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Sample records for candida oleophila atcc

  1. Complete control of Penicillium expansum on apple fruit using a combination of antagonistic yeast Candida oleophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Guerrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Candida oleophila strains (L06, L07 smooth, and L07 rough were evaluated in vivo and in vitro as biocontrol agents against Penicillium expansum on postharvest 'Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh. in Chihuahua, Mexico. The in vivo and in vitro activity of exo-β-1,3-glucanase was measured as a possible biocontrol mode of action for C. oleophila. Mean disease incidence caused by P. expansum was 0.3% for apples treated with fludioxonil + ciprodinil, which were used as a positive control, and 1% for fruits treated with a combination of the three C. oleophila strains; the effects of these treatments were significantly equivalent. Disease incidence in control apples was 39% and was significantly different from the other treatments. The in vivo exo-β-1,3-glucanase activity began at 24 h and peaked at 72 and 96 h for all treatments. Strain L06 had the highest activity (7.96 nKat and a specific activity of 2.92 nKat μg-1. Candida albicans had the lowest activity (2.83 nKat and a specific activity of 0.67 nKat ug-1. The highest in vitro activity was for C. albicans (85.03 nKat and the lowest for strain L06 (78.2 nKat. Significant differences in both in vivo and in vitro enzymatic activity were observed between strain L06 and C. albicans. Polynomial regression analysis (R² = 0.96 in vitro and 0.68 in vivo indicated that increased enzymatic activity was associated with reduced fruit disease incidence. The production of exo-β-1,3-glucanase by C. oleophila is a possible mode of action for the efficient biocontrol of P. expansum on postharvest apples.

  2. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-glucanase from Candida Oleophila for the Biocontrol of Penicillium expansum

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    Carlos Tamayo-Urbina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida oleophila was originally isolated from apple fruit peel in the region of Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, Mexico, and utilizes exo-β-1,3-glucanase production as a mode of action against Penicillium expansum in postharvest apples. β-1,3- Glucanase activity generated by C. oleophila on a minimal-salt medium using glucose, laminarin or cell wall fragments of P. expansum as a sole carbon source was determined. Highest β-1,3-glucanase activity (249 U/L was obtained after 48 hours of incubation using only glucose. β-1,3-Glucanase was purified from a growth medium using anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sepharose, which increased the specific activity of β-1,3-glucanase 74-fold, compared to the crude extract after ultrafiltration. SDS-PAGE demonstrated a purified β-1,3- glucanase with an estimated molecular weight of 48.3 kDa. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed laminarin to glucose as a final product and was identified on native polyacrylamide gels as a monomeric protein. Optimum activity occurred at pH 5 and at 40°C, and the enzyme was stable at 30°C for 1 hour. The purified exo-β-1,3-glucanase, when challenged against P. expansum conidia, reduced conidial germination to 51.8% and mycelial growth to 31%. Results indicate that one mode of action of C. oleophila for controlling P. expansum is by producing β-1,3-glucanase and that the purified

  3. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast.

  4. Spectrophotometric evaluation of selenium binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Płaczek, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the ability of selenium binding the biomas of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950 was investigated. Sodium selenite(IV) salts were added to the experimental media at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1). In the tested concentration range, one concentration reported a significant reduction in the biomass yield of both yeast strains. Intense growth was observed for C. utilis yeast, which reached the highest biomass yield of 15 gd.w.L(-1) after 24h cultivation in the presence of 10mg Se(4+) L(-1). Based on the use of spectrophotometric method for the determination of selenium content by using Variamine Blue as a chromogenic agent, efficient accumulation of this element in the biomass of the investigated yeast was observed. The highest amount of selenium, that is, 5.64 mg Se(4+)gd.w.(-1), was bound from the environment by S. cerevisiae ATCC MYA-2200 cultured in the presence of 60 mg Se(4+) L(-1) medium 72h Slightly less amount, 5.47 mg Se(4+) gd.w.(-1), was absorbed by C. utilis ATCC 9950 during similar cultural conditions. Based on the results of the biomass yield and the use of selenium from the medium, it can be observed that yeasts of the genus Candida are more efficient in binding this element, and this property finds practical application in the production of selenium-enriched yeast. PMID:27049131

  5. Influence of Selenium Content in the Culture Medium on Protein Profile of Yeast Cells Candida utilis ATCC 9950

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    Marek Kieliszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and it has been recognized as a component of several selenoproteins with crucial biological functions. It has been identified as a component of active centers of many enzymes, as well as integral part of biologically active complexes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content and amino acid profile of the protein of fodder yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 cultured in media control and experimental enriched selenium. Protein analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE method consisting of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The highest contents of soluble protein (49,5 mg/g were found in yeast cells after 24-hour culture conducted in control (YPD medium. In the presence of selenium there were determined small amounts of protein content. With increasing time of yeast culture (to 72 hours the control and experimental media were reported to reduce soluble protein content. In electropherogram proteins from control cultures was observed the presence of 10 protein fractions, but in all the experimental cultures (containing 20, 30, and 40 mg/L selenium of 14 protein fractions. On the basis of the molecular weights of proteins, it can be concluded that they were among others: selenoprotein 15 kDa and selenoprotein 18 kDa.

  6. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

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    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  7. Pretreatment of the yeast antagonist, Candida oleophila with glycine betaine increases oxidative stress tolerance in the microenvironment of apple wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to wounding, harvested fruit tissues of apple and citrus exhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production is greater when yeast antagonists used as biocontrol agents are applied in the wounds. These phenomena result in an oxidative stress environment for the yeas...

  8. Candida famata (Candida flareri).

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    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2012-11-01

    Candida famata (Candida flareri) belongs to the group of so-called 'flavinogenic yeasts', capable of riboflavin oversynthesis under condition of iron starvation. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known and were used for industrial production of riboflavin for a long time in the USA. C. famata is characterized by high salt tolerance, growing at NaCl concentrations of up to 2.5  M. Development of basic tools for the metabolic engineering of C. famata, such as a transformation system, selective markers, insertional mutagenesis, a reporter system and others, are described. The developed tools were used for cloning and identification of structural and regulatory genes of riboflavin synthesis. The construction of improved yeast strains producing riboflavin, FMN and FAD, based on the industrial riboflavin-producing strain dep8 and its non-reverting analogue AF4, is also described. PMID:23108915

  9. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

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    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  10. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and theoretical prediction of NMR chemical shifts of thiazole and selenazole derivatives with high antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z.; Motylewska, Katarzyna; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Biernasiuk, Anna; Misiura, Konrad; Malm, Anna; Fernández, Berta

    2016-03-01

    Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activities of novel thiazoles and selenazoles is presented. Their structures were determined using NMR, FAB(+)-MS, HRMS and elemental analyses. To support the experiment, theoretical calculations of the 1H NMR shifts were carried out for representative systems within the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** approximation which additionally confirmed the structure of investigated compounds. Among the derivatives, compounds 4b, 4h, 4j and 4l had very strong activity against reference strains of Candida albicans ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 with MIC = 0.49-7.81 μg/ml. In the case of compounds 4b, 4c, 4h - 4j and 4l, the activity was very strong against of Candida spp. isolated from clinical materials, i.e. C. albicans, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua, Candida famata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida sake, C. parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis with MIC = 0.24-15.62 μg/ml. The activity of several of these was similar to the activity of commonly used antifungal agent fluconazole. Additionally, compounds 4m - 4s were found to be active against Gram-positive bacteria, both pathogenic staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus ATCC with MIC = 31.25-125 μg/ml and opportunistic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 with MIC = 7.81-31.25 μg/ml.

  11. Candida Immunity

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    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  12. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar;

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  13. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  14. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

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    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  15. Faecal candida and diarrhoea

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    Forbes, D; Ee, L; Camer-Pesci, P; Ward, P; MURPHY, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Candida species are frequently isolated from stools of children with diarrhoea but are not proven enteropathogens. It is hypothesised that faecal candida causes diarrhoea.
AIMS—To determine the prevalence of faecal candida in childhood diarrhoea and the relation between faecal yeasts and diarrhoea.
METHODS—Comparison of clinical and laboratory data, including quantitative stool culture for yeasts from 107 children hospitalised with diarrhoea and 67 age matched controls without diarrhoea.
RESULTS—Yeast species, predominantly candida, were identified in the stools of 43 children (39%) with diarrhoea and 26 (36%) without diarrhoea. The concentration of candida was positively associated with recent antibiotic use (p = 0.03) and with the presence of another enteric pathogen (p < 0.005), but not with patient age, nutritional status, or duration of diarrhoea.
CONCLUSION—Candida species do not cause childhood diarrhoea in well nourished children.

 PMID:11259233

  16. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

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    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...

  17. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cledualdo S. de; Lira, Bruno F.; Athayde-Filho, Petronio F. de, E-mail: athayde-filho@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Jorge G.F.; Menezes, Camilla P. de; Santos, Jessyca M.C.G. dos; Lima, Edeltrudes de O. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-01-15

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  18. Synthesis and testing of 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives for antifungal activity against selected Candida Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 21 1,3,4-oxadiazoline derivatives was synthesized by cyclization of N-acylhydrazones with acetic anhydride and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against six Candida strains: Candida albicans (ATCC 90028 and LM V-42), C. krusei (ATCC 6258 and LM 12 C) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and LM 14). The Candida strains were found to be sensitive to some of the compounds, which inhibited the growth by 50-90%, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 64-512 μg mL-1. The compounds' structures were fully confirmed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). (author)

  19. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  20. Influence of aeration of Candida albicans during culturing on their surface aggregation in the presence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Candida albicans surfaces are extremely sensitive to changes in growth conditions. In this study, adhesion to glass of aerated and non-aerated C. albicans ATCC 10261 in the presence and absence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7869 was determined in a parallel plate flow chamber. In addition,

  1. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

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    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  2. Citric acid production by Candida species grown on a soy-based crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid was produced by five species of the yeast Candida after growth on a medium containing soy biodiesel-based crude glycerol. After growth on a medium containing 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 and C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced the highest citric acid levels. On 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, the citric acid level produced by C. parapsilosis ATCC 7330 was 1.8 g L(-1) or 11.3 g L(-1), respectively, while C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced citric acid concentrations of 3.0 g L(-1) or 10.4 g L(-1), respectively. Biomass production by C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C was highest at 1.2 g L(-1) or 6.9 g L(-1), respectively. The citric acid yields observed for C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 after growth on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol (0.35 g g(-1) or 0.21 g g(-1), respectively) were generally higher than for the other Candida species tested. When similar crude glycerol concentrations were present in the culture medium, citric acid yields observed for some of the Candida species utilized in this study were about the same or higher compared to citric acid yields by Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Based on the findings, it appeared that C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 was the most effective species utilized, with its citric acid production being similar to what has been observed when citric acid-producing strains of Y. lipolytica were grown on crude glycerol under batch conditions that could be of significance to biobased citric acid production.

  3. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  4. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

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    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of ... Where in my body can I get a Candida infection? Candida infection can happen in almost any part ...

  5. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin; Hasmah Abdullah; Wan Nor Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida t...

  6. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  7. Manganese transport in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, J.; Auling, G

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of manganese by Brevibacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872 was energy dependent and obeyed saturation kinetics (Km = 0.65 microM; Vmax = 0.12 mumol/min per g [dry weight]). Uptake showed optima at 27 degrees C and pH 9.5. 54Mn2+ accumulated by the cells was released by treatment with toluene or by exchange for unlabeled manganese ions, via an energy-dependent process. Co2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ inhibited manganese uptake. Inhibition by Cd2+ and Zn2+ was competitive (Ki = 0.15 microM Cd2+ an...

  8. Morphological and physiological changes induced by contact-dependent interaction between Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Batbileg; Cen, Lujia; Agnello, Melissa; Shi, Wenyuan; He, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum are well-studied oral commensal microbes with pathogenic potential that are involved in various oral polymicrobial infectious diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 coaggregates with C. albicans SN152, a process mainly mediated by fusobacterial membrane protein RadD and Candida cell wall protein Flo9. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential biological impact of this inter-kingdom interaction. We found that F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 inhibits growth and hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans SN152 in a contact-dependent manner. Further analysis revealed that the inhibition of Candida hyphal morphogenesis is mediated via RadD and Flo9 protein pair. Using a murine macrophage cell line, we showed that the F. nucleatum-induced inhibition of Candida hyphal morphogenesis promotes C. albicans survival and negatively impacts the macrophage-killing capability of C. albicans. Furthermore, the yeast form of C. albicans repressed F. nucleatum-induced MCP-1 and TNFα production in macrophages. Our study suggests that the interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum leads to a mutual attenuation of virulence, which may function to promote a long-term commensal lifestyle within the oral cavity. This finding has significant implications for our understanding of inter-kingdom interaction and may impact clinical treatment strategies. PMID:27295972

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Simone F G; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia C A; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio O C; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo.

  10. [Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for the identification of Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Harun; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Özmerdiven, Gülşah Ece; Sağlam, Sezcan; Ener, Beyza

    2015-01-01

    Candida species are one of the major causes of nosocomial infections and are the fourth most common agent involved in bloodstream infections. The impact of non-albicans Candida species is increasing, however C.albicans is still the most common species. Since the antifungal susceptibility pattern among Candida spp. may be different, rapid diagnosis and identification of non-albicans Candida spp. are important for the determination of antifungal agents that will be used for treatment. The aim of the study was to describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) assay that rapidly detects, identifies and quantitates Candida species from blood culture samples. A total of 50 consecutive positive blood culture bottles (BACTEC, Beckton Dickinson, USA) identified at our laboratory between June-November 2013, were included in the study. Reference strains of Candida spp. (C.albicans ATCC 10231, C.glabrata ATCC 90030, C.tropicalis ATCC 1021, C.krusei ATCC 6258, C.parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. dubliniensis CD36) grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar were used for quality control. BACTEC bottles that were positive for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were also studied to search the cross-reactivity. A commercial kit (Zymo Research, USA) was used for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR was performed on LightCycler 480 (Roche, Germany) with primers and probes specific for 18S rRNA of Candida species. Twenty microlitres of the reaction mix contained 2 μl of extracted DNA, 2 μl of LightCycler Fast Start DNA Master Probe (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 2 μl of MgCl(2) (5 mmol), 2 μl of 10x PCR buffer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), 0.5 μl of each primer (0.01 nmol/μl) and 1 μl of each probe (0.1 μmol/μl) (TibMolBiol, Germany). Amplification was performed using the following conditions; 95°C for 10 mins and 50 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 10 secs, annealing at 62°C for 10 secs and polymerisation at 72°C for 20 secs. A melting curve was

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of...

  12. Quantification of the Effects of Salt Stress and Physiological State on Thermotolerance of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Mataragas, M.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus can acquire enhanced thermal resistance through multiple mechanisms. Two Bacillus cereus strains, ATCC 10987 and ATCC 14579, were used to quantify the effects of salt stress and physiological state on thermotolerance. Cultures were exposed to increasing concen

  13. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  14. In vitro antifungal activity of dictamnine against candida albicans%白鲜碱对白色念珠菌体外抑制作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施琳俊; 薛婷君; 吴岚; 朱彩莲; 周曾同

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测白鲜碱对白色念珠菌的抑制作用,及其对白色念珠菌细胞周期的影响.方法:采用白色念珠菌标准菌株(ATCC76615)为研究对象,用经典方法测定白鲜碱对白色念珠菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC),抑制生物膜50%(SMIC50)的药物浓度,流式细胞仪分析白鲜碱对白色念珠菌细胞周期的影响.结果:白鲜碱对白色念珠菌的MIC为312.5 μg/mL,对生物膜的SMIC50为1250 μg/mL,白鲜碱能使白色念珠菌生长停滞.结论:白鲜碱具有抑制白色念珠菌生长的能力.%Objective:To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of dictamnine against Candida albicans and the in-fluence of dictamnine on the cell cycle of Candida albicans. Method: NCCLS M27-A2 broth microdilution method was ac-cessed to evaluate the in vitro activity of dictamnine against Candida albicans (ATCC 76615). XTT-reduction method was used to test the SMIC50 of dictamnine against Candida albicans biofilms. Flow cytometer was applied to determine the effect of dictamnine on the cell cycle of Candida albicans. Result: MIC of dictamnine against Candida albicans was 312.5 μg / mL. SMIC50 of dictamnine against Candida albicans biofilms was 1250 μg / mL. Dictamnine can stop the growth cycle of Candi-da albicans. Conclusion: Dictamnine displayed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

  15. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  16. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee).

  17. Conversion of hexadecan-1-ol by extracts of candida lipolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell extracts from the yeast Candida lipolytica ATCC 8661 grown on hexadecane were prepared by agitation with glass beads in phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. On incubation with radioactive hexadecane and hexadecan-1-ol and analysis of the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography the extracts showed only low conversion of the hexadecane to hexadecanol and hexadecanoic acid and no formation of the corresponding aldehyde or hexadecanoic acid with hexadecan-1-ol as substrate. However the microsomal fraction was capable of converting hexadecan-1-ol to an unidentified compound, believed to be either a wax ester or acyloin. Up to 70 % of the radioactivity was incorporated into the product. (author)

  18. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd-Al-Faisal Nordin; Wan Himratul-Aznita Wan Harun; Fathilah Abdul Razak; Md Yusoff Musa

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments:(i) in the absence of P. betle extract;and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg?mL21;(iii) 3 mg?mL21;and (iv) 6 mg?mL21. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (m). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the m-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P,0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.443106 to 1.783106 viable cell counts (CFU)?mL21. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  19. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  20. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility

  1. Antifungal activity of plant-based tinctures on Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate through determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC the antifungal activity of Salvia officinalis (sage, Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Malva sylvestris (mallow tinctures on Candida albicans (ATCC 40227, C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803 and C. krusei (ATCC 40147. Material and methods: In 96-well microplates, 100 μl of Sabouraud-Dextrose broth doubly concentrated, 100 μl of the tested tinctures and 10 μl of fungal inoculums (1.5 x 106 organisms/ml were inserted. The products were diluted from initial concentration of 100 mg/ml until 0.78 mg/ml. MIC corresponded to the lowest dilution at which there was no visible fungal growth. Nystatin (100,000 UI/ml was used as control. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. Results: S. officinalis tincture did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans and C. tropicalis; MIC was 100 mg/ml for C. krusei. For A. occidentale, MIC was 100 mg/ml for C. albicans and C. krusei, and for C. tropicalis, there was no fungal inhibition. M. sylvestris tincture presented MIC at 25 mg/ml for C. krusei and 100 mg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The best antifungal activity was showed by M. sylvestris tincture (p < 0.05. Conclusion: M. sylvestris tincture exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains at lower concentrations. S. officinalis tincture inhibited the action of C. krusei and A. occidentale tincture showed activity against C. albicans and C. tropicalis.

  2. Pathogenesis of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of candida vulvovaginitis (CVV) has been estimated based on statistical data from Great Britain to be an increase to 200/100,000 over 10 years to 1984. CVV in the US is the 2nd commonest cause of vaginal infection, with bacterial vaginosis occurring twice as often. 85-90% of the yeasts isolated from the vagina are candida albicans, based on biotyping rather that the newer methods of DNA hybridization. The pathogenesis of CVV is discussed in terms of the microbiology (virulence factors, adherence, germ tube and mycelium formation, proteinase secretion, and switching colonies), asymptomatic vaginal colonization, transformation to symptomatic vaginitis, host predisposing factors (pregnancy, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobes, and other), vaginal defense mechanisms (humoral system, phagocytic system, cell mediated immunity, vaginal flora, other), and pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic CVV (internal reservoir, sexual transmission, vaginal relapse, and experimental models) The discussion of the development of virulent symptoms is capsuled in the following comments. Vaginal cell receptivity varies among individuals, but all strains of C. Albicans adhere to both exfoliated vaginal and buccal epithelial cells, or mucosal surfaces, through the yeast surface mannoprotein. It is suggested from in vitro studies that germ tube and mycelium formation facilitates vaginal mucosal invasion. Exogenous and endogenous factors may enhance germination and precipitate symptomatic vaginitis, or inhibit germination. Increased proteinase secretion may be a result of the transformation from the blastoconidium/colonization phase to the germinated invasive vaginitis stage or an independent virulence factor. It is reported that hereditable spontaneous switching may occur spontaneously in vivo also. Colonizing yeasts with a change in environment can transform to a more virulent phase. Colonization rates vary from 10-25%, and the critical issue is understanding

  3. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, S P; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the...

  4. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  5. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; Geel-Schutten, G.H. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also co

  6. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed c

  7. 3-Methylindole production is regulated in Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: 3-Methylindole (3-MI) is a degradation product of L-tryptophan and is both an animal waste malodorant and threat to ruminant health. Culture conditions which influence 3-MI production in Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775 were investigated. Methods and Results: Cells cultured in anaerobic ...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium vaccae Type Strain ATCC 25954

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S.

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium vaccae is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is generally not considered a human pathogen and is of major pharmaceutical interest as an immunotherapeutic agent. We report here the annotated genome sequence of the M. vaccae type strain, ATCC 25954.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter gracilis ATCC 33236T

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human oral pathogen Campylobacter gracilis has been isolated from periodontal and endodontal infections, and also from non-oral head, neck or lung infections. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the human periodontal isolate ATCC 33236T (=FDC 1084), which is the first closed genome...

  10. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  11. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  12. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.165 Candida lipolytica. The food additive Candida lipolytica... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the organism Candida lipolytica and its... nanometers. If necessary, water may be purified by distillation, extraction with purified organic...

  13. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  14. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  15. Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis ATCC33679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L. Garner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s. The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF and its receptor (fatB were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

  16. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation. PMID:3582582

  17. Genome Sequence of Propionibacterium acnes Type II Strain ATCC 11828

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Balázs; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Vörös, Andrea; Fekete, Csaba; Urbán, Edit; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal human cutaneous microbiota and is occasionally associated with inflammatory diseases (I. Kurokawa et al., Exp. Dermatol. 18:821–832, 2009). Here we present the complete genome sequence for the commercially available P. acnes type II reference strain ATCC 11828 (I. Nagy et al., Microbes Infect. 8:2195–2205, 2006) recovered from a subcutaneous abscess.

  18. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  19. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  20. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  1. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections.

  2. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

  3. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  4. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23768: Pellicle formation, post-synthesis aggregation and fiber density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Gu, Jin; Kafle, Kabindra; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Kim, Seong H

    2015-11-20

    The pellicle formation, crystallinity, and bundling of cellulose microfibrils produced by bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus were studied. Cellulose pellicles were produced by two strains (ATCC 53524 and ATCC 23769) for 1 and 7 days; pellicles were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The bacterial cell population was higher at the surface exposed to air, indicating that the newly synthesized cellulose is deposited at the top of the pellicle. XRD, ATR-IR, and SFG analyses found no significant changes in the cellulose crystallinity, crystal size or polymorphic distribution with the culture time. However, SEM and SFG analyses revealed cellulose macrofibrils produced for 7 days had a higher packing density at the top of the pellicle, compared to the bottom. These findings suggest that the physical properties of cellulose microfibrils are different locally within the bacterial pellicles. PMID:26344281

  5. Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Ashtiani, M T; Sadeghi, R H; Yadegari, M H

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents has been described. As fluconazole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates that constitutively over-express ERG11 have been identified in previous studies, the aim of this study is to investigate this molecular mechanism involved in fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Fluconazole susceptibility testing was carried out on clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from hospitalised children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to differentiate Candida spp. The resistant C. albicans isolates were subjected to RT-qPCR using primers that identify ERG11 gene expression. Of the 142 Candida spp. isolates studied, C. albicans was the most predominant isolate, occurring in 68.3% (97/142) of the patients. According to the CLSI method, the majority of the C. albicans isolates (91.7%, 89/97), categorised as susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤8 μg/mL), five isolates were considered resistant (MIC ≤64 μg/mL) and three had dose-dependent susceptibility (MIC = 8.16-32 μg/mL). The ERG11 gene in the five fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates was upregulated 4.15-5.84-fold relative to the ATCC 10231 control strain. In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended.

  6. Occurrence and Diversity of Candida Genus in Marine Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; CHI Zhenming; YUE Lixi; CHI Zhe; ZHANG Dechao

    2008-01-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater,sediments,mud of salterns,guts of marine fishes and marine algae wereobtained.The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeastsbelonged to Candida genus as Candida interrnedia for YA01a,Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2,Candida quercitrusa for JHSb,Can-die rugosa for wl8,Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a,and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3.Isolates YA01a (Candida interme-die),wl8 (Candida rugosa),3eA2 (Candida parapsilosis),and JHSb (Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase,while isolate W14-3 (Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin.These marine yeast Candida spp.Seem to have wide potentialapplications in biotechnology.

  7. Penetration of Candida Biofilms by Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fattani, Mohammed A.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2004-01-01

    A filter disk assay was used to investigate the penetration of antifungal agents through biofilms containing single and mixed-species biofilms containing Candida. Fluconazole permeated all single-species Candida biofilms more rapidly than flucytosine. The rates of diffusion of either drug through biofilms of three strains of Candida albicans were similar. However, the rates of drug diffusion through biofilms of C. glabrata or C. krusei were faster than those through biofilms of C. parapsilosi...

  8. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Pereira-Cenci; D.M. Deng; E.A. Kraneveld; E.M.M. Manders; A.A. Del Bel Cury; J.M. ten Cate; W. Crielaard

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  9. Highly hydrolytic reuteransucrase from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, S.; Stripling, E.; Sanders, P.; van Geel-Schutten, G.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 (LB BIO) was isolated as a pure culture from a Reuteri tablet purchased from the BioGaia company. This probiotic strain produces a soluble glucan (reuteran), in which the majority of the linkages are of the α-(1→4) glucosidic type (∼70%). This reuteran also contains α-(1→6)-linked glucosyl units and 4,6-disubstituted α-glucosyl units at the branching points. The LB BIO glucansucrase gene (gtfO) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the GTFO ...

  10. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, C. C.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oi...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1205 - Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL... the insecticide Beauveria bassiana (ATCC #74040) in or on all food commodities when applied or used...

  12. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  13. Production of Biohydrogen from Wastewater by Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Veena; Tiwari, K L; Jadhav, S K

    2015-08-01

    Production of biohydrogen from distillery effluent was carried out by using Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182. The work focuses on optimization of pH, temperature, and state of bacteria, which are the various affecting factors for fermentative biohydrogen production. Results indicates that at 35 °C for suspended cultures, the production was at its maximum (i.e., 91.33 ± 0.88 mL) when compared with other temperatures. At 35 °C and at pH 5 and 6, maximum productions of 117.67 ± 1.45 and 111.67 ± 2.72 mL were observed with no significant difference. When immobilized, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182 was used for biohydrogen production at optimized conditions, production was 186.33 ± 3.17 mL. Hence, immobilized cells were found to be more advantageous for biological hydrogen production over suspended form. Physicochemical analysis of the effluent was conducted before and after fermentation and the values suggested that the fermentative process is an efficient method for biological treatment of wastewater.

  14. Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Robert, Raymond; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2006-06-01

    We have evaluated the ability of the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze (Fumouze Diagnostics, Levallois-Perret, France) latex agglutination test to identify colonies of Candida dubliniensis grown on different media. The test was positive for 103 of 106 isolates of C. dubliniensis and negative for Candida albicans and other Candida species studied. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 97.1% and 100%, respectively. The test is very rapid, simple, and reliable giving the same results independently of whether the colonies are grown previously on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHROMagar Candida medium, Candida ID2 medium, or CHROMagar-Pal's medium. PMID:16529902

  15. Biofilms of Candida albicans serotypes A and B differ in their sensitivity to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is classified into different serotypes according to cell wall mannan composition and cell surface hydrophobicity. Since the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the cell wall structure of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotypes A and B to antimicrobial PDT. Reference strains of C. albicans serotype A (ATCC 36801) and serotype B (ATCC 36802) were used for the assays. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (660 nm) was used as the light source and methylene blue (300 μM) as the photosensitizer. After biofilm formation on the bottom of a 96-well microplate for 48 h, each Candida strain was submitted to assays: PDT consisting of laser and photosensitizer application (L + P+), laser application alone (L + P-), photosensitizer application alone (L-P+), and application of saline as control (L-P-). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and transferred to tubes containing PBS. The content of the tubes was homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto Sabouraud agar plates to determine the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The results were compared by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The two strains studied were sensitive to PDT (L + P+), with a log reduction of 0.49 for serotype A and of 2.34 for serotype B. Laser application alone only reduced serotype B cells (0.53 log), and the use of the photosensitizer alone had no effect on the strains tested. It can be concluded that in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotype B were more sensitive to PDT.

  16. Experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 49419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berberoglu, Halil; Pilon, Laurent [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of this study is to experimentally measure the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing microorganisms. Special attention is paid to the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U and the unicellular purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 49419 two of the widely studied photobiological hydrogen producers. The extinction and absorption coefficients are measured in the spectral range from 300 to 1300 nm using a spectrophotometer with and without an integrating sphere. Moreover, a nephelometer has been constructed to measure the scattering phase function of the microorganisms at 632.8 nm. The data are used to recover the mass specific absorption, scattering, and extinction cross-sections, the single scattering albedo, and the scattering phase function of the microorganisms. The scattering phase functions of both microorganisms were peaked strongly in the forward direction as expected from their size parameter and shape. The results reported in this study can be used with the radiative transport equation (RTE) to accurately predict and optimize light transport in photobioreactors for photobiological hydrogen production. Finally, the results show that absorption cross-sections of A. variabilis and R. sphaeroides have peaks that do not overlap but rather enlarge the spectral width of the absorption cross-section of a potential symbiotic culture promising more efficient utilization of solar radiation from light transfer point of view. (author)

  17. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  18. Novel strategies to fight Candida species infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of human fungal infections. The increase in cases of infection caused by Candida species, and the consequent excessive use of antimicrobials, has favored the emergence of resistance to conventional antifungal agents over the past decades. Consequently, Candida infections morbidity and mortality are also increasing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients suffering from Candida infections, because it seems unlikely that the established standard treatments will drastically lower the morbidity of mucocutaneous Candida infections and the high mortality associated with invasive candidiasis. This review aims to present the last advances in the traditional antifungal therapy, and present an overview of novel strategies that are being explored for the treatment of Candida infections, with a special focus on combined antifungal agents, antifungal therapies with alternative compounds (plant extracts and essential oils), adjuvant immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy and laser therapy. PMID:25383647

  19. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis against three Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Dafina N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to general growing resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs nowadays, there have been many studies reported on the use of herbal essential oils as antifungal agents in recent years. In this study, essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae were examined for their in vitro antifungal activity against three Candida albicans strains (laboratory - CAL, human pulmonary - CAH, and reference ATCC10231-CAR in comparison to Nystatin (0.30 mg/ml and Fluconazole (2 mg/ml as standard antifungal agents. The antifungal activity was evaluated by comparing inhibition zone diameters obtained both by disc-and well-diffusion assays, as well as by comparing MIC and MBC values detected by microdilution assay. Diffusion test results revealed stronger antifungal effect of O. vulgare against all analyzed C. albicans strains identifying CAL strain as the most susceptible one. Inhibition zones ranged from 12.65 to 25.10 mm depending on the concentrations applied. The highest concentrations of Rosemary essential oil (5.00 mg/ml demonstrated activity against two strains: CAL and CAR ATCC 10231 in both diffusion assays applied, while no antifungal activity was recorded against CAH isolate. Microdilution assay showed that both oils demonstrated the same MIC values for all tested strains (0.11 mg/ml, except MIC value against ATCC strain (0.23 mg/ml obtained for Rosemary essential oil. The obtained results indicated that oregano and rosemary essential oils might be highly effective in the natural prevention treatment of candidiasis, although toxicity assays should be previously preformed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  20. Biotransformation of (-)beta-pinene by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9642.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniazzo, Geciane; de Oliveira, Débora; Dariva, Cláudio; Oestreicher, Enrique Guillermo; Antunes, Octávio A C

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the biotransformations of (-)alpha-pinene, (-)beta-pinene, and (+) limonene by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9642. The culture conditions involved--concentration of cosolvent (EtOH), substrate applied, and sequential addition of substrates were--investigated. Adaptation of the precultures with small amounts of substrate was also studied. The experiments were performed in conical flasks with liquid cultures. This strain of A. niger was able to convert only (-)beta-pinene into alpha-terpineol. An optimum conversion of (-)beta-pinene into alpha-terpineol of about 4% was obtained when the substrate was applied as a diluted solution in EtOH and sequential addition of substrate was used.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Teresa [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Pratte, Brenda S. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Zhong, Jinshun [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01

    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium that has served as a model organism, with an extensive literature extending over 40 years. The strain has three distinct nitrogenases that function under different environmental conditions and is capable of photoautotrophic growth in the light and true heterotrophic growth in the dark using fructose as both carbon and energy source. While this strain was first isolated in 1964 in Mississippi and named Ana-baena flos-aquae MSU A-37, it clusters phylogenetically with cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc. The strain is a moderate thermophile, growing well at approximately 40 C. Here we provide some additional characteristics of the strain, and an analysis of the complete genome sequence.

  2. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis.

  3. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  4. Antifungal activity of different silver nanoparticles suspensions against Candida biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, D. R.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Negri, M.; Camargo, E. R.; Gorup, L. F.; Takamiya, A.; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, D. B.; Henriques, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The tolerance of Candida biofilms to conventional antifungal drugs has stimulated the search for new therapies that could prevent or treat Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the antibiofilm activity of different silver nanoparticles (SN) suspensions against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms and (ii) to evaluate the effect of these nanoparticles on the matrix composition and the structure of Candida biofilms. Metho...

  5. Biofilm formation and Candida albicans morphology on the surface of denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susewind, Sabine; Lang, Reinhold; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Fungal biofilms may contribute to the occurrence of denture stomatitis. The objective of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation and morphology of Candida albicans in biofilms on the surface of denture base materials. Specimens were prepared from different denture base materials. After determination of surface properties and salivary pellicle formation, mono- and multispecies biofilm formation including Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was initiated. Relative amounts of adherent cells were determined after 20, 44, 68 and 188 h; C. albicans morphology was analysed employing selective fluorescence microscopic analysis. Significant differences were identified in the relative amount of cells adherent to the denture base materials. Highest blastospore/hyphae index suggesting an increased percentage of hyphae was observed in mono- and multispecies biofilms on the soft denture liner, which did not necessarily respond to the highest relative amount of adherent cells. For both biofilm models, lowest relative amount of adherent cells was identified on the methacrylate-based denture base material, which did not necessarily relate to a significantly lower blastospore/hyphae index. The results indicate that there are significant differences in both biofilm formation as well as the morphology of C. albicans cells in biofilms on the surface of different denture base materials.

  6. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  7. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  8. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  9. Biotechnological production of xylitol with Candida yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a biotechnological production process for xylitol. The xylitol production characteristics of Candida millerii, Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis were compared. C. tropicalis was the best xylitol producer. A volumetric productivity of 5.7 g xylitol L-1 h-1 was achieved with 69 % yield from D-xylose on a mineral medium with a modified repeated fed batch production method. The xylitol production mechanism was confirmed by chemostat cultivation stu...

  10. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  11. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  12. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  13. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  14. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  15. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. PMID:27261732

  16. Study of Candida Albicans Vaginitis Model in Kunming Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhuo; KONG Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    The model of vaginal candidiasis in Kunming mice was constructed in order to search for the optima construction conditions and provide an economic animal model of Candida albicans (C.albicans) vaginitis. Estrogen benzoate (E2) was given to mice at different concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.05 mg/mouse (4 levels) beginning 72 h prior to vaginal inoculation, then mice were inoculated intravaginally with various concentrations of stationary-phase C. albicans blastoconidia (ATCC90028) (5 levels) in 20 μL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in each F2 level. General state,scores of genital pathology, the hyphae and vaginal fungal burden (CFU) in vaginal lavage fluid, the hydrops rate of uterus and vaginal tissues for pathological section in mice were observed and obtained at day 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 after inoculation. The results showed the infection rate in mice was related to the dosage of E2 and concentration of C. albicans blastoconidia. Additionally there was better cross-effect between the two treated factors. The infection rate was about 80% on the day 4,and could reach 100% on the day 7 until the end of experiment after inoculated intravaginally in groups of E2I3, E2 0.025 mg/mouse injected hypodermically and inoculated intravaginally with 5×104 C. albicans blastoconidia, and large amount of hyphae and blastoconidia could be observe in superficial layer tissue and canal of vaginal by PAS. From the results in our experiment it was concluded that E2I3 was the optima construction condition in kunming mice.

  17. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  18. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  19. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  20. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  1. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  2. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole. (orig.)

  3. Candida Sepsis Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Potasman; Roni Gonen; Alona Paz

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of invasive devices and broad spectrum antibiotics has increased the rate of candidal superinfections.Candida sepsis associated with pregnancy is rare. Candida sepsis following chorionic villi sampling (CVS) has never been reported. Case: A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented with signs of sepsis one day after undergoing transcervical CVS. Blood culture and curettage material yielded C. albicans. She was treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 4 weeks and completely ...

  4. Oral Candida infections--a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake L; Nair R

    1995-01-01

    Candida species are the commonest agents of oral mycoses. They cause a variety of diseases including the new variant, erythematous candidosis, which is frequently described in HIV infection. Due to these and other reasons the classification of oral candidosis has been recently revised, and further more new therapeutic regimes have been described. Hence in this article an overview of oral Candida infections is presented with special emphasis on current concepts related to classification and tr...

  5. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda; Graciela Granados-Guzmán; Jonathan Pérez-Meseguer; González, Gloria M.; Noemí Waksman de Torres

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of t...

  6. Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Güven; Arslan, Seza; Ekener, Serpil

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The various culture specimens of patients were investigated in our research. Material and methods: 123 Candida strains were isolated. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, formation of membranes in sabouraud medium, and the tests of ascospore in the mediums with cycloheximide and the test of nitrate were...

  7. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  8. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  9. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  10. Four novel yeasts from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Four novel yeast species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and Candida vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. Blastobotrys robertii and Candida scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS Culture Collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 domai

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Isha; Chakrapani, Harinath; Chopra, Sidharth

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29213 is one of the most commonly used strains in drug discovery research and for quality control. We report the completed draft genome sequence for the strain.

  12. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  13. Colonization and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Valeur, Nana; Engel, Peter; Carbajal, Noris; Connolly, Eamonn; Ladefoged, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent gastroscopy or ileoscopy and biopsy samples were taken from the s...

  14. Trehalose induces antagonism towards Pythium debaryanum in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaballa, A.; Abeysinghe, P D; Urich, G; Matthijs, S.; De Greve, H; Cornelis, P; N. Koedam

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 shows in vitro activity against Pythium debaryanum under conditions of iron limitation. A lacZ reporter gene introduced by transposon mutagenesis into the P. fluorescens ATCC 17400 trehalase gene (treA) was induced by a factor released by the phytopathogen Pythium debaryanum. The induction of the lacZ gene was lost upon treatment of the Pythium supernatant with commercial trehalase. A trehalose concentration as low as 1 microM could induce the expression of ...

  15. Development and evaluation of whole-genome oligonucleotide array for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; SHEN Li; LUO Hai-lang; YIN Hua-qun; LIAO Li-qin; QIU Guan-zhou; LIU Xue-duan

    2008-01-01

    To effectively monitor the characteristic of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 at the whole-genomic level,a whole-genome 50-mer-based oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on the 3 217 ORFs of A.ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 genome.Based on artificial oligonucleotide probes,the results showed that the optimal hybridization temperature was 45 ℃.Specificity tests with the purified PCR amplifications of 5 genes (Sulfide-quinone reductase,Cytochrome C,Iron oxidase,Mercuric resistance protein,Nitrogenase iron protein) of A.ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 indicated that the probes on the arrays appeared to be specific to their corresponding target genes.Based on the WGA hybridization to global transcriptional difference of A.ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 strains cultured with Fe(Ⅱ) and S(0),the developed 50-mer WGA could be used for global transcriptome analysis of A.ferrooxidans ATCC 23270.The detection limit was estimated to be approximately 5 ng with the genomic DNA,and at 100 ng of the DNA concentration,all of the signals reached the saturation.In addition,strong linear relationships were observed between hybridization signal intensity and the target DNA concentrations (r2=0.977 and 0.992).The results indicated that this technology had potential as a specific,sensitive and quantitative tool for detection and identification of the strain A.ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 at the whole-genome level.

  16. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  17. Utilization of metabolic inhibitors for shifting product formation from xylitol to ethanol in pentose fermentations using Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmeier-Vogel, E.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1985-02-01

    Xylose, glucose and xylose/glucose mixtures were fermented with Candida tropicalis ATCC 32113 under aerobic, oxygen limited and anaerobic conditions. Ethanol yields were highest under oxygen limited conditions with xylose and xylose/glucose. Anaerobic conditions were best for glucose fermentations. The effect of four metabolic inhibitors (azide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), oligomycin A and valinomycin-K/sup +/) were then studied under oxygen limited conditions. Only azide had a significant influence on ethanol production. At 2x10/sup -4/ M concentrations, ethanol yield increased up to two times and xylitol levels were repressed by 90% for xylose and glucose/xylose fermentations. 4.2x10/sup -3/ M azide gave highest ethanol yields in glucose fermentations. At this concentration of azide, however, cell growth was inhibited, which seemed to prevent ethanol production in xylose fermentations. The effect of azide is discussed in terms of 'fine-tuning' the respiratory activity necessary for metabolism.

  18. Chemical constituents from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra and evaluation of their antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Francisco de Araujo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From the hexanic extract of the stem from Swartzia apetala Raddi var. glabra were isolated one stilbene (1, one flavanone (2, one pterocarpan (3, one triterpene (4 and a mixture of three steroids (5 to 7. The crude extract and the compounds isolated were submitted to evaluation of the antifungal activity against nine yeast standard ATCC of the Candida genus. Among the compounds only the triterpene (4 and the mixture of steroids (5 to 7 showed no activity. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectral data analysis of GC/MS and ¹H and 13C NMR (1D and 2D experiments, as well as comparison with literature values.

  19. Levels of (1→3-β-D-glucan, Candida mannan and Candida DNA in serum samples of pediatric cancer patients colonized with Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zia U

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance cultures may be helpful in identifying patients at increased risk of developing invasive candidiasis. However, only scant information exists on the effect of Candida colonization on serum levels of diagnostic biomarkers. This prospective surveillance study determined the extent of Candida colonization among pediatric cancer patients and its possible impact on serum levels of (1-3-β-D-glucan (BDG, Candida mannan and Candida DNA. Methods A total of 1075 swabs originating from oropharynx (n = 294, nostrils (n = 600, rectum (n = 28, groin (n = 50, ear (n = 54, and axilla (n = 49 of 63 pediatric cancer patients were cultured for the isolation of Candida spp. Patients yielding Candida spp. from any sites were considered as colonized. Serum samples were collected from patients at the time of first surveillance culture for detection of BDG by Fungitell kit and Candida mannan by Platelia Candida Ag. Candida DNA was detected by using panfungal primers and identification was carried out by using species-specific primers and DNA sequencing. Results Seventy-five (7.6% swab cultures from 35 (55.5% patients yielded Candida spp. These isolates included C. albicans (n = 62, C. dubliniensis (n = 8, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (n = 2 each and C. krusei (n = 1. Eleven patients were colonized at three or more sites. Eight of 36 serum samples from 6 colonized patients yielded BDG values higher than the currently recommended cut-off value of ≥80 pg/ml. However, none of the serum samples yielded Candida mannan levels ≥0.5 ng/ml and PCR test for Candida DNA was also negative in all the serum samples of colonized patients. During the study period, only two colonized patients subsequently developed candidemia due to C. tropicalis. Besides positive blood cultures, C. tropicalis DNA, BDG and Candida mannan were also detected in serum samples of both the patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that while mucosal

  20. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  1. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  2. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  3. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD.

  4. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  5. Phenotypic screening, transcriptional profiling, and comparative genomic analysis of an invasive and non-invasive strain of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Martin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion of host tissue by the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is an important step during the development of candidosis. However, not all C. albicans strains possess the same invasive and virulence properties. For example, the two clinical isolates SC5314 and ATCC10231 differ in their ability to invade host tissue and cause experimental infections. Strain SC5314 is invasive whereas strain ATCC10231 is non-invasive and strongly attenuated in virulence compared to SC5314. In this study we compare the in vitro phenotypic, transcriptional and genomic profiles of these two widely used laboratory strains in order to determine the principal biological and genetic properties responsible for their differential virulence. Results In all media tested, the two strains showed the same metabolic flexibility, stress resistance, adhesion properties and hydrolytic enzyme secretion in vitro. However, differences were observed in response to cell-surface disturbing agents and alkaline pH. Furthermore, reduced hyphal formation in strain ATCC10231 under certain conditions correlated with reduced invasive properties in an in vitro invasion assay and a reduced ability to invade epithelial tissue. Despite these diverse phenotypic properties, no substantial genomic differences were detected by comparative genome hybridisation within the open reading frames. However, in vitro transcriptional profiling displayed major differences in the gene expression of these two strains, even under normal in vitro growth conditions. Conclusion Our data suggest that the reason for differential virulence of C. albicans strains is not due to the absence of specific genes, but rather due to differences in the expression, function or activity of common genes.

  6. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  7. Fermentation of residual glycerol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in pure and mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Rosemeri I; Guilherme, Alexandre A; Vale, Maria S; Nunes, Vanja F; Leitão, Renato C; Santaella, Sandra T

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate the production of hydrogen, organic acids and alcohols by the strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using residual glycerol as a carbon source. The experiments were carried out in pure and mixed cultures in batch experiments. Three different sources of inocula for mixed culture were used. Ruminal liquid from goats and sludge collected from two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating municipal wastewater and brewery effluent were tested for hydrogen, organic acids and alcohols production with or without C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The main detected end-products from the glycerol fermentation were hydrogen, organic acids (acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic) and alcohol (ethanol and 1,3-propanediol - 1,3PD). High hydrogen (0.44 mol H2/mol glycerol consumed) and 1,3PD (0.32 mol 1,3PD/mol glycerol consumed) yields were obtained when the strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was bioaugmented into the sludge from municipal wastewater using 5 g/L of glycerol. Significant concentrations of n-caproic acid were detected in the ruminal liquid when amended with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The results suggest that glycerol can be used for the generation of H2, 1,3PD and n-caproic acid using C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 as agent in pure or mixed cultures.

  8. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  9. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida.

  10. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

  11. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  12. Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Minagi, S; Miyake, Y; Inagaki, K; Tsuru, H; Suginaka, H

    1985-01-01

    The effects of hydrophobicities of substrate surfaces on microbial adherence were examined by using Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis and 21 denture base resin materials. With increasing surface free energy of resin plates, increasing adherence of C. albicans and decreasing adherence of C. tropicalis were observed. The surface free energy of C. albicans is higher than that of all resin material surfaces, and C. tropicalis has surface free energy lower than that of all materials used. In...

  13. Characterization of Candida species from different populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, An-Huei; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The opportunistic Candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. We investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. A total of 913 isolates comprising 395 Candida albicans, 230 Candida tropicalis, 202 Candida glabrata, 62 Candida parapsilosis, 13 Candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. Urine was the most common source (41.2%), followed by sputum (16.3%), blood (15.2%), and others (27.3%). Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were more prevalent in the working group [from 19 to 65 years], whereas C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the elder one (≥ 66 years). We found that the age of patients and the source of isolates affect the distribution of species. On the other hand, the drug susceptibility of isolates was associated with fungal species and whether patients were hospitalized.

  14. PREVALENCE OF BIOFILM PRODUCING MDR CANDIDA ALBICANS AND NON CANDIDA ALBICANS ISOLATE FROM MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajeswari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Totally 56% of occurrence was observed from 6 types of sources. Among them highest prevalence was observed from urinary catheter (68% next in line is intravenous tubes (66.66%, venflon needles (65%, and blood bags (53.33% respectively. Four types of Candida species were identified by using selective media and biochemical tests. The Candida albicans was predominant isolates in all sources especially in urinary catheter. In this study, 60.2% of non Candida albicans were observed. All isolates were subjected to antifungal stability test, 6 antifungal agents were used. Among the 6 antifungal agents Itraconazole had highly resistance activity and Fluconazole had highly sensitive activity against the isolates. The antifungal resistance of isolates were highly observed in non Candida albicans such as Candida tropicalis (83.3% and followed by Candida glabrata (74.5%. All isolates were have the ability to produce biofilm, among them 37.4% of isolates were strong biofilm producer and 100% of protease producing isolates were observed in the last part of the study.

  15. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

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    Jeffrey S. Greenspoon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis.

  16. Therapeutic approach to Candida bezoar in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wall, L. L.; Van Den Heijkant, M. M C; Bökenkamp, A.; Kuijper, C. F.; Van Der Horst, H. J R; De Jong, T. P V M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Candida bezoar (CB) is a rare finding in neonates and infants with candiduria, presenting as necrotic debris with proliferating mycelia in the collecting system of the kidney. If initial antifungal medical treatment does not result in clearance of candiduria and disappearance of CB on u

  17. Growth of Ag-nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their antimicrobial activities against Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial strains and Candida fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazam, Elham Shafik; Zaheer, Zoya

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves aqueous extract as reducing as well as a capping agent in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The resulting nanomaterials were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of AgNPs at 400-450 nm. TEM photographs indicate that the truncated triangular silver nanoplates and/or spherical morphology of the AgNPs with an average diameter of 25 nm have been distorted markedly in presence of CTAB. The AgNPs were almost mono disperse in nature. Antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were determined by using two bacteria (Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-3160), Gram negative Escherichia coli MTCC-450) and one species of Candida fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 90030) with Kirby-Bauer or disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition seems extremely good showing a relatively large zone of inhibition in both Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans strains. PMID:26796584

  18. Adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto- chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei MARCACCI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The capacity of Candida albicans adherence is one ofits main factors of virulence. Surfaces of different materials canpropitiate conditions for higher or lower adherence and greater virulence of the microorganisms. Objective: Evaluate the adherence of Candida albicans in cobalto-chromium and titanium alloys, with different sandpapering. Material and methods: Twenty-four cylindrical samples have been constructed, 12 of titanium and 12 of cobalt-chromium, divided in 4 groups of six. All have been polished in the habitual form by the same technician. Samples have been sandpapered at about high rotation for 15 seconds each sandpaper, on all its surface. A group of each metal was sandpapered only with sandpaper for metal number 80. The two other groups have been sandpapered in agreement with the sequence (decreasing granulation: 80, 150 and 220. Samples have been sterilized and located in plates of cells culture. In each well of the plate was added standardized amount of Sabouraud broth and suspension containing 106 cells per milliliter of C. albicans (ATCC 18804. After incubation, the number of adhered cells per mm2 was obtained by the method of sowing in plate of Petri. The obtained values have been tabulated and submitted to the tests of ANOVA and Tukey,with level of significance of 5%. Results: There was statistical difference for the granulation of sandpapers, what not occurred when considering metals.Conclusion: The bigger the final granulation of sandpaper, the greater the adherence and the type of metal did not influence in the result.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., Strains OUH 308042T (= ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= ATCC BAA-2682), Isolated from Blood Cultures from Two Different Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Hasman, Henrik; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequences of Sanguibacteroides justesenii, gen. nov., sp. nov., strains OUH 308042T (= DSM 28342T = ATCC BAA-2681T) and OUH 334697 (= DSM 28341 = ATCC BAA-2682), isolated from blood cultures from two different patients and composed of 51 and 39 contigs for totals...

  20. Study on Biofilm Inhibit Mechanism of Streptococcus Sanguis Bacteriocin on Candida Albicans.%血链球菌细菌素对白色念珠菌生物膜抑制作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晟利; 王琪波; 李旭明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To extract bacteriocin effective antimicrobial substances the standard strains of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC10556 and to study the action mechanism of Streptococcus sanguis bacteriocin on Candida albicans biofilms. Methods.. By ultrasonic, salt precipitation and sephadex G-25 column desalting through dialysis, sanguicin of the streptococcus bacteria isolated elements, the Candida albicans biofilms. After 2h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h,changes observed in BF. Results: After 24h, Candida albicans biofilms changed significantly, then was 12h. Conclusion: Streptococcus sanguis bacteriocin biofilms of Candida albicans strains were significantly inhibited.%目的:提取血链球菌标准株ATCC10556的有效抗菌物质细菌素,进一步研究血链球菌细菌素对白色念珠菌生物膜的作用机理.方法:通过超声破碎、盐析、sephadex G-25过柱脱盐、透析、浓缩的方法分离血链球菌细菌素,使之作用于白色念珠菌生物膜,并在2 h、6 h、12 h、24 h、48 h、72 h观察白色念珠菌生物膜厚度的变化.结果:24 h内白色念珠菌生物膜厚度有明显改变,12 h效果最为显著.结论:血链球菌细菌素对白色念株菌生物膜具有显著的抑制作用.

  1. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to terbinafine in Candida albicans using a cDNA microarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yue-bin; QIAN Yuan-shu; MA Lian; GU Hong-ni

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is the most frequently seen opportunistic human fungal pathogen. Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal agent that has been proven to have high clinical efficacy in the therapy of fungal infections, the mechanism of action of terbinafine involves the specific inhibition of fungal squalene epoxidase, resulting in ergosterol deficiency and accumulation of intracellular squalene. We used cDNA microarray analysis technology to monitor global expression profile changes of Candida albicans genes in response to terbinafine treatment, and we anticipated a panoramic view of the responses of Candida albicans cells to the representatives of allylamine antifungal agents at the molecular level in an effort to identify drug class-specific and mechanism-independent changes in gene expression.Methods Candida albicans strain ATCC 90028 was exposed to either medium alone or terbinafine at a concentration equivalent to the 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs, 4 mg/L) for 90 minutes. RNA was isolated and gene expression profiles were compared to identify the changes in the gene expression profile using a cDNA microarray analysis. Differential expression of 10 select genes detected by cDNA microarray analysis was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results A total of 222 genes were found to be responsive to terbinafine, including 121 up-regulated genes and 101 down-regulated genes. These included genes encoding membrane transport proteins belonging to the members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or major facilitator superfamily (MFS; CDR1, AGP2, GAP6, PHO84, HOL3, FCY23, VCX1),genes involved in stress response and detoxification (CDR1, AGP2, HOL3), and gene involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG12). The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR were consistent with that of the cDNA microarray analysis.Conclusions The up-regulation of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance efflux pump

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.;

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC...

  3. Genome sequence and plasmid transformation of the model high-yield bacterial cellulose producer Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Reeve, Benjamin; Abbott, James; Freemont, Paul S.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong, highly pure form of cellulose that is used in a range of applications in industry, consumer goods and medicine. Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 is one of the highest reported bacterial cellulose producing strains and has been used as a model organism in numerous studies of bacterial cellulose production and studies aiming to increased cellulose productivity. Here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence for G. hansenii ATCC 53582 and find that in addition to the previously described cellulose synthase operon, ATCC 53582 contains two additional cellulose synthase operons and several previously undescribed genes associated with cellulose production. In parallel, we also develop optimized protocols and identify plasmid backbones suitable for transformation of ATCC 53582, albeit with low efficiencies. Together, these results provide important information for further studies into cellulose synthesis and for future studies aiming to genetically engineer G. hansenii ATCC 53582 for increased cellulose productivity.

  4. Genome sequence of the vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Darren; Tailford, Louise E; Crossman, Lisa; Jeffers, Faye; Mackenzie, Donald A; Caccamo, Mario; Juge, Nathalie

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of a range of vertebrates, is a true symbiont with effects established as beneficial to the host. Here we describe the draft genome of L. reuteri ATCC 53608, isolated from a pig. The genome sequence provides important insights into the evolutionary changes underlying host specialization. PMID:21622738

  5. Genome Sequence of the Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heavens, Darren; Tailford, Louise E.; Crossman, Lisa; Jeffers, Faye; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Caccamo, Mario; Juge, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of a range of vertebrates, is a true symbiont with effects established as beneficial to the host. Here we describe the draft genome of L. reuteri ATCC 53608, isolated from a pig. The genome sequence provides important insights into the evolutionary changes underlying host specialization.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Thiostrepton-Producing Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Katsumi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Ogata, Seiya

    2016-06-02

    Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255 produces thiostrepton, a thiopeptide class antibiotic. Here, we report the complete genome sequence for this strain, which contains a total of 8,032,664 bp, 7,452 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 72.3%.

  7. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Mildly and Severely Salt-Stressed Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Mols, J.M.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are able to cope with the challenges of a sudden increase in salinity by activating adaptation mechanisms. In this study, exponentially growing cells of the pathogen Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 were exposed to both mild (2.5% [wt/vol] NaCl) and severe (5% [wt/vol] NaCl) salt stress condition

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. PMID:25377701

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923

    OpenAIRE

    Todd J. Treangen; Maybank, Rosslyn A.; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F.; Karaolis, David K. R.; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Rosovitz, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larval Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii Type Strain ATCC 19109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Needleman, David S; Watson, Michael A; Bono, James L

    2014-12-18

    Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here, we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (ATCC type strain 19109), which consists of two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp), and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,973 bp).

  11. Multigene disruption in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a is an undomesticated strain used in the industrial production of enzymes. Because it is poorly transformable, genetic manipulation in this strain requires a highly efficient genome editing method. In this study, a Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 system consisting of an all-in-one knockout plasmid containing a target-specific guide RNA, cas9, and a homologous repair template was established for highly efficient gene disruption in B. subtilis ATCC 6051a. With an efficiency of 33% to 53%, this system was used to disrupt the srfC, spoIIAC, nprE, aprE and amyE genes of B. subtilis ATCC 6051a, which hamper its use in industrial fermentation. Compared with B. subtilis ATCC 6051a, the final mutant, BS5 (ΔsrfC, ΔspoIIAC, ΔnprE, ΔaprE, ΔamyE), produces much less foam during fermentation, displays greater resistant to spore formation, and secretes 2.5-fold more β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase into the fermentation medium. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 system proved to be a powerful tool for targeted genome editing in an industrially relevant, poorly transformable strain. PMID:27305971

  12. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcon, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacill

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Thiostrepton-Producing Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Ogata, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces laurentii ATCC 31255 produces thiostrepton, a thiopeptide class antibiotic. Here, we report the complete genome sequence for this strain, which contains a total of 8,032,664 bp, 7,452 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 72.3%. PMID:27257211

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain ATCC 35246

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Fan, Hong-Jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-ping; Fan, Hong-jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis. PMID:21914890

  16. Interaction of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and Bacteriophage gh-1 in Berea Sandstone Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P L; Yen, T F

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of the passage of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 and a phage-resistant mutant through Berea sandstone rock were made. When bacteriophage gh-1 was adsorbed within the rock matrix, a reduction in the passage of the susceptible but not the resistant cells through the rock was observed.

  17. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins Shawn A; Layton Alice C; Ripp Steven; Williams Dan; Sayler Gary S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  18. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shawn A; Layton, Alice C.; Ripp, Steven; Williams, Dan; Sayler, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  19. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  20. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T).

  1. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T). PMID:16627669

  2. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  3. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  4. Inhibition of candida adhesion to denture acrylic byBoesenbergia pandurata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thaweboon Sroisiri; Thaweboon Boonyanit

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate effect ofBoesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) rhizome extract on adhesion ofCandida albicans (C. albicans) to acrylic surface.Methods: Transparent acrylic strips were prepared and divided into three groups with pretreatment by extract solution ofB. pandurata rhizome at concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. After washing, the strips were then inoculated with two strains ofC. albicans (ATCC13803 and the clinical isolate) (107cells/mL). Normal saline solution and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Stained the strips with modified Gram stain without counterstain. Adherent yeast cells were direct counted under microscope (Olympus-CX31, Japan) in 20 randomly selected fields on each strip. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests at a significance level ofP < 0.05.Results: Pretreatment withB. pandurata extract significantly reduced the adhesion of both strains ofC. albicans to acrylic surfaces in a dose dependent manner.Conclusions:This observation indicates thatB. pandurata extract has an inhibitory effect on the ability ofC. albicans to adhere to denture acrylic and could be employed as an antifungal agent for preventing denture stomatitis.

  5. Effect of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. on candida adhesion to oral epithelium and denture acrylic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) Linn. ethanolic extract on the adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and denture acrylic surfaces. Methods: Human BECs and transparent acrylic strips were pretreated with ethanolic extract solution of P. emblica fruits at concentration ranged from 18.7 to 300 mg/mL. After washing BECs and the strips were inoculated with three strains of C. albicans (ATCC 10281 and two clinical isolates) (107 cells/mL). Normal saline solution (NSS) and 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. BECs were harvested on 12 μm-polycarbonate filters (Millipore, USA). The membrane filters and the strips were stained with Gram stain. Adherent yeast cells on 100 randomly selected epithelial cells and 20 randomly selected fields on each strip were counted under microscope. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at a significant level of P< 0.05.Results:Significant lower numbers of all strains of yeasts adhering to BECs and acrylic strips were observed after exposure to 75-300 mg/mL of plant extract compared with NSS. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates that P. emblica ethanolic extract interferes with the adhesion of C.albicans to BECs and denture acrylic surfaces in vitro.

  6. Cloning and expression of Candida guilliermondii xylose reductase gene (xyl1) in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handumrongkul, C; Ma, D P; Silva, J L

    1998-04-01

    A xylose reductase gene (xyl1) of Candida guilliermondii ATCC 20118 was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame of xyl1 contained 954 nucleotides encoding a protein of 317 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 36 kDa. The derived amino acid sequence of C. guilliermondii xylose reductase was 70.4% homologous to that of Pichia stipitis. The gene was placed under the control of an alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1) and integrated into the genome of a methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Methanol induced the expression of the 36-kDa xylose reductase in both intracellular and secreted expression systems. The expressed enzyme preferentially utilized NADPH as a cofactor and was functional both in vitro and in vivo. The different cofactor specificity between P. pastoris and C. guilliermondii xylose reductases might be due to the difference in the numbers of histidine residues and their locations between the two proteins. The recombinant was able to ferment xylose, and the maximum xylitol accumulation (7.8 g/l) was observed when the organism was grown under aerobic conditions. PMID:9615481

  7. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  8. Improvement of endophytic Azospirillum colonization by co-inoculation with Cellulomonas Uda ATCC 491

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR such as Azopirillum if accompanied with strong cellulase producing bacteria such as Cellulomonas, their colonization may be increased and their host plants growth improved. Materials and methods: Six endophytic Azospirilla which isolated from three rice and three wheat cultivars and also one strain from commercial biofertilizer (Green Biotech Co., identified by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis and were studied on the basis of cellulase, pectinase and auxin production and also their chemotaxis toward rice and wheat cultivars exudates was investigated. Two cellulase positive (A5 and A6 and two negative (A2 and A3 strains were selected and their interaction with C. uda ATCC 491 on auxin production and colonization on roots were compared. Results: This study showed that none of the strains had pectinase activity, but the strain isolated from rice had more Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase activity. Selected isolates and C. uda ATCC 491 showed chemotaxis toward roots exudates. In most of the isolates, rate of auxin production increased by coculture with C. uda ATCC 491. Also, it was determined that C. uda ATCC 491 promoted the colonization of Azospirillum without or with cellulase activity on rice and wheat roots, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Co-inoculation Azospirillum with C. uda ATCC 491 improves plant root system due to stimulation or additive effect of auxin production and cellulase activity, followed by more uptakes of water and minerals by roots. Also, it raises the number of colonization niches for useful bacteria such as Azospirillum and finally quantitative and qualitative plant parameters.

  9. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  10. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  11. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  12. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Thomas J Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and...

  13. Candida bracarensis Bloodstream Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Thomas A.; McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E.; Zhang, Sean X.

    2010-01-01

    Candida bracarensis is a recently described Candida species which is phenotypically similar to Candida glabrata. A case of C. bracarensis bloodstream infection in a bone marrow transplant patient is described and confirms this organism as an opportunistic human pathogen. The organism can be distinguished from C. glabrata by its white color on CHROMagar and by DNA sequence analysis using D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers.

  14. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  15. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspoon, Jeffrey S.; Seth Kivnick

    1993-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis. Case: The immunocompetent primigravida developed progressive nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and a 4.1 kg weight loss during the second trimester...

  16. White-opaque switching in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    The human commensal yeast Candida albicans undergoes an epigenetic switch between two distinct types of cells, referred to as white and opaque. These two cell types differ in many respects, including their cell and colony morphologies, their metabolic states, their mating behaviors, their preferred niches in the host, and their interactions with the host immune system. Each of the two cell types is heritable for many generations and switching between them appears stochastic; however, environm...

  17. Tetracycline Effects on Candida Albicans Virulence Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Logan McCool; Hanh Mai; Michael Essmann; Bryan Larsen

    2008-01-01

    Object. To determine if tetracycline, previously reported to increase the probability of developing symptomatic vaginal yeast infections, has a direct effect on Candida albicans growth or induction of virulent phenotypes. Method. In vitro, clinical isolates of yeast were cultivated with sublethal concentrations of tetracycline and yeast cell counts, hyphal formation, drug efflux pump activity, biofilm production, and hemolysin production were determined by previously reported methods. Resul...

  18. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ota Samek; Katarina Mlynariková; Silvie Bernatová; Jan Ježek; Vladislav Krzyžánek; Martin Šiler; Pavel Zemánek; Filip Růžička; Veronika Holá; Martina Mahelová

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to...

  19. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    OpenAIRE

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile ...

  20. Absence of Amphotericin B-Tolerant Persister Cells in Biofilms of Some Candida Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhaheri, Rawya S.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms and planktonic cells of five Candida species were surveyed for the presence of persister (drug-tolerant) cell populations after exposure to amphotericin B. None of the planktonic cultures (exponential or stationary phase) contained persister cells. However, persisters were found in biofilms of one of two strains of Candida albicans tested and in biofilms of Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, but not in biofilms of Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis. These results suggest th...

  1. Biosorption of 241Am by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solutions by Candida sp., and the influences of experimental conditions on the adsorption were studied. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 4h and the optimum pH=2. No significant differences on 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 degree C, or challenged with Au3+ or Ag+, even 1500 times or 4500 times over 241Am, respectively. The adsorption rate could reach 97.8% by dry Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L in 241Am solutions (pH=2) of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.04-873.0 μg/L) (C0), with maximum adsorption capacity (W) of 63.5 MBq/g (501.8 μg/g), implying that the removal of 241Am by Candida sp. from solutions was feasible. The relationship between activities (C0) and adsorption capacities (W) of 241Am indicated that the biosorption process could be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  2. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  3. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  4. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  5. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Suhail; Khan Ziauddin; Asadzadeh Mohammad; Theyyathel Ajmal; Chandy Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. W...

  6. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  7. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  8. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  9. Gene engineering in yeast for biodegradation: Immunological cross-reactivity among cytochrome p-450 system proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loper, J.C.; Chen, C.; Dey, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms whose cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems may be amenable to genetic engineering for the hydroxylation and detoxication of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular genetic properties of strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an n-alkane utilizing yeast, Candida tropicalis ATCC750 are examined. Standard methods were used to purify cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome c (P-450) reductase proteins from cells cultured by semi-anaerobic glucose fermentation (S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis) and by growth on tetradecane (C. tropicalis). Polyvalent antisera prepared in rabbits to some of these proteins were used in tests of immunological relatedness among the purified proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose filter immunoblots. The results provide evidence for gene relationships which should prove useful in gene isolation and subsequent engineering of P-450 enzyme systems in yeast.

  10. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A. (Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1990-07-05

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities.

  11. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  12. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  13. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  14. Multicenter comparative evaluation of six commercial systems and the national committee for clinical laboratory standards m27-a broth microdilution method for fluconazole susceptibility testing of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, G; Amato, G; Bistoni, F; Fadda, G; Marone, P; Montagna, M T; Oliveri, S; Polonelli, L; Rigoli, R; Mancuso, I; La Face, S; Masucci, L; Romano, L; Napoli, C; Tatò, D; Buscema, M G; Belli, C M C; Piccirillo, M M; Conti, S; Covan, S; Fanti, F; Cavanna, C; D'Alò, F; Pitzurra, L

    2002-08-01

    Fluconazole susceptibility among 800 clinical Candida isolates (60% C. albicans) and two control strains (C. krusei ATCC 6258 and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019) was tested with the NCCLS M27-A method (gold standard) and six commercial products (Candifast, disk, Etest, Fungitest, Integral System Yeasts, and Sensititre YeastOne). Results were classified as susceptible, susceptible-dose dependent, or resistant using M27-A breakpoints or, for Fungitest, Integral System Yeasts, and Candifast, as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Concordance with NCCLS M27-A results was analyzed with the chi(2) test. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility was also evaluated. NCCLS M27-A (90.1%), Etest (93.1%), Sensititre YeastOne (93.1%), disk (96.7%), Fungitest (92.6%), Integral System Yeasts (40.6%), and Candifast (6.0%) classified the indicated percentages of C. albicans isolates as susceptible. Among non-C. albicans strains, the percentages of susceptible isolates were as follows: NCCLS M27-A, 74.0%; Etest, 83.8%; Sensititre YeastOne, 64.1%; disk, 60.6%; Fungitest, 76.6%; Integral System Yeasts, 28.3%; and Candifast, 27.4%. All methods except Candifast and Integral System Yeasts showed good agreement with NCCLS M27-A results for both C albicans and non-C. albicans isolates. Intralaboratory reproducibility was excellent for NCCLS M27-A, Etest, Sensititre YeastOne, disk, and Fungitest (88 to 91%). Similar results emerged from the interlaboratory reproducibility evaluation. Our findings indicate that some commercial methods can be useful for fluconazole susceptibility testing of clinical Candida isolates. Those characterized by a lack of medium standardization and/or objective interpretative criteria should be avoided. Particular caution is necessary when testing is being done for clinical and epidemiological purposes. PMID:12149358

  15. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed. PMID:22048114

  16. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Miller, Andy O; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods.  Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results.  Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, osteomyelitis was present in 30% of cases. Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion.  Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse, despite antifungal therapy. PMID:26858961

  17. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  18. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic exposu

  19. A Rare Cause of Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: Candida Duodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ižntestinal bowel lesions caused by Candida species are uncommon. These lesions may be  plaques or ulcers form. In this article, We presented endoscopic images  Candida duodenitis as a cause of persistent nausea, vomiting in a lung cancer patient treated with chemotherapy.  

  20. A Rare Cause of Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: Candida Duodenitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal bowel lesions caused by Candida species are uncommon. These lesions may be  plaques or ulcers form. In this article, We presented endoscopic images  Candida duodenitis as a cause of persistent nausea, vomiting in a lung cancer patient treated with chemotherapy.  

  1. Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Anke; Krüger, Monika; SCHMID, JAN

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection.

  2. Phosphoketolase Pathway Dominates in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 Containing Dual Pathways for Glycolysis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Årsköld, Emma; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke; Cao, Rong; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis indicated that the heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 uses both the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) when glucose or sucrose is converted into the three-carbon intermediate stage of glycolysis. In all cases studied, the main flux is through the PKP, while the EMP is used as a shunt. In the exponential growth phase, 70%, 73%, and 84% of the flux goes through the PKP in cells metabolizing (i) glucose plus fructose, (...

  3. Phosphoketolase pathway dominates in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 containing dual pathways for glycolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Årsköld, Emma; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke; Cao, Rong; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis indicated that the heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 uses both the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) when glucose or sucrose is converted into the three-carbon intermediate stage of glycolysis. In all cases studied, the main flux is through the PKP, while the EMP is used as a shunt. In the exponential growth phase, 70%, 73%, and 84% of the flux goes through the PKP in cells metabolizing (i) glucose plus fructose, (...

  4. Genome sequence of the methanotrophic Alphaproteobacterium, Methylocystis sp. Rockwell (ATCC 49242)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; DiSpiritto, Alan A. [University of Iowa; Han, Sukkyun [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G. [University of Washington, Seattle; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Op den Camp, HJM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Semrau, Jeremy D. [University of Michigan; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Methylocystis sp. strain Rockwell (ATCC 49242) is an aerobic methane-oxidizing Alphaproteobacterium isolated from an aquifer in southern California. Unlike most methanotrophs in the Methylocystaceae family, this strain has a single pmo operon encoding particulate methane monooxygenase and no evidence of the genes encoding soluble methane monooxygenase. This is the first reported genome sequence of a member of the Methylocystis species of the Methylocystaceae family in the order Rhizobiales.

  5. Sorbitol Production By Zymomonas Mobilis ATCC 29191 In Medium Of Sucrose Pre-Treated With Invertase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium of sucrose pre-treated with invertase was studied. The best results were obtained when the medium was pre-treated with invertase as sorbitol production of 41,39 g/L and a productivity of 1,72 g/L.h-1 in 24 hours of fermentation. The invertase addition in the fermentation broth increased 72,17% in the sorbitol formation.

  6. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia; Monciardini, Paolo; Arena, Simona; Faddetta, Teresa; Giardina, Anna; Alduina, Rosa; Weber, Tilmann; Sangiorgi, Fabio; Russo, Alessandro; Spinelli, Giovanni; Sosio, Margherita; Scaloni, Andrea; Puglia, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The filamentous actinomycete Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which is an antibiotic peptide effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. In actinomycetes, antibiotic production is often associated with a physiological differentiation program controlled by a complex regulatory and metabolic network that may be elucidated by the integration of genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic tools. Accordingly, an extensive evaluation of the proteomi...

  7. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  8. Agroindustrial Byproducts For The Production Of Hyaluronic Acid By Streptococcus Zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Caldas Pan; Josiane Alessandra Vignoli; Cristiani Baldo; Hanny Cristina Braga Pereira; Rui Srgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Agroindustrial derivatives are alternative nutritional sources employed in bioprocesses that reduce costs and corroborate with social sustainability. In this study alternative carbon sugarcane juice sugarcane molasses and soy molasses and nitrogen sources corn steep liquor soy protein and whey protein were evaluated for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. The medium containing sugarcane molasses archived high yield of hyaluronic acid 0.066 g.g-1 when...

  9. Sorbitol Production By Zymomonas Mobilis ATCC 29191 In Medium Of Sucrose Pre-Treated With Invertase

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi; Viviane Cristina Schiabel; João Batista Buzato; Josiane Alessandra Vignoli; Márcio de Barros

    2002-01-01

    Sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium of sucrose pre-treated with invertase was studied. The best results were obtained when the medium was pre-treated with invertase as sorbitol production of 41,39 g/L and a productivity of 1,72 g/L.h-1 in 24 hours of fermentation. The invertase addition in the fermentation broth increased 72,17% in the sorbitol formation.

  10. Optimization of probiotic lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 production using date powder as carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Shahravy A.; Tabandeh F.; Bambai B.; Zamanizadeh H.R.; Mizani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to optimize culture conditions for economic production of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, in which palm date powder was applied for the first time as a low-cost main carbon source. The effect of eleven factors on bacterial growth was investigated using the Taguchi experimental design, and three factors including palm date powder, tryptone and agitation rate were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum conditions including da...

  11. Study of nano-fiber cellulose production by Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245.

    OpenAIRE

    Norouzian, D.; Farhangi, Ali; Tolooei, S.; Saffari, Z.; Mehrabi, M. R.; Chiani, M.; Ghassemi, S.; Farahnak, M.; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2011-01-01

    International audience Bacterial Celluloses (BC) are gaining importance in research and commerce due to numerous factors affecting the bacterial cellulose characteristics and application in different industries. The aim of the present study was to produce bacterial cellulose in different media using different cultivation vessels. Bacterial cellulose was produced by static cultivation of Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 in different culture media such as Brain Heart Agar, Luria Bertani ...

  12. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

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    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  13. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

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    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  14. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)).

  15. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P poultry by-product meal (P acids or a commercial formaldehyde product were most effective at mitigating Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in rendered protein meals. PMID:27052874

  16. Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2012-02-03

    Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a 13C15N-L-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 422 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under non-diazotrophic conditions. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed to measure actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under non-diazotrophic conditions. Overall results demonstrated the utility of 'non-steady state' pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria.

  17. Genome-scale reconstruction of metabolic networks of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 and 12A.

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    Elena Vinay-Lara

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei strains are widely used in industry and the utility of this organism in these industrial applications is strain dependent. Hence, tools capable of predicting strain specific phenotypes would have utility in the selection of strains for specific industrial processes. Genome-scale metabolic models can be utilized to better understand genotype-phenotype relationships and to compare different organisms. To assist in the selection and development of strains with enhanced industrial utility, genome-scale models for L. casei ATCC 334, a well characterized strain, and strain 12A, a corn silage isolate, were constructed. Draft models were generated from RAST genome annotations using the Model SEED database and refined by evaluating ATP generating cycles, mass-and-charge-balances of reactions, and growth phenotypes. After the validation process was finished, we compared the metabolic networks of these two strains to identify metabolic, genetic and ortholog differences that may lead to different phenotypic behaviors. We conclude that the metabolic capabilities of the two networks are highly similar. The L. casei ATCC 334 model accounts for 1,040 reactions, 959 metabolites and 548 genes, while the L. casei 12A model accounts for 1,076 reactions, 979 metabolites and 640 genes. The developed L. casei ATCC 334 and 12A metabolic models will enable better understanding of the physiology of these organisms and be valuable tools in the development and selection of strains with enhanced utility in a variety of industrial applications.

  18. Cloning, Purification and Characterization of the Collagenase ColA Expressed by Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abfalter, Carmen M; Schönauer, Esther; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Huemer, Markus; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Regl, Christof; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Huber, Christian G; Brandstetter, Hans; Posselt, Gernot; Wessler, Silja

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial collagenases differ considerably in their structure and functions. The collagenases ColH and ColG from Clostridium histolyticum and ColA expressed by Clostridium perfringens are well-characterized collagenases that cleave triple-helical collagen, which were therefore termed as ´true´ collagenases. ColA from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) has been added to the collection of true collagenases. However, the molecular characteristics of B. cereus ColA are less understood. In this study, we identified ColA as a secreted true collagenase from B. cereus ATCC 14579, which is transcriptionally controlled by the regulon phospholipase C regulator (PlcR). B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA was cloned to express recombinant wildtype ColA (ColAwt) and mutated to a proteolytically inactive (ColAE501A) version. Recombinant ColAwt was tested for gelatinolytic and collagenolytic activities and ColAE501A was used for the production of a polyclonal anti-ColA antibody. Comparison of ColAwt activity with homologous proteases in additional strains of B. cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l.) and related clostridial collagenases revealed that B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA is a highly active peptidolytic and collagenolytic protease. These findings could lead to a deeper insight into the function and mechanism of bacterial collagenases which are used in medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27588686

  19. Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species

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    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM. This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes.

  20. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  1. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

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    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  2. In vitro effectiveness of 455-nm blue LED to reduce the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans biofilms in compact bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; Viana, Magda Souza; Meira, Giselle Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 455-nm blue light-emitting diode (LED), at different application times, to reduce the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans biofilms applied to compact bone tissue. The microorganisms S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and C. albicans (ATCC 18804) were used to form biofilms on 160 specimens of compact bones that had been divided into eight experimental groups (n = 10) for each microorganism, according to the times of application of the 455-nm blue LED (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 min) with an irradiance of 75 mW/cm2. After LED application, decimal dilutions of microorganisms were performed, plated on BHI or Sabouraud agar and incubated for 24 h/35 °C to obtain CFU/mL counts. The findings were statistically analyzed using a ANOVA 5 %. For the group of S. aureus biofilms, all groups of 455-nm LED application differ compared with the control group (p albicans biofilms, only those samples receiving 3, 7, and 10 min of LED application presented a significant difference compared with the control group (p albicans biofilms, especially during 10 min of application.

  3. Genome sequence and plasmid transformation of the model high-yield bacterial cellulose producer Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Florea; Benjamin Reeve; James Abbott; Freemont, Paul S.; Tom Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong, highly pure form of cellulose that is used in a range of applications in industry, consumer goods and medicine. Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 is one of the highest reported bacterial cellulose producing strains and has been used as a model organism in numerous studies of bacterial cellulose production and studies aiming to increased cellulose productivity. Here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence for G. hansenii ATCC 53582 and find that in ...

  4. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  5. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  6. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  7. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  8. Comparative identification of Candida species isolated from animals using phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadăş George Cosmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify 58 Candida sp. strains isolated from animals using the Chromatic Candida test, the API 20 C AUX system, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The Chromatic Candida test was able to identify only C. albicans and C. krusei. The API 20 C AUX system and PCR-RFLP had similar specificity for the identification of Candida strains. In case of both methods, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species - 22 (37.93% strains, followed by Candida krusei - 17 (29.31% strains, Candida famata - 10 (17.24% strains, Candida parapsilosis - five (8.62% strains, and Candida kefyr - four (6.89% strains. PCR-RFLP represents a reliable, quick and relatively inexpensive genotyping method, recommended for rapid identification of Candida spp.

  9. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  10. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

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    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  11. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  12. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

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    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  13. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

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    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  14. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  15. Efecto del Cromo Hexavalente y Trivalente sobre el Crecimiento de Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 Effects of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium on the Growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo R Azario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de cromo (VI y (III sobre el crecimiento de Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 con el fin de determinar la toxicidad de estas especies químicas. El estudio fue realizado en dos condiciones experimentales: soluciones unimetal de cromo (III o VI y en soluciones multimetal conteniendo además plomo y cadmio. Se observa que el cromo hexavalente inhibe el crecimiento de Escherichia coli, cuando se encuentra en un rango de concentración de 25 a 100 ppm, similar al de efluentes industriales, y que dicho efecto es potenciado por la presencia de plomo, que per se no modifica la viabilidad bacteriana. Por otro lado, las concentraciones bajas de cromo (VI, 0.05 - 5 ppm no alteran el crecimiento pero producen una estimulación en presencia de plomo o cadmio. La forma trivalente de cromo no modifica el crecimiento bacteriano a concentraciones bajas (25 a 100 ppm pero causa una estimulación a concentraciones más altas (200 a 400 ppm.The effect of chromium (III and (VI on the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 was studied to determine the toxicity of these chemical species. The study was performed in two experimental conditions: single chromium solutions (III or VI and multimetal solutions containing chromium and either lead or cadmium. Hexavalent chromium, at concentrations from 25 to 100 ppm, similar to those found in industrial effluents, inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli. This inhibitory effect is increased by the presence of lead, which does not modify per se the bacterial viability. On the other hand, low concentrations of chromium (VI, 0.05-5 ppm do not alter bacterial growth but cause stimulation in the presence of either lead or cadmium. The trivalent form of chromium does not modify the bacterial growth at low concentrations (25 to 100 ppm but causes stimulation at high concentrations (200 to 400 ppm.

  16. 血链球菌胞内蛋白及膜蛋白分别对热带念珠菌生物膜作用的研究%Studies of the Effects of Intracellular Proteins and Membrane Proteins in Streptococcus Sanguis on Biofilm of Candida Tropicalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晟利; 闫闯; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    目的:提取血链球菌标准株ATCC10556的胞内蛋白及膜蛋白,研究血链球菌胞内蛋白及血链球菌膜蛋白对热带念珠菌生物膜的生物学作用.方法:参照Fujimura[1]方法分离血链球菌胞内蛋白有效成分,使之作用于热带念珠菌生物膜,并以激光共聚焦显微镜观察热带念珠菌生物膜厚度的变化.参照碳酸钠梯度离心法[2]提取膜蛋白,观察其对热带念珠菌及其生物膜是否具有抑制作用.结果:在胞内蛋白作用下,24 h内热带念珠菌生物膜厚度明显变薄与阴性对照组相比有显著差异,并且12 h效果最为显著(P<0.05).膜蛋白作用下的热带念珠菌生物膜厚度与阴性对照组相比未见明显差异.结论:血链球菌胞内蛋白对热带念珠菌生物膜具有显著的抑制作用.血链球菌膜蛋白对热带念珠菌及其生物膜无抑制作用.%Objective: To extract intracellular and membrane proteins from Streptococcus sanguis( ATCC10556), and investigate their mechanism of action on Candida tropicalis biofilms. Methods: Intracellular proteins were isolated from Streptococcus sanguis by the method of Fujimura and were applied to Candida tropicalis biofilms. Then observation of changes on thickness of biofilms was taken. We extract membrane proteins by sodium carbonate gradient centrifugation, and judge whether they have inhibition on Candida tropicalis and biofilms or not. Results; Thickness of Candida tropicalis biofilms changed significantly in 24h with the action of intracellular proteins, and it had the most obvious effect within 12h. There was no significant difference on thickness of Candida tropicalis biofilms between membrane proteins and negative control groups. Conclusions: Intracellular proteins of Streptococcus sanguis have notable inhibition on biofilms of Candida tropicalis. Membrane proteins of Streptococcus sanguis have no inhibition on Candida tropicalis and their biofilms.

  17. Evaluation of gene expression SAP5, LIP9, and PLB2 of Candida albicans biofilms after photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; da Silva Ávila, Damara; Brito, Graziella Nuernberg Back; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing number of strains of Candida ssp. resistant to antifungal agents, the accomplishment of researches that evaluate the effects of new therapeutic methods, like photodynamic inactivation (PDI), becomes important and necessary. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the effects of the PDI on Candida albicans biofilms, evaluating their effects on the expression of the gene hydrolytic enzymes aspartyl proteinase (SAP5), lipase (LIP9), and phospholipase (PLB2). Clinical strains of C. albicans (n = 9) isolated from patient bearers of the virus HIV and a pattern strain ATCC 18804 were used. The quantification of gene expression was related to the production of hydrolytic enzymes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. For PDI, we used laser-aluminum-gallium arsenide low power (red visible, 660 nm) as a light source and the methylene blue at 300 μM as a photosensitizer. We assessed two experimental groups for each strain: (a) PDI: sensitization with methylene blue and laser irradiation and (b) control: without sensitization with methylene blue and light absence. The PDI decreased gene expression in 60 % of samples for gene SAP5 and 50 % of the samples decreased expression of LIP9 and PLB2. When we compared the expression profile for of each gene between the treated and control group, a decrease in all gene expression was observed, however no statistically significant difference (Tukey's test/p = 0.12). It could be concluded that PDI (photosensitization with methylene blue followed by low-level laser irradiation) showed a slight reduction on the expression of hydrolytic enzymes of C. albicans, without statistical significance.

  18. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  19. Sunflower seed husk agar: A new medium for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A sunflower ( Helianthus annuus seed husk agar medium has been developed and evaluated for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on the basis of colony morphology and chlamydospore production. All C. dubliniensis isolates (n=40 produced rough colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores whereas 101 of 105 (96.2% C. albicans isolates produced smooth colonies with no evidence of chlamydospore production. Since this medium is free from oil droplets, chlamydospores can be examined with greater clarity by Dalmau plate technique. This medium provides a simple and cost-effective tool for the presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans and is particularly suited for clinical microbiology laboratories where biochemical or molecular methods for the differentiation of these two species are not available.

  20. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  1. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)). PMID:18048759

  2. Development of a membrane based detection of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Catarina Guerreiro Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica , apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Candida é uma família de fungos, normalmente, presente na flora gastrointestinal, nos orgãos genitais, no sistema respiratório e na pele de pessoas saudáveis e, até determinada quantidade, não trazem nenhum risco. Apenas 17 espécies de Candida podem ser consideradas como patogénicas para o ser humano e, dentro deste grupo, Candida albicans é a esp...

  3. Candida infection in HIV positive patients 1985-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeder, Christian; Kowoll, Susann; Arastéh, Keikawus

    2008-09-01

    Infection with Candida species remains a major problem in HIV infected patients. The analysis of over 15,000 hospitalisations (1985-2007) in the AVK cohort shows an increasing incidence of non-albicans species in candida esophagitis. Although our analysis shows a decreasing incidence of opportunistic infections like PCP, cerebral toxoplasmosis and others since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy the incidence of candida esophagitis remains as high as in the years before the HAART era. This observation might reflect the development of resistance against fluconazole and the selection of non-albicans species as a consequence of a long-term prophylactic treatment of HIV+ patients over years.

  4. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonçalves, R B

    2010-11-01

    The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915

  5. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M;

    2016-01-01

    isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (...The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood...

  6. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  7. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrille, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHOROMagar Candida, and CandidaSelect, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93.1 to 100%. These parameters decreased, however, to 91.4% when the test was performed with yeast isolated

  8. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation betwee...

  9. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles in combination with nystatin and chlorhexidine digluconate against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Gorup, Luiz F; de Camargo, Emerson R; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, Debora B; Henriques, Mariana

    2013-11-01

    Although silver nanoparticles (SN) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the control of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the antifungal activity of SN in combination with antifungal drugs against Candida biofilms remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of SN in combination with nystatin (NYT) or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. The drugs alone or combined with SN were applied on mature Candida biofilms (48 h), and after 24 h of treatment their antibiofilm activities were assessed by total biomass quantification (by crystal violet staining) and colony forming units enumeration. The structure of Candida biofilms was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The data indicated that SN combined with either NYT or CHG demonstrated synergistic antibiofilm activity, and this activity was dependent on the species and on the drug concentrations used. SEM images showed that some drug combinations were able to disrupt Candida biofilms. The results of this study suggest that the combination of SN with NYT or CHG may have clinical implications in the treatment of denture stomatitis. However, further studies are needed before recommending the use of these drugs safely in clinical situations. PMID:23773119

  10. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 vanillin dehydrogenase and its impact on the biotechnical production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH(ATCC 39116)). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vanillin dehydrogenase in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was investigated for the first time by using data from our genome sequence analysis and further bioinformatic approaches. The vdh gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded vanillin dehydrogenase was characterized in detail. VDH(ATCC 39116) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and exhibited NAD(+)-dependent activity toward vanillin, coniferylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 44°C. In a next step, a precise vdh deletion mutant of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was generated. The mutant lost its ability to grow on vanillin and did not show vanillin dehydrogenase activity. A 2.3-times-higher vanillin concentration and a substantially reduced amount of vanillic acid occurred with the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant when ferulic acid was provided for biotransformation in a cultivation experiment on a 2-liter-bioreactor scale. Based on these results and taking further metabolic engineering into account, the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant represents an optimized and industrially applicable platform for the biotechnological production of natural vanillin.

  11. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  12. Global transcriptome sequencing identifies chlamydospore specific markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Palige

    Full Text Available Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2 which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  13. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  14. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, Dalia; Chen, Emily; Benso, Bruna; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro M

    2016-01-01

    Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β. In a co-culture model, oral fibroblast cells were cultured simultaneously with C. albicans for 24 hrs followed by the exposure to treatments of monolaurin (3.9-2,500 µM), positive control fluconazole (32.2 µM), and vehicle control group (1% ethanol), which was a model used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of monolaurin on fibroblasts as well as to analyze morphological characteristics of biofilms through fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the co-culture model was used for RNA extraction of oral fibroblasts to assess gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the MIC and MFC of monolaurin were in the range 62.5-125 µM and 125-250 µM, respectively. Biofilm antifungal assay showed significant reduction in Log (CFU/ml) of biofilms treated with 1,250 and 2,500 µM of 1-monolaurin when compared to the control groups . There was also a significant down-regulation of IL-1α and IL-1β in the co-culture treated with monolaurin. It can be concluded that monolaurin has a potential antifungal activity against C. albicans and can modulate the pro-inflammatory response of the host. PMID:27366648

  15. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benso, Bruna; Pardi, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Monolaurin (also known as glycerol monolaurate) is a natural compound found in coconut oil and is known for its protective biological activities as an antimicrobial agent. The nature of oral candidiasis and the increased antifungal resistance demand the search for novel antifungal therapeutic agents. In this study, we examine the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms (strain ATCC:SC5314/MYA2876) in vitro and investigate whether monolaurin can alter gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β. In a co-culture model, oral fibroblast cells were cultured simultaneously with C. albicans for 24 hrs followed by the exposure to treatments of monolaurin (3.9–2,500 µM), positive control fluconazole (32.2 µM), and vehicle control group (1% ethanol), which was a model used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of monolaurin on fibroblasts as well as to analyze morphological characteristics of biofilms through fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the co-culture model was used for RNA extraction of oral fibroblasts to assess gene expression of host inflammatory cytokines, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the MIC and MFC of monolaurin were in the range 62.5–125 µM and 125–250 µM, respectively. Biofilm antifungal assay showed significant reduction in Log (CFU/ml) of biofilms treated with 1,250 and 2,500 µM of 1-monolaurin when compared to the control groups . There was also a significant down-regulation of IL-1α and IL-1β in the co-culture treated with monolaurin. It can be concluded that monolaurin has a potential antifungal activity against C. albicans and can modulate the pro-inflammatory response of the host. PMID:27366648

  16. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  17. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  18. [Gastric perforation associated with Candida infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Jesús; Carrilo, Elena; Lupu, Ion; Caballero, Ferran; Trias, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Notable causes of gastroduodenal ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, neoplastic disease, acid hypersecretory states and secondary peptic ulcer disease. There are case reports of healthy patients or those with risk factors for fungal infection who develop gastroduodenal ulcer perforation associated with the presence of fungi in ascitic fluid or gastroduodenal ulcer tissue but without the above-mentioned etiological factors. Thus, other factors and pathogens may be involved in the pathogenesis of perforation. The use of antifungal agents in patients following surgery for a perforated gastroduodenal ulcer is controversial. We report two cases of healthy patients who underwent surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, in whom the most frequent causes of perforation were excluded. Only the presence of Candida in the ulcer was found.

  19. Regio-specific Microbial Hydroxylation of Phytolaccagenin by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 13273

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN, Liwu; ZHANG, Jian; LIU, Jihua; YU, Boyang

    2009-01-01

    Microbial transformation of one oleane-type pentacyclic triterpene aglycone, phytolaccagenin (2β,3β,23-trihy- droxy-olean-12-ene-28,30-dioic acid 30-methyl ester) by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 13273 was investigated for developing new bioactive derivatives. A new oxidized metabolite, through the regio-specific hydroxylation on the C-29 methyl group, was obtained from the preparative-scale biotransformation with a standard two-stage fermenta- tion protocol. The metabolite was identified as 2β,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-ene-28,30-dioic acid 30-methyl ester by mass and 2D-NMR spectra.

  20. DNA Sequence and Comparison of Virulence Plasmids from Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Shinji; Hines, Stephen A.; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra A.; Osaki, Makoto; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mutsu; SUZUKI, KAYO; Ogino, Nobuko; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Dan, Hanhong; Prescott, John F.

    2000-01-01

    The virulence plasmids of the equine virulent strains Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103 were sequenced, and their genetic structure was analyzed. p33701 was 80,610 bp in length, and p103 was 1 bp shorter; their sequences were virtually identical. The plasmids contained 64 open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of which were homologous with genes of known function and 3 of which were homologous with putative genes of unknown function in other species. Putative functions were assigned to five ORFs ba...

  1. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine beta-casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P. F.; Healy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The specificity of the extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine beta-casein was studied. Hydrolysis was monitored over time by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and urea-PAGE. The major pH 4.6-soluble peptides were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The major sites of hydrolysis were Ser-18-Ser-19, Glu-20-Glu-21, Gln-56-Ser-57, Gln-72-Asn-73, ...

  2. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8.5 and 50(deg)C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg(sup2+) and Ca(sup2+) activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg(sup2+), Fe(sup2+), and Zn(sup2+) caused strong i...

  3. Specificity of an extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine alpha s1-casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, F P; Fox, P. F.; Healy, A.

    1996-01-01

    The specificity of the extracellular proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 on bovine alpha s1-casein was studied. Hydrolysis was monitored over time by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and urea-PAGE. The major pH 4.6-soluble peptides were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The time course of peptide formation indicated that His-8-Gln-9, Ser-161-Gly-162, and eithe...

  4. SpoIIE Regulates Sporulation but Does Not Directly Affect Solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    OpenAIRE

    Scotcher, Miles C.; Bennett, George N.

    2005-01-01

    Using gene expression reporter vectors, we examined the activity of the spoIIE promoter in wild-type and spo0A-deleted strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In wild-type cells, the spoIIE promoter is active in a transient manner during late solventogenesis, but in strain SKO1, where the sporulation initiator spo0A is disrupted, no spoIIE promoter activity is detectable at any stage of growth. Strains 824(pMSpo) and 824(pASspo) were created to overexpress spoIIE and to decrease spoII...

  5. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  6. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P < 0.05). Ingredients treated with organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P < 0.05). Time also played a significant role in Salmonella mitigation, because all days except days 14 and 21 (P = 0.92) differed from one another. Rendered protein matrix also affected Salmonella stability, because concentrations in meat and bone meal and blood meal were similar to one another (P = 0.36) but were greater than levels in feather meal and poultry by-product meal (P < 0.05). In summary, chemical treatment and time both mitigated Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, but their effectiveness was matrix dependent. Time and chemical treatment with medium

  7. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... and 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg2+ Fe2+, and Zn2+ caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH2-Ala-Lys- Asn...

  8. Multicenter Investigation of Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) Agar Dilution Quality Control Determinations for Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Fedler, Kelley A; Scangarella-Oman, Nicole E; Ross, James E; Flamm, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    Gepotidacin, a novel triazaacenaphthylene antibacterial agent, is the first in a new class of type IIA topoisomerase inhibitors with activity against many biothreat and conventional pathogens, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae To assist ongoing clinical studies of gepotidacin to treat gonorrhea, a multilaboratory quality assurance investigation determined the reference organism (N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226) quality control MIC range to be 0.25 to 1 μg/ml (88.8% of gepotidacin MIC results at the 0.5 μg/ml mode). PMID:27161642

  9. Assessment of CcpA-mediated catabolite control of gene expression in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buist Girbe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catabolite control protein CcpA is a transcriptional regulator conserved in many Gram-positives, controlling the efficiency of glucose metabolism. Here we studied the role of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 CcpA in regulation of metabolic pathways and expression of enterotoxin genes by comparative transcriptome analysis of the wild-type and a ccpA-deletion strain. Results Comparative analysis revealed the growth performance and glucose consumption rates to be lower in the B. cereus ATCC 14579 ccpA deletion strain than in the wild-type. In exponentially grown cells, the expression of glycolytic genes, including a non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that mediates conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate in one single step, was down-regulated and expression of gluconeogenic genes and genes encoding the citric acid cycle was up-regulated in the B. cereus ccpA deletion strain. Furthermore, putative CRE-sites, that act as binding sites for CcpA, were identified to be present for these genes. These results indicate CcpA to be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, thereby optimizing the efficiency of glucose catabolism. Other genes of which the expression was affected by ccpA deletion and for which putative CRE-sites could be identified, included genes with an annotated function in the catabolism of ribose, histidine and possibly fucose/arabinose and aspartate. Notably, expression of the operons encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe and hemolytic enterotoxin (Hbl was affected by ccpA deletion, and putative CRE-sites were identified, which suggests catabolite repression of the enterotoxin operons to be CcpA-dependent. Conclusion The catabolite control protein CcpA in B. cereus ATCC 14579 is involved in optimizing the catabolism of glucose with concomitant repression of gluconeogenesis and alternative metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the results point to metabolic control

  10. INFLUENCE OF HIGH LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE CELLS OF CYANOBACTERIA ANABAENA VARIABILIS SP. ATCC 29413

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRIŞ SANDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the result of research regardind the effect of high light intensity on the cells of Anabaena variabilis sp. ATCC 29413, the main objective is to study the adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus to light stress. Samples were analyzed in the present of herbicide diuron (DCMU which blocks electron flow from photosystem II and without diuron. During treatment maximum fluorescence and photosystems efficiency are significantly reduced, reaching very low values compared with the blank, as a result of photoinhibition installation. Also by this treatment is shown the importance of the mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of light stress and react accordingly.

  11. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embden...... - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway is present in this organism. Moreover, Nonomuraea utilizes a PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, an enzyme that has been connected with anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes and higher plants, but recently has been recognized in several actinomycetes. In order to study its...

  12. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  13. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S; Ugena, L; Tornero-Lopéz, J; Martín, H; Molina, M; Camacho, J J; Cáceres, J O

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) for the discrimination of different strains of various species of Candida. This genus of yeast was selected due to its medical relevance as it is commonly found in cases of fungal infection in humans. Twenty one strains belonging to seven species of Candida were included in the study. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was employed as a complementary technique to provide information about elemental composition of Candida cells. The use of LIBS spectra in combination with optimized NN models provided reliable discrimination among the distinct Candida strains with a high spectral correlation index for the samples analyzed, without any false positive or false negative. Therefore, this study indicates that LIBS-NN based methodology has the potential to be used as fast fungal identification or even diagnostic method. PMID:27216662

  14. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 prevents atherosclerosis via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against candida species from oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida . Forty six (61.3% Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%, Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34% each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17% each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii .

  17. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  18. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  19. The Detection of Candida Species in Patients with Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of Candida on halitosis, the carrier state of Candida was examined in patients who made a visit with a chief complaint of halitosis. Methods. Subjects were 123 patients (42 males and 81 females) who visited our clinic, with a chief complaint of halitosis. Their average age was 45.8 years. To examine halitosis, an organoleptic test was conducted, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by gas chromatography. Tongue-coating samples collected at the initial visi...

  20. Candida glabrata : a review of its features and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal and vaginal tracts, and are responsible for several clinical manifestations, from mucocutaneous overgrowth to bloodstream infections. Once believed to be non-pathogenic, Candida glabrata was rapidly blamable for many human diseases. Year after year, these pathological circumstances are more recurrent and problematic to treat, especially when patients reveal any level of immunosuppression. These difficultie...

  1. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  2. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  3. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  4. Rat indwelling urinary catheter model of Candida albicans biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Jeniel E; Brooks, Erin G; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

    2014-12-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract.

  5. Activity of Fabaceae species extracts against fungi and Leishmania: vatacarpan as a novel potent anti-Candida agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara Braga Santana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLeishmaniasis and fungal infection treatment efficacy is limited by toxicity and ever increasing resistance to available drugs, requiring development of alternative compounds. The richness of Cerrado plant antimicrobial secondary metabolites justifies screening of Fabaceae species extracts: Enterolobium ellipticum Benth., Sclerolobium aureum (Tul. Baill. and Vatairea macrocarpa(Benth. Ducke, against Leishmania(Leishmania amazonensis, yeasts and dermatophytes. Among the 26 extracts tested, more than 50% of the total demonstrated significant antifungal activity in comparison to the drug controls (minimal inhibitory concentration 0.12 to ≤31.25 µg/ml. Six extracts capable of complete parasitic growth inhibition had the inhibitory concentration index for 50% values from 9.23 to 78.65 µg/ml. The results led to the selection of the V. macrocarpa ethyl acetate root bark extract for chemical fractionation. This plant, traditionally referred to as angelim-do-cerrado or maleiteira, is used to treat superficial mycoses in Amazonia. A previously unreported pterocarpan vatacarpan together with the known compound musizin was isolated. Vatacarpan demonstrated a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.98 µg/ml against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and thus comparable or superior to fluconazole and amphotericin B. The results add to literature's information the ability of pterocarpans to act as antimicrobial agents.

  6. Efficient gene targeting in a Candida guilliermondii non-homologous end-joining pathway-deficient strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureau, Emilien; Courdavault, Vincent; Rojas, Luisa Fernanda; Dutilleul, Christelle; Simkin, Andrew J; Crèche, Joël; Atehortùa, Lucia; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Clastre, Marc; Papon, Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    The yeast, Candida guilliermondii, has been widely studied due to its biotechnological interest as well as its biological control potential. It integrates foreign DNA predominantly via ectopic events, likely through the well-known non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway involving the Ku70p/Ku80p heterodimer, Lig4p, Nej1p and Lif1p. This phenomenon remains highly deleterious for targeted gene knock-out strategies that require the homologous recombination process. Here, we have constructed a ku70 mutant strain derived from the ATCC 6260 reference strain of C. guilliermondii. Following a series of disruption attempts of various genes (FCY1, ADE2 and TRP5), using several previously described dominant selectable markers (URA5, SAT-1 and HPH#), we demonstrated that the efficiencies of homologous gene targeting in such a NHEJ-deficient strain was very high compared to the wild type strain. The C. guilliermondii ku70 deficient mutant thus represents a powerful recipient strain to knock-out genes efficiently in this yeast. PMID:23463324

  7. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Miličević Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific

  8. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ≤31 h with ≥0.5 μg/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails.

  9. Phosphoketolase pathway dominates in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 containing dual pathways for glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsköld, Emma; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke; Cao, Rong; Roos, Stefan; Rådström, Peter; van Niel, Ed W J

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis indicated that the heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri strain ATCC 55730 uses both the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) when glucose or sucrose is converted into the three-carbon intermediate stage of glycolysis. In all cases studied, the main flux is through the PKP, while the EMP is used as a shunt. In the exponential growth phase, 70%, 73%, and 84% of the flux goes through the PKP in cells metabolizing (i) glucose plus fructose, (ii) glucose alone, and (iii) sucrose alone, respectively. Analysis of the genome of L. reuteri ATCC 55730 confirmed the presence of the genes for both pathways. Further evidence for the simultaneous operation of two central carbon metabolic pathways was found through the detection of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphofructokinase, and phosphoglucoisomerase activities and the presence of phosphorylated EMP and PKP intermediates using in vitro 31P NMR. The maximum specific growth rate and biomass yield obtained on glucose were twice as low as on sucrose. This was the result of low ATP levels being present in glucose-metabolizing cells, although the ATP production flux was as high as in sucrose-metabolizing cells due to a twofold increase of enzyme activities in both glycolytic pathways. Growth performance on glucose could be improved by adding fructose as an external electron acceptor, suggesting that the observed behavior is due to a redox imbalance causing energy starvation. PMID:17965151

  10. Genomic and genetic characterization of the bile stress response of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kristi; Versalovic, James; Roos, Stefan; Britton, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression changes that occur when the organism is exposed to physiological concentrations of bile. A wide variety of genes that displayed differential expression in the presence of bile indicated that the cells were dealing with several types of stress, including cell envelope stress, protein denaturation, and DNA damage. Mutations in three genes were found to decrease the strain's ability to survive bile exposure: lr1864, a Clp chaperone; lr0085, a gene of unknown function; and lr1516, a putative esterase. Mutations in two genes that form an operon, lr1584 (a multidrug resistance transporter in the major facilitator superfamily) and lr1582 (unknown function), were found to impair the strain's ability to restart growth in the presence of bile. This study provides insight into the possible mechanisms that L. reuteri ATCC 55730 may use to survive and grow in the presence of bile in the small intestine. PMID:18245259

  11. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds.

  12. Ferulic acid transformation into the main vanilla aroma compounds by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Agrasar, Ana María Torrado; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The wild strain Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was explored in ferulic acid-based media to produce naturally the aroma components of the cured vanilla pod, namely vanillin,vanillic acid, and vanillyl alcohol. Other phenolic compounds(4-vinyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and protocatechuic acid) were also evaluated. The influence of medium composition,fermentation technology (batch or fed-batch), supplementation with vanillic acid, and inoculum concentration on ferulic acid biotransformation were evaluated. The results postulate the initial concentration of cell mass as the variable with the strongest impact on ferulic acid metabolization under the studied conditions. The highest amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid were achieved at intermediate values of cell mass.Vanillyl alcohol and protocatechuic acid were more closely linked to high cell mass concentrations. Conversely, 4-vinyl guaiacol reached its highest amount at the lowest amount of cell mass. Guaiacol was not detected in any case. Therefore,the initial cell concentration must be considered a critical parameter when using Amycolaptosis sp. ATCC 39116 for the production of vanillin and related compounds. PMID:26476645

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfang Zhou

    Full Text Available The gene encoding an NAD(+-dependent, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (3HIBDH-IV from Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL 21 (DE3 and characterized to understand its physiological relevance in the degradation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to other 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase isozymes (3HIBDHs of P. denitrificans ATCC 13867. A comparison of 3HIBDH-IV with its relevant enzymes along with molecular docking studies suggested that Lys171, Asn175 and Gly123 are important for its catalytic function on 3-hydroxyacids. The recombinant 3HIBDH-IV was purified to homogeneity utilizing a Ni-NTA-HP resin column in high yield. 3HIBDH-IV was very specific to (S-3-hydroxyisobutyrate, but also catalyzed the oxidation of 3-HP to malonate semialdehyde. The specific activity and half-saturation constant (K m for 3-HP at 30°C and pH 9.0 were determined to be 17 U/mg protein and 1.0 mM, respectively. Heavy metals, such as Ag(+ and Hg(2+, completely inhibited the 3HIBDH-IV activity, whereas dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid increased its activity 1.5-1.8-fold. This paper reports the characteristics of 3HIBDH-IV as well as its probable role in 3-HP degradation.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

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    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  15. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of the cases. Overall FCZ resistance rate was 5.5% and the rate of resistance according to the species was 2.8% for C.albicans and 11% for non

  16. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on fresh-cut tomato using nisin in combinations with organic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Oladunjoye, Adebola O.; Singh, Suren; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A.

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 on fresh-cut tomato was investigated using nisin alone, and in combinations with organic salts. Nisin at a concentration of 5000 UI/mL was introduced alone or in combination with an organic salt (sodium citrate or sodium acetate each at 3 and 5 g/100 mL each) on fresh-cut tomato previously inoculated with 108 CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644. Chlorine at 200 ppm was used as a control. The inoculated samples were incubated at different tem...

  17. Suitability of Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 as a protective culture for lightly preserved fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Stephen Wallace; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of strategy to control the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products by using food-grade lactic acid bacteria. When the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 was cultured in the same vessel as L-monocytogenes Scott A in brain......-heart infusion broth (BHI) at 30-degrees C, the pathogen declined from 5x10(5) to fewer than 5 cfu ml(-1) within 31 h. The effect was not due to lactic acid inhibition. Growth and nisin production by L- lactis ATCC 11454 were investigated under the conditions of temperature and salt used for light preservation...

  18. Medical treatment of a pacemaker endocarditis due to Candida albicans and to Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P M; Boissy, C; Gari-Toussaint, M; Foucher, R; Mondain, V; Vandenbos, F; le Fichoux, Y; Michiels, J F; Dellamonica, P

    2000-09-01

    We describe a case of pacemaker infection due to two fungal species: Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the intraventricular wires. Because of severe underlying diseases, surgery was believed to be contraindicated. The patient was treated using high dose of fluconazole, resulting in clinical improvement and negative blood cultures. However, 2 months later, the patient underwent a fatal stroke. At autopsy, a large vegetation was found only all along the wires. Postmortem culture of the infected material was positive for both C. albicans and C. glabrata. PMID:11023765

  19. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  20. Evaluation of role of Candida in patients with chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Bahunuthula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic paronychia, earlier considered to be an infection due to Candida, is currently being considered as a dermatitis of the nail fold. Irritant, allergic and protein contact dermatitis are the suggested major pathogenic mechanisms. Hypersensitivity to Candida is more likely to be the etiology, rather than the infection itself. Aims: To assess the clinico-etiological profiles of patients with chronic paronychia and to determine the role of contact sensitization and hypersensitivity to Candida. Methods: All consecutive patients of chronic paronychia attending the dermatology outpatient department (OPD were assessed for risk factors, number of nails affected, clinical presentation and presence of fungus, patch tested for contact allergy and prick tested for hypersensitivity to Candida allergen. Results: A total of 80 patients of chronic paronychia were recruited into our study. There was female preponderance (66 patients, 82.5%, with the most common group affected being housewives (47 patients, 58.8%. Frequent washing of hands (64 patients, 80% was the most common risk factor. Fungal culture was positive in 56.1% (41 patients, the predominant species cultured was Candida albicans (15 patients, 36.5%. Patch testing with Indian standard series was positive in 27.1% patients (19 out of 70 patients tested, with nickel being the most common allergen. Prick test with Candida allergen was positive in 47.6% patients (31 out of 65 patients tested. Limitations: Prick test and patch test provide indirect evidence of hypersensitivity, with inherent limitations. Conclusion: Our study shows that chronic paronychia is probably a form of hand dermatitis associated with prolonged wet work, and that there is a higher incidence of contact sensitization and Candida hypersensitivity in these patients.

  1. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895), a Gramicidin S-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Ge, Ci-Bin; Xiao, Rong-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Shi, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999(T) (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999(T), which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494674

  2. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  3. Candida albicans keratitis in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammed J Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available H Mohammed J Hassan1, Theocharis Papanikolaou2, Georgios Mariatos1, Amany Hammad3, Hala Hassan41Ophthalmology Department, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, South Yorkshire, England, UK; 2Ophthalmology Department, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, England, UK; 3Ophthalmology Department, Rotherham Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, England, UK; 4Corneal and External Disease Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, UKPurpose: When investigating a case of unexplained corneal ulceration, we need to think of fungal infection and any predisposing factors.Methods: A case study of a corneal ulceration in a patient who was HIV positive with a devastating visual outcome.Results: Therapeutic corneal graft was necessary due to corneal perforation. Immunocompromised state of patient was retrospectively diagnosed.Conclusions: Candida albicans keratitis is an opportunistic infection of a compromised cornea, and sometimes unknowingly compromised host, which can be initially misdiagnosed. Despite intensive antifungal therapy, occasionally patients require corneal grafting to improve vision, and before it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis.Keywords: fungal keratitis, corneal perforation, keratoplasty, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV

  4. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  5. Functional genomics identifies type I interferon pathway as central for host defense against Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Ng, Aylwin; Kumar, Vinod; Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; van Diemen, Cleo; Arts, Peer; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Oosting, Marije; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Hoischen, Alexander; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Scott, William K.; Perfect, John R.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans. Candid

  6. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, Frans M. Verduyn; Mennink-Kersten, Monique A. S. H.; Ruegebrink, Dorien; van der Lee, Henrich A. L.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  7. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  8. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  9. Atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de Arctium minus (Hill Bernh. (Asteraceae sobre espécies orais de Candida Antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh. (Asteraceae on oral Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T Lubian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antifúngica do extrato aquoso de folhas de "bardana" [Arctium minus (Hill Bernh.], por meio da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Fungicida Mínima (CFM sobre diferentes espécies e linhagens do gênero Candida. Foram incluídas no trabalho as espécies de Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. stellatoidea, C. dubliniensis e C. krusei. Utilizaram-se quatro linhagens de C. albicans e três de C.tropicalis, enquanto que para as demais espécies, apenas uma linhagem foi testada. Estas leveduras foram utilizadas no estudo devido à importância e frequência na cavidade bucal. As leveduras foram submetidas a tratamentos com concentrações do extrato aquoso que variaram de 0,09 a 25 mg mL-1. Os resultados indicaram que concentrações inferiores a 12,5 mg mL-1 não são suficientes para apresentar efeito fungistático ou fungicida. A concentração de 12,5 mg mL-1 apresentou efeito fungistático sobre a maioria das linhagens e espécies testadas (C. albicans 04A e ATCC44858; C. tropicalis 23600 e 23651; C. glabrata; C. stellatoideia; C. dubliniensis e C. krusei. Entretanto, efeito fungicida foi observado apenas sobre a espécie C. krusei (CFM=12,5 mg mL-1. Comportamento diferenciado foi observado entre diferentes linhagens de uma espécie (para C. albicans e C. tropicalis. Assim, a ação antifúngica do extrato aquoso de A. minus (Hill Bernh. provavelmente está associada à variabilidade genética existente entre as diferentes linhagens de uma mesma espécie e das diferentes espécies, sendo que concentrações inferiores a 12,5 mg mL-1 não apresentaram efeito sobre as leveduras testadas. Com base na metodologia empregada e dentro das limitações deste estudo, conclui-se que o extrato aquoso de A. minus revelou efeito antifúngico, principalmente fungistático, contra espécies de Candida orais. Porém, novos estudos são necessários para

  10. Prevalence of Candida Species in Patients with Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovčina-Kurtović, Nermina; Kasumagić-Halilović, Emina; Helppikangans, Hana; Begić, Jasmina

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of Candida yeast prevalence in patients with psoriasis has been performed with the aim of determining their possible role as a trigger factor in the pathogenic process of this disease. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence of Candida species on the skin of intertriginous areas and psoriasis lesions as well as the prevalence of Candida species in the stool of patients with psoriasis. This study also examines a possible correlation between the severity of psoriasis and prevalence of isolated Candida species. The patients with psoriasis were divided into two groups according to the clinical type of psoriasis; a group with plaque psoriasis (PP) and psoriasis inversa (PI) (G1) and a group with psoriasis erythrodermica (PE) and psoriasis pustulosa (PPS) (G2). The group of patients with PP and PI (G1) was divided according to score on the Psoriasis Area Severity Index test (PASI) according to severity of disease into the clinical subgroup with PASI 50. Mycological analysis of skin samples in patients of the clinical group with PP and PI showed a statistically significant difference as well as correlation between the results of isolated specimens of Candida species from the skin of intertriginous areas and psoriasis lesions, the clinical form of psoriasis, and the PASI score. PMID:27663922

  11. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  12. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  13. Coaggregation of oral Candida isolates with bacteria from bone marrow transplant recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, L Y; Minah, G E; Peterson, D. E.; Wingard, J R; Merz, W G; Altomonte, V; Tylenda, C A

    1990-01-01

    In vitro coaggregation between Candida species isolated from immunosuppressed bone marrow transplant recipients and oral bacteria was investigated. Each Candida strain showed a different pattern of coaggregation with the 22 bacterial strains studied. Two strains of Lactobacillus amylovorus isolated from separate bone marrow transplant patients and Fusobacterium nucleatum (VPI 10197) coaggregated with all Candida strains. Ten bacterial strains showed no coaggregation with the Candida strains. ...

  14. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  15. Influence of saliva and mucin on the adhesion of Candida oral clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, C.; Botelho, C.M.; Oliveira, Ana C. N.; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This research work intends to clarify the role of artificial saliva, in particularly the role of mucin, a salivary protein, on the surface properties and adhesion ability of Candida spp. oral clinical isolates to abiotic surfaces. Methods: Four oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. were used: two Candida albicans strains (AC; AM) and two Candida parapsilosis strains (AD; AM2). The strains were isolated from patients using oral prosthesis. The microorganisms were cultured in the a...

  16. Isolation and partial characterization of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIJA IZRAEL-ŽIVKOVIĆ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic characteristics of a protease from a medically important, referent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 were determined. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and gel filtration, it was estimated that the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was about 15 kDa. Other enzymatic properties were found to be: pH optimum 7.1, pH stability between 6.5 and 10; temperature optimum around 60 °C while the enzyme was stable at 60 °C for 30 min. Inhibition of the enzyme was observed with metal chelators, such as EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting that the protease is a metalloenzyme. Furthermore, the enzyme contains one mole of zinc ion per mole of enzyme. The protease was stable in the presence of different organic solvents, which enables its potential use for the synthesis of peptides.

  17. Sensibility of salmonella typhimurium (atcc 0626) to gamma radiation in minced breast chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of raw minced breast chicken were inoculated with 10 7 cfu/ml of salmonella typhimurium (atcc 0626) and submitted to gamma radiation.The cobalt-60 source was a gamma beam 650, with a dose rate of 929 Gy/h.Samples were irradiated at room temperature (25-27 0c) with doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 KGy. After irradiation the samples, including the control, were kept under refrigeration condition (5 0c) and at day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of storage, were analyzed for s. Typhimurium presence. The 2 KGy dose inhibited the bacteria growth at the 21 st day; the dose of 4 KGy was effective at the 7 t h day. The doses of 6 KGy and 8 KGy destroyed the bacteria just after the irradiation process

  18. Sensibility Of Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626) to gamma radiation in minced breast Chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of raw minced breast chicken were inoculated with 10 7 CFU/mL of Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 0626) and submitted to gamma radiation. The Cobalt-60 source was a Gamma beam 650, with a dose rate of 929 Gy/h. Samples were irradiated at room temperature (25-270C) with doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy. After irradiation the samples, including the control, were kept under refrigeration condition (5 0C) and at day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of storage, were analyzed for S. typhimurium presence. The 2 kGy dose inhibited the bacteria growth at the 21 st day; the dose of 4 kGy was effective at the 7 t h day. The doses of 6 kGy and 8 kGy destroyed the bacteria just after the irradiation process

  19. Exploration of geosmin synthase from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 by deletion of doxorubicin biosynthetic gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijay; Oh, Tae-Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2009-10-01

    Thorough investigation of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 genome revealed a sesquiterpene synthase, named spterp13, which encodes a putative protein of 732 amino acids with significant similarity to S. avermitilis MA-4680 (SAV2163, GeoA) and S. coelicolor A3(2) (SCO6073). The proteins encoded by SAV2163 and SCO6073 produce geosmin in the respective strains. However, the spterp13 gene seemed to be silent in S. peucetius. Deletion of the doxorubicin gene cluster from S. peucetius resulted in increased cell growth rate along with detectable production of geosmin. When we over expressed the spterp13 gene in S. peucetius DM07 under the control of an ermE* promoter, 2.4 +/- 0.4-fold enhanced production of geosmin was observed.

  20. Effects of Salt Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Jing; Pan, Daodong; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Cheng, Kemeng

    2016-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented foods, especially cheese products. In this study, we observed the salt tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 after exposure to different concentrations of NaCl in MRS medium. Quantitative proteomic profiles using two-dimensional electrophoresis identified 384 proteins, of which 26 were upregulated and 31 downregulated. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry was then used to identify 11 proteins, of which three were linked to carbohydrate metabolism. The downregulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthase in carbohydrate metabolism revealed a bacterial regulation mechanism to save energy in order to survive during the salt tolerance. Other proteins were found involved in transcription-translation processes, fatty acid biosynthesis, and the primary metabolic process. PMID:27342422

  1. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and L22 display probiotic potential in vitro and protect against Salmonella-induced pullorum disease in a chick model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dexian; Li, Rui; Li, Jichang

    2012-08-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (L. reuteri ATCC 55730) and L. reuteri L22 were studied for their probiotic potential. These two strains were able to produce an antimicrobial substance, termed reuterin, the maximum production of reuterin by these two strains was detected in the late logarithmic growth phase (16 h in MRS and 20 h in LB broths). These two strains could significantly reduce the growth of Salmonella pullorum ATCC 9120 in MRS broth, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 with a reduction of 48.2±4.15% (in 5 log) and 89.7±2.59% (in 4 log) respectively, at the same time, L. reuteri L22 was 69.4±3.48% (in 5 log) and 80.4±3.22% respectively. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 was active against the majority of the pathogenic species, including S. pullorum ATCC 9120 and Escherichia coli O(78), while L. reuteri L22 was not as effective as L. reuteri ATCC 55730. The two potential strains were found to survive variably at pH 2.5 and were unaffected by bile salts, while neither of the strains was haemolytic. Moreover, L. reuteri ATCC 55730 exhibited variable susceptibility towards commonly used antibiotics; but L. reuteri L22 showed resistant to most antibiotics in this study. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 consequently was found to significantly increase survival rate in a Salmonella-induced pullorum disease model in chick. To conclude, strain L. reuteri ATCC 55730 possesses desirable probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation in vitro, which were confirmed in vivo by the use of animal models. PMID:21764090

  2. Quantitative analysis of population heterogeneity of the adaptive salt stress response and growth capacity of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Ingham, C.J.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.; Beerthuyzen, M.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial populations can display heterogeneity with respect to both the adaptive stress response and growth capacity of individual cells. The growth dynamics of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 during mild and severe salt stress exposure were investigated for the population as a whole in liquid culture.

  3. Construction of expression vectors for metabolic engineering of the vanillin-producing actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Christian; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is able to synthesize the important flavoring agent vanillin from cheap natural substrates. The bacterium is therefore of great interest for the industry and used for the fermentative production of vanillin. In order to improve the production of natural vanillin with Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116, the strain has been genetically engineered to optimize the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Extensive metabolic engineering was hitherto hampered, due to the lack of genetic tools like functional promoters and expression vectors. In this study, we report the establishment of a plasmid-based gene expression system for Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 that allows a further manipulation of the genotype. Four new Escherichia coli-Amycolatopsis shuttle vectors harboring different promoter elements were constructed, and the functionality of these regulatory elements was proven by the expression of the reporter gene gusA, encoding a β-glucuronidase. Glucuronidase activity was detected in all plasmid-harboring strains, and remarkable differences in the expression strength of the reporter gene depending on the used promoter were observed. The new expression vectors will promote the further genetic engineering of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 to get insight into the metabolic network and to improve the strain for a more efficient industrial use. PMID:24743982

  4. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067, Which Provides Insight into Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Coryneform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yangyong; Liao, Juanjun; Wu, Zhanhong; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping

    2012-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067 (once named Brevibacterium flavum), which is useful for taxonomy research and further molecular breeding in amino acid production. Preliminary comparison with those of the reported coryneform strains revealed some notable differences that might be related to the difficulties in molecular manipulation.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582), an Efficient Producer of Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-08-11

    This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582). This strain was isolated by R. Malcolm Brown, Jr. in a sugar mill in North Queensland, Australia, and is an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms necessary for cellulose biosynthesis.

  6. Direct-Imaging-Based Quantification of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Population Heterogeneity at a Low Incubation Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den H.M.W.; Garcia, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 was cultured in microcolonies on Anopore strips near its minimum growth temperature to directly image and quantify its population heterogeneity at an abusive refrigeration temperature. Eleven percent of the microcolonies failed to grow during low-temperature incubation, an

  7. Fe(III) stimulates 3-methylindole and 4-methylphenol production in swine lagoon enrichments and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To determine the effects of anaerobic electron acceptors on 3-methylindole (3-MI) and 4-methylphenol (4-MP) production in swine waste lagoon enrichments and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775. Methods and Results: Swine waste lagoon sediment was incubated anaerobically in tryptone-yeast ext...

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

  9. Functional analysis of the gene cluster involved in production of the bacteriocin circularin A by Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, R; Jonker, M; Nauta, A; Kuipers, OP; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    A region of 12 kb flanking the structural gene of the cyclic antibacterial peptide circularin A of Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752 was sequenced, and the putative proteins involved in the production and secretion of circularin A were identified. The genes are tightly organized in overlapping ope

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582), an Efficient Producer of Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the release of the complete nucleotide sequence of Gluconacetobacter hansenii strain NQ5 (ATCC 53582). This strain was isolated by R. Malcolm Brown, Jr. in a sugar mill in North Queensland, Australia, and is an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516505

  11. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under defined conditions: temporal expression of genes for key sigma factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time

  12. Production of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926 by Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727: influence of medium composition in batch fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 is a novel actinomycete species and the producer of A40926, a glycopeptide antibiotic structurally similar to teichoplanin. In the present study, a defined minimal medium was designed for Nonomuraea fermentation. The influence of initial phosphate, glucose and ammonium...

  13. Genome sequence alterations detected upon passage of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 in culture and in mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 12,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344. As a demonstrated mechanism of phase variation in other pathogenic bacteria, these may function as mutable loci leading to altered protein expression or structure variation. To determine if such alterations are occurring in vivo, the genomes of various single-colony passaged B. mallei ATCC 23344 isolates, one from each source, were sequenced from culture, a mouse, a horse, and two isolates from a single human patient, and the sequence compared to the published B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome sequence. Results Forty-nine insertions and deletions (indels were detected at SSRs in the five passaged strains, a majority of which (67.3% were located within noncoding areas, suggesting that such regions are more tolerant of sequence alterations. Expression profiling of the two human passaged isolates compared to the strain before passage revealed alterations in the mRNA levels of multiple genes when grown in culture. Conclusion These data support the notion that genome variability upon passage is a feature of B. mallei ATCC23344, and that within a host B. mallei generates a diverse population of clones that accumulate genome sequence variation at SSR and other loci.

  14. Characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 and its involvement in biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yeswanth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Staphylococcus aureus purine metabolism plays a crucial role in the formation of biofilm which is a key pathogenic factor. The present study is aimed in the characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600. Methods: IMPDH gene was amplified using primers designed from IMPDH gene sequence of S. aureus reported in the database. Then polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in the Sma I site of M13mp18 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant IMPDH (rIMPDH was overexpressed with 1 mM isopropyl beta-D-1- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG; Michaelis constant (Km, maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax and catalytic constant (Kcat of expressed IMPDH were determined. Results: The enzyme kinetics of IMPDH grown under aerobic conditions showed a Km of 43.71±1.56 µM, Vmax of 0.247±0.84/µM/mg/min and Kcat of 2.74±0.015/min while in anaerobic conditions the kinetics showed Km of 42.81±3.154/ µM, Vmax of 0.378±0.036 µM/mg/min and Kcat of 4.78±0.021 /min, indicating elevated levels of IMPDH activity under anaerobic conditions. Three-folds increased activity in the presence of 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP correlated with biofilm formation. The kinetics of pure rIMPDH were close to the native IMPDH of S. aureus ATCC12600 and the enzyme showed single band in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 53 KDa. Conclusions: Elevated activity of IMPDH was observed in S. aureus grown under anaerobic conditions and this was correlated with the biofilm formation indicating the linkage between purine metabolism and pathogenesis.

  15. Prevalence of non-albican candida infection in Maharashtrian women with leucorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema M Bankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the prevalence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. Objective: To study the prevalence of different species of Candida and the efficiency of different Candida detection methods in women from low socio-economic setup of Miraj and Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 150 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. In the control group, 50 asymptomatic women were included for comparison. Results: In 33% of the women the leucorrhea was due to Candida infection with highest incidence in women of sexually active age (20-40 years. Sabouraud′s culture was the most efficient method (100% efficiency to detect the Candida compared to wet mount, KOH and gram stain method. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida krusei was the least common one. Conclusion: Candida infection is the commonest reason for leucorrhea and non-albican candida species significantly contribute to candidiasis in women of Miraj and Sangli.

  16. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis (fluconazole-resistant) osteomyelitis with caspofungin in a HIV patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legout, L; Assal, M; Rohner, P; Lew, D; Bernard, L; Hoffmeyer, P

    2006-01-01

    Treating Candida arthritis is challenging. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis successfully treated with caspofungin. We illustrate the likelihood of severe infections due fluconazole resistant C. parapsilosis after extensive fluconazole use and discuss the role of newer antifungal agents in the treatment of arthritis due to Candida spp. PMID:16857628

  17. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  18. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  19. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of lichen Toninia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljko T. Manojlovic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, methanol, chloroform and petrol ether extracts from the lichen Toninia candida (Weber Th. Fr, Catillariaceae, were assayed for their antioxidant activity. The phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The predominant phenolic compound in all the extracts was depsidone, norstictic acid. All the tested extracts of T. candida contain, besides norstictic acid, atranorin, stictic, protocetraric and usnic acid, but in different amounts and relations. The lichen extracts showed comparable and strong antioxidant activity, exhibited higher DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavengings, chelating activity and inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation. This is the first report of chemical composition and antioxidant antimicrobial activity of the lichen Toninia candida.

  1. Meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 17938 (and the original strain ATCC 55730) for treating acute gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Urbańska, M; Chmielewska, A; Weizman, Z; Shamir, R

    2014-09-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has been shown to provide a moderate clinical effect in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. However, as the L. reuteri ATCC 55730 strain was found to carry potentially transferable resistance traits for tetracycline and lincomycin, it was replaced by a new strain, L. reuteri DSM 17938, without unwanted plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance. Bioequivalence of the two strains has been suggested. We aimed to systematically evaluate data on the effectiveness of L. reuteri DSM 17938 and the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, in the treatment of AGE in children. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, reference lists, and abstract books of major scientific meetings were searched in August 2013, with no language restrictions, for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two RCTs (n=196) that evaluated L. reuteri DSM 17938 and three RCTs (n=156) that evaluated L. reuteri ATCC 55730, which involved hospitalised children aged 3 to 60 months, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo or no treatment, DSM 17938 significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea (mean difference -32 h, 95% confidence interval (CI): -41 to -24) and increased the chance of cure on day 3 (relative risk: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.8, random effects model). Similar results were obtained with the original strain, L. reuteri ATCC 55730. In conclusion, in hospitalised children, use of both strains of L. reuteri reduced the duration of diarrhoea, and more children were cured within 3 days. Data from outpatients and countryspecific cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Given the limited data and the methodological limitations of the included trials, the evidence should be viewed with caution. PMID:24463209

  2. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production.

  3. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  4. Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichert Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB, but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

  5. Native valve candida endocarditis complicating pregnancy after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saphina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida endocarditis is an emerging infectious disease, usually involving patients with intravascular prosthetic devices, and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. A 28-year-old primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation was admitted with low-grade fever and lower abdominal pain for 2 weeks. She had undergone open appendicectomy 2 months before admission. Echocardiogram showed a pedunculated 24 mm × 21 mm mass attached to the undersurface of anterior mitral leaflet near the tip and moderate mitral regurgitation. Repeated blood cultures showed growth of nonalbicans candida. She was immediately started on liposomal amphotericin and was taken up for surgery, but despite all efforts she succumbed to her illness.

  6. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  7. FLUCONAZOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA SPECI ES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND AGAR DILUTION METHOD

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    Supriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fungal infections with candida species are an import ant cause of morbidity and mortality 1 . Situation is further worsened by increasing resis tance to antifungal drugs 2 .The objective of this study was to evaluate antifu ngal susceptibility pattern of Candida species to fluconazole by disc diffusion and agar di lution method and compare these two methods as far as fluconazole is concerned. MATERIAL & METHODS: Between January 2006 to December 2006, 119 Candida species were isolated fro m 225 sputum samples of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and immunocomprised patients. RESULTS: Of the 119 Candida isolates 33 (27.73% were Candida albicans, 32 (26.89% were Candida gullermondi, 27 (22.68% Candida tropicalis, 14 (11.76% Candida pseudotropica lis, 7 (5.88% Candida parapsilosis and 6 (5.04% were Candida krusei. The Candida isolates w ere tested for fluconazole by disc diffusion method on Muller hinton agar with 2% glucose and 0. 5 microgram of methylene blue 3 .Amongst the 119 Candida isolates, 17 (14.28% isolates were resistant to fluconazole by disc diffusion method. MIC done by agar dilution method using CLSI guidelines 4. Candida isolates showed growth of 15 (88 .23% Candida strains upto 8 micro gram / ml with 80% inhibition of growth whereas 2 (1.7% isolates showed MIC upto 64 microgr am/ ml. CONCLUSIONS: Candida albicans though a common species other species were i solated in significant number. The results of disc diffusion for fluconazole do not co rrelate with agar dilution method. To cater the need of resource constrained laboratories, it is im portant to have results that correspond to the clinical outcome of antifungal treatment and show c o-relation to those obtained with the reference method as recommended by CLSI guidelines and also be reproducible 5 . Further critical studies are needed

  8. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  9. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  10. Candida halmiae sp. nov., Geotrichum ghanense sp. nov. and Candida awuaii sp. nov., isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Geotrichum, but in all cases with 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) similarities below 87 %. For Group C, the most closely related species were Candida rugopelliculosa (92.4 %), Pichia occidentalis (91.6 %) and Pichia exigua (91.9 %). The very low gene sequence similarities obtained for the three groups...... isolates were considered to represent three novel species, for which the names Candida halmiae (group A, type strain G3(T)=CBS 11009(T)=CCUG 56721(T)); Geotrichum ghanense (group B, type strain G6(T)=CBS 11010(T)=CCUG 56722(T)) and Candida awuaii (group C, type strain G15(T)=CBS 11011(T)=CCUG 56723(T...

  11. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  12. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  13. The Spermicidal Compound Nonoxynol-9 Increases Adhesion of Candida Species to Human Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    All 25 strains of Candida spp. tested were able to grow in medium supplemented with 25% nonoxynol-9 in vitro. Adhesion of Candida spp. to HeLa cells was found to increase in the presence of 5% nonoxynol-9 (2.2- to 6.6-fold; P less than 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, in 12.5% nonoxynol-9. Adhesion of Candida strains cultured in medium supplemented with nonoxynol-9 varied, with five of six strains of Candida albicans and the single strain of Candida tropicalis demonstrating increases of 1.4 to...

  14. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; Weetman, D A; MacFarlane, T W

    1986-05-01

    Growth characteristic and acid production of oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in glucose supplemented and glucose-free, pooled, human whole saliva were examined. Both Candida species exhibited sigmoidal growth curves in batch cultures of mixed saliva, supplemented with glucose. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in pH from 7.5 to 3.2 over 48 h and the major acidic components initiating and sustaining this pH drop were pyruvates and acetates. These acidic metabolites may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral Candida infections. PMID:3091791

  15. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

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    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  16. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Suelen Balero de Paula; Thais Fernanda Bartelli; Vanessa Di Raimo; Jussevania Pereira Santos; Alexandre Tadachi Morey; Marina Andrea Bosini; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Lucy Megumi Yamauchi; Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta

    2014-01-01

    Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All is...

  17. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro) (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro))

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman; Udijanto Tedjosasongko; Irmawati Irmawati

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucros...

  18. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood

  19. Erratum: Evaluation of CHROMagar Candida, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu Sariguzel, Fatma; Berk, Elife; Nedret Koc, Ayse; Sav, Hafize; Aydemir, Gonca

    2016-03-01

    Erratum Following publication of the original article (Infez Med. volume 23, issue 4, pages 318-322, year 2015) we became aware of the following errors which we wish to correct. These corrections have no impact over the study results, their interpretation or conclusions. Title The correct title is the following: Evaluation of chromagenic agar, VITEK2 YST and VITEK® MS for identification of Candida strains isolated from blood cultures Text In the whole text CHROMOMagar Candida shoul be read as chromogenic agar. PMID:27031906

  20. Occurrence of Candida species colonization in a population of denture-wearing immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, R; Pasquantonio, G; Vitali, L A; Nicoletti, M; Di Girolamo, M; Mirisola, C; Prenna, M; Condo, R; Baggi, L

    2013-01-01

    Infection of the oral cavity and dentures by Candida species are frequent in denture wearers. C. albicans is the most common pathogen; however, other emerging Candida species are also responsible for this condition. Few data are available about the occurrence of Candida species in the oral cavities of denture-wearing immigrants to Italy. In this study, we compare the Candida species found in the oral mucosa and on dentures from a population of denture wearing immigrants to Italy to a matched Italian group. Oral swabs were collected from dentures and the underlying mucosa of patients enrolled in the study and were then cultured to test for the presence of Candida species in each sample. Out of 168 patients enrolled (73 Italians and 95 immigrants), 51 Italians (69.8 percent) and 75 immigrants (78.9 percent) tested positive for the presence of Candida. Candida albicans was the most frequently observed species overall; however, we found a higher occurrence of C. glabrata among immigrants than among Italians. In addition, immigrants displayed a higher incidence of Candida – associated stomatitis and a lower mean age than Candida-positive individuals from the Italian group. Immigrants are more prone to longer colonization of the oral mucosa and dentures by Candida. In these patients, dentures must be checked periodically to prevent the presence of Candida.

  1. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  2. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  3. Emergence of non-albicans candida species in neonatal candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are one of the most common causes of blood stream infections among neonates and account for 9-13% of such infections. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungal isolate from neonatal candidemia, longitudinal studies have detected a shift towards non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Aim: To examine the prevalence and epidemiology of candidemia among infants admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 548 neonates and only those which yielded pure growth of Candida spp. were included in the study. The isolates were identified as per standard mycological techniques and antifungal susceptibility (AFS was done by disc diffusion method. Results: Of the total 132 neonates included in the study, NAC species were responsible for 80.30% cases with C. parapsilosis (25.0% and C. tropicalis (21.97% as the most predominant species; whereas 19.70% of cases were caused by C. albicans. AFS results revealed that 65.91, 73.49, and 96.21% isolates were sensitive to fluconazole (FLK, itraconazole (ITR, and amphotericin B (AMB, respectively. Conclusion: Candidemia in neonates is an ominous prognostic sign and is an important entity in our hospital. Strict infection control strategies, appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures such as prophylactic antifungal use and a restrictive policy of antibiotic use should be implemented.

  4. Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.J.; Brown, G.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gow, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal dr

  5. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Adetumbi, M; Javor, G T; Lau, B H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of aqueous garlic extract on the macromolecular synthesis of Candida albicans was studied. Protein and nucleic acid syntheses were inhibited to the same extent as growth, but lipid synthesis was completely arrested. Blockage of lipid synthesis is likely an important component of the anticandidal activity of garlic.

  6. PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PERMUKAAN POLIESTER EBP-2421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin has been the only polymeric material for denture base for many years. One of the requirements for an ideal polymeric denture base material. It should be resistant to bacterial growth. The growth of Candida albicans on the surface of dentures is a concern for many denture wearers. This organism often is associated with denture stomatitis. A preliminary study showed polyester EBP-2421, a polymeric material for statues can also be manipulated to denture base. This research examined the growth of Candida albicans on the surface of EBP-2421. Research was carried out on strips of polyester EBP-2421 and Selton acrylic resin. Strips were contaminated with Candida albicans for 24 hours. Examinations on polyester EBP-2421 and acrylic resin immersed in saliva significantly differ from the not immersed strips (p<0,05. The lowest frequency were Candida albicans adhered on stripes of polyester EBP-2421 immersed in saliva. This result related with the fact that polyester EBP-2421 has smoother surface topography than acrylic resin.

  7. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to Candida biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. ten Cate; F.M. Klis; T. Pereira-Cenci; W. Crielaard; P.W.J. de Groot

    2009-01-01

    Fungal infections in the oral cavity are mainly caused by C. albicans, but other Candida species are also frequently identified. They are increasing in prevalence, especially in denture-wearers and aging people, and may lead to invasive infections, which have a high mortality rate. Attachment to muc

  8. Al-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Jarosz, Lucja M.; Amir, Lisa R.; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (Al

  9. Exfoliative cheilitis (EC) in AIDS: association with Candida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Weigel, D; Schmidt-Westhausen, A; Pohle, H D

    1997-07-01

    Forty-seven of 165 patients with AIDS (28.5%) showed exfoliative cheilitis (EC), predominantly of the lower lip (n = 37). Histologically, hyphae were revealed in 23 of 47 cases (49%). In 14 of 23 specimens the histological and microbiological findings were in accordance. Smears of the vermilion border revealed Candida albicans in half of the cases (51%); however, combinations with C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were also seen. Twenty of 35 patients given fluconazole either prophylactically or therapeutically showed clinical signs of oral candidiasis. Frequent moistening of the lips may result in infection of the vermilion border with Candida species; consequent desiccation of the lips will lead to scale formation and exfoliation. Smears of the vermilion border of the lower lip of 20 controls with AIDS were positive in four cases. Twenty HIV-negative controls without EC showed negative microbiological results for Candida species. Exfoliative cheilitis may be associated with Candida infection in some cases and may be considered another variant of candidiasis in AIDS patients. PMID:9234190

  10. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K;

    2015-01-01

    and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were...

  11. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  12. Synergistic activity of rabbit granulocyte peptides against Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, R I; Szklarek, D; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E

    1986-01-01

    Rabbit granulocytes contain six antimicrobial peptides that are structurally homologous to the human neutrophil "defensins." NP-5, a rabbit defensin, lacks significant activity against Candida albicans. Nevertheless, its addition to submicromolar concentrations of rabbit NP-1, NP-2, or NP-3a potentiates their candidacidal effect. Thus, granulocyte defensins can act synergistically against potential pathogens.

  13. [Ascospore formation in yeasts related to Torulopsis candida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaia, V M

    1983-01-01

    Ascospore formation was found in the type strains Torulopsis famata (Harrison) Lodder et Kreger van Rij, T. minor (Pollaci et Nannizi) Lodder and Candida flareri (Ciferri et Redaelli) Langeron et Guerra. The names of these species should be considered as a synonym of Debaryomyces hansenii (Zopf) Lodder et Kreger van Rij. PMID:6686647

  14. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  15. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  16. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  17. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 1

  18. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  19. Malassezia and Candida infections in bull terriers with lethal acrodermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, N A

    2001-06-01

    In 12 cases of lethal acrodermatitis (LAD), four sampling techniques (brush, swab, scrape and adhesive tape strip) were used to study the distribution of yeasts in various body sites and these results were compared with those from five cases of atopic dermatitis and those of 10 normal dogs. Malassezia was frequently isolated from lesional and non-lesional skin and haircoat, footpads, nails and mucous membranes from dogs with either LAD or atopic dermatitis, although, generally, more Malassezia organisms were isolated from LAD cases. In normal dogs, Malassezia was most frequently recovered from the ear canal and the perianal skin. Candida was isolated frequently from dogs with LAD, but only a single isolate of this yeast was found in the other two groups. Fungal hyphae and pseudohyphae, probably Candida albicans, could be detected in samples collected from the nails and footpads of dogs with LAD. Both Malassezia and Candida could be isolated using all four sampling techniques. The MacKenzie (toothbrush) technique and adhesive tape strip cultures proved simple methods for the semiquantitative evaluation of yeasts. The high recovery rate of Malassezia and Candida from dogs with LAD is probably related to immune dysfunction, particularly T-cell dysfunction, known to be present in these dogs. C albicans infection may in part be responsible for the pathogenic changes of the nails and footpads commonly seen in cases of LAD. PMID:11440398

  20. Resistance of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawser, S. P.; Douglas, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida albicans on small discs of catheter material were resistant to the action of five clinically important antifungal agents as determined by [3H]leucine incorporation and tetrazolium reduction assays. Fluconazole showed the greatest activity, and amphotericin B showed the least activity against biofilm cells. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the biofilms.

  1. Proteogenomic analysis of Candida glabrata using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasad, T.S.; Harsha, H.C.; Keerthikumar, S.; Sekhar, N.R.; Selvan, L.D.N.; Kumar, P.; Pinto, S.M.; Muthusamy, B.; Subbannayya, Y.; Renuse, S.; Chaerkady, R.; Mathur, P.P.; Ravikumar, R.; Pandey, A.

    2012-01-01

    Candida glabrata is a common opportunistic human pathogen leading to significant mortality in immunosuppressed and immunodeficient individuals. We carried out proteomic analysis of C. glabrata using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry with MS resolution of 60,000 and MS/MS resolution

  2. Immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B on Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletic, Nemanja; Abetz, Volker; Ebert, Katrin; Loos, Katja; Miletić, Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were prepared via a nanoprecipitation process. The influence of the pH of the buffer solution used during the immobilization process on the loading of Candida antarctica lipase B (Cal-B) and on the hydrolytic activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate) of the immobi

  3. Candida osteomyelitis and disc space infection of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candida osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Its radiographic manifestations are similar to those of other relatively indolent infectious agents. We report the CT and MR findings in a patient who developed this condition following treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia, and review the imaging literature covering similar cases. (orig.). With 7 figs

  4. Candida osteomyelitis and disc space infection of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, P.L. [British Columbia Cancer Agency - Vancouver Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, M.J. [British Columbia Cancer Agency - Vancouver Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Poon, P.Y. [British Columbia Cancer Agency - Vancouver Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O`Connell, J.X. [Department of Pathology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Coupland, D.B. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Janzen, D.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Logan, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dvorak, M.F. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Candida osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Its radiographic manifestations are similar to those of other relatively indolent infectious agents. We report the CT and MR findings in a patient who developed this condition following treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia, and review the imaging literature covering similar cases. (orig.). With 7 figs.

  5. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans mutants affected in multidrug resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J. M.; Henry, L K; Jiang, W; Koltin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Disruption of a multidrug resistance gene (CaMDR1) in Candida albicans resulted in mutant strains that colonized mouse kidneys to very high levels but were markedly reduced in their virulence. No obvious differences in several properties related to colonization and dissemination were noted among MDR+ or mdr- strains. These results suggest that specific fungal efflux pumps play a role in fungal pathogenicity.

  6. Growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 on mixed substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick V. Gurgel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown on a mixed substrate comprising glucose and xylose. Inocula were grown using xylose or glucose as carbon source. Results showed that xylose utilization was delayed until glucose was utilized. Inoculum prepared on glucose showed a lag phase in xylose consumption. Cell mass production was higher when glucose was utilized during fermentation.

  7. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  8. Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 as a cell factory for producing teicoplanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurino Carlo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used clinically in Europe and in Japan for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-positive infections. It is produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The pharmaceutically active principle is teicoplanin A2, a complex of compounds designated T-A2-1-A2-5 differing in the length and branching of the fatty acid moiety linked to the glucosamine residue on the heptapeptide scaffold. According to European and Japanese Pharmacopoeia, components of the drug must be reproduced in fixed amounts to be authorized for clinical use. Results We report our studies on optimizing the fermentation process to produce teicoplanin A2 in A. teichomyceticus ATCC 31121. Robustness of the process was assessed on scales from a miniaturized deep-well microtiter system to flasks and 3-L bioreactor fermenters. The production of individual factors T-A2-1-A2-5 was modulated by adding suitable precursors to the cultivation medium. Specific production of T-A2-1, characterized by a linear C10:1 acyl moiety, is enhanced by adding methyl linoleate, trilinoleate, and crude oils such as corn and cottonseed oils. Accumulation of T-A2-3, characterized by a linear C10:0 acyl chain, is stimulated by adding methyl oleate, trioleate, and oils such as olive and lard oils. Percentages of T-A2-2, T-A2-4, and, T-A2-5 bearing the iso-C10:0, anteiso-C11:0, and iso-C11:0 acyl moieties, respectively, are significantly increased by adding precursor amino acids L-valine, L-isoleucine, and L-leucine. Along with the stimulatory effect on specific complex components, fatty acid esters, oils, and amino acids (with the exception of L-valine inhibit total antibiotic productivity overall. By adding industrial oils to medium containing L-valine the total production is comparable, giving unusual complex compositions. Conclusions Since the cost and the quality of teicoplanin production depend mainly on the fermentation process, we

  9. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  10. Development of a potential functional food prepared with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), oats and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri. PMID:22533458

  11. Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119 strain behaviour is modulated by iron and acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Catia; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Conte, Maria Pia; Seganti, Lucilla; Iosi, Francesca; Superti, Fabiana

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the rarity of human listeriosis due to Listeria ivanovii reflects not only host tropism factors but also the rare occurrence of this species in the environment, compared with Listeria monocytogenes. In the present study we evaluate the effects on the reference strain L. ivanovii ATCC 19119 behaviour of two combined stresses, low iron availability and acid environment, that bacteria can encounter in the passage from saprophytic life to the host. In these conditions, L. ivanovii evidenced a different behaviour compared to L. monocytogenes exposed to similar conditions. L. ivanovii was not able to mount an acid tolerance response (ATR) even if, upon entry into the stationary phase in iron-loaded medium, growth phase-dependent acid resistance (AR) was evidenced. Moreover, bacteria grown in iron excess and acidic pH showed the higher invasion value in Caco-2 cells, even though it was not able to efficiently multiply. On the contrary, low iron and acidic conditions improved invasion ability in amniotic WISH cells.

  12. Incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol that was assimilated by Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 was not metabolically degraded; most of it was recovered with the cells. Cells that were grown in the presence of cholesterol micelles and bile salts were more resistant to lysis by sonication than were those grown in their absence, suggesting a possible alteration of the cell wall or membrane. Cholesterol assimilation occurred during growth at pH 6.0 as well as during growth without pH control. Part of the cholesterol that was assimilated by cells was recovered in the membrane fractions of cells grown under both conditions. There was no difference in the amount taken up from cholesterol micelles that were prepared using dioleoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine or distearoyl L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine. Thus, the type of fatty acid (unsaturated or saturated) in the phospholipid did not influence the assimilation. As the amount of Tween 80 in the growth media increased beyond 0.05%, cholesterol uptake decreased, and the amount of growth remained the same. The higher concentrations of Tween 80 may have adversely affected the permeability of the cells

  13. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ATCC13032 to produce L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyu; Hu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Jinyu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    L-Methionine-producing strain QW102/pJYW-4-hom(m) -lysC(m) -brnFE was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ATCC13032, using metabolic engineering strategies. These strategies involved (i) deletion of the gene thrB encoding homoserine kinase to increase the precursor supply, (ii) deletion of the gene mcbR encoding the regulator McbR to release the transcriptional repression to various genes in the l-methionine biosynthetic pathway, (iii) overexpression of the gene lysC(m) encoding feedback-resistant aspartate kinase and the gene hom(m) encoding feedback-resistant homoserine dehydrogenase to further increase the precursor supply, and (iv) overexpression of the gene cluster brnF and brnE encoding the export protein complex BrnFE to increase extracellular l-methionine concentration. QW102/pJYW-4-hom(m) -lysC(m) -brnFE produced 42.2 mM (6.3 g/L) l-methionine after 64-H fed-batch fermentation. These results suggest that l-methionine-producing strains can be developed from wild-type C. glutamicum strains by rationally metabolic engineering.

  14. Pivotal role of anthranilate dioxygenase genes in the adaptation of Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616 in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Eri; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2012-05-01

    In our recent screen for soil-induced genes, the expression of andA operon (andAcAdAbAa) for anthranilate catabolism in Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 17616 was found to increase dramatically in a soil sample (Nishiyama et al., Environ Microbiol 12: 2539, 2010). The operon was preceded by andR encoding a putative transcriptional regulator for the andA operon. In this study, the andA promoter was induced by tryptophan and anthranilate in an andR-dependent manner. The andA promoter in a deletion mutant lacking tryptophan dioxygenase (one of enzymes for the catabolism of tryptophan to anthranilate) did not respond to tryptophan, indicating that not tryptophan but anthranilate is the effector of AndR. Although both anthranilate and tryptophan were under the detection levels in the soil sample, andA promoter showed higher activity in the soil sample than in a laboratory medium. Such induction required andR and was moderately dependent on the ferric uptake regulator (Fur). The proliferation ability of andAc mutant in the sterile soil was low compared with the co-incubated wild-type cells. These findings suggested that in the soil environment, anthranilate dioxygenase genes are induced by AndR and Fur, and play a pivotal role in the proliferation in the soil environment. PMID:22360670

  15. Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase from Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Giri, S; Khuller, G K

    1998-06-01

    A soluble Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase has been partially purified (approximately 400 fold) from Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607 using several purification steps like ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-60%), Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration, DEAE-cellulose and finally calmodulin-agarose affinity chromatography. On SDS-PAGE, this enzyme preparation showed a major protein band of molecular mass 35 kD and its activity was dependent on calcium, calmodulin and ATP when measured under saturating histone IIs (exogenous substrate) concentration. Phosphorylation of histone IIs was inhibited by W-7 (calmodulin inhibitor) and KN-62 (CaM-kinase inhibitor) with IC50 of 1.5 and 0.25 microm respectively, but was not affected by inhibitors of PKA (Sigma P5015) and PKC (H-7). All these results confirm that purified enzyme is Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase of M. smegmatis. The protein kinase of M. smegmatis demonstrated a narrow substrate specificity for both exogenous as well as endogenous substrates. These results suggest that purified CaM-kinase must be involved in regulating specific function(s) in this organism. PMID:9655195

  16. Uso do açafrão (Curcuma longa L. na redução da Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 em ricota The use of turmeric in the reduction of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048 in ricotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ribeiro Maia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o envolvimento de queijos como veículo de microrganismos patogênicos, foi avaliada a eficiência do extrato alcoólico de cúrcuma adicionado à ricota, na redução de Escherichia coli e Enterobacter aerogenes. Foram fabricados três lotes de ricota cremosa e inoculados com 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. Às ricotas, foram adicionados 0,4% de NaCl e extrato alcoólico de Curcuma longa L., em concentrações que variaram de 0,0% a 2,0%. As ricotas foram avaliadas físico-química e microbiologicamente em 0, 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. O percentual de umidade das ricotas foi, em média, de 73%. O pH médio observado foi de 5,4 e o percentual de gordura de 3%. Pelos resultados, evidenciou-se, após 21 dias, uma redução do número de Escherichia coli de aproximadamente dois ciclos logaritmicos nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Já para Enterobacter aerogenes, a redução foi menor, de aproximadamente um ciclo logaritmico, de 105 UFC/mL para 104 UFC/mL, também nos tratamentos utilizados de 0,5%, 1,0%, 1,5% e 2,0% de cúrcuma. Apesar de os resultados evidenciarem uma redução do número de células viáveis dos microrganismos avaliados, a cúrcuma não deverá ser o único meio preservativo, considerando uma contaminação inicial de 104 UFC/mL de Escherichia coli e 105 UFC/mL de Enterobacter aerogenes, pois não atenderia à legislação vigente quanto aos requisitos microbiológicos para queijos.Considering the cheese involvement as a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms it was evaluated the eficciency of the ethanolic turmeric extract added to ricotta, in the reduction of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Three lots of creamy ricotta were manufacturated and inoculated with 104 UFC/mL of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and 105 UFC/mL of Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048. It was added 0,4% of NaCl and

  17. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  18. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 for L-valine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jinyu; Dong, Xunyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an L-valine-producing strain was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 through deletion of the three genes aceE, alaT and ilvA combined with the overexpression of six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnF and brnE. Overexpression of lrp1 alone increased L-valine production by 16-fold. Deletion of the aceE, alaT and ilvA increased L-valine production by 44-fold. Overexpression of the six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnE and brnF in the triple deletion mutant WCC003 further increased L-valine production. The strain WCC003/pJYW-4-ilvBNC1-lrp1-brnFE produced 243mM L-valine in flask cultivation and 437mM (51g/L) L-valine in fed-batch fermentation and lacked detectable amino-acid byproduct such as l-alanine and l-isoleucine that are usually found in the fermentation of L-valine-producing C. glutamicum.

  19. Heterologous expression and localization of gentisate transporter Ncg12922 from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralstonia sp. strain U2 metabolizes naphthalene via gentisate (2,5-dihydroxybenzoate) to central metabolites, but it was found unable to utilize gentisate as growth substrate. A putative gentisate transporter encoded by ncg12922 from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was functionally expressed in Ralstonia sp. strain U2, converting strain U2 to a gentisate utilizer. After ncg12922 was inserted into plasmid pGFPe with green fluorescence protein gene gfp, the expressed fusion protein Ncg12922-GFP could be visualized in the periphery of Escherichia coli cells under confocal microscope, consistent with a cytoplasmic membrane location. In contrast, GFP was ubiquitous in the cytoplasm of E. coli cells carrying pGFPe only. Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity was present in the cell extract from strain U2 induced with gentisate but at a much lower level (one-fifth) than that obtained with salicylate. However, it exhibited a similar level in strain U2 containing Ncg12922 induced either by salicylate or gentisate

  20. Mutation of aspartic acid residues in the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D D; Jacques, N A

    1999-01-01

    The site-directed mutated fructosyltransferases (Ftfs) of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, D312E, D312S, D312N and D312K were all active at 37 degrees C, indicating that Asp-312 present in the 'sucrose box' was not the nucleophilic Asp residue responsible for the formation of a covalent fructosyl-enzyme intermediate required for enzyme activity. Analysis of the kinetic constants of the purified mutated forms of the enzyme showed that Asp-312 was most likely an essential amino acid involved in determining acceptor recognition and/or stabilizing a beta-turn in the protein. In contrast, when the Asp-397 of the Ftf present in the conserved triplet RDP motif of all 60 bacterial and plant family-32 glycosylhydrolases was mutated to a Ser residue, both sucrose hydrolysis and polymerization ceased. Tryptophan emission spectra confirmed that this mutation did not alter protein structure. Comparison of published data from other site-directed mutated enzymes implicated the Asp residue in the RDP motif as the one that may form a transient covalent fructosyl intermediate during the catalysis of sucrose by the Ftf of S. salivarius. PMID:10548559

  1. Evaluation of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 as a candidate for inclusion in a CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Arieli, B.; Nielsen, S. S.; Trumbo, P. R.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) have been proposed to make long-duration manned space flights more cost-effective. Higher plants will presumably provide food and a breathable atmosphere for the crew. It has been suggested that imbalances between the CO2/O2 gas exchange ratios of the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of the system will inevitably lead to an unstable system, and the loss of O2 from the atmosphere. Ratio imbalances may be corrected by including a second autotroph with an appropriate CO2/O2 gas exchange ratio. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a large unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium, exhibiting high growth rates under diverse physiological conditions. A rat-feeding study showed the biomass to be edible. Furthermore, it may have a CO2/O2 gas exchange ratio that theoretically can compensate for ratio imbalances. It is suggested that Cyanothece spp. could fulfill several roles in a CELSS: supplementing atmosphere recycling, generating fixed N from the air, providing a balanced protein supplement, and protecting a CELSS in case of catastrophic crop failure.

  2. Effect of Environmental Parameters on hydrogen Production using Clostridium Saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4(ATCC 13564

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Alalayah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hydrogen gas production by Clostridium can be improved by several ways through media formulation, or suitable environment condition. This study was carried out to investigate the environmental factors effects on hydrogen production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564. Approach: The environmental factor studied includes initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH, temperature, sparging nitrogen and addition of Fe2+. Results: The result showed that the best yield of hydrogen produced (YP/S was 3.10 moL (moL glucose-1 when an initial glucose concentration was 10 g L-1, initial pH 6.0±0.2 at temperature 37°C. The volume of hydrogen produced was decreased when higher initial glucose concentration was applied. The yield of hydrogen increased when Fe2+ added to medium at concentration of 25 mg L-1. The yield and growth were further increased by sparging with nitrogen gas. Conclusion: It was observed that the best condition for highest hydrogen yield when initial pH 6.0±0.2 at 37°C and enhanced by adding ferrous sulfate in anaerobic process.

  3. Effect of fermentation conditions on the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920

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    Nicole Caldas Pan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 with varying rates of pH (6.0, 7.0, 8.0, temperature (34; 37; 40°C, agitation (100, 150, 200 rpm, glucose (10, 20, 30 g L-1 and yeast extract concentration (10, 20, 30 g L-1 was evaluated by statistical approaches. The best conditions for the production of hyaluronic acid was pH 8.0, 37°C and 100 rpm in a medium containing 30 g L-1 glucose and yeast extract, for a production of 0.787 g L-1. Temperature, pH and yeast extract were significant variables (p < 0.05. Yeast extract and pH had a positive effect on the production of the polymer. Lactate, formate and acetate synthesis were also analyzed. Current assay showed the feasibility of statistical tools to optimize the physical and nutritional parameters for the production of hyaluronic acid and the improvement of the fermentation process.

  4. Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305 is internalized into human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Kleine, Britta; Anders, Agnes; Kaase, Martin; Sakinç, Türkân; Schmitz, Inge; Gatermann, Sören

    2008-08-01

    Invasion of bacteria into nonphagocytic host cells is an important pathogenicity factor for escaping the host defence system. Gram-positive organisms, for example Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, are invasive in nonphagocytic cells, and this mechanism is discussed as an important part of the infection process. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus can cause acute and recurrent urinary tract infections as well as bloodstream infections. Staphylococcus saprophyticus shows strong adhesion to human urinary bladder carcinoma and Hep2 cells and expresses the 'Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix molecule' (MSCRAMM)-protein SdrI with collagen-binding activity. MSCRAMMs are responsible for adhesion and collagen binding in S. aureus and are discussed as an important pathogenicity factor for invasion. To investigate internalization in S. aureus, several fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assays have been described recently. We used a previously described FACS assay, with slight modifications, in addition to an antibiotic protection assay and transmission electron microscopy to show that S. saprophyticus ATCC 15305 and the wild-type strain 7108 were internalized into the human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. The discovery of the internalization of S. saprophyticus may be an important step for understanding the pathogenicity of recurrent infections caused by this organism.

  5. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  6. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  7. Isolation and characterisation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from Prevotella loescheii ATCC 15930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreeda, Y; Hayakawa, M; Ikemi, T; Abiko, Y

    2001-08-01

    A proline-specific dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5), was purified from a cell sonicate soluble fraction of Prevotella loescheii ATCC 15930 by sequential column chromatography. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated as 160 kDa by high-pressure liquid gel filtration column chromatography and unheated sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The subunit molecular mass was 80 kDa when the enzyme was heated to 100 degrees C in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol before SDS-PAGE, suggesting that the native enzyme consists of two identical subunits and is folded in 2% SDS. The optimum pH, with glycyl-prolyl-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide as the substrate, was 8.0; the isoelectric point was 5.2. Purified enzyme showed a strong preference for dipeptide substrates containing proline and, less efficiently, alanine in the P1 position. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), and serine proteinase inhibitor di-isopropylfluorophosphate. PMID:11389867

  8. Optimization of probiotic lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 production using date powder as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahravy A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to optimize culture conditions for economic production of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, in which palm date powder was applied for the first time as a low-cost main carbon source. The effect of eleven factors on bacterial growth was investigated using the Taguchi experimental design, and three factors including palm date powder, tryptone and agitation rate were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum conditions including date powder concentration, 38 g/L; tryptone concentration, 30 g/L; and an agitation rate of 320 rpm were determined by response surface methodology of Box-Behnken. A third-order polynomial model was suggested to predict the design space following which the predicted values were validated experimentally. The maximum log value of the viable cells in the optimized alternative medium was 9.97 at 24 h of incubation which was comparable to that obtained in the complex and expensive MRS medium (10.06.

  9. Proteome data to explore the impact of pBClin15 on Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Jean-Paul; Alpha-Bazin, Béatrice; Armengaud, Jean; Omer, Hélène; Duport, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    This data article reports changes in the cellular and exoproteome of B. cereus cured from pBClin15.Time-course changes of proteins were assessed by high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS. We report all the peptides and proteins identified and quantified in B. cereus with and without pBClin15. Proteins were classified into functional groups using the information available in the KEGG classification and we reported their abundance in term of normalized spectral abundance factor. The repertoire of experimentally confirmed proteins of B. cereus presented here is the largest ever reported, and provides new insights into the interplay between pBClin15 and its host B. cereus ATCC 14579. The data reported here is related to a published shotgun proteomics analysis regarding the role of pBClin15, "Deciphering the interactions between the Bacillus cereus linear plasmid, pBClin15, and its host by high-throughput comparative proteomics" Madeira et al. [1]. All the associated mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/), with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD001568, PRIDE: PXD002788 and PRIDE: PXD002789. PMID:27547804

  10. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116 Vanillin Dehydrogenase and Its Impact on the Biotechnical Production of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDHATCC 39116). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vani...

  11. Genomic and Genetic Characterization of the Bile Stress Response of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Kristi; Versalovic, James; Roos, Stefan; Britton, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression changes that occur when the organism is exposed to physiological concentrations of bile. A wide va...

  12. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC) were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were i...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of the aklavinone 11-hydroxylase gene of Streptomyces peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y S; Hwang, C K; Hong, S. K.; Kim, Y.H.(Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejon, 305-811, Korea); Lee, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding aklavinone 11-hydroxylase of Streptomyces peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene contains at least two common motifs of well-conserved amino acid sequences of several flavin-type bacterial hydroxylases. The hydroxylase gene is apparently transcribed from a single transcriptional start point. The phenotype of a dnrF mutant generated by gene disruption supports the idea that the dnrF gene encodes aklavinone 11-...

  14. In vitro and in vivo activities of ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with different surface charges against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Amir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Different studies have shown that entrapment of antibiotics into liposomes could increase their anti-Pseudomonas activity. The objectives of this study were to prepare ticarcillin loaded-nanoliposomes with variable surface charges and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 29248. Methods Ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, negative and neutral surface charges were prepared by extrusion method. Ticarcillin encapsulation efficacies for different formulations were measured by HPLC method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ticarcillin nanoliposomal forms against strain ATCC 29248 were determined by broth dilution method. The killing rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was exposed to various concentrations of ticarcillin in free and nanoliposomal forms were analyzed. Ultimately, in vivo therapeutic efficacy of nanoliposomes in burned mice skin infected with strain ATCC 29248 was investigated. Results The encapsulation efficacies for ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were significantly higher (76% ± 0.17 than those of neutral (55% ± 0.14 and anionic (43% ± 0.14 nanoliposomes. The MIC of free, cationic, neutral and anionic nanoliposomal forms of ticarcillin against ATCC 29248 were to 24, 3, 6 and 48 mg/L, respectively. The killing rates of ticarcillin-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were higher than those of free and other drug formulations. Treatment by ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, neutral and negative surface charges resulted in almost 100, 60 and 20% survival rates, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggested that cationic ticarcillin-loaded nanoliposomes because of high effectiveness would be a good choice to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

  15. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  16. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers’ Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers’ spent grain (BSG into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46% glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g, 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  17. Microbial Corrosion of API 5L X-70 Carbon Steel by ATCC 7757 and Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various cases of accidents involving microbiology influenced corrosion (MIC were reported by the oil and gas industry. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB have always been linked to MIC mechanisms as one of the major causes of localized corrosion problems. In this study, SRB colonies were isolated from the soil in suspected areas near the natural gas transmission pipeline in Malaysia. The effects of ATCC 7757 and consortium of isolated SRB upon corrosion on API 5L X-70 carbon steel coupon were investigated using a weight loss method, an open circuit potential method (OCP, and a potentiodynamic polarization curves method in anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS were then used to determine the corrosion morphology in verifying the SRB activity and corrosion products formation. Results from the study show that the corrosion rate (CR of weight loss method for the isolated SRB is recorded as 0.2017 mm/yr compared to 0.2530 mm/yr for ATCC 7757. The Tafel plot recorded the corrosion rate of 0.3290 mm/yr for Sg. Ular SRB and 0.2500 mm/yr for Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results showed that the consortia of isolated SRB were of comparable effects and features with the single ATCC 7757 strain.

  18. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; da Silva, Patrícia Bento; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; de Oliveira Lopes, Érica; de Souza, Leonardo Perez; Vilegas, Wagner; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae) includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804) was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase). The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the nanostructure-incorporated extract of A. urundeuva leaves was more effective than both the unincorporated extract and the antifungal positive control (amphotericin B). These results suggest that this nanostructured lipid system can be used in a strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo anti-C. albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of Astronium sp. PMID:26300640

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system plus PDT against intracanal Candida albicans: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Garcia de MIRANDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ex vivoantimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system and the photodynamic therapy (PDT associated with chemomechanical debridement (CMD and intracanal medication on Candida albicans. Seventy-eight sterile premolars were contaminated withC. albicans (ATCC 21433 for 30 days. The teeth were randomly assigned into four groups: Control (CMD with conventional irrigation; Endovac (CMD with EndoVac system; PDT (CMD with conventional irrigation and PDT; and Endovac + PDT (CMD with EndoVac and PDT. After the therapies, intracanal dressing (calcium hydroxide was applied to all teeth for seven days. Samples were obtained before (T1 and after the therapeutic procedures (T2, and after intracanal medication (T3, plated onto BHI agar and incubated (37°C, 48 h to determine the colony-forming units (CFU/mL. The overall mean level ofC. albicans at baseline was relatively high (1.85 x 106 ± 2.7 x 106 CFU mL-1. A significant reduction of C. albicans(p < 0.05 was observed over time (T1 to T2 and T1 to T3 in all groups. An additional significant reduction from T2 to T3 was observed only in the Endovac group (p < 0.05. No differences in mean reduction of C. albicans were observed among groups. However, the Endovac group presented the lowest mean counts of C. albicans at T3, whereas the PDT group had the highest counts of this microorganism (p < 0.05. The EndoVac system of irrigation/aspiration associated with CMD was the most effective therapeutic protocol for reducing intracanal levels of C. albicans. PDT showed a very limited efficacy against this species.

  20. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  2. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  3. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

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    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  4. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Dos Santos, Leandro Vieira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  5. Antibacterial activity of antagonistic bacterium Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 against phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W J; Mabood, F; Souleimanov, A; Whyte, L G; Niederberger, T D; Smith, D L

    2014-12-01

    To investigate antibacterial activity against the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 (Cmm ATCC 7429), Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 was isolated from rhizosphere soil. For isolation of bacteria, samples were taken from rhizosphere soil. The isolate, DJA-51, had strong antagonistic ability against Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 on nutrient-broth yeast extract agar (NBYA) as indicated by inhibition zones around colonies. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a conserved segment of the 16S rRNA gene, the bacterium has been identified as B. subtilis DJM-51. The growth of Cmm ATCC 7429 on NBYA plates was inhibited by culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51 including cells, by the supernatant of culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51, and by the liquid material resulting from butanol extract of bacterial cultures. The OD value in co-culture mixture was lower than the control throughout the entire incubation period. Antibiotics obtained from B. subtilis DJM-51 inhibited the growth of Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429. These results provide potentially information about the protection of tomato from pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 under greenhouse conditions in Quebec. PMID:25457795

  6. Influência da co-agregação entre Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH = Influence of the co-aggregation between Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus on the adhesion capacity these microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC

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    Simone Américo Etgeton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da co-agregação in vitro entre Candida albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH. Foram utilizados um isolado vaginal de C. albicans e uma cepa ATCC de L. acidophilus. Uma suspensão de cada microrganismo isoladamente e do coagregado foram incubados com as CEVH obtidas de uma doadora saudável. Foram feitos esfregaços por cristal violeta e Papanicolaou, e o número de leveduras, lactobacilos ou coagregados aderidos às células foi contado (em 300 células superficiais-CS e 300 intermediárias-CI. A Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi realizada em todas as situações dos ensaios.Leveduras e lactobacilos aderiram fortemente as CEVH, tanto em CS quanto em CI. A coagregação levou a um aumento na capacidade de adesão das leveduras (p 0,05. Havendo correlação com o que acontece in vivo, probióticos à base de L. acidophillus e mesmo uma flora lactobacilar vaginal não surtiriam efeito protetor contra a adesão de C. albicans as CEVH e do possível desenvolvimento de candidíase vulvovaginal.This work has aimed to evaluate the influence of the L. acidophilus and Candida albicans co-aggregation on the adhesion capacity this microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC. One vaginal isolated of C. albicans and one ATCC strain of L. acidophilus was used. A suspension of the isolated and co-aggregated microorganisms was incubated with HVEC obtained from a healthy donor. After one hour, smears were made with crystal violet and Papanicolaou, and the number of yeasts adhered to HVEC was evaluated (300 superficial-SC and 300 intermediate cells-IC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was made in all situations of the assays. Yeasts and lactobacilli adhered strongly to the HEVC, both SC and IC. The co-aggregation there was an increase in the adhesion capacity of the yeasts (p 0

  7. Coaggregation of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Dashper, Stuart; Catmull, Deanne; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent. PMID:26054855

  8. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

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    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  9. Comparison of the effect of rose bengal- and eosin Y-mediated photodynamic inactivation on planktonic cells and biofilms of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Beltrame Junior, Milton; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2014-05-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast that can cause oral candidosis through the formation of a biofilm, an important virulence factor that compromises the action of antifungal agents. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of rose bengal (RB)- and eosin Y (EY)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using a green light-emitting diode (LED; 532 ± 10 nm) on planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans (ATCC 18804). Planktonic cultures were treated with photosensitizers at concentrations ranging from 0.78 to 400 μM, and biofilms were treated with 200 μM of photosensitizers. The number of colony-forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) was compared by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.05). After treatment, one biofilm specimen of the control and PDI groups were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The photosensitizers (6.25, 25, 50, 200, and 400 μM of EY, and 6.25 μM of RB or higher) significantly reduced the number of CFU/mL in the PDI groups when compared to the control group. With respect to biofilm formation, RB- and EY-mediated PDI promoted reductions of 0.22 log10 and 0.45 log10, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the two photosensitizers reduced fungal structures. In conclusion, EY- and RB-mediated PDI using LED irradiation significantly reduced C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilms.

  10. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  11. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  12. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (Ptreatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  13. Metabolic flux analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagesan, Swathi; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Sinha, Avinash; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes capable of utilizing solar energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide to biomass. Despite several "proof of principle" studies, low product yield is an impediment in commercialization of cyanobacteria-derived biofuels. Estimation of intracellular reaction rates by (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) would be a step toward enhancing biofuel yield via metabolic engineering. We report (13)C-MFA for Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, known for enhanced hydrogen yield under mixotrophic conditions. Rates of reactions in the central carbon metabolism under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions were estimated by monitoring the competitive incorporation of (12)C and (13)C from unlabeled CO2 and uniformly labeled glycerol, respectively, into terminal metabolites such as amino acids. The observed labeling patterns suggest mixotrophic growth under both the conditions, with a larger fraction of unlabeled carbon in nitrate-sufficient cultures asserting a greater contribution of carbon fixation by photosynthesis and an anaplerotic pathway. Indeed, flux analysis complements the higher growth observed under nitrate-sufficient conditions. On the other hand, the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle was greater in nitrate-deficient conditions, possibly to supply the precursors and reducing equivalents needed for nitrogen fixation. In addition, an enhanced flux through fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase possibly suggests the organism's preferred mode under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The (13)C-MFA results complement the reported predictions by flux balance analysis and provide quantitative insight into the organism's distinct metabolic features under nitrogen-fixing and -non-fixing conditions.

  14. DNA Sequence and Comparison of Virulence Plasmids from Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Shinji; Hines, Stephen A.; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra A.; Osaki, Makoto; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mutsu; Suzuki, Kayo; Ogino, Nobuko; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Dan, Hanhong; Prescott, John F.

    2000-01-01

    The virulence plasmids of the equine virulent strains Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103 were sequenced, and their genetic structure was analyzed. p33701 was 80,610 bp in length, and p103 was 1 bp shorter; their sequences were virtually identical. The plasmids contained 64 open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of which were homologous with genes of known function and 3 of which were homologous with putative genes of unknown function in other species. Putative functions were assigned to five ORFs based on protein family characteristics. The most striking feature of the virulence plasmids was the presence of a 27,536-bp pathogenicity island containing seven virulence-associated protein (vap) genes, including vapA. These vap genes have extensive homology to vapA, which encodes a thermoregulated and surface-expressed protein. The pathogenicity island contained a LysR family transcriptional regulator and a two-component response regulator upstream of six of the vap genes. The vap genes were present as a cluster of three (vapA, vapC, and vapD), as a pair (vapE and vapF), or individually (vapG; vapH). A region of extensive direct repeats of unknown function, possibly associated with thermoregulation, was present immediately upstream of the clustered and the paired genes but not the individual vap genes. There was extensive homology among the C-terminal halves of all vap genes but not generally among the N-terminal halves. The remainder of the plasmid consisted of a large region which appears to be associated with conjugation functions and a large region which appears to be associated with replication and partitioning functions. PMID:11083803

  15. Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 possesses at least two genes coding for primer-independent glucosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C L; Giffard, P M; Jacques, N A

    1995-01-01

    Fractionation of the culture medium showed that Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 secreted a glucosyltransferase (Gtf) that was primer independent. On the basis of this observation, a gene library of S. salivarius chromosomal DNA cloned into lambda L47.1 was screened for a gene(s) coding for such an activity. As a result of this screening process, two new gtf genes, gtfL and gtfM, both of which coded for primer-independent Gtf activities, were isolated. GtfL produced an insoluble glucan that was refractory to digestion by the endo-(1-->6)-alpha-D-glucanase. of Chaetonium gracile, while GtfM produced a soluble glucan that was readily degraded by the glucanase. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of gtfL and gtfM with 10 other available Gtf sequences allowed the relatedness of the conserved catalytic regions to be assessed. This analysis showed that the 12 enzymes did not form clusters based on their primer dependencies or on their product solubilities. Further analysis of the YG repeats in the C-terminal glucan-binding domains of GtfJ, GtfK, GtfL, and GtfM from S. salivarius showed that there was strong homology between a block of contiguous triplet YG repeats present in the four alleles. These blocks of YG repeats were coded for by a region of each gene that appeared to have arisen as a result of a recent duplication event(s). PMID:7822030

  16. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis.

  17. Regulation of Three Nitrogenase Gene Clusters in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413

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    Teresa Thiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts that form in response to an environmental deficiency in combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is mediated by the enzyme nitrogenase, which is very sensitive to oxygen. Heterocysts are microxic cells that allow nitrogenase to function in a filament comprised primarily of vegetative cells that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. A. variabilis is unique among well-characterized cyanobacteria in that it has three nitrogenase gene clusters that encode different nitrogenases, which function under different environmental conditions. The nif1 genes encode a Mo-nitrogenase that functions only in heterocysts, even in filaments grown anaerobically. The nif2 genes encode a different Mo-nitrogenase that functions in vegetative cells, but only in filaments grown under anoxic conditions. An alternative V-nitrogenase is encoded by vnf genes that are expressed only in heterocysts in an environment that is deficient in Mo. Thus, these three nitrogenases are expressed differentially in response to environmental conditions. The entire nif1 gene cluster, comprising at least 15 genes, is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Transcriptional control of many of the downstream nif1 genes occurs by a combination of weak promoters within the coding regions of some downstream genes and by RNA processing, which is associated with increased transcript stability. The vnf genes show a similar pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression suggesting that the complex pattern of regulation of the nif1 cluster is conserved in other cyanobacterial nitrogenase gene clusters.

  18. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC19707

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, M G; Arp, D J; Chain, P S; El-Sheikh, A F; Hauser, L J; Hommes, N G; Larimer, F W; Malfatti, S A; Norton, J M; Poret-Peterson, A T; Vergez, L M; Ward, B B

    2006-08-03

    The Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707), is a Gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; 50.4% G+C) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins necessary for the function of known modes of lithotrophy and autotrophy were identified. In contrast to betaproteobacterial nitrifier genomes, the N. oceani genome contained two complete rrn operons. In contrast, only one copy of the genes needed to synthesize functional ammonia monooxygenase and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, as well as the proteins that relay the extracted electrons to a terminal electron acceptor were identified. The N. oceani genome contained genes for 13 complete two-component systems. The genome also contained all the genes needed to reconstruct complete central pathways, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnass and pentose phosphate pathways. The N. oceani genome contains the genes required to store and utilize energy from glycogen inclusion bodies and sucrose. Polyphosphate and pyrophosphate appear to be integrated in this bacterium's energy metabolism, stress tolerance and the ability to assimilate carbon via gluconeogenesis. One set of genes for type I RuBisCO was identified, while genes necessary for methanotrophy and for carboxysome formation were not identified. The N. oceani genome contains two copies each of the genes or operons necessary to assemble functional complexes I and IV as well as ATP synthase (one H{sup +}-dependent F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-type, one Na{sup +}-dependent V-type).

  19. Use of Amorolfine in Candida- associated Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis (DS is an inflammatory lesion, in which there is redness of theoral mucosa underneath a removable denture. Although Candida albicans is a component ofnormal microbial flora, local and systemic factors can cause opportunistic infections. Poorlyfitting or unhygienic dentures leads to the presence of yeasts attached to it., and causeinflammation. Treatment procedures include correction of ill-fitting dentures, plaquecontrol, and topical and systemic antifungal therapy. Nystatin and Amphoteresin B are usedtopically as suspension. Since candidiasis is highly resistant to antifungal agents, systemicusage of ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole are necessary. But the systemic use ofthese drugs can cause side effects like liver toxicity, drug interactions etc. Lucio; Lorengoetal had conducted a study of the efficacy of amorolfine antifungal varnish, by localapplication, and found that it suppresses the nystatin resistant Candida associated denturestomatitis.

  20. Macrophage phagocytosis of Candida albicans. An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEINFELD Ilan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of macrophages in relation to fungi and the various utilized methodologies, the authors established an in vitro model to evaluate macrophage phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Activated macrophages were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of isogenic mice (A/Sn. Two different strains of Candida albicans serotype A and serotype B with different levels of pathogenicity in vivo and other similar characteristics were utilized in the study. Several microscopic fields containing about 200 macrophages were counted. The percentage of macrophages phagocytizing at least one viable or nonviable yeast cell determined an average number of phagocytized yeasts. Neutral red and fluorescein diacetate plus ethidium bromide were used for staining. It is possible to conclude that this is an efficient model related to the used methodology. The average number of yeasts in both strains were similar when inside macrophages, and there was a higher percentage of C. albicans serotype A phagocytosis, which was not experimentally pathogenic in vivo.

  1. Phenotypic consequences of LYS4 gene disruption in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Kur, Krzysztof; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Pulickal, Anoop S; Bliss, Joseph M; Milewski, Sławomir

    2014-08-01

    A BLAST search of the Candida Genome Database with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYS4 sequence known to encode homoaconitase (HA) revealed ORFs 19.3846 and 19.11327. Both alleles of the LYS4 gene were sequentially disrupted in Candida albicans BWP17 cells using PCR-based methodology. The null lys4Δ mutant exhibited lysine auxotrophy in minimal medium but was able to grow in the presence of l-Lys and α-aminoadipate, an intermediate of the α-aminoadipate pathway, at millimolar concentrations. The presence of d-Lys and pipecolic acid did not trigger lys4Δ growth. The C. albicans lys4Δ mutant cells demonstrated diminished germination ability. However, their virulence in vivo in a murine model of disseminated neonatal candidiasis appeared identical to that of the wild-type strain. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in fungal burden of infected tissues between the strains.

  2. Characterization of extracellular nucleotide metabolism in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gonçalves, Teresa; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of human disseminated fungal infection. Ectophosphatase and ectonucleotidase activities are known to influence the infectious potential of several microbes, including other non-albicans species of Candida. With the present work we aim to characterize these ecto-enzymatic activities in C. albicans. We found that C. albicans does not have a classical ecto-5'-nucleotidase enzyme and 5'AMP is cleaved by a phosphatase instead of exclusively by a nucleotidase that also can use 3'AMP as a substrate. Moreover, these enzymatic activities are not dependent on secreted soluble enzymes and change when the yeast cells are under infection conditions, including low pH, and higher temperature and CO2 content.

  3. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  4. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  5. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and osteomyelitis associated with CARD9 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas; Garcez, Tomaz; Newman, William; Denning, David

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with unilateral red eye and visual blur, and was found to have panuveitis with an inflammatory white mass at the macula, initially presumed to be Toxoplasma retinitis. After failure to respond, she underwent vitrectomy, which produced Candida albicans. Despite intraocular and systemic antifungal treatment, she lost all vision in that eye. Two years later, she developed unilateral hip osteomyelitis leading to total hip replacement and also revealing Candida infection. By clinical exome sequencing, she was then found to have caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder that causes a specific susceptibility to candidal infections. She remains otherwise well but on lifelong fluconazole prophylaxis. PMID:26941346

  6. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.

  7. New type of antibody-enzyme conjugate which specifically kills Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, K; Ishiwara, K; Noguchi, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Tadokoro, I

    1980-01-01

    A new type of antibody-enzyme conjugate was made, and its possible application to Candida infection was studied. Both lactoperoxidase and xanthine oxidase were conjugated to specific antibody against Candida albicans. In vitro microbiocidal activity of the new antibody-enzyme conjugate, when incubated together with xanthine and minute amount of halides, showed a remarkable level of candidacidal ability. When the new antibody-enzyme conjugate was given to Candida-infected mice, followed by inj...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna; Shilpa Patel; Madhusudan Astekar Sundarrao; Ravindra Setru Veerabhadrappa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additio...

  9. In vitro study of the antifungal potential of Lamiaceae hydroalcoholic extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants is an ancient practice, but recently there is an increasing interest towards the evaluation of their bioactive properties. Opportunistic fungal infections, linked with higher rates of fungal resistance to the current antifungal drugs, have deserved special relevance in the last decades. Candida albicans was identified as the main responsible agent for those infections, but other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been also found [1]. Thus,...

  10. In vitro study of the antifungal potential of Apiaceae hydroalcoholic extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia Carina

    2014-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants is an ancient practice, but recently there is an increasing interest towards the evaluation of their bioactive properties. Opportunistic fungal infections, linked with higher rates of fungal resistance to the current antifungal drugs, have deserved special relevance in the last decades. Candida albicans was identified as the main responsible agent for those infections, but other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been also found [1]. Thus, it is urgen...

  11. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan,, V.; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  12. The Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Isolated From Urine Samples to Posaconazole and Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; REZAEI-MATEHKOLAEI, Ali; Ghanavati, Fataemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candiduria is a rising condition among hospitalized patients and Candida albicans is the most common recovered agent. However, non-albicans Candida species (NACs) such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also important. Although most Candida species especially C. albicans are sensitive to routinely used antifungals, an increasing trend in resistance has been observed among NACs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility...

  13. Changing trends of candida species in neonatal septicaemia in a tertiary North Indian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and fifty four blood samples of clinically diagnosed septicemic neonates were collected over a period of six months from the neonatal ICU of Kalawati Saran Children Hospital, New Delhi. 144 samples were culture positive; out of which 50 (34.7% were Candida isolates. 92% isolates were Candida tropicalis, 4% were C. albicans and C. kefyr each. The study emphasises the changing pattern of Candida species and their importance in blood stream infections in neonates.

  14. Changing trends of candida species in neonatal septicaemia in a tertiary North Indian hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rani R; Mohapatra N; Mehta G; Randhawa V

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred and fifty four blood samples of clinically diagnosed septicemic neonates were collected over a period of six months from the neonatal ICU of Kalawati Saran Children Hospital, New Delhi. 144 samples were culture positive; out of which 50 (34.7%) were Candida isolates. 92% isolates were Candida tropicalis, 4% were C. albicans and C. kefyr each. The study emphasises the changing pattern of Candida species and their importance in blood stream infections in neonates.

  15. Changing trends of Candida species in neonatal septicaemia in a tertiary North Indian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R; Mohapatra, N P; Mehta, G; Randhawa, V S

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred and fifty four blood samples of clinically diagnosed septicemic neonates were collected over a period of six months from the neonatal ICU of Kalawati Saran Children Hospital, New Delhi. 144 samples were culture positive; out of which 50 (34.7%) were Candida isolates. 92% isolates were Candida tropicalis, 4% were C. albicans and C. kefyr each. The study emphasises the changing pattern of Candida species and their importance in blood stream infections in neonates. PMID:17657024

  16. Effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy for the Inactivation of Candida spp. on Dentures: In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Dovigo, Livia Nordi; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the inactivation of different species of Candida on maxillary complete dentures. Background data: The treatment of denture stomatitis requires the inactivation of Candida spp. on dentures. PDT has been reported as an effective method for Candida inactivation. Methods: Reference strains of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei were tested. Thirty-four dentures were fabr...

  17. Determination of MICs of Aminocandin for Candida spp. and Filamentous Fungi▿

    OpenAIRE

    Isham, N.; Ghannoum, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Candida and Aspergillus spp., as well as other filamentous molds, have increasingly been reported as the causes of severe invasive fungal infections. We evaluated the new echinocandin aminocandin (AMN) for its antifungal activities against a range of fungal pathogens by determination of the MICs for the organisms. The MICs of the comparator drugs amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin, and voriconazole were also determined. The MICs of AMN for 25 strains each of non-Candida albicans Candida ...

  18. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  19. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipi...

  20. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Altunhan, Hüseyin; Annagür, Ali; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Konak, Murat; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Örs, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolism disorder. The frequency of sepsis significantly increases in patients with galactosemia. The most common agent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungus in patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candida is an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive care units especially in newborns with underlying risk factors such as prematurity and low birth weight. Although the most common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. c...

  1. Expression of surface hydrophobic proteins by Candida albicans in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Glee, P M; Sundstrom, P; Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    Candida albicans modulates cell surface hydrophobicity during growth and morphogenesis in vitro. To determine if surface hydrophobicity is expressed during pathogenesis, we generated a polyclonal antiserum against yeast hydrophobic proteins. The antiserum was then used for indirect immunofluorescence analysis of tissues from mice colonized and chronically infected with C. albicans. Results demonstrated that yeast hydrophobic proteins are exposed on fungal cells present in host tissues. The po...

  2. Improved assay for surface hydrophobic avidity of Candida albicans cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; LeMelle, W G

    1990-01-01

    A simple method that distinguishes among hydrophobic avidity levels of highly hydrophobic isolates of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is described. This method involves mixing polystyrene microspheres at different concentrations with a constant concentration of yeast cells and plotting the data in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm equation. A 10-fold difference between the C. albicans isolates with the lowest and highest avidity (KH) values was found. This method may also demonstra...

  3. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  4. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  5. Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pereira-Cenci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic progress, opportunistic oral fungal infectious diseases have increased in prevalence, especially in denture wearers. The combination of entrapment of yeast cells in irregularities in denture-base and denture-relining materials, poor oral hygiene and several systemic factors is the most probable cause for the onset of this infectious disease. Hence colonization and growth on prostheses by Candida species are of clinical importance. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss several key factors controlling the adhesion of Candida species which are relevant to denture-associated stomatitis. Although there is some consensus on the role of surface properties, studies on several other factors, as the use of denture liners, salivary properties and yeast-bacterial interactions, have shown contradictory findings. A comprehensive fundamental understanding is hampered by conflicting findings due to the large variations in experimental protocols, while other factors have never been thoroughly studied. Surface free energy and surface roughness control the initial adherence, but temporal changes have not been reported. Neither have in vivo studies shown if the substratum type is critical in dictating biofilm accumulation during longer periods in the oral environment. The contribution of saliva is unclear due to factors like variations in its collection and handling. Initial findings have disclosed that also bacteria are crucial for the successful establishment of Candida in biofilms, but the clinical significance of this observation is yet to be confirmed. In conclusion, there is a need to standardize experimental procedures, to bridge the gap between laboratory and in vivo methodologies and findings and - in general - to thoroughly investigate the factors that modulate the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of denture-base materials and the oral mucosa of patients subjected to Candida infections. Information on how

  6. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  7. Purpurin Triggers Caspase-Independent Apoptosis in Candida dubliniensis Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Wai-Kei Tsang; Alan Pak-Kin Wong; Hai-Ping Yang; Ngai-For Li

    2013-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an important human fungal pathogen that causes oral infections in patients with AIDS and diabetes mellitus. However, C. Dubliniensis has been frequently reported in bloodstream infections in clinical settings. Like its phylogenetically related virulent species C. albicans, C. Dubliniensis is able to grow and switch between yeast form and filamentous form (hyphae) and develops biofilms on both abiotic and biotic surfaces. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antifungal therapie...

  8. Candida albicans specializations for iron homeostasis: from commensalism to virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal-pathogen that persistently associates with its mammalian hosts. Between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles, this microorganism inhabits host niches that differ markedly in the levels of bioavailable iron. A number of recent studies have exposed C. albicans specializations for acquiring iron from specific host molecules in regions where iron is scarce, while also defending against iron-related toxicity in regions where iron occurs in surfeit. Togethe...

  9. Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair J P Brown; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gow, Neil A R

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, s...

  10. Candida rugosa Lipase-catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxyalkanephosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永辉; 徐成富; 李晋峰; 袁承业

    2003-01-01

    An efficient lipase-catalyzedenantioselective hydrolysis of butyryloxyalkanephosphonates in water-equillbrated diisopropyl ether was developed. The relationship between the substrates' structure and the reactivity, as well as the enantioselectivlty of this enzymatic transformation was studied. The catalytic preference of crude Candida rugosa lipase toward such molecules was assigned according to modified Mosher's method and Xray crystallographic analysis. Optically pure 2-hydroxy-2-arylethanephosphonates, 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanephosphonate, and 3, 3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanephosphonates were conveniently prepared in this manner.

  11. Evaluation of in vivo pathogenicity of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis with different enzymatic profiles in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Elizondo-Zertuche, M; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; González, José G; González, Gloria M

    2014-04-01

    Six isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex with different enzymatic profiles were used to induce systemic infection in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Fungal tissue burden was determined on days 2, 5, 10, and 15 post challenge. The highest fungal load irrespective of post-infection day was detected in the kidney, followed by the spleen, lung, and liver, with a tendency for the fungal burden to decrease by day 15 in all groups. Significant differences among the strains were not detected, suggesting that the three species of the "psilosis" group possess a similar pathogenic potential in disseminated candidiasis regardless of their enzymatic profiles.

  12. Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea, in contrast to other Candida species, bind iC3b and C3d but not C3b.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenreich, F; Dierich, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    It was demonstrated that complement-coated sheep erythrocytes bind to Candida albicans cells grown in serum-free RPMI 1640 medium. Testing of purified complement components proved that iC3b and C3d were responsible for the reaction, whereas C3b and C3b-H reacted only slightly if at all. Binding occurred only to C. albicans and C. stellatoidea, not to other species pathogenic to humans. There was evidence of a lectinlike nature of the effect.

  13. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species.

  14. Regulation of filamentation in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyu; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Yue, Huizhen; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Dai, Yu; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    The yeast-filament transition is essential for the virulence of a variety of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a potent inducer of filamentation in Candida albicans and thermally dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. However, GlcNAc suppresses rather than promotes filamentation in Candida tropicalis, a fungal species that is closely related to C. albicans. Despite the intensive study in C. albicans, the regulatory mechanism of filamentation is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. By screening an overexpression library of 156 transcription factors, we have identified approximately 40 regulators of filamentous growth. Although most of the regulators (e.g., Tec1, Gat2, Nrg1, Sfl1, Sfl2 and Ash1) demonstrate a conserved role in the regulation of filamentation, similar to their homologues in C. albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of transcription factors (e.g., Wor1, Bcr1, Stp4, Efh1, Csr1 and Zcf17) play a specific role in C. tropicalis. Our findings indicate that multiple interconnected signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. These mechanisms have conserved and divergent features among different Candida species. PMID:26466925

  15. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27074245

  17. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing nosocomial candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhak-Baysan, Betil; Ogunc, Dilara; Colak, Dilek; Ongut, Gozde; Donmez, Levent; Vural, Tumer; Gunseren, Filiz

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of Candida species isolated from urine specimens of hospitalized patients in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, as well as their susceptibilities to antifungal agents. A total of 100 patients who had nosocomial candiduria between March 2003 and May 2004 at the facility were included in the study. Organisms were identified by conventional methods and the use of API ID 32C strips. Susceptibilities of the isolates to amphotericin B were determined by Etest, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these same strains to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were assessed using the broth microdilution method. The most common species recovered was C. albicans 44% of all yeasts, followed by C. tropicalis (20%), C. glabrata (18%), C. krusei (6%), C. famata (5%), C. parapsilosis (4%), C. kefyr (2%) and C. guilliermondii (1%). A total of nine (9%) of the isolates, including five C. krusei and four C. glabrata isolates were susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) to fluconazole. In constrast, only two C. glabrata and one C. krusei isolates were resistant to this antifungal. The voriconazole MICs for all Candida isolates were ≤0.5 μg/ml, except for one C. glabrata isolate with a MIC value of 2 μg/ml. Among all isolates, 94% were susceptible to amphotericin B with MIC values of Candida urinary tract infections.

  18. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species. PMID:22315984

  19. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

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    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  20. Candida Infections: An Update on Host Immune Defenses and Anti-Fungal Drugs

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    Ning Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species are becoming increasing prevalent in the human population. Such pathogens cause life-threatening diseases with high mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Host defenses against fungal infections are provided by an exquisite interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, effective anti-fungal agents for Candida infections are limited, and fungal drug resistance is a significant treatment challenge. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of host–fungal interactions, discuss the modes action of anti-fungal drugs, explore host defense mechanisms, and define the new challenges for treating Candida infections.

  1. Sampling of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis by Langerin-positive dendritic cells in mouse Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Magdia; Rodriguez, Adam E; Yagita, Hideo; Ostroff, Gary R; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Candida genus, including C. albicans and C. tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. In healthy populations, however, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are considered benign members of the mycobiome, and are presumably kept in check by the mucosal immune system. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that C. albicans and C. tropicalis are sampled by Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs). Uptake into gut-associated lymphoid tissues occurred rapidly and was at least partly M cell-dependent. C. albicans and C. tropicalis preferentially localized in (and persisted within) a recently identified sub- population of Peyer's patch DCs distinguished by their expression of the C-type lectin receptor, Langerin. This study is the first to identify a subset of PP DCs capable of sampling Candida species.

  2. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

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    Suelen Balero de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All isolates were able to form biofilms on different substrate surfaces. Eugenol showed inhibitory activity against planktonic and sessile cells of Candida spp. No metabolic activity in biofilm was detected after 24 h of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that eugenol drastically reduced the number of sessile cells on denture material surfaces. Most Candida species showed hydrophobic behavior and a significant difference in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed after exposure of planktonic cells to eugenol for 1 h. Eugenol also caused a significant reduction in adhesion of most Candida spp. to HEp-2 cells and to polystyrene. These findings corroborate the effectiveness of eugenol against Candida species other than C. albicans, reinforcing its potential as an antifungal applied to limit both the growth of planktonic cells and biofilm formation on different surfaces.

  3. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

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    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  4. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

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    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  5. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  6. Prevalence and distribution profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis responsible for superficial candidiasis in a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Ling, Bo; Yang, Guimei; Yu, Xia; Ren, Daming; Yao, Zhirong

    2012-04-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex consists of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Recently, many studies described the prevalence of this species complex mainly in invasive candidiasis. Additionally, data showed that these three species are different in virulence and in vitro drug susceptibility. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence and distribution of the species complex in superficial candidiasis is not very clear to date. In this study, 2,128 Candida isolates from specimens of superficial candidiasis were collected over a 1-year period. Combination of routine and molecular tools, a total of 214 samples were identified to be positive for the C. parapsilosis complex (10.1%), of which 198 (92.5%) were monofungal and 16 (7.5%) were polyfungal. Among the 198 monofungal isolates, 191 (96.5%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5 (2.5%) as C. metapsilosis, and 2 (1.0%) as C. orthopsilosis species based on the molecular method. All C. parapsilosis complex isolates from the 16 polyfungal populations were found to be C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Further analysis showed that the distribution profiles of the C. parapsilosis complex in adult patients were different from that in pediatric patients, and the prevalence rate of it varied greatly by sites of isolation. This study provides insight into the epidemiology of the species complex in superficial candidiasis.

  7. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Maia Valério; Rita de Cássia Botelho Weikert-Oliveira; Maria Aparecida de Resende

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did n...

  8. Crude fatty acid extracts of Streptomyces sps inhibits the biofilm forming Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615

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    Rajalakshm Manickam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Crude fatty acid extract of soil Streptomyces sps on the biofilm formation by Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 was investigated. Totally, 25 Streptomyces sps were isolated identified from the soil samples collected from Nilgiris hill station. All the isolates were subjected to hydrogen peroxide assay, fatty acid extraction and antibiofilm assay. The fatty acid extracts of S8, S9, and S15 inhibited S. pyogenes at MIC 10 µg/ml. The BIC was observed as 84.6% , 96.41%, 80.5% at 50 µg/ml concentration. Streptolysin S assay showed that the crude lipid extracts have the capability of inhibiting the Streptolysin S activity. There were changes in extracellular protein of the pathogen exposed to the S8, S9 and S15 crude fatty acid extracts (50 µg/ml at the range of 100-120 kDa which elucidates that the fatty acid extracts have a significant role in altering the extracellular protein which might be responsible for virulence of the pathogen. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Significance of CO2 donor on the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618

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    Zou Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Succinic acid is a building-block chemical which could be used as the precursor of many industrial products. The dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth could strongly regulate the metabolic flux of carbon and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxykinase, which are the important committed steps for the biosynthesis of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Previous reports showed that succinic acid production could be promoted by regulating the supply of CO2 donor in the fermentation broth. Therefore, the effects of dissolved CO2 concentration and MgCO3 on the fermentation process should be investigated. In this article, we studied the impacts of gaseous CO2 partial pressure, dissolved CO2 concentration, and the addition amount of MgCO3 on succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. We also demonstrated that gaseous CO2 could be removed when MgCO3 was fully supplied. Results An effective CO2 quantitative mathematical model was developed to calculate the dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth. The highest succinic acid production of 61.92 g/L was obtained at 159.22 mM dissolved CO2 concentration, which was supplied by 40 g/L MgCO3 at the CO2 partial pressure of 101.33 kPa. When MgCO3 was used as the only CO2 donor, a maximal succinic acid production of 56.1 g/L was obtained, which was just decreased by 7.03% compared with that obtained under the supply of gaseous CO2 and MgCO3. Conclusions Besides the high dissolved CO2 concentration, the excessive addition of MgCO3 was beneficial to promote the succinic acid synthesis. This was the first report investigating the replaceable of gaseous CO2 in the fermentation of succinic acid. The results obtained in this study may be useful for reducing the cost of succinic acid fermentation process.

  10. Interaction of Wild Strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 and Aflatoxin Production †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H. Marina; Almeida, Inês; Marques, Marta; Bernardo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some competent mould strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. These compounds have been extensively studied with regards to their toxicity for animals and humans; they are able to induce liver cancer and may cause a wide range of adverse effects in living organisms. Aflatoxins are found as natural contaminants of food and feed; the main line of the strategy to control them is based on the prevention of the mould growth in raw vegetable or during its storage and monitoring of each crop batch. Mould growth is conditioned by many ecological factors, including biotic ones. Hazard characterization models for aflatoxins in crops must take into consideration biotic interactions between moulds and their potential effects on growth development. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the biotic interaction of 14 different wild strains of Aspergilla (different species), with a competent strain (Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517) using an in vitro production model. The laboratory model used was a natural matrix (humidified cracked corn), on which each wild strain challenged the aflatoxin production of a producer strain. Cultures were incubated at 28°C for 12 days and sampled at the 8th and 12th. Aflatoxin detection and quantification was performed by HPLC using a procedure with a MRPL = 1 μg/kg. Results of those interactive cultures revealed both synergic and antagonistic effects on aflatoxin biosynthesis. Productivity increases were particularly evident on the 8th day of incubation with wild strains of A. flavipes (+ 70.4 %), A. versicolor (+ 54.9 %) and A. flavus 3 (+ 62.6 %). Antagonistic effects were found with A. niger (− 69.5%), A. fumigatus (− 47.6 %) and A. terreus (− 47.6 %) on the 12th day. The increased effects were more evident on the 8th of incubation and the decreases were more patent on the 12th day. Results show that the development of Aspergilla strains concomitantly with

  11. The Biosynthesis of UDP-D-QuiNAc in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

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    Soyoun Hwang

    Full Text Available N-acetylquinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-di-deoxy-D-glucose, QuiNAc is a relatively rare amino sugar residue found in glycans of few pathogenic gram-negative bacteria where it can play a role in infection. However, little is known about QuiNAc-related polysaccharides in gram-positive bacteria. In a routine screen for bacillus glycan grown at defined medium, it was surprising to identify a QuiNAc residue in polysaccharides isolated from this gram-positive bacterium. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of these glycans, we report the identification of an operon in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 that contains two genes encoding activities not previously described in gram-positive bacteria. One gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase, (abbreviated Pdeg that converts UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc (UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-4-hexulose; and the second encodes a UDP-4-reductase (abbr. Preq that converts UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc to UDP-N-acetyl-quinovosamine in the presence of NADPH. Biochemical studies established that the sequential Pdeg and Preq reaction product is UDP-D-QuiNAc as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Also, unambiguous evidence for the conversions of the dehydratase product, UDP-α-D-4-keto-4,6-deoxy-GlcNAc, to UDP-α-D-QuiNAc was obtained using real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The two genes overlap by 4 nucleotides and similar operon organization and identical gene sequences were also identified in a few other Bacillus species suggesting they may have similar roles in the lifecycle of this class of bacteria important to human health. Our results provide new information about the ability of Bacilli to form UDP-QuiNAc and will provide insight to evaluate their role in the biology of Bacillus.

  12. Design and production of functionalized biopolyesters by Methylobacterium extorquens ATCC 55366: Toward new tissue engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Heinrich Friedrich Philipp Till Nikolaus

    Vascular networks are required to support the formation and function of three-dimensional tissues. Biodegradable scaffolds are being considered in order to promote vascularization where natural regeneration of lost or destroyed vascular networks fails. Particularly; composite materials are expected to fulfill the complex demands of a patient's body to support wound healing. Microbial biopolyesters are being regarded as such second and third generation biomaterials. Methylobacterium extorquens is one of several microorganisms that should be considered for the production of advanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). M. extorquens displays a distinct advantage in that it is able to utilize methanol as an inexpensive substrate for growth and biopolyester production. The design of functionalized PHAs, which would be made of both saturated short-chain-length (scl, C ≤ 5) and unsaturated medium-chain-length (mcl, 6 ≤ C ≤ 14) monomeric units, aimed at combining desirable material properties of inert scl/mcl-PHAs with those of functionalized mcl-PHAs. By independently inserting the phaC1 or the phaC2 gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13, recombinant M. extorquens strains were obtained which were capable of producing PHAs containing C-C double bonds. A fermentation process was developed to obtain gram quantities of biopolyesters employing the recombinant M. extorquens ATCC 55366 strain which harbored the phaC2 gene of P. fluorescens GK13, the better one of the two strains at incorporating unsaturated monomeric units. The PHAs produced were found in a blend of scl-PHAs and functionalized scl/mcl-PHAs (4 ≤ C ≤ 6), which were the products of the native and of the recombinant PHA synthase, respectively. Thermo-mechanical analysis confirmed that the functionalized scl/mcl-PHAs exhibited the desirable material properties expected. This project contributed to current research on polyhydroxyalkanoates at different levels. The terminal double bonds of the functionalized scl

  13. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

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    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida.

  14. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

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    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SPP . ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Sagarika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the changing health scenario fungal infections have increased significantly, contributing to morbidity, mortality and health care cost. Candida is major human fungal pathogens that cause both superficial and deep tissue infections. With emergence of non - albicans Candida species, availability of advanced identification methods and antifungal resistance, the spectrum of candidiasis has changed. OBJ ECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates, risk factors associated with candidiasis and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty nine dif ferent clinical isolates of Candida were collected from indoor patients of a tertiary care centre of Gujarat from May 2009 to June 2010. Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with miniAPI (Analytical Prophylactic Index (Biomerieux, France which is an automatic identification and susceptibility testing instrument. RESULTS: We found that the non ‑ albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans . Candida tropicalis (48.9% was the most common Candida spp. and also more resistant than that of C.albicans . C.albicans showed resistance against fluconazole (3.5% and itraconazole (8.8% whereas C.tropicalis were res istant to amphotericin B (10.3%, fluconazole (20.7%, itraconazole (32.3%, and voriconazole (23.5% and flucytosine (5.8%. Overall resistance rates of Candida for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole and flucytosine were 6.4%, 15. 2%, 22.3%, 12.9%, 5% respectively. CONCLUSION: To achieve better clinical results species ‑ level identification of Candida spp. and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed.

  16. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and gene ontology approaches. Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024 cultivations in a complex medium were characterized by stages of biomass accumulation (A) followed by biomass yield decline (D). NAI-107 production started at 90 h (A stage), reached a maximum at 140...... differentiation of a TetR-like regulator, originally identified in this study, was confirmed by the construction of an over-expressing strain. Finally, the possible role of cellular response to membrane stability alterations and of multi-drug resistance ABC transporters as additional self-resistance mechanisms...

  17. EFFECT OF CULTURE MEDIUM ON BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS HN001 AND LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI ATCC 53608

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Uscanga B. R.; Solís-Pacheco J. R.; Plascencia L.; Aguilar-Uscanga M. G.; García H. S.; Lacroix M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of media on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 using three different media: YPM, YPF and MRS supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4. The optimum temperature was 37°C and initial pH 6.5. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by tested bacteria in MRS medium supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4 exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum determined by well diffusion assay against indicator bacte...

  18. Growth of Cellulomonas sp. ATCC 21399 on different polysaccharides as sole carbon source induction of extracellular enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, O.M.; Petersen, L.W.

    1988-11-01

    Growth and extracellular enzyme production of Cellulomonas sp. ATCC 21399 on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan, galactomannan and starch were compared. The bacteria grew poorly on CMC, whereas high cell densities were obtained on the other substrates. Growth on Avicel resulted in extrecellular enzyme activities against CMC, Avicel, xylan, galactomannan and amylose. By contrast, growth on xylan, galactomannan and starch induced only the enzymes neccessary for the degradation of the growth substrate. Extracellular proteinase activity could be measured during growth on all substrates but CMC, and the possibility of proteolytic inactivation of some of the unstable enzymes (i.e. Avicelase and amylase) is discussed.

  19. Biochemical characterization of mutants in the active site residues of the β-galactosidase enzyme of Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382

    OpenAIRE

    Bultema, Jelle B; Bas J.H. Kuipers; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 β-galactosidase (BgaD) is a retaining-type glycosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Its commercial enzyme preparation, Biolacta N5, is used for commercial-scale production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The BgaD active site and catalytic amino acid residues have not been studied. Using bioinformatic routines we identified two putative catalytic glutamates and two highly conserved active site histidines. The site-directed mutants E447N, E532Q, an...

  20. Cytochrome cb-type nitric oxide reductase with cytochrome c oxidase activity from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512.

    OpenAIRE

    T Fujiwara; Fukumori, Y

    1996-01-01

    A highly active nitric oxide reductase was purified from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512, formerly named Thiosphaera pantotropha, which was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of nitrate. The enzyme was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 34 and 15 kDa and contained two hemes b and one heme c per molecule. Copper was not found in the enzyme. The spectral properties suggested that one of the two hemes b and heme c were in six-coordinated low-spin states and another heme ...