DEGs between the IN vs. CN and ON vs. CN groups were potentially associated with bacterial chemotaxis. Real-time PCR confirmed the expressions of selected DEGs. Organic nitrogen led to higher bacterial biomass and welan gum production than inorganic nitrogen, which might reflect differences in gene expression associated with metabolic process, signal transduction, and bacterial chemotaxis induced by different nitrogen sources.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  13. Production of L-lactic acid from metabolically engineered strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2017-07-01

    In this study, L-lactic acid production was investigated from metabolically engineered strain of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007. The engineered strain E. aerogenes SUMI01 (Δpta) was generated by the deletion of phosphate acetyltransferase (pta) gene from the chromosome of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 and deletion was confirmed by colony PCR. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, at 37°C and pH 6 for 84h, the L-lactic acid produced by engineered strain E. aerogenes SUMI01 (Δpta) in flask fermentation using 100g/L mannitol as the carbon source was 40.05g/L as compared to that of the wild type counterpart 20.70g/L. At the end of the batch fermentation in bioreactor the production of L-lactic acid reached to 46.02g/L and yield was 0.41g/g by utilizing 112.32g/L mannitol. This is the first report regarding the production of L-lactic acid from Enterobacter species. We believe that this result may provide valuable guidelines for further engineering Enterobacter strain for the improvement of L-lactic acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial effect of four endodontic cements against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Carruitero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the in vitro antibacterial effect of the root canal cements Endobalsam®, Top Seal®, Apexit® and Endofill® against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Materials and method: Eighty-five applications of cements on Enterococcus faecalis, cultured in vitro on solid media in Petri dishes, were analyzed. Five groups were evaluated: four for each cement, and the fifth for the positive control (amoxicillin. The antibacterial effect was measured by the diameters of the bacterial inhibition halos at 24 hours, 48 hours, and seven days. Student´s t-test, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: No statistically significant differences were found at 24 hours (p>0.05; at 48 hours and seven days, Endofill® and Apexit® had the greatest effect (p0.05. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was susceptible to all cements. Endofill® had greater in vitro antibacterial effect than Apexit®, Top Seal® and Endobalsam®.

  15. GAMMA Radiation Effect On Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19095) in Cheese MINAS FRESCALIRRADIATED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Gurgel, M.S.C.C. DO; Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Milk is an excellent medium of culture for development of Staphylococcus aureus. Gamma radiation can be an alternative method to guarantee the safety of the contaminated cheeses. The objective of this research was determine the effects of the gamma radiation on the resistance of S.aureus (ATCC 19095) in cheese M inas Frescal i rradiated. The cheeses elaborated in the Laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, were contaminated during their production with 10 6 CFU/mL of culture of S.aureus (ATCC 19095). The cheeses were irradiated with 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kGy, maintained under refrigeration condition (5 0C ) and analyzed at 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The evaluation microbiology was made through the S.aureus survival analysis using Baird Parker selective medium and confirmative test of coagulase, catalase and fermentation aerobics of the manitol. The capacity of enterotoxins production by irradiated S.aureus was detected by the method of Passive Reverse Agglutination Latex. Results showed that 3 kGy is enough to destroy the S.aureus and 2 kGy to inhibited its toxins production

  16. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  17. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  18. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  19. Biophysical Effects of a Polymeric Biosurfactant in Candida krusei and Candida albicans Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella Freitas; Dos Santos Pinto, Bruna Lorrana; Souza, Eliene Batista; Viana, José Lima; Zagmignan, Adrielle; Dos Santos, Julliana Ribeiro Alves; Santos, Áquila Rodrigues Costa; Tavares, Priscila Batista; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Monteiro, Andrea Souza

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a polymeric biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida krusei cells to human buccal epithelial cells and its interference in biofilm formation by these strains. The biofilm inhibition by biosurfactant (25 mg/mL) in C. krusei and C. albicans in polystyrene was reduced up to 79.5 and 85 %, respectively. In addition, the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter of the yeasts altered as a function of the biosurfactant concentration added to the cell suspension. The changes in the cell surface characteristics and the interface modification can contribute to the inhibition of the initial adherence of yeasts cells to the surface. In addition, the analyses of the biofilm matrix and planktonic cell surfaces demonstrated differences in carbohydrate and protein concentrations for the two studied strains, which may contribute to the modulation of cell adhesion or consolidation of biofilms, especially in C. krusei. This study suggests a possible application of the of CLOA72 biosurfactant in inhibiting the adhesion and formation of biofilms on biological surfaces by yeasts of the Candida genus.

  20. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  1. [FUNCTION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION A, FIBRINOGEN BINDING PROTEIN, AND ACCUMULATION-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN GENES IN FORMATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS-CANDIDA ALBICANS MIXED SPECIES BIOFILMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Youquan; Zhao, Guangqiang; Ye, Lianhua; Lei, Yujie; Tang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of intercellular adhesion A (icaA), fibrinogen binding protein (fbe), and accumulation-associated protein (aap) genes in formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans mixed species biofilms. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: single culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC35984 (S. epidermidis group) or Candida albicans ATCC10231 (C. albicans group), and co-culture of two strains (mixed group) to build in vitro biofilm model. Biofilm mass was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after incubation. XTT assay was performed to determine the growth kinetics in the same time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the ultrastructure of the biofilms after 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The expressions of icaA, fbe, and aap genes were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay showed that the biofilms thickened at 12 hours in the S. epidermidis and mixed groups; after co-cultured for 72 hours the thickness of biofilm in mixed group was more than that in the S. epidermidis group, and there was significant difference between 2 groups at the other time (P 0.05). In C. albicans group, the biofilm started to grow at 12 hours of cultivation, but the thickness of the biofilm was significantly lower than that in the mixed group in all the time points (P 0.05) except at 12 hours (P 0.05); the A value of mixed group was significantly higher than that of the C. albicans group after 6 hours (P biofilms with complex structure formed in all groups. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR showed the expressions of fbe, icaA, and aap genes in mixed group increased 1.93, 1.52, and 1.46 times respectively at 72 hours compared with the S. epidermidis group (P biofilms have more complex structure and are thicker than single species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis or Candida albicans, which is related to

  2. Relative Abundances of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in In Vitro Coculture Biofilms Impact Biofilm Structure and Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michelle L; Jayaraman, Arul; Kao, Katy C

    2018-04-15

    Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species- Candida albicans and Candida glabrata -are often coisolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida coculture biofilms. In this work, we report that biofilm formation of the coculture population depends on the relative ratio of starting cell concentrations of C. albicans and C. glabrata When using a starting ratio of C. albicans to C. glabrata of 1:3, ∼6.5- and ∼2.5-fold increases in biofilm biomass were observed relative to those of a C. albicans monoculture and a C. albicans / C. glabrata ratio of 1:1, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the heterogeneity and complex structures composed of long C. albicans hyphae and C. glabrata cell clusters in the coculture biofilms, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) studies showed increases in the relative expression of the HWP1 and ALS3 adhesion genes in the C. albicans / C. glabrata 1:3 biofilm compared to that in the C. albicans monoculture biofilm. Additionally, only the 1:3 C. albicans / C. glabrata biofilm demonstrated an increased resistance to the antifungal drug caspofungin. Overall, the results suggest that interspecific interactions between these two fungal pathogens increase biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in a coculture composition-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are often coisolated during infection, and the occurrence of coisolation increases with increasing inflammation, suggesting possible synergistic interactions between the two Candida species in

  3. Antifungal activity of components used for decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans

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    Cíntia Lima Gouveia

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effectiveness of antimicrobial solutions employed in dental prosthesis decontamination is still uncertain. Aim: To evaluate the antifungal activity of cleaners used in the decontamination of dental prostheses on the growth of Candida albicans. Material and method: The evaluated products were: Corega Tabs(r (S1, Sodium Hypochlorite 1% (S2, Sodium Bicarbonate 1% (S3, Hydrogen Peroxide 1% (S4, Chlorhexidine Digluconate 0.12% - Periogard (r (S5, Mouthrinse based on essential oils - Listerine(r (S6, essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary at concentrations of 1% (S7 and 2% (S8. The antifungal activity of the products was evaluated by agar diffusion technique and the determination of microbial death curve of samples of C. albicans (ATCC 90028 in concentration 1.5 × 106 CFU/mL. The tests were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was made by ANOVA Two-Way and Tukey tests, with the confidence level of 95%. Result: The average of the zones of inhibition growth, in millimeters, obtained for the products were: 0.0 (S1, 44.7 (S2, 0.0 (S3, 21.6 (S4, 10.0 (S5, 6.1 (S6, 0.0 (S7 and 2.4 (S8. Considering the determination of microbial death curve, all products showed a statistical difference (p<0.01 from control (0.85% sodium chloride and S3 groups. Fungal growth less than 2×104 CFU/mL and an accentuation of the microbial death curve were observed after 30 minutes, with exception for S3 and control groups. Conclusion: The studied compounds, with the exception of Sodium Bicarbonate, have antifungal effect against C. albicans, which contribute for dental prostheses hygiene.

  4. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-01-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell. Images PMID:6752021

  5. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-09-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell.

  6. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation.

  7. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The constants obtained for this model were µmax = 0.246 h-1, Ks = 16.95 mg/L and Ki = 604.85 mg/L.Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradação de catecol em frascos de Erlenmeyers em água residuária sintética pela levedura Candida parapsilopsis. As respostas dos ensaios cinéticos mostraram que altas concentrações de catecol ocasionaram uma fase lag longa para a levedura. Portanto, a aclimatização da cultura de levedura empregada para biodegradação de catecol é de fundamental importância, sendo possível reduzir toda a concentração inicial de catecol da água residuária sintética de 910 mg/L em 48 horas. Os dados experimentais da cinética de biodegradação do catecol foram ajustados pelo modelo de Haldane adequadamente, sobre a faixa de concentração de catecol investigada de 36 a 910 mg/L. Os parâmetros cinéticos obtidos do modelo de Haldane foram: µmax = 0,246 h-1, Ks = 16,95 mg/L e Ki = 604,85 mg/L.

  8. Goodbye warts, hello vitiligo: Candida antigen-induced depigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin N; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2013-01-01

    Depigmentation after the use of topical immune modulators is a rare but reported event. Herein we present what is to our knowledge the first case of vitiligo at a site of Candida antigen injection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  10. In vitro synergism of simvastatin and fluconazole against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections are responsible for high mortality rates. Several species of fungi may be involved, but Candida spp. is the most prevalent. Simvastatin is used to lower cholesterol and also exhibits antifungal action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic action of simvastatin with fluconazole against strains of Candida spp. Susceptibility testing was performed according to protocol M27-A3, by broth microdilution method and the synergistic effect of simvastatin and fluconazole was calculated based on FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index. Eleven strains were evaluated, and simvastatin showed a synergistic effect with fluconazole against 10 (91% of the Candida spp. strains tested. Simvastatin may be a valuable drug in the treatment of systemic infections caused by Candida spp.

  11. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew Z.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, with Candida albicans being the most clinically relevant species. Candida albicans resides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation of C. albicans virulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and within Candida species), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein–DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics in C. albicans and discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  12. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  13. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  14. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  15. Otomastoiditis caused by Candida auris: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoung Il; An, Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Moon, Soo-Youn; Son, Jun Seong

    2017-08-01

    Fungal otomastoiditis is a rare disease, but can be fatal for immunocompromised patients. Recently, there have been increasing cases of otologic infection caused by Candida auris. Candida auris can be easily misdiagnosed for other species and treatment is difficult due to multidrug resistance. Clinician should be aware of this rare pathogen, and it should be treated with appropriate antifungal agent with surgical debridement. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The first cases of Candida auris candidaemia in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Jalila; Hagen, Ferry; Al-Balushi, Zainab A M; de Hoog, G Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S

    2017-09-01

    Candida auris has been recognised as a problematic healthcare-associated emerging yeast which is often misidentified as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Correct early identification of C. auris is important for appropriate antifungal treatment and implementing effective infection control measures. Here we report emergence of the first C. auris cases in Oman, initially misidentified as C. haemulonii. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-08-15

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  20. In vitro activity of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) on Candida tropicalis growth and cell wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia A; Freires, Irlan de A; de Souza, Tricia M P A; de Castro, Ricardo D

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) tincture on planktonic Candida tropicalis (ATCC 40042), which is a microorganism associated to oral cavity infections. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined through the microdilution technique. Possible action of the tincture on fungal cell wall formation was also studied by adding an osmotic protector (0.8M sorbitol) to the microplates. Nystatin was used as standard control and tests were performed in triplicate. S. terebinthifolius was found to have MIC and MFC values of 625 microg/mL on the strain assayed, whereas nystatin showed MIC and MFC of 6.25 microg/mL. Results suggest that S. terebinthifolius tincture acts on fungal cell walls, since the sorbitol test indicated a MIC of 1.250 microg/mL. It may be concluded that S. terebinthifolius has potential in vitro antifungal activity against C. tropicalis strains, and probably acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall formation.

  1. CrdR function in a curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liping; Zhao, Lamei; Lin, Chun; Liu, Zhengjie; Mao, Zichao

    2015-02-10

    Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749 is an efficient curdlan producer at low pH and under nitrogen starvation. The helix-turn-helix transcriptional regulatory protein (crdR) essential for curdlan production has been analyzed, but whether crdR directly acts to cause expression of the curdlan biosynthesis operon (crdASC) is uncertain. To elucidate the molecular function of crdR in curdlan biosynthesis, we constructed a crdR knockout mutant along with pBQcrdR and pBQNcrdR vectors with crdR expression driven by a T5 promoter and crdR native promoter, respectively. Also, we constructed a pAG with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene driven by a curdlan biosynthetic operon promoter (crdP) to measure the effects of crdR expression on curdlan biosynthesis. Compared with wild-type (WT) strain biomass production, the biomass of the crdR knockout mutant was not significantly different in either exponential or stationary phases of growth. Mutant cells were non-capsulated and planktonic and produced significantly less curdlan. WT cells were curdlan-capsulated and aggregated in the stationery phase. pBQcrdR transformed to the WT strain had a 38% greater curdlan yield and pBQcrdR and pBQNcrdR transformed to the crdR mutant strain recovered 18% and 105% curdlan titers of the WT ATCC31749 strain, respectively. Consistent with its function of promoting curdlan biosynthesis, curdlan biosynthetic operon promoter (crdP) controlled GFP expression caused the transgenic strain to have higher GFP relative fluorescence in the WT strain, and no color change was observed with low GFP relative fluorescence in the crdR mutant strain as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy and spectrometric assay. q-RT-PCR revealed that crdR expression in the stationary phase was greater than in the exponential phase, and crdR overexpression in the WT strain increased crdA, crdS, and crdC expression. We also confirmed that purified crdR protein can specifically bind to the crd operon promoter region, and we inferred

  2. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Miličević Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific

  3. 40 CFR 180.1102 - Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC #20847) strain T-22; exemption from requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1102 Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2... of a tolerance is established for residues of the biofungicide Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC...

  4. Resistencia de levaduras del género Candida al fluconazol Candida yeast´s resistance to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernando Gómez Quintero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por levaduras del género Candida sp. son cada vez más prevalentes en pacientes hospitalizados, especialmente en grupos de mayor riesgo como pueden ser pacientes con neoplasia hematológica bajo tratamiento de quimioterapia y en cuidados intensivos. La resistencia de Candida sp. representa un reto terapéutico que deja un menor número de posibilidades para el tratamiento de estas infecciones que se caracterizan, a su vez, por una alta morbimortalidad. Esta revisión describe los mecanismos de resistencia de Candida sp. a fluconazol y los factores de riesgo para la adquisición de éstos.Yeast infections of the genus Candida sp are becoming more prevalent in hospitalized patients, especially in high risk groups such as patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy and in intensive care units. Candida sp's resistance represents a therapeutic challenge that leaves fewer opportunities for the treatment of these infections which are characterized by high morbidity and mortality. This review describes Candida sp's resistance mechanisms to fluconazole and the risk factors for their acquisition.

  5. Isolation and partial characterization of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIJA IZRAEL-ŽIVKOVIĆ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic characteristics of a protease from a medically important, referent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were determined. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and gel filtration, it was estimated that the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was about 15 kDa. Other enzymatic properties were found to be: pH optimum 7.1, pH stability between 6.5 and 10; temperature optimum around 60 °C while the enzyme was stable at 60 °C for 30 min. Inhibition of the enzyme was observed with metal chelators, such as EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting that the protease is a metalloenzyme. Furthermore, the enzyme contains one mole of zinc ion per mole of enzyme. The protease was stable in the presence of different organic solvents, which enables its potential use for the synthesis of peptides.

  6. Long-term kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 survival on peanuts and peanut confectionery products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela S Nascimento

    Full Text Available Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29, roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39, unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54, peanut brittle (aw = 0.30, paçoca (aw = 0.40 and pé-de-moça (aw = 0.68 were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 at two inoculum levels (3 and 6 log cfu/ g. The Salmonella behavior was influenced (p420 days, especially in products with aw around 0.40.

  7. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  8. Influence of temperature on flavour compound production from citrate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Figueroa, R M; Oliver, G; Benito de Cárdenas, I L

    2001-03-01

    The citrate utilization by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was found to be temperature-dependent. The maximum citrate utilization and incorporation of [1,5-14C]citrate rate were observed at 37 degreesC. At this temperature, maximum citrate lyase activity and specific diacetyl and acetoin production (Y(DA%)) were observed. The high levels of alpha-acetolactate synthase and low levels of diacetyl reductase, acetoin reductase and L-lactate dehydrogenase found at 37 degreesC led to an accumulation of diacetyl and acetoin. Optimum lactic acid production was observed at 45 degreesC, according to the high lactate dehydrogenase activity. The NADH oxidase activity increased with increasing culture temperature from 22 degreesC to 37 degreesC. Thus there are greater quantities of pyruvate available for the production of alpha-acetolactate, diacetyl and aceotin, and less diacetyl and acetoin are reduced.

  9. Microbial conversion of ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol and acetophenone by Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D P; Goldsmith, C D

    1979-09-01

    A culture of Nocardia tartaricans ATCC 31190 was capable of catalyzing the conversion of ethylbenzene to 1-phenethanol and acetophenone while growing in a shake flask culture with hexadecane as the source of carbon and energy. This subterminal oxidative reaction with ethylbenzene appears not to have been previously reported for Nocardia species. When N. tartaricans was grown on glucose as its source of carbon and energy and ethylbenzene was added, no subsequent production of 1-phenethanol or acetophenone was observed. The mechanisms of 1-phenethanol and acetophenone production from ethylbenzene are thought to involve a subterminal oxidation of the alpha-carbon of the alkyl group to 1-phenethanol followed by biological oxidation of the latter to acetophenone.

  10. Response of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 to low-shear modeled microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Wallace, Sarah; Stahl, Sarah; Voorhies, Alexander; Lorenzi, Hernan; Douglas, Grace L.

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and gene expression of probiotic bacteria must be investigated to confirm that benefits of selected strains will still be conveyed under microgravity conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in a microgravity analog environment. L. acidophilus was cultured anaerobically under modeled microgravity conditions and assessed for differences in growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression compared to control cultures. No significant differences were observed between the modeled microgravity and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that this strain will behave similarly in spaceflight.

  11. Microencapsulation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores in gellan gum microspheres for the production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Sweta; Wan Sia Heng, Paul; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide further insights on the applicability of microencapsulation using emulsification method, to immobilise Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spores, for biobutanol production. The encapsulated spores were revived using heat shock treatment and the fermentation efficiency of the resultant encapsulated cells was compared with that of the free (non-encapsulated) cells. The microspheres were easily recovered from the fermentation medium by filtration and reused up to five cycles of fermentation. In contrast, the free (non-encapsulated) cells could be reused for two cycles only. The microspheres remained intact throughout repeated use. Although significant cell leakage was observed during the course of fermentation, the microspheres could be reused with relatively high butanol yield, demonstrating their role as microbial cell nurseries. Both encapsulated and liberated cells contributed to butanol production.

  12. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  13. Influence of glutamate on growth, sporulation, and spore properties of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in defined medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Atmadja, R.D.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    A chemically defined medium in combination with an airlift fermentor system was used to study the growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The medium contained six amino acids and lactate as the main carbon sources. The amino acids were depleted during exponential growth, while lactate

  14. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use.

  15. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under defined conditions: temporal expression of genes for key sigma factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time

  16. Formation and conversion of oxygen metabolites by Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 19435 under different growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Hofvendahl, K.; Hahn Hagerdal, B.

    2002-01-01

    A semidefined medium based on Casamino Acids allowed Lactococcus lactis ATCC 19435 to grow in the presence of oxygen at a slow rate (0.015 h-1). Accumulation of H2O2 in the culture prevented a higher growth rate. Addition of asparagine to the medium increased the growth rate, whereby H2O2

  17. Direct-Imaging-Based Quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Population Heterogeneity at a Low Incubation Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Garcia, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 was cultured in microcolonies on Anopore strips near its minimum growth temperature to directly image and quantify its population heterogeneity at an abusive refrigeration temperature. Eleven percent of the microcolonies failed to grow during low-temperature incubation,

  18. Distinct substrate specificities of three glycoside hydrolase family 42 β-galactosidases from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg, Alexander Holm; Katayama, Takane; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2014-01-01

    resembling various milk and plant galactooligosaccharides distinguishes the three GH42 members, Bga42A, Bga42B and Bga42C, encoded by the probiotic B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 and revealed the glycosyl residue at subsite +1 and its linkage to the terminal Gal at subsite −1 to be key specificity...

  19. Draft genome sequences of four uropathogenic escherichia coli 04:H5 isolates (ATCC 700414,700415,700416 and 700417)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O4: H5 isolates ATCC 700414, 700415, 700416, and 700417 were recovered from women with first-time urinary tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these four E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing tec...

  20. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and L22 display probiotic potential in vitro and protect against Salmonella-induced pullorum disease in a chick model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexian; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and L. reuteri L22 were studied for their probiotic potential. These two strains were able to produce an antimicrobial substance, termed reuterin, the maximum production of reuterin by these two strains was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (16 h in MRS and 20 h in LB broths). These two strains could significantly reduce the growth of Salmonella pullorum ATCC 9120 in MRS broth, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 with a reduction of 48.2±4.15% (in 5 log) and 89.7±2.59% (in 4 log) respectively, at the same time, L. reuteri L22 was 69.4±3.48% (in 5 log) and 80.4±3.22% respectively. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was active against the majority of the pathogenic species, including S. pullorum ATCC 9120 and Escherichia coli O(78), while L. reuteri L22 was not as effective as L. reuteri ATCC 55730. The two potential strains were found to survive variably at pH 2.5 and were unaffected by bile salts, while neither of the strains was haemolytic. Moreover, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exhibited variable susceptibility towards commonly used antibiotics; but L. reuteri L22 showed resistant to most antibiotics in this study. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 consequently was found to significantly increase survival rate in a Salmonella-induced pullorum disease model in chick. To conclude, strain L. reuteri ATCC 55730 possesses desirable probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation in vitro, which were confirmed in vivo by the use of animal models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Candida guilliermondii as the aetiology of candidosis Candida guilliermondii como agente de candidose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii is one of the components of human microbiota. This yeast has been infrequently associated with human infections, which may be related to its low pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to provide clinical and epidemiological data for patients infected with C. guilliermondii at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. From October 1997 to October 2003, C. guilliermondii was isolated from clinical samples from 11 patients. Three patients were excluded because the isolation of the yeast represented colonisation. Specimens from the eight patients included in the study corresponded to blood (n = 5, ascitis fluid (n = 2, and oesophagus biopsy (n = 1. Three patients (37.5% had major immunosuppressed conditions, including solid organ transplantation, AIDS, and leukaemia. Previous use of antibiotics occurred in 87.5%. Main invasive medical procedures were central venous catheter (50.0%, abdominal surgery (25.0%, and peritoneal dialysis (50.0%. No susceptibility data was obtained. Although risk factors for candidaemia were similar amongst patients infected by with C. guilliermondii or other Candida species, mortality associated with C. guilliermondii was significantly lower.Candida guilliermondii é um dos componentes da microbiota humana e infecções associadas com esta levedura têm sido incomuns, o que pode ser atribuído a sua baixa patogenicidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi documentar aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos em pacientes que tiveram C. guilliermondii isolada a partir de amostras biológicas. O estudo foi conduzido na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brasil. Durante outubro de 1997 e outubro de 2003, C. guilliermondii foi isolada de 11 pacientes, três dos quais foram excluídos por se apresentarem apenas colonizados. Espécimes clínicos corresponderam a sangue (n = 5, líquido de ascite (n = 2 e biópsia de esôfago (n = 1. Três pacientes eram imunodeprimidos, incluindo transplante de órgãos sólidos, SIDA e

  2. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 17938 (and the original strain ATCC 55730) for treating acute gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Urbańska, M; Chmielewska, A; Weizman, Z; Shamir, R

    2014-09-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has been shown to provide a moderate clinical effect in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. However, as the L. reuteri ATCC 55730 strain was found to carry potentially transferable resistance traits for tetracycline and lincomycin, it was replaced by a new strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938, without unwanted plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance. Bioequivalence of the two strains has been suggested. We aimed to systematically evaluate data on the effectiveness of L. reuteri DSM 17938 and the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, in the treatment of AGE in children. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, reference lists, and abstract books of major scientific meetings were searched in August 2013, with no language restrictions, for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two RCTs (n=196) that evaluated L. reuteri DSM 17938 and three RCTs (n=156) that evaluated L. reuteri ATCC 55730, which involved hospitalised children aged 3 to 60 months, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo or no treatment, DSM 17938 significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea (mean difference -32 h, 95% confidence interval (CI): -41 to -24) and increased the chance of cure on day 3 (relative risk: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.8, random effects model). Similar results were obtained with the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730. In conclusion, in hospitalised children, use of both strains of L. reuteri reduced the duration of diarrhoea, and more children were cured within 3 days. Data from outpatients and countryspecific cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Given the limited data and the methodological limitations of the included trials, the evidence should be viewed with caution.

  3. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production

  4. Rutas de glicosilación en Candida albicans: circuitos reguladores y efectos sobre virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Cantero, María del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis trata sobre las rutas de glicosilación en Candida albicans: circuitos reguladores y efectos sobre virulencia. [EN]This thesis is about glycosylation pathways in Candida albicans: regulatory circuits and effects on virulence.

  5. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, F.M.; Mennink-Kersten, M.A.S.H.; Ruegebrink, D.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Donnelly, J.P.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  6. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, Frans M. Verduyn; Mennink-Kersten, Monique A. S. H.; Ruegebrink, Dorien; van der Lee, Henrich A. L.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  7. Molecular identification of candida species isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khanmohamadi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Regarding to the results of this study, C. albicans was the most common Candida species, isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and approximately 30% of this infection causing by non-albicans species of Candida.

  8. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  9. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  10. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  11. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  12. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  13. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

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    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  14. Inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis

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    E Zibafar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Candidiasis associated with indwelling medical devices is especially problematic since they can act as substrates for biofilm growth which are highly resistant to antifungal drugs. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation and biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Since in recent years Candida tropicalis have been reported as an important and common non-albicans Candida species with high drug resistance pattern, the inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis was evaluated. Methods: Five Candida tropicalis strains were treated with different concentration of farnesol (0, 30 and 300 µM after 0, 1 and 4 hrs of adherence and then they were maintained under biofilm formation condition in polystyrene, 96-well microtiter plates at 37°C for 48 hrs. Biofilm formation was measured by a semiquantitative colorimetric technique based on reduction assay of 2,3- bis  -2H-tetrazolium- 5- carboxanilide (XTT. Results: The results indicated that the initial adherence time had no effect on biofilm formation and low concentration of farnesol (30 µM could not inhibit biofilm formation. However the presence of non-adherent cells increased biofilm formation significantly and the high concentration of farnesol (300 µM could inhibit biofilm formation. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the high concentration of farnesol could inhibit biofilm formation and may be used as an adjuvant in prevention and in therapeutic strategies with antifungal drugs.

  15. Signs of chronic stress in women with recurrent candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia M; Kornfeld, Dan; Thuresson, Jessica; Rylander, Eva

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between recurrent vulvovaginal candida and chronic stress. Chronic stress affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, which influences the immune function. Recurrent candida vulvovaginitis is increasing. Women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida (n = 35) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 35) collected saliva for the analysis of cortisol. Hormone analyses of blood samples and vulvovaginal examinations were performed. A questionnaire was completed. Morning rise cortisol level was significantly blunted among patients compared with control subjects (P vulvovaginal candida, compared with control subjects. More patients than control subjects reported a history of condyloma, bacterial vaginosis, and herpes genitalis. No differences were seen between patients and control subjects regarding sexual hormone binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone, testosterone or Hemoglobin A1c. Morning rise salivary cortisol level is blunted in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida, which indicates signs of chronic stress. The higher incidence of vulvovaginal infections in these women compared with control subjects may reflect impaired immunity, which may be due to chronic stress.

  16. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in <40% of the isolates; however there was a significant association between proteinase production by Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Candida species isolated from different body sites and their antifungal susceptibility pattern: Cross-analysis of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Fazii, Paolo; Traini, Tonino; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-01

    Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C. albicans (44), C. glabrata (13) and C. parapsilosis (13) mainly from Hematology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Neonatology and Oncology Divisions, the majority of the biological samples were swabs (44) and blood cultures (16). The analysis of the biofilm formation was performed at 24 and 48-hours comparing resistant and susceptible strains of C. albicans to resistant and susceptible strains of C. glabrata. Candida albicans has a greater ability to form biofilm compared to C. glabrata, both in the susceptible and resistant strains reaching maturity after 24 hours with a complex structure composed of blastospores, pseudohyphae, and hyphae embedded in a matrix. On the contrary, C. glabrata biofilm was composed exclusively of blastospores that in the resistant strain, after 24 hours, were organized in a compact multilayer different to the discontinuous structure observed in the susceptible analyzed strains. In conclusion, the increasing of the incidence of Candida species infection together with their emerging drug resistance also related to the biofilm forming capability underline the need to monitor their distribution and susceptibility patterns for improving the surveillance and for a correct management of the infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Moraga, Carla Paola; Rodríguez Martínez, Gonzalo Andrés; Lefimil Puente, Claudia Andrea; Morales Bozo, Irene Cecilia; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca Regina

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish associations among the Candida carriage rate, the diversity of Candida species carried and the different caries status of preschool children. Sixty-one children between 2 and 5 years of age were examined by a single expert examiner and were divided into three groups, the caries-free, moderate caries and severe caries groups, according to the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS). Saliva samples were obtained from the members of each group and were plated on Sabouraud agar plates to assess the Candida carriage rates. CHROMagar Candida medium was used for the preliminary screening. Biochemical testing or PCR/sequencing was conducted to identify the different Candida species in the samples. The differences observed were considered significant if the p value was Candida carriage rate and the number of species of this fungus carried were higher in the group with the highest level of caries severity (p Candida albicans was the most predominant Candida species in the saliva of all of the children, C. dubliniensis was identified only in the most caries-affected group in addition to other rare species of Candida non-albicans. A high salivary Candida carriage rate and the presence of specific species of this fungus (such as C. albicans and C. dubliniensis) appear to be related to the severity of caries experienced by preschool children.

  20. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  1. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

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    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  2. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

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    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  3. A case of Candida mediastinitis after dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Farhoudi, Farimah

    2011-02-01

    Acute mediastinitis is a serious infection involving the connective mediastinal tissue in the interpleural spaces and other thoracic structures. Candida albicans mediastinitis is a rare clinical entity associated with high mortality and morbidity. We present a rare case of a previously healthy and immunocompetent man with Candida mediastinitis due to retropharyngeal abscess after dental extraction, who presented with odynophagia and fever. Antibiotics were prescribed and surgical drainage was performed after diagnosis of mediastinitis by CT scan; however, the patient remained febrile.  The second culture obtained during irrigation of the mediastinum was positive for Candida albicans and the patient was responsive to antifungal therapy and survived. This case illustrates the need to consider a fungal cause in immunocompetent patients with mediastinitis who are not responsive to broad spectrum antibiotics and surgical drainage.

  4. Vaginal Candida spp. genomes from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, L Latéy; Chibucos, Marcus C; Ma, Bing; Bruno, Vincent; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-08-31

    Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four C. albicans and one C. glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. An SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related; however, phylogenetic distances between them suggest that there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments. These sequences will facilitate further comparative analyses and ultimately improve our understanding of genetic variation in isolates of Candida spp. that are associated with VVC. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them. PMID:29371530

  6. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  7. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  8. Metabolic Engineering of the Actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 towards Enhanced Production of Natural Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Meyer, Florian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is used for the fermentative production of natural vanillin from ferulic acid on an industrial scale. The strain is known for its outstanding tolerance to this toxic product. In order to improve the productivity of the fermentation process, the strain's metabolism was engineered for higher final concentrations and molar yields. Degradation of vanillin could be decreased by more than 90% through deletion of the vdh gene, which codes for the central vanillin catabolism enzyme, vanillin dehydrogenase. This mutation resulted in improvement of the final concentration of vanillin by more than 2.2 g/liter, with a molar yield of 80.9%. Further improvement was achieved with constitutive expression of the vanillin anabolism genes ech and fcs, coding for the enzymes feruloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech). The transcription of both genes was shown to be induced by ferulic acid, which explains the unwanted adaptation phase in the fermentation process before vanillin was efficiently produced by the wild-type cells. Through the constitutive and enhanced expression of the two genes, the adaptation phase was eliminated and a final vanillin concentration of 19.3 g/liter, with a molar yield of 94.9%, was obtained. Moreover, an even higher final vanillin concentration of 22.3 g/liter was achieved, at the expense of a lower molar yield, by using an improved feeding strategy. This is the highest reported vanillin concentration reached in microbial fermentation processes without extraction of the product. Furthermore, the vanillin was produced almost without by-products, with a molar yield that nearly approached the theoretical maximum. Much effort has been put into optimization of the biotechnological production of natural vanillin. The demand for this compound is growing due to increased consumer concerns regarding chemically produced food additives. Since this compound is toxic to most

  9. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germane, Katherine L.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Gerlach, Elliot S.; Sund, Christian J.; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  10. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  11. Dinitrogenase-Driven Photobiological Hydrogen Production Combats Oxidative Stress in Cyanothece sp. Strain ATCC 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Charania, Moiz A.; Hill, Eric A.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Wright, Aaron T.; Nojiri, H.

    2016-10-14

    ABSTRACT

    Photobiologically synthesized hydrogen (H2) gas is carbon neutral to produce and clean to combust, making it an ideal biofuel.Cyanothecesp. strain ATCC 51142 is a cyanobacterium capable of performing simultaneous oxygenic photosynthesis and H2production, a highly perplexing phenomenon because H2evolving enzymes are O2sensitive. We employed a system-levelin vivochemoproteomic profiling approach to explore the cellular dynamics of protein thiol redox and how thiol redox mediates the function of the dinitrogenase NifHDK, an enzyme complex capable of aerobic hydrogenase activity. We found that NifHDK responds to intracellular redox conditions and may act as an emergency electron valve to prevent harmful reactive oxygen species formation in concert with other cell strategies for maintaining redox homeostasis. These results provide new insight into cellular redox dynamics useful for advancing photolytic bioenergy technology and reveal a new understanding for the biological function of NifHDK.

    IMPORTANCEHere, we demonstrate that high levels of hydrogen synthesis can be induced as a protection mechanism against oxidative stress via the dinitrogenase enzyme complex inCyanothecesp. strain ATCC 51142. This is a previously unknown feature of cyanobacterial dinitrogenase, and we anticipate that it may represent a strategy to exploit cyanobacteria for efficient and scalable hydrogen production. We utilized a chemoproteomic approach to capture thein situdynamics of reductant partitioning within the cell, revealing proteins and reactive thiols that may be involved in redox sensing and signaling. Additionally, this method is widely applicable across biological systems to achieve a greater understanding of how cells

  12. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  13. Candida parapsilosis in domestic laundry machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dögen, Aylin; Sav, Hafize; Gonca, Serpil; Kaplan, Engin; Ilkit, Macit; Novak Babic, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis, although a human commensal, acts as an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections, with a rising incidence worldwide. Its ecological characteristics are poorly understood. Human-made environments within dwellings, such as dishwashers and water distribution systems, represent major sources of fungi such as C. parapsilosis. Here, we investigated the presence of members of the C. parapsilosis complex in 99 washing machines in various dwellings in the city of Mersin, Turkey. We sampled three sites in each washing machine: (i) the washing powder drawers, (ii) fabric softener drawers, and (iii) rubber seals around the washing machine doors. Additionally, we recorded the type of cleanser used by each customer. Of note, 25.3% of sampled washing machines harbored C. parapsilosis strains, later identified as the members of the C. parapsilosis sensu stricto via internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Out of the 29 isolates obtained, biofilm-forming ability and proteinase and esterase activities were recorded in 14, 11, and 4 of the isolates, respectively. Our results suggest that the washing machines investigated abundantly harbored C. parapsilosis sensu stricto; however, no single preferred isolation site or association with cleanser type was observed (P > .05). Furthermore, C. parapsilosis isolates grew at temperatures ranging from 10°C to 37°C, at pH values ranging from 4 to 10, and were found to tolerate 5-10% NaCl. Domestic laundry appliances as a potential source of C. parapsilosis infections are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Candida glabrata um patogénio emergente?

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde, Filipa Alexandra Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Nas últimas décadas as infecções fúngicas têm aumentado exponencialmente. Apesar de Candida albicans (C. albicans) continuar a ser a espécie isolada com maior frequência, as espécies não albicans tem vindo a proliferar rapidamente. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) é uma das espécies emergentes como patogénio oportunista humano, sendo responsável maioritariamente por candidoses invasivas em pacie...

  15. Sucessfull management of bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophtalmitis following pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, and frequently devastating, ophthalmic disease. It occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, or those with diabetes mellitus, cancer or intravenous drugs users. Candida infection is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. Ocular candidiasis develops within days to weeks of fungemia. The association of treatment for pancreatitis with endophthalmitis is unusual. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition may explain endogenous endophthalmitis. We report the case of a patient with pancreatitis treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition who developed bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis that was successfully treated with vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B.

  16. Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Marijana Mionić Ebersold; Milica Petrović; Wye-Khay Fong; Debora Bonvin; Heinrich Hofmann; Irena Milošević

    2018-01-01

    Due to the growing issues with fungal infections, especially with Candida, there is still a need to develop novel anti-Candida materials. One of the known antifungal agents is undecylenic acid (UA), which still cannot be efficiently used due to its oily nature, and thus limited solubility. By taking advantage of the properties of UA, we developed an emulsion with hexagonal phase, i.e., hexosomes, whose structure and morphology was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-electron micr...

  17. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P.; Puccetti, P.

    1982-01-01

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  18. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

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    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  19. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  20. Physiological and transcriptional response of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 to acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jeff R; Larsen, Rebecca L; Deibel, Virginia; Steele, James L

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated features of the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334. To optimize ATR induction, cells were acid adapted for 10 or 20 min at different pH values (range, 3.0 to 5.0) and then acid challenged at pH 2.0. Adaptation over a broad range of pHs improved acid tolerance, but the highest survival was noted in cells acid adapted for 10 or 20 min at pH 4.5. Analysis of cytoplasmic membrane fatty acids (CMFAs) in acid-adapted cells showed that they had significantly (P L. casei survival at pH 2.5 was improved at least 100-fold by chemical induction of the stringent response or by the addition of 30 mM malate or 30 mM histidine to the acid challenge medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report that intracellular histidine accumulation may be involved in bacterial acid resistance.

  1. Detecting protein-protein interactions in the intact cell of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Michael S; Day, R A

    2003-07-01

    The salt bridge, paired group-specific reagent cyanogen (ethanedinitrile; C(2)N(2)) converts naturally occurring pairs of functional groups into covalently linked products. Cyanogen readily permeates cell walls and membranes. When the paired groups are shared between associated proteins, isolation of the covalently linked proteins allows their identity to be assigned. Examination of organisms of known genome sequence permits identification of the linked proteins by mass spectrometric techniques applied to peptides derived from them. The cyanogen-linked proteins were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Digestion of the isolated proteins with proteases of known specificity afforded sets of peptides that could be analyzed by mass spectrometry. These data were compared with those derived theoretically from the Swiss Protein Database by computer-based comparisons (Protein Prospector; http://prospector.ucsf.edu). Identification of associated proteins in the ribosome of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 6633 showed that there is an association homology with the association patterns of the ribosomal proteins of Haloarcula marismortui and Thermus thermophilus. In addition, other proteins involved in protein biosynthesis were shown to be associated with ribosomal proteins.

  2. Bioconversion of mixed volatile fatty acids into microbial lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Yuan, Ming; Liu, Jia-Nan; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2017-10-01

    The oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509 can use 5-40g/L of acetic, propionic, or butyric acid as sole carbon source to produce lipids. High concentrations (30g/L) of mixed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were used to cultivate C. curvatus to explore the effects of different ratios of mixed VFAs on lipid production and composition. When mixed VFAs (VFA ratio was 15:5:10) were used as carbon sources, the highest cell mass and lipid concentration were 8.68g/L and 4.93g/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those when 30g/L of acetic acid was used as sole carbon source. The highest content and yield of odd-numbered fatty acids were 45.1% (VFA ratio was 0:15:15) and 1.62g/L (VFA ratio was 5:15:10), respectively. These results indicate that adjusting the composition ratios of mixed VFAs effectively improves microbial lipid synthesis and the yield of odd-numbered fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition of 2 and 4 % of glucose, respectively. The dark tuna meat was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB and fermented at 10 °C for 30 days. The fermentation process was monitored through bacteriological and chemical analyses, when an increase of acidity and the corresponding decrease of pH were observed due to the prevalence of LAB. Sensorial analysis, using a test of multiple comparison, was carried out with pastes of fermented dark tuna meat and presented a significant difference when compared to the paste control, indicating the reduction of bitter taste.

  4. Genome-guided exploration of metabolic features of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952: past, current, and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Dhakal, Dipesh; Pokhrel, Anaya Raj; Chu, Luan Luong; Van Pham, Thi Thuy; Shrestha, Anil; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2018-05-01

    Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 produces two major anthracyclines, doxorubicin (DXR) and daunorubicin (DNR), which are potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of several cancers. In order to gain detailed insight on genetics and biochemistry of the strain, the complete genome was determined and analyzed. The result showed that its complete sequence contains 7187 protein coding genes in a total of 8,023,114 bp, whereas 87% of the genome contributed to the protein coding region. The genomic sequence included 18 rRNA, 66 tRNAs, and 3 non-coding RNAs. In silico studies predicted ~ 68 biosynthetic gene clusters (BCGs) encoding diverse classes of secondary metabolites, including non-ribosomal polyketide synthase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS I, II, and III), terpenes, and others. Detailed analysis of the genome sequence revealed versatile biocatalytic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP), electron transfer systems (ETS) genes, methyltransferase (MT), glycosyltransferase (GT). In addition, numerous functional genes (transporter gene, SOD, etc.) and regulatory genes (afsR-sp, metK-sp, etc.) involved in the regulation of secondary metabolites were found. This minireview summarizes the genome-based genome mining (GM) of diverse BCGs and genome exploration (GE) of versatile biocatalytic enzymes, and other enzymes involved in maintenance and regulation of metabolism of S. peucetius. The detailed analysis of genome sequence provides critically important knowledge useful in the bioengineering of the strain or harboring catalytically efficient enzymes for biotechnological applications.

  5. Production of sorbitol and ethanol from Jerusalem artichokes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvnjak, Z.; Duan, Z.D. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Turcotte, G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada). Dept. of Food Science)

    1991-09-01

    This study shows the possible use of Jerusalem artichokes for the production of sorbitol and ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Ethanol was produced from the beginning of the process, while sorbitol production started after glucose had been entirely consumed from Jerusalem artichoke (J.a.) juice. The importance of yeast extract and inoculum concentrations on the production of sorbitol from the above raw material was demonstrated. With a low initial biomass concentration sorbitol was not produced in pure J.a. juice. When the juice was supplemented with 3% yeast extract, the concentration of sorbitol was 4.6%. The sorbitol, ethanol and biomass yields (gram of product produced per gram of sugars consumed) were 0.259, 0.160 and 0.071 at the end of the process respectively. Adding glucose to increase its concentration to about 9% in the J.a. juice with 3% yeast extract had a positive effect on the production of ethanol, while commencement of the production of sorbitol was delayed and its final concentration was less than 50% of its concentration in the medium without added glucose. The effect of glucose was much stronger when it was added during the process than when added at the beginning of the process. (orig.).

  6. CRECIMIENTO DE Lactobacillus casei ssp casei ATCC 393 EN SUERO CLARIFICADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN ALEXANDER VELASQUEZ-TELLEZ

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del pH y la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de Lactobacillus casei ssp casei ATCC 393, cultivado en suero de leche clarificado en fermentación por lotes. Se observó el efecto de los factores sobre la velocidad específica de crecimiento y la producción de biomasa, utilizando para cada parámetro evaluado la metodología de superficie de respuesta, empleando un diseño central compuesto rotable 22. Los resultados obtenidos del modelo para maximizar la velocidad de crecimiento especifica a 0,061h-1 el proceso debe ser realizado a pH cercano de 7,1 y temperatura de 36,9°C, y para maximizar la producción de biomasa a 11,58 g/L debe realizarse a pH de 7,0 y temperatura de 35,7°C, estos resultados ratifican el efecto del pH y la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de Lactobacillus casei

  7. Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, B.; Pontecorvo, G.; Carfagna, M. [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Inst. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    Waste water from olive oil processing may cause severe pollution in the Mediterranean area, since they have a high level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (100-200 g/l) and contain other organic and inorganic compounds. In all olive oil producing countries, the reduction of pollution in olive oil mill waste waters at reasonable costs and using techniques suitable for most industrial applications is an unsolved problem. For this paper, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 was grown on waste waters from an olive oil mill in a 3.5 l fermenter under batch culture conditions. The results showed that the yeast was capable of reducing the COD value by 80% in 24 h. In this way, a useful biomass of 22.45 g/l as single cell protein (SCP) and enzyme lipase were produced. During this process, most of the organic and inorganic substances were consumed, only aromatic pollutants were still present in the fermentation effluents. Therefore, we used a phenol degrader, namely Pseudomonas putida, to reduce phenolic compounds in the fermentation effluents after removing Yarrowia lipolytica cells. P. putida was effective in reducing phenols in only 12 h. (orig.)

  8. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  9. Bactericidal Activity of TiO2 on Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Aguilar Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of semiconductors is increasingly being used to disinfect water, air, soils, and surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is widely used as a photocatalyst in thin films, powder, and in mixtures with other semiconductors or metals. This work presents the antibacterial effects of TiO2 and light exposure (at 365 nm on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. TiO2 powder was prepared from a mixture of titanium isopropoxide, ethanol, and nitric acid using a green and short time sol-gel technique. The obtained gel annealed at 450°C was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanocomposite effectively catalyzed the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following 90 minutes exposure to TiO2 and UV light, logarithm of cell density was reduced from 6 to 3. These results were confirmed by a factorial design incorporating two experimental replicates and two independent factors.

  10. Agroindustrial Byproducts For The Production Of Hyaluronic Acid By Streptococcus Zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Caldas Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agroindustrial derivatives are alternative nutritional sources employed in bioprocesses that reduce costs and corroborate with social sustainability. In this study alternative carbon sugarcane juice sugarcane molasses and soy molasses and nitrogen sources corn steep liquor soy protein and whey protein were evaluated for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. The medium containing sugarcane molasses archived high yield of hyaluronic acid 0.066 g.g-1 when compared to the medium composed of glucose or sucrose. The replacement of yeast extract by soy protein was also effective for the production of the polymer resulting in 0.219 g.L-1. In general the organic acids production was also evaluated and the results showed that the main metabolic products were lactate. In contrast the acetate synthesis was detected only in the medium containing yeast extract. This study showed that sugarcane molasses is a promising carbon source for the hyaluronic acid production. This is the first study in which a culture media containing sugarcane molasses a cheap substrate extensively produced in Brazil has been successfully used for the microbial hyaluronic acid production.

  11. Uso do açafrão (Curcuma longa L. na redução da Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 em ricota The use of turmeric in the reduction of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 in ricotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ribeiro Maia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o envolvimento de queijos como veículo de microrganismos patogênicos, foi avaliada a eficiência do extrato alcoólico de cúrcuma adicionado à ricota, na redução de Escherichia coli e Enterobacter aerogenes. Foram fabricados três lotes de ricota cremosa e inoculados com 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. Às ricotas, foram adicionados 0,4% de NaCl e extrato alcoólico de Curcuma longa L., em concentrações que variaram de 0,0% a 2,0%. As ricotas foram avaliadas físico-química e microbiologicamente em 0, 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. O percentual de umidade das ricotas foi, em média, de 73%. O pH médio observado foi de 5,4 e o percentual de gordura de 3%. Pelos resultados, evidenciou-se, após 21 dias, uma redução do número de Escherichia coli de aproximadamente dois ciclos logaritmicos nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Já para Enterobacter aerogenes, a redução foi menor, de aproximadamente um ciclo logaritmico, de 105 UFC/mL para 104 UFC/mL, também nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Apesar de os resultados evidenciarem uma redução do número de células viáveis dos microrganismos avaliados, a cúrcuma não deverá ser o único meio preservativo, considerando uma contaminação inicial de 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes, pois não atenderia à legislação vigente quanto aos requisitos microbiológicos para queijos.Considering the cheese involvement as a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms it was evaluated the eficciency of the ethanolic turmeric extract added to ricotta, in the reduction of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Three lots of creamy ricotta were manufacturated and inoculated with 104 UFC/mL of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and 105 UFC/mL of Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. It was added 0,4% of NaCl and

  12. Xanthan biosynthesis by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 on wastewaters from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from grape processing in wineries are characterized by large seasonal fluctuations in volume and composition, and are often discarded into environment with little or no treatment. The biotechnological production of valuable products is the most promising alternative for reducing the negative environmental impact and recycling these effluents. Results from previous study show that mixed winery wastewaters, after additional optimization of the medium preparation, may be a suitable raw material for industrial xanthan production. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the possibility of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 on mixed wastewaters from different stages of white grape processing in winery with initial sugars content of 20 g/L. In addition to the media characteristics and indicators of biopolymer quality, raw xanthan yield and degree of sugars conversion into product were determined in order to examine the success of performed bioprocess. The results for biopolymer yield (14.66 g/L and sugars conversion into desired product (70.21% obtained in applied experimental conditions confirm that wastewaters from white grape processing have a great potential to be used as a substrate for xanthan biosynthesis.

  13. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  14. Isolation and Purification of Complex II from Proteus Mirabilis Strain ATCC 29245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbiri, Khadija; Ahmad, Waqar; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1) containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytochrome b per mg protein. Heme staining indicated that the 19 kDa subunit was cytochrome b. Its reduced form showed absorptions peaks at 557.0, 524.8 and 424.4 nm. The α-band was shifted from 557.0 nm to 556.8 nm in pyridine ferrohemochrome spectrum. The succinate: quinone oxidoreductase activity was found to be high in this microorganism. PMID:24031557

  15. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  16. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  17. Isolation, characterization, and investigation of surface and hemolytic activities of a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Noude, Gholamreza; Housaindokht, Mohammadreza; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigeh Fazly

    2005-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 was grown in BHIB medium supplemented with Mn2+ for 96 h at 37 degrees C in a shaker incubator. After removing the microbial biomass, a lipopeptide biosurfactant was extracted from the supernatant. Its structure was established by chemical and spectroscopy methods. The structure was confirmed by physical properties, such as Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB), surface activity and erythrocyte hemolytic capacity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and erythrocyte hemolytic capacity of the biosurfactant were compared to those of surfactants such as SDS, BC (benzalkonium chloride), TTAB (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and HTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The maximum hemolytic effect for all surfactants mentioned was observed at concentrations above cmc. The maximum hemolytic effect of synthetic surfactants was more than that of the biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis ATCC 6633. Therefore, biosurfactant would be considered a suitable surface-active agent due to low toxicity to the membrane.

  18. [Effect of glucose and lactose on the utilization of citrate by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus ATCC 7469].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito de Cárdenas, I L; Medina, R; Oliver, G

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of citrate by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in a complex medium containing glucose, lactose or citrate was investigated, as an approach to the question of the transport of this acid and the possible relationship with the production of flavour compounds (diacetyl and acetoin). This lactobacillus uses citrate as an energy source in the absence of carbohydrates. External pH and growth increases when citrate is added to complex medium. The presence of citrate does not affect glucose uptake. L. casei ATCC 7469 possibly uses a transport system for citrate utilization, and citrate uptake seems to be under glucose or lactose control. Lactose only inhibits the entrance of citrate at high concentration while the utilization of this acid was negatively regulated by low glucose concentration.

  19. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  20. Comparative Phenotypic Analysis of the Major Fungal Pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M.; Schröder, Markus S.; Turner, Siobhán A.; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis. PMID:25233198

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F

    2015-07-09

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21(T). Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure. Copyright © 2015 Calcutt and Foecking.

  2. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 Vanillin Dehydrogenase and Its Impact on the Biotechnical Production of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDHATCC 39116). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vani...

  3. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Arman; Yahaya, Nordin; Md Noor, Norhazilan; Mohd Rasol, Rosilawati

    2014-01-01

    Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC) were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were i...

  4. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  5. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro del colutorio a base de matricaria chamomilla (manzanilla) sobre el fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Asmat, Edith Esther

    2015-01-01

    This research study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial mouthwash based Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) Fusobacterium nucleatum against ATCC 25586. The study was conducted in laboratory environments Farmaconogsia of the National University of Trujillo and microbiology laboratories of the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Trujillo. The sample consisted of 16 discs broadcast, divided into 5 groups; that is, a group with Chlorhexidine samples, chamomile three groups...

  6. [National Trends in the Distribution of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Japan from 2003 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichi; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Takesue, Yoshio; Tomono, Kazunori; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Niki, Yoshitiho; Yoshida, Minoru; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    The Epidemiological Investigation Committee for Human Mycoses in Japan performed a retrospective epidemiological survey of candidemia and causative Candida species. Data from 2003 to 2014 were collected from 10 Japanese university hospitals. A total of 328,318 blood cultures were included. The prevalence of fungi in all cultures and in positive cultures were 0.58±0.09% and 4.46±0.66%, respectively. Among the results that were positive for Candida species (N=1,921), Candida albicans was the most common species (39.5%) and was followed by Candida parapsilosis (23.3%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.1%), Candida krusei (3.2%), and others (13.7%). During the last 6 years, the frequency of C. albicans has significantly decreased in Japan, while that of C. glabrata has increased. Additional surveys are needed to continuously monitor the trends in the distribution of candidemia.

  7. The relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Seop; Chung, Sung-Chang; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens. Unstimulated whole saliva and oral rinse samples were obtained from 180 healthy subjects. These samples were plated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine oral Candida carriage. Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were performed on whole saliva samples to determine the secretor status of blood group antigens. The oral Candida carriage rate was found to be 45.0%. The sensitivity of the concentrated rinse culture proved to be superior. Oral Candida carriage was not significantly related to the blood group or secretor status of ABH or Lewis antigens. No significant relationship was found between oral Candida carriage and salivary flow rate. However, smoking affected oral Candida carriage. Oral Candida carriage in healthy individuals is not significantly related to blood group or secretor status.

  8. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were investigated using a weight loss method, an open circuit potential method (OCP, and a potentiodynamic polarization curves method in anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS were then used to determine the corrosion morphology in verifying the SRB activity and corrosion products formation. Results from the study show that the corrosion rate (CR of weight loss method for the isolated SRB is recorded as 0.2017 mm/yr compared to 0.2530 mm/yr for ATCC 7757. The Tafel plot recorded the corrosion rate of 0.3290 mm/yr for Sg. Ular SRB and 0.2500 mm/yr for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results showed that the consortia of isolated SRB were of comparable effects and features with the single ATCC 7757 strain.

  9. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  10. Suitability of Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 as a protective culture for lightly preserved fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Stephen Wallace; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of strategy to control the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products by using food-grade lactic acid bacteria. When the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 was cultured in the same vessel as L-monocytogenes Scott A in brain......-heart infusion broth (BHI) at 30-degrees C, the pathogen declined from 5x10(5) to fewer than 5 cfu ml(-1) within 31 h. The effect was not due to lactic acid inhibition. Growth and nisin production by L- lactis ATCC 11454 were investigated under the conditions of temperature and salt used for light preservation...... and no detectable nisin. On slices of commercial cold-smoked salmon at 10-degrees C, no net propagation pf L-lactis ATCC 11454 could be detected within 21 days. However, when salmon slices were inoculated with L- mycocytogenes at 10(4) cfu g(-1) and a 300-fold excess of washed lactococcus cells, the pathogen...

  11. Expression of arsenic resistance genes in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a gut microbiome bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Mandal, Goutam; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-06-01

    The response of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a common human gut microbiota, to arsenic was determined. B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 is highly resistant to pentavalent As(V) and methylarsenate (MAs(V)). It is somewhat more sensitive to trivalent inorganic As(III) but 100-fold more sensitive to methylarsenite (MAs(III)) than to As(III). B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 has eight continuous genes in its genome that we demonstrate form an arsenical-inducible transcriptional unit. The first gene of this ars operon, arsR, encodes a putative ArsR As(III)-responsive transcriptional repressor. The next three genes encode proteins of unknown function. The remaining genes, arsDABC, have well-characterized roles in detoxification of inorganic arsenic, but there are no known genes for MAs(III) resistance. Expression of each gene after exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylarsenicals was analyzed. MAs(III) was the most effective inducer. The arsD gene was the most highly expressed of the ars operon genes. These results demonstrate that this anaerobic microbiome bacterium has arsenic-responsive genes that confer resistance to inorganic arsenic and may be responsible for the organism's ability to maintain its prevalence in the gut following dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and Rheological Properties of Welan Gum Produced by Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555 with Different Nitrogen Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Nie, Zuoming; Zheng, Zhiyong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of nitrogen sources on the production and rheological properties of welan gum produced by Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555. Six different nitrogen sources were used for ATCC 31555 fermentation, and 2 of these were further analyzed due to their more positive influence on welan gum production and bacterial biomass. Bacterial biomass, welan gum yield, welan viscosity, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, acyl content, and welan structure were analyzed. Welan gum production and the biomass concentration of ATCC 31555 were higher in media containing NaNO3 and beef extract. Welan viscosity decreased at higher temperatures of 30-90°C, and it increased with a higher welan concentration. In the media containing NaNO3 (3 g·L-1), welan viscosity was higher at 30-70°C and a welan solution concentration of 6-10 g·L-1. With a reduced NaNO3 concentration, the molecular weight of welan gum and the molar ratio of mannose decreased, but the molar ratio of glucuronic acid increased. With different nitrogen sources, the acetyl content of welan gum differed but its structure was similar. NaNO3 and beef extract facilitated welan production. A reduced NaNO3 concentration promoted welan viscosity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Characterization of Candida species isolated from cases of lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, B J; Dey, S; Tamang, M D; Joshy, M E; Shivananda, P G; Brahmadatan, K N

    2006-01-01

    (1) To identify and characterize the Candida species isolates from lower respiratory tract infection. (2) to determine the rate of isolation of Candida species from sputum samples. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from June 2002 to January 2003. A total of 462 sputum samples were collected from patients suspected lower respiratory tract infection. The samples were processed as Gram staining to find out the suitability of the specimen, cultured on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) and also on blood agar and chocolate agar to identify the potential lower respiratory tract pathogens. For the identification of Candida, sputum samples were processed for Gram stain, culture, germ tube test, production of chlamydospore, sugar fermentation and assimilation test. For the identification of bacteria, Gram stain, culture, and biochemical tests were performed by standardized procedure. Out of 462 samples, 246 (53.24%) samples grew potential pathogens of lower respiratory tract. Among them Haemophilus influenzae 61(24.79%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae 57 (23.17%) were the predominant bacterial pathogens. Candida species were isolated from 30 samples (12.2%). The majority of Candida species amongst the Candida isolates were Candida albicans 21(70%) followed by Candida tropicalis 4(13.33%). Candida krusei 3(10%), Candida parapsilosis 1(3.33%) and Candida stellatoidea 1(3.33%). The highest rate of isolation of Candida was between the age of 71 and 80. Candida isolation from sputum samples is important as found in the present study in which Candida species were the third most common pathogen isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infection.

  14. Interspecies differences of candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in response to fluconazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Naji

    2017-07-01

    Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed at Kowsar Gynecology Center, Motahhari educational hospital and Medical Mycology Center, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia, Iran, from October 2013 to July 2015. Those patients referred to the clinic with symptoms of vaginal discharge, itching or burning that swab samples from endo-exocervix and distal fornix discharge were taken. The vaginal discharge samples submitted to Medical Mycology Center, Urmia School of Medicine for the direct microscopic examination and cultures. Identification at the level of species was performed using CHROMagar Candida and Corn meal agar media. The molecular test polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP used for confirming culture results. For the susceptibility assay, disc diffusion method was performed with fluconazole and clotrimazole. Results: In these study 198 samples collected from patients with symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis, 77 vulvovaginal candidiasis cases were identified. Candida species are common in primary and recurrent cases in terms of frequency, Candida albicans (85.7%, Candida krusei (10.2% and Candida glabrata (4.1% were identified respectively. Total of 27 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, 10 cases were resistant to both clotrimazole and fluconazole (37% was observed that the most common species are resistant to treatment were Candida albicans by (82.1%, Candida krusei (14.3% and Candida glabrata (3.6% respectively. Drug resistance in Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis included 69.1%, 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Our findings have shown frequency of resistant non-albicans Candida species to fluconazole and clotrimazole is increasing. There is a considerable difference between Candida albicans and non-albicans species, Candida glabrata for the resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole.

  15. Functional characterization of a cadmium resistance operon in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600: CadC does not function as a repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Dyk, Lisa A Van; Buit, Tyler S; Roukema, David; Resseguie, Emily; Plaisier, Christina; Le, Nga; Heeringa, Lee; Griend, Douglas A Vander

    2015-02-01

    Sequencing of a cadmium resistance operon from a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 plasmid revealed that it is identical to a cadCA operon found in MRSA strains. Compared to plasmid-cured and cadC-mutant strains, cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells had increased resistance to cadmium (1 mg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate) and zinc (4 mg ml(-1) zinc sulfate), but not to other metal ions. After growth in media containing 20 µg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate, cadC-mutant cells contained more intracellular cadmium than cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells, suggesting that cadC absence results in impaired cadmium efflux. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with CadC proteins encoded by the S. aureus ATCC12600 plasmid and by the cadC gene of pI258, which is known to act as a transcriptional repressor and shares only 47% protein sequence identity with ATCC12600 CadC. Mobility shifts occurred when pI258 CadC protein was incubated with the promoter DNA-regions from the pI258 and S. aureus ATCC12600 cadCA operons, but did not occur with S. aureus ATCC12600 CadC protein, indicating that the ATCC12600 CadC protein does not interact with promoter region DNA. This cadCA operon, found in MRSA strains and previously functionally uncharacterized, increases resistance to cadmium and zinc by an efflux mechanism, and CadC does not function as a transcriptional repressor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Use of the industrial yeast Candida utilis for cadmium sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kujan, Petr; Prell, Aleš; Šafář, Hynek; Sobotka, Miroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš; Holler, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 257-260 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : candida utilis * cadmium * yeast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  17. Parameters oprimization for xylitol production by Candida tropicalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... Micro-determination of xylose in plasma. Analyst. 100. (1186): 12-15. Uhari M, Kontiokari Niemela T, Novel MA (1998). Use of xylitol sugar in preventing acute otitis media. Pediastrics, 102: 879-884. Vongsuvanlert V, Tani Y (1989). Xylitol production by methanol yeast. Candida boidinii (klocckera Sp) No.

  18. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species d...

  19. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  20. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the

  1. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, A.; Brucker, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45 d ig c , production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C 1 8 : 1 ) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  2. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and Lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, T.; Kneist, S.; de Soet, J.J.; Kuhlisch, E.; Mauersberger, S.; Forster, A.; Klimm, W.

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed,

  3. Candida albicans survival and biofilm formation under starvation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Y; Hu, X; Ling, J; Du, Y; Liu, J; Liu, H; Peng, Z

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the survival and biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans in starvation and under anaerobic conditions. Candida albicans growth and survival were monitored in vitro for up to 8 months. Fungal suspensions from late exponential, stationary and starvation phases were incubated on human dentine, polystyrene and glass slides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the process of biofilm formation. 2,3-bis(2-Methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt (XTT) reduction assay was performed to quantify the biofilm formation capability, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to study and make semi-quantitative comparisons of the ultrastructure of biofilms formed on human dentine. 'XTT bioactivity' and 'COMSTAT results' were analysed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way ANOVA, respectively. Candida albicans survived for over six months. SEM demonstrated that starving C. albicans produced mature biofilms on different substrata. C. albicans of the same growth phase incubated on human dentine displayed significantly higher biofilm formation capability than on polystyrene or glass slides (P roughness coefficient and surface/volume ratio (P < 0.05). Candida albicans cells can survive and form biofilms in anaerobic and nutrient-limited conditions and may pose a treatment challenge. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  4. Native valve endocarditis due to Candida parapsilosis in an adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spectrum antimicrobial agents, pre-existing valvular heart disease and. HIV infection. A catheter-related portal of entry has been reported in. 80% of cases of C. parapsilosis endocarditis in one series of Candida endocarditis cases.[5] Other described risk factors include abdominal surgery, IV drug use and prosthetic heart ...

  5. Culture characteristics of Candida sp in waste conversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of Candida sp. was isolated from ripe banana pulp during the preliminary phase of a process for the production of a protein-enriched feed supplement. Morphological and biochemical tests demonstrated that the strain, which was bipolar and elongated, was not capable of growth at 37ºC but grew at room ...

  6. Genetic determinants of antifungal resistance in Candida species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the previous decades, it has been an increase in cases of resistance to antifungal agents used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Candida species. The emergence of resistance to drug classes, it is usually explained by genome alterations ranging from point mutations to gain or loss of whole ...

  7. Candida perforation of the intestine in an HIVexposed but uninfected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Oral and nappy Candida infections are common in neonates and infants, but candidaemia and its consequences are more often seen in children with risk factors for immunosuppression. This case presentation illustrates that exposure to HIV, without infection, should be considered one of those risk factors.

  8. Prevalence and immediate outcome of candida colonized preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preterm neonates aged >72 hours and less than one week were screened for Candida colonization of the groin, oral pharynx and rectum using CHROMagar. Colonized neonates were followed up for 14 days. Blood cultures were done for those with signs of septicaemia. The Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were ...

  9. Catalysis by Candida antarctica B (CALB) immobilized on natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this work, a lipase B from Candida antarctica strain was immobilized onto natural silica carriers via adsorption to enhance its feasibility in practical applications. Methodology and results: The biocatalyst was prepared by simple adsorption on the support whose composition was beforehand characterized and the ...

  10. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  11. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  12. Host defence against disseminated and invasive candida albicans infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating

  13. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  14. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to Candida biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.; Klis, F.M.; Pereira-Cenci, T.; Crielaard, W.; de Groot, P.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infections in the oral cavity are mainly caused by C. albicans, but other Candida species are also frequently identified. They are increasing in prevalence, especially in denture-wearers and aging people, and may lead to invasive infections, which have a high mortality rate. Attachment to

  15. Proteomics of drug resistance in Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian; Abiko, Y; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2010-04-01

    Candida glabrata is a fungal pathogen that causes a variety of mucosal and systemic infections among compromised patient populations with higher mortality rates. Previous studies have shown that biofilm mode of the growth of the fungus is highly resistant to antifungal agents compared with the free-floating or planktonic mode of growth. Therefore, in the present study, we used 2-D DIGE to evaluate the differential proteomic profiles of C. glabrata under planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Candida glabrata biofilms were developed on polystyrene surfaces and age-matched planktonic cultures were obtained in parallel. Initially, biofilm architecture, viability, and antifungal susceptibility were evaluated. Differentially expressed proteins more than 1.5-fold in DIGE analysis were subjected to MS/MS. The transcriptomic regulation of these biomarkers was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Candida glabrata biofilms were highly resistant to the antifungals and biocides compared with the planktonic mode of growth. Candida glabrata biofilm proteome when compared with its planktonic proteome showed upregulation of stress response proteins, while glycolysis enzymes were downregulated. Similar trend could be observed at transcriptomic level. In conclusion, C. glabrata biofilms possess higher amount of stress response proteins, which may potentially contribute to the higher antifungal resistance seen in C. glabrata biofilms.

  16. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  17. Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Aims: Candida albicans adhesion to any oral substrata is the first and essential stage in forming a .... kinds of resin, glass, and even metal surfaces.[14] ... various parts of implant materials [tissue level implant, bone level ...

  18. A case of disseminated Candida dubliniensis in a preterm infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal elements consistent with Candida spp. were seen within these granulomas. The periodic acid-Schiff special stain highlighted the fungal organisms (Fig. 4). Examination of the autolytic tissue from the brain showed an extensive fungal meningo- encephalitis (Fig. 3). Examination of the thymus revealed parenchymal.

  19. Comparison of the adhesion ability of Candida albicans strains to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of oral Candida albicans strains to adhere to Caco-2 and Hep-2 epithelial cells, to produce slime using Congo red and Safranin methods and to form a biofilm on polymethylmethacrylate. A total of 20 C. albicans strains were tested in the present work. The biofilm ...

  20. Evaluation of Candida albicans biofilm formation on various dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Candida albicans biofilm formation on various dental restorative material surfaces. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... was significantly lower on the resin-modified glass ionomer and glass-ionomer cement samples. ... Conclusion: This finding emphasizes the use of glass ionomer restorative cements and ...

  1. AÇÃO ANTIFÚNGICA DE UM JATO DE PLASMA NÃO-TERMICO DE HÉLIO/AR COMPRIMIDO SOBRE BIOFILMES DE CANDIDA ALBICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos Figueira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Os biofilmes fúngicos são uma predominante causa de infecções crônicas associadas à utilização de cateteres e próteses, conferindo resistência aos antibióticos e fatores imunológicos do hospedeiro, sendo as leveduras, do gênero Candida spp, as mais frequentemente isoladas. O plasma não-térmico, operado à pressão atmosférica, vem ganhando destaque como uma nova estratégia antimicrobiana, inclusive para erradicação de biofilmes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia da inativação de biofilmes de Candida albicans ATCC sobre substrato de poliuretano, utilizando jatos de plasma atmosférico de 6L/min de hélio e 4L/min de ar comprimido, alternando entre sistema contínuo e pulsado, com frequência de 60Hz e distâncias de 10 a 30mm entre o bocal e substrato. Após tratamento, realizou-se a contagem das unidades formadoras de colônia e a análise morfológica da superfície do biofilme por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura. O melhor grupo foi o plasma de modo pulsado com distância de 30mm com redução de 92% das unidades formadoras de colônia, demonstrando ser uma tecnologia promissora para o controle de biofilmes de C. albicans.

  2. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  3. Antibacterial activity of antagonistic bacterium Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 against phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W J; Mabood, F; Souleimanov, A; Whyte, L G; Niederberger, T D; Smith, D L

    2014-12-01

    To investigate antibacterial activity against the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 (Cmm ATCC 7429), Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 was isolated from rhizosphere soil. For isolation of bacteria, samples were taken from rhizosphere soil. The isolate, DJA-51, had strong antagonistic ability against Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 on nutrient-broth yeast extract agar (NBYA) as indicated by inhibition zones around colonies. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a conserved segment of the 16S rRNA gene, the bacterium has been identified as B. subtilis DJM-51. The growth of Cmm ATCC 7429 on NBYA plates was inhibited by culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51 including cells, by the supernatant of culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51, and by the liquid material resulting from butanol extract of bacterial cultures. The OD value in co-culture mixture was lower than the control throughout the entire incubation period. Antibiotics obtained from B. subtilis DJM-51 inhibited the growth of Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429. These results provide potentially information about the protection of tomato from pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 under greenhouse conditions in Quebec. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiated treatment of patients with acne and concomitant candida infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakubi Randa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of works, which are devoted to the study of acne, but these data are often contradictory on the issue of interrelationship and interdependence of clinical manifestations, course and some factors in the pathogenesis of acne and candida infection. Aim of the research was to study the effect of the recommended differentiated therapy on the pathogenetic disorders in patients with acne and concomitant Candida infection. Methods and results. 120 patients with acne were examined. In 100 of them concomitant skin malasseziosis was set in the form of pityriasis rosea, kerosis, comedones, folliculitis, seborrhea, multicolored zoster, with some features, as well as candidiasis. Methods of the research – bacterioscopic, bacteriological, study of skin oiliness and moisture, skin pH, the level of Ca ++, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. In patients with acne significant shifts in the composition of water-lipid mantle, increased oiliness and decreased moisture of skin, pH changes with a shift to the alkaline side were revealed, the most pronounced – in acne patients with Candida infection. The content of Ca ++ in the organism, as well as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin was increased and also the most indicative it was in patients with acne and concomitant Candida infection. After the comparative analysis on the basis of different levels of clinical and laboratory violations two clinical-therapeutic groups were distinguished, in accordance with that the differentiated therapy offered by us was conducted. Increased oiliness and Рh of skin, decline of moisture before the treatment, especially in patients with III and IV stages of acne, complicated by Candida infection, were normalized after treatment, unlike in patients treated traditionally. Conclusion. After treatment intensity of microbal colonization and also microbal associations of skin was diminished, the level of Ca++, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin went down.

  5. Metabolic flux analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagesan, Swathi; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Sinha, Avinash; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes capable of utilizing solar energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide to biomass. Despite several "proof of principle" studies, low product yield is an impediment in commercialization of cyanobacteria-derived biofuels. Estimation of intracellular reaction rates by (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) would be a step toward enhancing biofuel yield via metabolic engineering. We report (13)C-MFA for Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, known for enhanced hydrogen yield under mixotrophic conditions. Rates of reactions in the central carbon metabolism under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions were estimated by monitoring the competitive incorporation of (12)C and (13)C from unlabeled CO2 and uniformly labeled glycerol, respectively, into terminal metabolites such as amino acids. The observed labeling patterns suggest mixotrophic growth under both the conditions, with a larger fraction of unlabeled carbon in nitrate-sufficient cultures asserting a greater contribution of carbon fixation by photosynthesis and an anaplerotic pathway. Indeed, flux analysis complements the higher growth observed under nitrate-sufficient conditions. On the other hand, the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle was greater in nitrate-deficient conditions, possibly to supply the precursors and reducing equivalents needed for nitrogen fixation. In addition, an enhanced flux through fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase possibly suggests the organism's preferred mode under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The (13)C-MFA results complement the reported predictions by flux balance analysis and provide quantitative insight into the organism's distinct metabolic features under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions.

  6. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis.

  7. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp). To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp) is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence. PMID:19284581

  8. Mutational studies of putative biosynthetic genes for the cyanobacterial sunscreen scytonemin in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eFerreira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic indole-alkaloid scytonemin is a sunscreen found exclusively among cyanobacteria. An 18-gene cluster is responsible for scytonemin production in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. The upstream genes scyABCDEF in the cluster are proposed to be responsible for scytonemin biosynthesis from aromatic amino acid substrates. In vitro studies of ScyA, ScyB and ScyC proved that these enzymes indeed catalyze initial pathway reactions. Here we characterize the role of ScyD, ScyE and ScyF, which were logically predicted to be responsible for late biosynthetic steps, in the biological context of N. punctiforme. In-frame deletion mutants of each were constructed (∆scyD, ∆scyE and ∆scyF and their phenotypes studied. Expectedly, ∆scyE presents a scytoneminless phenotype, but no accumulation of the predicted intermediaries. Surprisingly, ∆scyD retains scytonemin production, implying that it is not required for biosynthesis. Indeed, scyD presents an interesting evolutionary paradox: it likely originated in a duplication event from scyE, and unlike other genes in the operon, it has not been subjected to purifying selection. This would suggest that it is a pseudogene, and yet scyD is highly conserved in the scytonemin operon of cyanobacteria. ∆scyF also retains scytonemin production, albeit exhibiting a reduction of the production yield compared with the wild-type. This indicates that ScyF is not essential but may play an adjuvant role for scytonemin synthesis. Altogether, our findings suggest that these downstream genes are not responsible, as expected, for the late steps of scytonemin synthesis and we must look for those functions elsewhere. These findings are particularly important for biotechnological production of this sunscreen through heterologous expression of its genes in more tractable organisms.

  9. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Pia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp. To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence.

  10. Response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 to challenges with sublethal concentrations of enterocin AS-48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálvez Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterocin AS-48 is produced by Enterococcus faecalis S48 to compete with other bacteria in their environment. Due to its activity against various Gram positive and some Gram negative bacteria it has clear potential for use as a food preservative. Here, we studied the effect of enterocin AS-48 challenges on vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 by use of transcriptome analysis. Results Of the 5200 genes analysed, expression of 24 genes was found to change significantly after a 30 min treatment with a subinhibitory bacteriocin concentration of 0.5 μg/ml. Most of up-regulated genes encode membrane-associated or secreted proteins with putative transmembrane segments or signal sequences, respectively. One operon involved in arginine metabolism was significantly downregulated. The BC4206-BC4207 operon was found to be the most upregulated target in our experiments. BC4206 codes for a PadR type transcriptional regulator, while BC4207 codes for a hypothetical membrane protein. The operon structure and genes are conserved in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis species, but are not present in B. anthracis and B. subtilis. Using real-time qPCR, we show that these genes are upregulated when we treated the cells with AS-48, but not upon nisin treatment. Upon overexpression of BC4207 in B. cereus, we observed an increased resistance against AS-48. Expression of BC4207 in B. subtilis 168, which lacks this operon also showed increased resistance against AS-48. Conclusion BC4207 membrane protein is involved in the resistance mechanism of B. cereus cells against AS-48.

  11. In-vitro GIT Tolerance of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 35914 Using Polysaccharide-Protein Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Rabia; Zahoor, Tahir; Huma, Nuzhat; Jamil, Amer; Ünlü, Gülhan

    2018-03-12

    Longevity of probiotic is the main concern for getting maximum benefits when added in food product. Bifidobacterium, a probiotic, tends to lose its viability during gastrointestinal track (GIT) transit and storage of food. Their viability can be enhanced through microencapsulation technology. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) ATCC 35914 was encapsulated by using two experimental plans. In the first plan, chitosan (CH) at 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and sodium alginate (SA) at 4, 5, and 6% were used. Based on encapsulation efficiency, 6% sodium alginate and 0.8% chitosan were selected for single coating of the bacteria, and the resulting micro beads were double coated with different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10%) of whey protein concentrate (WPC) in the second plan. Encapsulation efficiency and GIT tolerance were determined by incubating the micro beads in simulated gastrointestinal juices (SIJ) at variable pH and exposure times, and their release (liberation of bacterial cells) profile was also observed in SIJ. The microencapsulated bacterial cells showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher viability as compared to the unencapsulated (free) cells during GIT assay. The double-coated micro beads SA 6%-WPC 5% and CH 0.8%-WPC 5% were proven to have the higher survival at pH 3.0 after 90 min of incubation time and at pH 7.0 after 3-h exposure in comparison to free cells in simulated conditions of the stomach and intestine, respectively. Moreover, double coating with whey protein concentrate played a significant role in the targeted (10 6-9  CFU/mL) delivery under simulated intestinal conditions.

  12. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

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    Keyvan Pakshir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp, all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7% were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49% demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%. All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis.

  13. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mahboubeh; Nouraei, Hasti; Khodadadi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP) with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp), all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7%) were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49%) demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%). All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis. PMID:29318048

  14. The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Rad, M; Zafarghandi, S; Abbasabadi, B; Tavallaee, M

    2011-04-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide. According to previous epidemiological studies, Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida. The prevalence of non-Candida species, however, is increasing. Identification of Candida species among the population will not only help health professionals to choose suitable antifungal treatments, but also prevent development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to identify, using chromogenic agar medium, the Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among a sample of the Iranian population. In a prospective cohort study during a two year period from March 2006 to March 2008, swab samples of vaginal discharge/secretion were taken from 200 patients admitted to the gynecology clinic of Mahdieh Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with a clinical presentation suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates obtained were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and chromogenic agar medium. Candida species were also identified by germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospore production on Corn Meal Agar and carbohydrate absorption using the API 20C-AUX kit. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the risk factors associated with candidiasis. An assessment of the different species of recurrent and non-recurrent candidiasis was also made. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to analyze the data. A total of 191 isolates were obtained from 175 vaginal specimens. Candida albicans accounted for 67% of the strains including single and mixed infections. The other identified species were Candida glabrata (18.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.8%), Candida krusei (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (1.6%), and Candida guilliermondii (0.5%) respectively. Mixed infection with two or more species of Candida was seen in 10.3% of patients. The most common mixed cause was the combination of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Participants who were sexually active

  15. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

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    I. J. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6% and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%, followed by Candida krusei (25.0%; and Candida tropicalis (4.2%. The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL, followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL, and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL.Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.

  16. Candida krusei pneumonia as a complication of a tuboovarian abscess treatment – case report

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    Jasna Uranjek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequency of infections, caused by Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, which are more resistant to fluconazole, is increasing among hospitalised patients, especially among patients in intensive care units (ICU. Systemic Candida infections are particularly dangerous. Pneumonia, caused by Candida species, most commonly albicans, rarely others, is a serious infection especially for immunocompromised patients. It’s often fatal. We present a case report of a serious lung infection with fluconazole resistant Candida krusei in a 42-year-old previously healthy patient with perforated tuboovarian abscess (TOA, consecutive severe sepsis and septic shock. Patient used intrauterine device (IUD for 17 years without any gynaecological controls. Ascending genital infection with E.colli and Staph. chromogenes led to TOA. In spite of empirical antibiotic treatment, surgical and intensive care supportive therapy of affected organs, patient’s condition critically deteriorated until exact fungus specification was made and specific antifungal therapy for Candida krusei with voriconazol was started. After that patient’s condition improved.Conclusions: Connection between patient’s age, IUD use duration and severity of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID was seen as multiorgan septic dysfunction with dominant lung failure. Candida pneumonia is rare with non-neutropenic patients. Especially with »non albicans« species. We believe Candida krusei infection in our patient is related to general weakness and immunocompromised condition because of prolonged and severe PID. Candida krusei infection needs immediate specific antifungal treatment. It was the first Candida krusei infection in our ICU.

  17. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  18. Elevated Chitin Content Reduces the Susceptibility of Candida Species to Caspofungin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748

  19. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Li; Ji, Tongzhen; Meng, Lingxin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Xiao; Li, Lin; Lu, Binghuai; Cao, Zheng

    2018-04-20

    Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay. From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8 % when using the molecular method and 15.0 % when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8 %), Candida glabrata (13.5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3.7 %), Candida krusei (2.2 %) and Candida tropicalis (1.1 %). We found that 90.7 % of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6 %). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.

  20. Prevalence of Candida co-infection in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Arunava; Charles, Mv Pravin; Noyal, Mariya Joseph; Sivaraman, Umadevi; Kumar, Shailesh; Easow, Joshy M

    2013-01-01

    Candida species are emerging as a potentially pathogenic fungus in patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases. The synergistic growth promoting association of Candida and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has raised increased concern for studying the various Candida spp . and its significance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients during current years. This study was undertaken with the objective of discovering the prevalence of co-infection caused by different Candida species in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. A total of 75 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum Ziehl-Neelsen staining were included in the study. Candida co-infection was confirmed using the Kahanpaa et al. criteria. Candida species were identified using gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, morphology on cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and HiCrome Candida Agar. Candida co-infection was observed in 30 (40%) of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Candida albicans was the most common isolate observed in 50% of the patients with co-infection, followed by C. tropicalis (20%) and C. glabrata (20%). Candida co-infection was found in 62.5% of female patients, while it was observed in only 29.4% of the male patients (P value 0.0133). Mean ± SD age of the patients with C. glabrata infection was 65.83 ± 3.19, while the mean ± SD age of the patients with other Candida infections was 43.25 ± 20.44 (P value 0.0138). Many patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have co-infection with Candida spp. The prevalence of non-albicans Candida species is increasing and may be associated with inadequate response to anti-tubercular drugs. C. glabrata infection has a strong association with old age.

  1. Species identification of Candida isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary care hospital

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    lsmet Nigar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are responsible for various clinical manifestations from mucocutaneous overgrowth to blood stream infections especially in immunocompromized situations. Although C. albicans is the most prevalent species, high incidence of non-albicans Candida species with antifungal resistance are emerging which is posing a serious threat to the patients care.Objective: This study aimed to isolate and identify different species of Candida from different clinical specimens. Methods: A total of 100 different clinical specimens were studied of which 35 were oral swab, 28 were high vaginal swab, 15 were urine, 14 were nail, 04 were bronchoalveolar lavage and peritoneal fluid were 04. Among 100 clinical specimens, Candida isolates were identified in 64 specimens. Isolation of Candida species was done by primary culture in SDA. Subsequent identification of species were performed by germ tube test, subculture in chromo­genic agar medium and carbohydrate assimilation test with commonly used twelve sugars.Results: Out of 64 isolated Candida species, Candida albicans were 51.56% and the non-albicans Candida species were 48.44%. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans 33 (51.53% followed by C. tropicalis 17 (26.56%. C. glabrata 4 (6.25%, C. parapsilo­sis 4 (6.25%, C. krusei 3 (4.68% and C. guilliermondii 2 (3.2%. One of the isolated Candida species was unidentified.Conclusion: Though Candida albicans was found as the most common species, but non-albicans Candida species are appearing as emerging pathogens as well. Exposure to chemotherapy appeared to be the commonest predisposing factor for Candida infection followed by indwelling urinary catheter in situ for prolong period.

  2. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

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    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  3. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; dos Santos, Leandro Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  4. Influência da co-agregação entre Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH = Influence of the co-aggregation between Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus on the adhesion capacity these microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Américo Etgeton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da co-agregação in vitro entre Candida albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH. Foram utilizados um isolado vaginal de C. albicans e uma cepa ATCC de L. acidophilus. Uma suspensão de cada microrganismo isoladamente e do coagregado foram incubados com as CEVH obtidas de uma doadora saudável. Foram feitos esfregaços por cristal violeta e Papanicolaou, e o número de leveduras, lactobacilos ou coagregados aderidos às células foi contado (em 300 células superficiais-CS e 300 intermediárias-CI. A Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi realizada em todas as situações dos ensaios.Leveduras e lactobacilos aderiram fortemente as CEVH, tanto em CS quanto em CI. A coagregação levou a um aumento na capacidade de adesão das leveduras (p 0,05. Havendo correlação com o que acontece in vivo, probióticos à base de L. acidophillus e mesmo uma flora lactobacilar vaginal não surtiriam efeito protetor contra a adesão de C. albicans as CEVH e do possível desenvolvimento de candidíase vulvovaginal.This work has aimed to evaluate the influence of the L. acidophilus and Candida albicans co-aggregation on the adhesion capacity this microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC. One vaginal isolated of C. albicans and one ATCC strain of L. acidophilus was used. A suspension of the isolated and co-aggregated microorganisms was incubated with HVEC obtained from a healthy donor. After one hour, smears were made with crystal violet and Papanicolaou, and the number of yeasts adhered to HVEC was evaluated (300 superficial-SC and 300 intermediate cells-IC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was made in all situations of the assays. Yeasts and lactobacilli adhered strongly to the HEVC, both SC and IC. The co-aggregation there was an increase in the adhesion capacity of the yeasts (p 0

  5. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis: characteristics of women with Candida albicans, C glabrata and no candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A M; Foxman, B; Sobel, J D

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Although as many as 5% of all women complain of chronic vulvovaginitis, little is known about these women. They may often be misdiagnosed and the role of vaginal yeast culture in diagnosing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) among them has not been clearly defined. METHODS--To address these deficiencies, we tabulated initial diagnoses among new patients and conducted a medical record-based, unmatched case-control study among women reporting a history of chronic vulvovaginitis (four or more episodes in the past year) at a vulvovaginitis specialty clinic. Clinical presentation and medical history were compared for women who had a positive vaginal yeast culture for either Candida albicans or C glabrata, or who had a negative culture. RESULTS--One-third of the women had no apparent vulvovaginal disease at their initial visit. All women reported similar symptoms, except for an increased prevalence of painful sexual intercourse in women with C albicans (chi 2 p = 0.014 versus women with C glabrata and p vulvovaginitis. Among women with VVC, subtle differences in clinical presentation do not reliably distinguish women with C albicans from those with C glabrata. Our study also indicates that vaginal yeast cultures, while not necessary for every patient, are valuable in confirming negative diagnoses, detecting microscopy false-negatives, and identifying non-C albicans isolates. Images PMID:7490047

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  7. The Antifungal Inhibitory Concentration Effectiveness Test From Ethanol Seed Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) Extract Against The Growth Of Candida albicans Patient Isolate With In Vitro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria Rakatama, Adam; Pramono, Andri; Yulianti, Retno

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans are the most frequent cause of Vulvovaginalis Candidiasis infection. Its treatment using antifungal drugs, are oftenly caused side effects. The reduction of C.albicans growth and the reduction of antifungal drugs side effect, were our main purposed. Our study objective is determine the effectiveness of inhibitory power of arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. The type of this research is experimental research. Kirby-bauer method with the Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media was used in this experiment. Inhibitory zone was observed around the disc, to determine the inhibitory power. The results showed that the inhibitory zone was formed on arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration. Kruskal-Wallis test results (pthe concentration groups tested against the treatment group. The inhibitory zone was formed because of biochemical compound in arabica coffee seed such as caffeine, phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. Inhibitory zone in C.albicans patient isolates were smaller compared with C.albicans ATCC 90028 as gold standard. This showed that the virulence of C.albicans from patients isolates were higher. We concluded that arabica coffee seed ethanol extract could inhibiting the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. Optimization of coffee seed ethanol extract to obtain maximum active ingredients still needs to be done. This knowledge is expected to be used for the beginning manufacturer antifungal drug from natural product.

  8. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

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    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  9. Degradation of Dextran Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 13146 using Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Tack; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Dextrans make up a family of glucans that have contiguous alpha-1.6 glucose linkages. Differences in the different dextrans in volve the types, amount, length, and arrangements of the arrangements of the branch chains. The principle type of branch linkages found are alpha-1.3, but alpha-1.2 and-1.4 branch linkages have been also observed. In recent days. dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longeveity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weigh of Μ w 10,000 to 100,000 have been applied for development of new type of drug delivery agent. Such a size of dextrans have been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, this objective of this research is to evaluate the characterization of branched degraded by a electron beam radiation. L. mesenteroides ATCC 13146 was cultured on te agar slant medium with the composition of 3.0 g K 2 HPO 4 , 0.01 g FeSO 4 . H 2 O, 0.01 g MnSO 4 . 7H 2 O, 0.01 g NaCl, 0.05 g CaCl 2 , 0.5g yeast extract, 15 g agar and 30 g sucrose per liter deionized water. Medium pH was adjusted to 6.0 prior to sterilization. Dextran production was conducted in a fermentor a working volume of 5 1 by using 18% sucrose under optimum pH condition. The inoculum was 2% of the working volume. Fermentation conditions are 28 C, 100 rpm agitation, and 1 vvm of aeration. The fermentation process continued until sucrose was consumed completely. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic accelerator. The irradiation doses ranged between 30 kGy to 80 kGy. After irradiation, processed dextran showed still a large of branched form. The degradation degree was increased as radiation intensity. The average molecular weight

  10. Interaction of Wild Strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 and Aflatoxin Production †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H. Marina; Almeida, Inês; Marques, Marta; Bernardo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some competent mould strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. These compounds have been extensively studied with regards to their toxicity for animals and humans; they are able to induce liver cancer and may cause a wide range of adverse effects in living organisms. Aflatoxins are found as natural contaminants of food and feed; the main line of the strategy to control them is based on the prevention of the mould growth in raw vegetable or during its storage and monitoring of each crop batch. Mould growth is conditioned by many ecological factors, including biotic ones. Hazard characterization models for aflatoxins in crops must take into consideration biotic interactions between moulds and their potential effects on growth development. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the biotic interaction of 14 different wild strains of Aspergilla (different species), with a competent strain (Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517) using an in vitro production model. The laboratory model used was a natural matrix (humidified cracked corn), on which each wild strain challenged the aflatoxin production of a producer strain. Cultures were incubated at 28°C for 12 days and sampled at the 8th and 12th. Aflatoxin detection and quantification was performed by HPLC using a procedure with a MRPL = 1 μg/kg. Results of those interactive cultures revealed both synergic and antagonistic effects on aflatoxin biosynthesis. Productivity increases were particularly evident on the 8th day of incubation with wild strains of A. flavipes (+ 70.4 %), A. versicolor (+ 54.9 %) and A. flavus 3 (+ 62.6 %). Antagonistic effects were found with A. niger (− 69.5%), A. fumigatus (− 47.6 %) and A. terreus (− 47.6 %) on the 12th day. The increased effects were more evident on the 8th of incubation and the decreases were more patent on the 12th day. Results show that the development of Aspergilla strains concomitantly with

  11. Virulence of oral Candida isolated from HIV-positive women with oral candidiasis and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotade, Foluso J; Patel, Mrudula

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the virulence of oral Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women with and without oral candidiasis. Candida species were isolated from 197 women, and their virulence attributes were measured. Of the 197 women, 117 (59.4%) carried Candida. Of these, 15 (12.8%) had symptoms of oral candidiasis. Among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive patients, 33% were diagnosed with oral candidiasis, whereas 5.9% were asymptomatic carriers (P oral candidiasis had higher levels of Candida (P = .02) than asymptomatic carriers. There was no difference in the CD4 counts and the virulence attributes of Candida from both the groups. This study indicates that oral candidiasis is mainly caused by high counts of C. albicans and suggests the importance of therapies targeting Candida counts in the oral cavity even in patients on HAART to reduce the development of infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  13. Clinical aspects of Candida species carriage in saliva of xerotomic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S R; Peixoto, C B; Caldas, D M; Silva, E B; Magalhães, F A C; Uzeda, M; Nucci, M

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the clinical factors that might influence the diversity and the degree of Candida species carriage in saliva, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 133 patients with complaints of xerostomia. Anamnesis, oral examination and collection of chewing-stimulated whole saliva were performed. The samples of saliva were kept refrigerated until they were plated onto CHROMagar Candida; cfu were counted and Candida species were identified by standard methods. There was a high prevalence of mixed Candida colonization. No relationship was found between total Candida cfu counts and variables like gender, age, place of origin, underlying diseases, exposure to medications (except antibiotics), daily habits and salivary flow rates. Oral candidiasis, antibiotic exposure and dental prosthesis wearing were associated with relatively high Candida counts in saliva. Low salivary flow rates predisposed to intense colonization by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis.

  14. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

  15. Statistical Optimization of Medium Compositions for High Cell Mass and Exopolysaccharide Production by Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Zalina Othman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 is known as a good producer of water soluble exopolysaccharide. Therefore, the aim of this study is to optimize the medium composition concurrently for high cell mass and exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. Since both are useful for food and pharmaceutical application and where most studies typically focus on one outcome only, the optimization process was carried out by using molasses as cheaper carbon source.Material and Methods: The main medium component which is known significantly give high effect on the cell mass and EPS production was selected as variables and statistically optimized based on Box-Behnken design in shake flask levels. The optimal medium for cell mass and exopolysaccharide production was composed of (in g l -1: molasses, 40; yeast extract, 16.8; phosphate, 2.72; sodium acetate, 3.98. The model was found to be significant and subsequently validated through the growth kinetics studies in un-optimized and optimized medium in the shake flask cultivation.Results and Conclusion: The maximum cell mass and exopolysaccharide in the new optimized medium was 4.40 g l-1 and 4.37 g l-1 respectively after 44 h of the cultivation. As a result, cell mass and exopolysaccharide production increased up to 4.5 and 16.5 times respectively, and the maximal exopolysaccharide yield of 1.19 per gram of cells was obtained when molasses was used as the carbon source. In conclusion, molasses has the potential to be a cheap carbon source for the cultivation of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 concurrently for high cell mass and exopolysaccharide production.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  16. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis in Mashhad, Iran by Use of MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

     Of the 65 isolates analyzed, 61 (93.8% were recognised by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and for four isolates (6.1% only not relabile identifications were achieved. In this study, the most frequently isolated species were Candida albicans (58.5%, followed by Candida tropicalis (16.9%, Candida glabrata (7.7%, Candida parapsilosis (7.7% and Candida guillermondii (3.1%.  Conclusion presented results demonstrate that the MALDI TOF mass spectrometry is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic identification of Candida species and other yeast strains routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  17. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Schaap, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme......-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15...

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  19. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  20. Induction of suppressor cells in vitro by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, C F; Rogers, C M; Lamb, B J; Rogers, T J

    1986-06-01

    Normal splenocytes cultured with Formalin-killed Candida albicans were shown to acquire significant suppressor cell activity in a period of 3 days. These cells were found to suppress both the phytohemagglutinin-induced mitogen response as well as the anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody response. Experiments were carried out to determine the nature of the suppressor cell population. Results showed that these cells were not susceptible to treatment with anti-Thy 1 antibody and complement. Panning experiments showed that the suppressor cells were not plastic-adherent or Mac-1 antigen-positive. The suppressor cells were, however, adherent to anti-mouse immunoglobulin (F(ab')2-fragment)-coated dishes. Additional experiments showed that the suppressor cell activity was susceptible to treatment with monoclonal anti-Lyb 2.1 antibody and complement. These results suggest that the suppressor cell induced in vitro by Candida is a member of the B-lymphocyte lineage.

  1. Genoma de Candida albicans y resistencia a las drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Quintana, Sandra; Díaz Sjostrom, Pedro; Mazón Baldeón, Gloria; Arias Socarrás, Dunier; Calderón Paz, María; Herrera Molina, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Candida albicans es un importante patógeno fúngico en los humanos tanto por su importancia clínica como por su uso como un modelo experimental para la investigación científica. La comprensión de la biología de este patógeno es un requisito importante para la identificación de nuevas dianas de medicamentos para la terapia antifúngica. En esta revisión nos proponemos profundizar en las características del genoma de Candida albicans, su relación con la virulencia y cómo influye en la res...

  2. Genoma de Candida albicans y resistencia a las drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Cruz Quintana; Pedro Díaz Sjostrom; Gloria Mazón Baldeón; Dunier Arias Socarrás; María Calderón Paz; Angélica Herrera Molina

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans es un importante patógeno fúngico en los humanos tanto por su importan - cia clínica como por su uso como un modelo experimental para la investigación científica. La comprensión de la biología de este patógeno es un requisito importante para la identificación de nuevas dianas de medicamentos para la terapia antifúngica. En esta revisión nos proponemos profundizar en las características del genoma de Candida albicans, su relación con la virulen - cia y cómo influye en la re...

  3. Clinical, microbiological, and experimental animal studies of Candida lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T J; Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Hurd, N J

    1989-01-01

    Candida lipolytica was recovered from six patients in three different clinical centers. The index isolate caused a persistent fungemia with catheter-associated Candida thrombophlebitis, the second isolate was from a polymicrobial sinusitis, and the remaining four isolates were involved in tissue colonization. These and 20 other isolates were consistent in their morphological and physiological characteristics. All formed true hyphae and blastoconidia on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and all assimilated glucose, glycerol, and erythritol. In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, the index isolate that caused clinical fungemia caused no mortality and produced only two lesions on a kidney, as determined at necropsy. The nine isolates selected for in vitro antifungal susceptibility studies had intermediate susceptibilities to amphotericin B but were susceptible to ketoconazole. We conclude that C. lipolytica is a weakly virulent pathogen which may require an intravascular foreign body to cause fungemia. Images PMID:2745702

  4. Candida bloodstream infection: a clinical microbiology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Júlia; Kristóf, Katalin

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) has been on the rise in several countries worldwide. Species distribution is changing; an increase in the percentage of non-albicans species, mainly fluconazole non-susceptible C. glabrata was reported. Existing microbiology diagnostic methods lack sensitivity, and new methods need to be developed or further evaluation for routine application is necessary. Although reliable, standardized methods for antifungal susceptibility testing are available, the determination of clinical breakpoints remains challenging. Correct species identification is important and provides information on the intrinsic susceptibility profile of the isolate. Currently, acquired resistance in clinical Candida isolates is rare, but reports indicate that it could be an issue in the future. The role of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to isolate and correctly identify the infective agent and provide relevant and reliable susceptibility data as soon as possible to guide antifungal therapy.

  5. Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Geraldine; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Lin, Michael F.; Santos, Manuel A.S.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Munro, Carol A.; Rheinbay, Esther; Grabherr, Manfred; Forche, Anja; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Agrafioti, Ino; Arnaud, Martha B.; Bates, Steven; Brown, Alistair J.P.; Brunke, Sascha; Costanzo, Maria C.; Fitzpatrick, David A.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Harris, David; Hoyer, Lois L.; Hube, Bernhard; Klis, Frans M.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Lennard, Nicola; Logue, Mary E.; Martin, Ronny; Neiman, Aaron M.; Nikolaou, Elissavet; Quail, Michael A.; Quinn, Janet; Santos, Maria C.; Schmitzberger, Florian F.; Sherlock, Gavin; Shah, Prachi; Silverstein, Kevin; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Soll, David; Staggs, Rodney; Stansfield, Ian; Stumpf, Michael P H; Sudbery, Peter E.; Thyagarajan, Srikantha; Zeng, Qiandong; Berman, Judith; Berriman, Matthew; Heitman, Joseph; Gow, Neil A. R.; Lorenz, Michael C.; Birren, Bruce W.; Kellis, Manolis; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. We report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and nonpathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted, and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the Mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/alpha2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine to serine genetic code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the C. albicans gene catalog, identifying many new genes. PMID:19465905

  6. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  7. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional strains by using a broth dilution assay standardized according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A assay. Terbinafine was found to have an MIC of 1 μg/ml for reference C. albicans strains. For 259 clinical isolates, the MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of terbinafine was 1 μg/ml (fluconazole, 0.5 μg/ml), and the MIC90 was 4 μg/ml (fluconazole, 1 μg/ml). Terbinafine was highly active against Candida parapsilosis (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and showed potentially interesting activity against isolates of Candida dubliniensis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida humicola, and Candida lusitaniae. It was not active against the Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis isolates in this assay. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus neoformans were highly susceptible to terbinafine, with MICs of 0.06 to 0.25 μg/ml. The NCCLS macrodilution assay provides reproducible in vitro data for terbinafine against Candida and other yeasts. The MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis are compatible with the known clinical efficacy of terbinafine in cutaneous infections, while the clinical relevance of its activities against the other species has yet to be determined. PMID:9593126

  8. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Rianti, Devi; Yogyarti, Sri

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida al...

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology of Candida isolates from Intensive Care Units in Colombia from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Muñoz, Juan Sebastián; Oñate, José; Pallares, Christian José; Hernández, Cristhian; Villegas, María Virginia

    The frequency of Candida isolates as a cause of hospital infections has risen in recent years, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The knowledge of the epidemiology of those hospital acquired fungal infections is essential to implement an adequate antifungal therapy. To describe the epidemiology of Candida infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from a surveillance network in Colombia. Information was collected from the microbiology laboratories of 20 tertiary healthcare institutions from 10 Colombian cities using the Whonet® software version 5.6. A general descriptive analysis of Candida species and susceptibility profiles focusing on fluconazole and voriconazole was completed between 2010 and 2013, including a sub-analysis of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) during the last year. Candida isolates made up 94.5% of the 2680 fungal isolates considered, with similar proportions for Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species (48.3% and 51.7%, respectively). Among the latter, Candida tropicalis (38.6%) and Candida parapsilosis (28.5%) were the most frequent species. Of note, among the blood isolates C. albicans was not the main species. Most of the species isolated were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. From the HAIs reported, 25.5% were caused by Candida; central line-associated bloodstream infection was the most common HAI (58.8%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding length of hospital stay and device days among HAIs. In ICUs of Colombia, non-C. albicans Candida species are as frequent as C. albicans, except in blood samples where non-C. albicans Candida isolates predominate. Further studies are needed to evaluate Candida associated risk factors and to determine its clinical impact. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Context: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerost...

  12. Candida albicans in patients with oronasal communication and obturator prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    MATTOS, Beatriz Silva Câmara; SOUSA, Andréa Alves de; MAGALHÃES, Marina Helena C. G. de; ANDRÉ, Marcia; BRITO E DIAS, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Patients using obturator prostheses often present denture-induced stomatitis. In order to detect the presence of oral Candida albicans in patients with oronasal communications and to evaluate the effectiveness of a topical antifungal treatment, cytological smears obtained from the buccal and palatal mucosa of 10 adult patients, and from the nasal acrylic surface of their obturator prostheses were examined. A therapeutic protocol comprising the use of oral nystatin (Mycostatin®) and prosthesis...

  13. Limonene inhibits Candida albicans growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Archana; Zore, Gajanan; Kodgire, Santosh; Kazi, Rubina; Mulange, Shradha; Patil, Rajendra; Shelar, Amruta; Santhakumari, Bayitigeri; Kulkarni, Mahesh; Kharat, Kiran; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2018-07-01

    Anti-Candida potential of limonene was evaluated against planktonic growth, biofilm (adhesion, development and maturation) and morphogenesis of Candida albicans in this study. Limonene is a major constituent of citrus oil and most frequently used terpene in food and beverage industry due to its pleasant fragrance, nontoxic, and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavoring agent as well as treatment option in many gastrointestinal diseases.Limonene exhibited excellent anti-Candida activity and was equally effective against planktonic growth of C. albicans isolates differentially susceptible to FLC (N = 35). Limonene inhibited morphogenesis significantly at low concentration. However, it showed stage dependent activity against biofilm formation, that is, it was more effective against adhesion followed by development and maturation. Limonene also exhibited excellent synergy with FLC against planktonic and biofilm growth. SWATH-MS analysis led to identification of limonene responsive proteins that provided molecular insight of its anti-Candida activity. Proteomic analysis revealed upregulation of proteins involved in cell wall glucan synthesis (Kre6); oxidative stress (Rhr2, Adh7 and Ebp1); DNA damage stress (Mbf1 and Npl3); nucleolar stress (Rpl11, Rpl7, Rpl29, Rpl15) and down regulation of cytoskeleton organization (Crn1, Pin3, Cct8, Rbl2), and so forth, in response to limonene. Limonene mediated down regulation of Tps3 indicates activation of caspase (CaMca1) and induction of apoptosis in C. albicans. These results suggest that limonene inhibits C. albicans growth by cell wall/membrane damage induced oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage resulting into modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis through nucleolar stress and metacaspase dependent pathway.

  14. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  16. Aktivitas Antijamur Senyawa Bioaktif Ekstrak Gelidium Latifolium Terhadap Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfiyanti, Rosiska; Ma'ruf, Widodo Farid; Dewi, Eko Nurcahya

    2012-01-01

    Gelidium sp. has bioactive compounds which is estimated has potential activity as antifungal. The aim of this study were to know bioactive compounds from Gelidium latifolium with different solvent, to know the potency of Gelidium latifolium extract as antifungal towards C. albicans and to know the effect of different concentration of Gelidium latifolium extract towards antifungal activity. The result showed that the methanol extract is able to produce inhibition zones toward Candida albicans,...

  17. Extraction of uricase from Candida utilis by applying polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The purification of uricase from Candida utilis was performed by applying aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Based on ... The ATPS formed by 25% (w/w) PEG2000, 9% (w/w) (NH4)2SO4, 2% (w/w) NaCl, pH 7.5 and addition of 5% (w/w) crude enzyme showed the best separation capability. These conditions led ...

  18. Candida auris: An emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sears

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida aurisis an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen that can be difficult to identify using traditional biochemical methods. C. auris is capable of causing invasive fungal infections, particularly among hospitalized patients with significant medical comorbidities. Echinocandins are the empiric drugs of choice for C. auris, although not all isolates are susceptible and resistance may develop on therapy. Nosocomial C. auris outbreaks have been reported in a number of countries and aggressive infection control measures are paramount to stopping transmission.

  19. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  20. Interplay between Candida albicans and the Mammalian Innate Host Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is both the most common fungal commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and the major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in at-risk populations, especially immunocompromised patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and C. albicans, ranging from how the host recognizes, responds, and clears C. albicans infection to how C. albicans evades, dampens, and escapes from host innate immunity. PMID:22252867

  1. Candida peritonitis in dogs: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Katy; Meinkoth, Jim; McKeirnen, Kelci; Love, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Candida peritonitis is reported in people and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality compared with sterile or bacterial peritonitis. Recognized predisposing risk factors include peritoneal dialysis, hollow viscous organ perforation, abdominal surgery, inflamed intestinal mucosa, antimicrobial administration, and immunosuppression. In this report, we describe 5 cases of dogs with peritonitis complicated by Candida spp; 3 dogs with C albicans, one dog with C albicans and C glabrata, and one dog with C glabrata only. The 3 dogs with C albicans peritonitis presented with duodenal perforation due to NSAID therapy, intestinal resection and anastomosis following postspay-surgery dehiscence, and intestinal foreign body removal. The 2 dogs with C glabrata peritonitis had undergone cholecystectomy due to gall bladder rupture and dehiscence of intestinal biopsy removal sites following exploratory laparatomy. In all cases, initial diagnosis of fungal peritonitis was made via cytologic examination of peritoneal effusions, which revealed marked pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous 3-8 μm oval, deeply basophilic yeast organisms with thin clear capsules noted within phagocytes and extracellularly. In addition, germ tube formation, hyphae, and pseudohyphae were rarely seen in some of the cases with pure C albicans. Identity of the organisms was determined by culture in all cases and confirmed by PCR in 3 cases. Candida spp. are commensals normally inhabiting the alimentary, the upper respiratory, and the lower urogenital tracts of mammals. They are opportunistic pathogens that can invade and colonize tissue when a patient is immune-compromised or there is disruption of the mucosal barrier. Candida peritonitis should be considered in patients with peritoneal contamination with gastrointestinal or biliary contents. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Prevalence & susceptibility to fluconazole of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Srujana; Xess, Immaculata; Hasan, Fahmi; Kapil, Arti; Mittal, Suneeta; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2007-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an important cause of morbidity in women of reproductive age. This study was carried out to determine the species prevalence and susceptibility pattern to fluconazole of yeasts isolated from the vagina of symptomatic women. This prospective study was conducted in a rural primary health care center of north India from May 2003 to April 2004 and included 601 married, sexually active women (18-49 yr) with the self reported symptoms of vaginal discharge and/or genital itching and/or genital burning. Specific aetiology of the genitourinary symptoms including candidal infection were determined. Specimens from the lateral wall of vagina were subjected to direct wet mount microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Susceptibility testing to fluconazole was carried out using broth microdilution method. Yeasts were isolated in 111 (18.5%) women and these consisted of Candida glabrata (56, 50.4%), C. albicans (39, 35.1%), C. tropicalis (12, 10.8%), C. krusei (3, 2.7%) and C. parapsilosis (1, 0.9%). Susceptibility testing carried out on 30 representative isolates (15 C. glabrata, 10 C. albicans, 4 C. tropicalis and 1 C. parapsilosis) revealed that 21 isolates (70%) were susceptible (MIC, < or = 8 microg/ml) to fluconazole while 9 (30%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD, MIC 16-32 microg/ml). Our findings suggest a low prevalence of fluconazole resistance in vaginal candida isolates in our population. However, a high prevalence of non-albicans candida species and increased dose-dependent resistance in these isolates necessitates vigilance since this may warrant a change in the optimal therapy of non-albicans candida vaginitis.

  3. Four Pathogenic Candida Species Differ in Salt Tolerance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2010), s. 335-339 ISSN 0343-8651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:EC(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : candida species * salt tolerance * potassium homeostasis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 1.510, year: 2010

  4. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of t...

  5. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (pCandida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis. PMID:27206014

  6. Molecular characterization of Candida isolates from intensive care unit patients, Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, Marianna; Paluchowska, Paulina; Bogusz, Bożena; Budak, Alicja

    Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A total of 132 Candida clinical isolates (62 C. albicans, 40 C. glabrata, 13 C. tropicalis, 11 C. krusei, 6 C. kefyr), obtained from specimens of endotracheal aspirate, urine and blood taken from patients of a tertiary hospital in Poland, were included in the study. Species identification was performed by PCR method and genetic relatedness was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay (RAPD) with five primers. The RAPD analysis revealed high genetic diversity among the studied Candida isolates, indicating that most of the strains were from endogenous sources. Only two clonal strains of C. glabrata isolated from different patients were observed, suggesting a possible cross-transmission of these pathogens. Our study confirmed the high discriminatory power of the RAPD assay. This genotyping method can be applied to local epidemiological studies of Candida species. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  8. Determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns among the clinical isolates of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida species are opportunistic yeasts that cause infections ranging from simple dermatosis to potentially life-threatening fungemia. The emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs has been increased in the past two decades. Aim: the present study we determined to find out the susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Candida species against four antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of the yeasts was done in accordance with the proposed guidelines for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts based on the CLSI document M44-A. Results: A total of 206 yeast isolates were assessed. Among the evaluated Candida species, the highest rates of resistance to ketoconazole were seen in Candida glabrata (16.6% and Candida albicans (3.2%. Susceptibility and intermediate response to fluconazole were seen in 96.6% and 3.4% of the Candida isolates, respectively. A total of 19 (9.2% yeast isolates showed petite phenomenon including 11 C. glabrata, 3 C. albicans, 2 Candida dubliniensis and one isolate of each Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: The high number of petite mutation in the isolated yeasts should be seriously considered since it may be one of the reasons of antifungal treatment failure.

  9. Neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response in candida vulvovaginitis patients with intracellular microorganism persistence complications

    OpenAIRE

    YAKOVYCHUK NINA DMYTRIVNA; DJUIRIAK VALENTYNA STEPANIVNA

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response and body immune reactivity in general considerably decrease in patients suffering from candida vaginitis on the basis of intracellular microorganisms persistence.

  10. Close association between oral Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, S; Moriyama, M; Hayashida, J-N; Tanaka, A; Maehara, T; Ieda, S; Nakamura, S

    2012-10-01

    Heightened interest in oral health has lead to an increase in patients complaining of xerostomia, which is associated with various oral mucosal disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. We evaluated whole salivary flow rate and presence of oral mucosal disorders in 48 patients with xerostomia and 15 healthy controls. The number of Candida species was measured as colony-forming units after propagation on selective medium. Identification of Candida at the species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We then examined the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal symptoms. Compared with controls, patients with xerostomia exhibited significantly decreased whole salivary flow rate, increased rate of oral mucosal symptoms, and higher numbers of Candida. Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabrata was isolated from the angle of the mouth. These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Effect of sodium bicarbonate against Candida albicans in denture stomatitis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolmoulouk Najafi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate against candida albicans, the main infectious factor of denture stomatitis, and to compare it with other common anti-candida medications. Materials and Methods: Three concentrations of Candida albicans (105, 106, 107 CFU/mL were prepared. Experimental substances were 5% sodium bicarbonate, nystatin, chlorhexidine, and sterile saline (as control. Each of them was added separately to the same amounts of Candida albicans of different concentrations, and sampled at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Then, the samples were cultured and incubated. The number of formed colonies was counted for each plate. The data were analyzed, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Sodium bicarbonate showed a noticeable anti-candida effect on the concentrations of 105 and 106 CFU/mL, with almost similar anti-candida effect as nystatin and chlorehexidine(P=0.29, P=0.32. Nystatin was the most effective medication on the concentration of 107 CFU/mL of candida (P=0.03, P=0.01. Sodium bicarbonate and chlorhexidine were less effective in this concentration with no statistically significant difference (P=1.00. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate showed a significant anti-candida effect at low and medium concentrations of Candida albicans, but nystatin was more effective in the higher concentrations.

  12. Component identification of electron transport chains in curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 and its genome-specific prediction using comparative genome and phylogenetic trees analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Zhan, Xiaobei; Zheng, Zhiyong; Yu, Lijun; Wu, Jianrong; Chen, Dingqiang

    2011-06-01

    Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 (formerly named Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes) is a non-pathogenic aerobic soil bacterium used in large scale biotechnological production of curdlan. However, little is known about its genomic information. DNA partial sequence of electron transport chains (ETCs) protein genes were obtained in order to understand the components of ETC and genomic-specificity in Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749. Degenerate primers were designed according to ETC conserved sequences in other reported species. DNA partial sequences of ETC genes in Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 were cloned by the PCR method using degenerate primers. Based on comparative genomic analysis, nine electron transport elements were ascertained, including NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase complex II, complex III, cytochrome c, ubiquinone biosynthesis protein ubiB, cytochrome d terminal oxidase, cytochrome bo terminal oxidase, cytochrome cbb (3)-type terminal oxidase and cytochrome caa (3)-type terminal oxidase. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that among fully sequenced Agrobacterium species, Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is closest to Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Based on these results a comprehensive ETC model for Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is proposed.

  13. Exoenzyme activity and possibility identification of Candida dubliniensis among Candida albicans species isolated from vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Maryam; Salari, Samira; Pakshir, Keyvan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or vaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals causing inflammation, irritation, itching, and vaginal discharge. Common yeast infections are caused by the yeast species C. albicans. However, there are other species of Candida such as C. dubliniensis which are considered as the causative agents of this infection. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinase and coagulase are known as virulence factors. The aim of this study was the molecular confirmation and differentiation of C. dubliniensis among C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the evaluation of proteinase and coagulase activities. A total of 100 C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis referred to Shiraz medical clinics were enrolled in the study. All the isolates were primarily identified by conventional methods. PCR-RFLP method was used for the confirmation and identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Moreover, in vitro proteinase and coagulase activities of these isolates were evaluated using bovine serum albumin media and classical rabbit plasma tube test. As a result, PCR-RFLP identified 100% of the isolates as C. albicans, and no C. dubliniensis could be identified in this study. 84% of the isolates showed proteinase activity, whereas coagulase activity was only detected in 5% of the isolates. This study reveals that C. dubliniensis plays no role in vaginal candidiasis in Iranian patients. Proteinase production could be an essential virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenicity, but coagulase activity has less potential in this matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of Chromogenic Candida agar and CHROMagar Candida in recovery and presumptive identification of monofungal and polyfungal vaginal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kadri; Ilkit, Macit; Ates, Aylin; Turac-Bicer, Aygul; Demirhindi, Hakan

    2010-02-01

    Chromogenic Candida agar (OCCA) is a novel medium facilitating isolation and identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, as well as indicating polyfungal population in clinical samples. We compare the performance of OCCA, to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar (SCA). Vaginal swab samples from 392 women were simultaneously inoculated onto three study media. A total of 161 (41.1%) were found to be positive for fungi of which 140 (87%) were monofungal, and 21 (13%) polyfungal. One-hundred and fifty-seven samples (97.5%) were positive on CAC, 156 (96.9%) on OCCA, 148 (91.9%) on SCA and 144 (89.4%) samples were positive on all three media. The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX. The 182 isolates were C. albicans (n = 104), C. glabrata (n = 51), C. krusei (n = 7), C. tropicalis (n = 5), C. famata (n = 3), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. zeylanoides (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 4). Among the 21 polyfungal populations, 20 (95.2%) were detected in OCCA, 14 (66.7%) in CAC, and 13 (61.9%) in CAC and OCCA (P or=92.9% at 72 h. OCCA is more efficient and reliable for rapidly identifying C. albicans and polyfungal populations than CAC. However, CAC is more efficient for identifying C. krusei and C. tropicalis. A chromogenic agar with a higher isolation rate of yeasts and better detection of polyfungal populations than SCA, is suggested as a medium of first choice when available.

  15. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  16. Genoma de Candida albicans y resistencia a las drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cruz Quintana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans es un importante patógeno fúngico en los humanos tanto por su importan - cia clínica como por su uso como un modelo experimental para la investigación científica. La comprensión de la biología de este patógeno es un requisito importante para la identificación de nuevas dianas de medicamentos para la terapia antifúngica. En esta revisión nos proponemos profundizar en las características del genoma de Candida albicans, su relación con la virulen - cia y cómo influye en la resistencia a las drogas antifùngicas, que nos permita comprender los mecanismos por los cuales ejerce su acción patógena y desarrollar otros enfoques en la búsqueda de nuevos antifúngicos. La revisión se realizó a través de los buscadores y plataformas HINARI , SciELO y MEDLINE . Se revisaron 40 revistas de impacto de la Web of Science relacionadas con el tema. Los descriptores empleados fueron: “genome of Candida albicans”, “drug resistance genes”, “dimorphism”, “virulence” y la combinación entre ellos y sus equivalentes en español. El análisis de los genomas fúngicos hace posible predecir el rol de genes con potencial terapéu - tico, con la secuenciación del genoma de Candida albicans ha aumentado la información sobre la función de los genes, entre los que destacan los posibles objetivos farmacológicos. El estudio del genoma de Candida albicans resulta imprescindible para diseñar en el futuro protocolos diagnósticos seguros, así como hallar nuevas dianas antifúngicas que permitan formular te - rapias más efectivas.

  17. Interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms: Influence of the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosida, Thayse Yumi; Cavazana, Thamires Priscila; Henriques, Mariana; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The relationship among Candida species may be influenced by several factors. Thus, this study evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in biofilms, varying the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation. Biofilms were formed for 48 hours in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) or RPMI 1640, supplemented with 0%, 1% or 5% glucose. Each strain of C. albicans was combined with two strains of C. glabrata, generating four biofilm associations, which were quantified by colony-forming units (CFUs), total biomass and metabolic activity. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). For CFUs, all associations were classified as indifferent for biofilms formed in RPMI 1640, while for SDB the interactions were antagonistic for C. albicans and indifferent for C. glabrata. The association of reference strains resulted in a dual-species biofilm with biomass significantly higher than that observed for each single biofilm developed in SDB. The metabolic activity of dual-species biofilms did not significantly differ from that found for single ones, except for co-culture of the reference strains. Glucose supplementation and culture media had a significant influence on all parameters. In conclusion, the strain type, culture medium and glucose supplementation influenced the interactions between C. albicans and C. glabrata. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  19. Antagonistic activity of isolated lactic acid bacteria from Pliek U against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiti, A. A.; Jamilah, I.; Rusmarilin, H.

    2017-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one group of microbes that has many benefits, notably in food and health industries sector. LAB plays an important role in food fermentation and it has bacteriostatic effect against the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The research related LAB continued to be done to increase the diversity of potential isolates derived from nature which is indigenous bacteria for biotechnological purposes. This study was aimed to isolate and characterize LAB derived from pliek u sample and to examine the potency to inhibits Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 bacteria growth. A total of 5 isolates were isolated and based on morphological and physiological characteristics of the fifth bacteria, they are allegedly belonging to the genus Bacillus. Result of antagonistic test showed that the five isolates could inhibits the growth of E. coli ATCC 25922. The highest inhibition zone is 8.5 mm was shown by isolates NQ2, while the lowest inhibition is 1.5 mm was shown by isolates NQ3.

  20. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.