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Sample records for candida boidinii formate

  1. Genetic analysis of methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii PLD1.

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    Lahtchev, K; Penkova, R; Ivanova, V; Tuneva, D

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports the initial experiments for genetic analysis of the haploid methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii PLD1. The collection of multiply marked auxotrophic mutants was obtained after treatment with UV-light or X-rays. Protoplasts from several mutants were fused by the PEG-CA2+ technique and five prototrophic hybrids were isolated. The genetic structure of the hybrids was studied by means of spontaneous and induced mitotic segregation. Our data suggest that hybrids are diploids, heterozygous by parental auxotrophic markers. We obtained genetic linkage between mutations lys2-8-met-3 from one hand and ade-17-arg-24 from the other. The genetic maps constructed showed similar characteristics concerning both the order of the markers and their map distances.

  2. Peroxisomal assembly : membrane proliferation precedes the induction of the abundant matrix proteins in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, Marten; Goodman, Joel M.

    1990-01-01

    Peroxisomes are massively induced when methylotrophic yeasts are cultured in medium containing methanol. These organelles contain enzymes that catalyze the initial steps of methanol assimilation. In Candida boidinii, a methylotrophic yeast, the peroxisomal matrix (internal compartment) is composed a

  3. Molecular characterization of hap complex components responsible for methanol-inducible gene expression in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii.

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    Oda, Saori; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Nitta, Nobuhisa; Sasano, Yu; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    We identified genes encoding components of the Hap complex, CbHAP2, CbHAP3, and CbHAP5, as transcription factors regulating methanol-inducible gene expression in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. We found that the Cbhap2Δ, Cbhap3Δ, and Cbhap5Δ gene-disrupted strains showed severe growth defects on methanol but not on glucose and nonfermentable carbon sources such as ethanol and glycerol. In these disruptants, the transcriptional activities of methanol-inducible promoters were significantly decreased compared to those of the wild-type strain, indicating that CbHap2p, CbHap3p, and CbHap5p play indispensable roles in methanol-inducible gene expression. Further molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated that CbHap2p, CbHap3p, and CbHap5p localized to the nucleus and bound to the promoter regions of methanol-inducible genes regardless of the carbon source, and heterotrimer formation was suggested to be necessary for binding to DNA. Unexpectedly, distinct from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Hap complex functioned in methanol-specific induction rather than glucose derepression in C. boidinii. Our results shed light on a novel function of the Hap complex in methanol-inducible gene expression in methylotrophic yeasts.

  4. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Y.; Goh, T K; Tani, Y.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as...

  5. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as in monomeric forms in C. boidinii cells. The C. boidinii URA3 gene was overexpressed in C. boidinii on these CARS vectors. CARS1 and CARS2 were found to function as an autonomous replicating element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well. Different portions of the CARS1 sequence were needed for autonomous replicating activity in C. boidinii and S. cerevisiae. C. boidinii could also be transformed with vectors harboring a CARS fragment and the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene.

  6. Peroxisomes induced in Candida boidinii by methanol, oleic acid and D-alanine vary in metabolic function but share common integral membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Joel M.; Trapp, Steven B.; Hwang, Harold; Veenhuis, Marten

    1990-01-01

    Peroxisomes massively proliferate in the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii when cultured on methanol as the only carbon and energy source. These organelles contain enzymes that catalyze the initial reactions of methanol utilization. The membranes contain abundant proteins of unknown function; th

  7. Co-expression of formate dehydrogenase form Candida boidinii and (R)-specific carbonyl reductase form Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 in Escherichia coli%(R)-专一性羰基还原酶与甲酸脱氢酶基因在大肠杆菌中的共表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹; 张荣珍; 徐岩

    2008-01-01

    [目的]通过研究-专一性拨基还原酶和甲酸脱氢酶基因在大肠杆菌中的共表达,解决较高底物浓度下不对称转化反应的辅酶限制性问题.[方法]分别以近平滑假丝酵母(candida parapsitosis CCTCC M203011)和博伊丁假丝酵母(Candida boidinii)基因组为模板,采用PCR方法扩增得到(R伏)-专一性拨基还原酶基因(rcr)和甲酸脱氢酶基因(fdh),克隆到共表达载体pETDuetTM-1中进行表达.共表达质粒 pETDuet-rcr-fdh转化稀有密码子优化型菌株E.coli Rosetta,获得重组菌E.coli Rosetta/pETDuet-rcr-fdh.结果 在30℃ 条件下,经1mmol/L IPTG诱导表达8h后,SDS-PAGE结果表明-专一性拨基还原酶和甲酸脱氢酶均有明显的表达,其相对分子质量分别为37kDa和40kDa.以高浓度(6glL)2一经基苯乙酮为底物时,0.19重组菌细胞催化产生(R)-苯基乙二醇,产物光学纯度为100% e.e.,产率为85.9%.与无甲酸脱氢酶参与辅酶再生循环的重组菌E.coli Rosetta/pETDuet-rrc;相比,产物光学纯度和产率分别提高了1.3和2.7倍.讨论 该重组菌的构建为基因工程法生物合成(R)-苯基乙二醇的工业应用奠定了基础.

  8. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Candida haemulonii, Candida pseudohaemulonii, and a proposed new species (Candida auris) isolates from Korea.

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    Oh, Bong Joon; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Kyungwon; Joo, Min Young; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of Candida haemulonii and closely related species at five Korean hospitals has been recently described. We examined biofilm formation by these isolates and assessed their genotypic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This study is the first to show that all bloodstream isolates of Candida pseudohaemulonii can form significant biofilms in glucose-containing medium. PFGE of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed that C. pseudohaemulonii isolates recovered from seven patients in two hospitals shared five patterns, and that 15 isolates of a proposed new species (Candida auris) obtained from patients at three hospitals shared seven patterns, suggesting that some of these isolates may be related to clonal transmission.

  9. Biofilm formation in clinical Candida isolates and its association with virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Fahmi; Xess, Immaculata; Wang, Xiabo; Jain, Neena; Fries, Bettina C.

    2009-01-01

    Biofilm formation, an important virulence trait of Candida species was measured in 107 Candida isolates from 32 candidemic patients by XTT [2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetra-zolium-5-carboxanilide] activity and compared to biofilm formation of Candida isolates from oropharyngeal lesions of 19 AIDS patients. Biofilm formation by XTT varied among species and C. albicans; C. lusitaniae and C. krusei produced more biofilm than the other Candida species. C. tropicalis was the most...

  10. AI-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

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    Endang W. Bachtiar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2, synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.

  11. An expanded regulatory network temporally controls Candida albicans biofilm formation.

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    Fox, Emily P; Bui, Catherine K; Nett, Jeniel E; Hartooni, Nairi; Mui, Michael C; Andes, David R; Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D

    2015-06-01

    Candida albicans biofilms are composed of highly adherent and densely arranged cells with properties distinct from those of free-floating (planktonic) cells. These biofilms are a significant medical problem because they commonly form on implanted medical devices, are drug resistant and are difficult to remove. C. albicans biofilms are not static structures; rather they are dynamic and develop over time. Here we characterize gene expression in biofilms during their development, and by comparing them to multiple planktonic reference states, we identify patterns of gene expression relevant to biofilm formation. In particular, we document time-dependent changes in genes involved in adhesion and metabolism, both of which are at the core of biofilm development. Additionally, we identify three new regulators of biofilm formation, Flo8, Gal4, and Rfx2, which play distinct roles during biofilm development over time. Flo8 is required for biofilm formation at all time points, and Gal4 and Rfx2 are needed for proper biofilm formation at intermediate time points.

  12. Candida septic arthritis with rice body formation: A case report and review of literature

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    Jeong, Yu Mi; Cho, Hyun Yee; Lee, Sheen Woo; Hwang, Yun Mi; Kim, Young Kyu [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Rice body formation in a joint or bursa is a rare condition, and is usually associated with rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculous arthritis. Here we describe a case of multiple rice body formation in a shoulder joint and in adjacent bursae, which was confirmed to be due to septic arthritis by Candida species. To the best of our knowledge, rice body formation in Candida septic arthritis in an immune-competent patient has not been previously reported.

  13. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

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    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  14. Site Saturation Mutagenesis Applications on Candida methylica Formate Dehydrogenase

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    Gülşah P. Özgün

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In NADH regeneration, Candida methylica formate dehydrogenase (cmFDH is a highly significant enzyme in pharmaceutical industry. In this work, site saturation mutagenesis (SSM which is a combination of both rational design and directed evolution approaches is applied to alter the coenzyme specificity of NAD+-dependent cmFDH from NAD+ to NADP+ and increase its thermostability. For this aim, two separate libraries are constructed for screening a change in coenzyme specificity and an increase in thermostability. To alter the coenzyme specificity, in the coenzyme binding domain, positions at 195, 196, and 197 are subjected to two rounds of SSM and screening which enabled the identification of two double mutants D195S/Q197T and D195S/Y196L. These mutants increase the overall catalytic efficiency of NAD+ to 5.6×104-fold and 5×104-fold value, respectively. To increase the thermostability of cmFDH, the conserved residue at position 1 in the catalytic domain of cmFDH is subjected to SSM. The thermodynamic and kinetic results suggest that 8 mutations on the first residue can be tolerated. Among all mutants, M1L has the best residual activity after incubation at 60°C with 17%. These studies emphasize that SSM is an efficient method for creating “smarter libraries” for improving the properties of cmFDH.

  15. Effects of ambroxol on Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

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    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2014-04-01

    Typically, the onset of candidiasis is characterised by the appearance of a biofilm of Candida albicans, which is associated with several diseases including oral candidiasis in young and elderly people. The objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro fungicidal activity as well as the antibiofilm activity of ambroxol (AMB) against C. albicans growth. In the present investigation, the fungicidal activity of AMB was established using the cell viability 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMB required to inhibit the fungal growth was determined. Simultaneously, the antibiofilm activity of AMB was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. The study revealed that 2 mg ml(-1) of AMB exhibited higher fungicidal activity than 3.3 mg ml(-1) of terbinafine, one of most common commercial antifungals. A MIC of 1 mg ml(-1) was determined for AMB to interfere with C. albicans growth. Furthermore, AMB was found to be effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of C. albicans and exerted its fungicidal activity against the fungal cells interspersed in the preformed biofilm. The study suggests a potential role of the mucolytic agent, AMB, as an interesting therapeutic alternative in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  16. Expression of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes and its involvement in anaerobic metabolism and H2 production.

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    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Lai, Qiheng; Wu, Xi; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2009-10-01

    An expression system for NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh1), from Candida boidinii, was constructed and cloned into Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1183. With the fdh1 expression, the total H(2) yield was attributed to a decrease in activity of the lactate pathway and an increase of the formate pathway flux due to the NADH regeneration. Analysis of the redox state balance and ethanol-to-acetate ratio in the fdhl-expressed strain showed that increased reducing power arose from the reconstruction of NADH regeneration pathway from formate thereby contributing to the improved H(2) production.

  17. [The influence of cell surface hydrophobicity Candida sp. on biofilm formation on different biomaterials].

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    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Prazyńska, Małgorzata; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The ability of yeasts to form biofilm is believed to play an important role in patomechanism of fungal infection. Candida sp. is considered to form biofilm on surfaces of biomaterials used in production of catheters, drains and prosthesis. Therefore this may lead to serious problems in patients with biomaterials used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Candida sp. on biofilm formation on different biomaterials. CSH was evaluated by two methods: Salt Aggregation Test (SAT) and Microbe Adhesion to Hydrocarbon Test (MATH). Biofilm formation on different biomaterials was measured by Richard's method after 72 hour incubation at 37 degrees C. Candida biofilm formation occurred more frequently in case of strains exhibiting hydrophobic than hydrophilic properties of cell surface. The statistically significant correlation between CSH and ability of biofilm formation on different biomaterials was observed (p < 0.05).

  18. Al-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation

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    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Jarosz, Lucja M.; Amir, Lisa R.; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (Al

  19. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation and modulation of gene expression by probiotic cells and supernatant.

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    James, K M; MacDonald, K W; Chanyi, R M; Cadieux, P A; Burton, J P

    2016-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a disease caused by opportunistic species of Candida that normally reside on human mucosal surfaces. The transition of Candida from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows for covalent attachment to oral epithelial cells, followed by biofilm formation, invasion and tissue damage. In this study, combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum SD5870, Lactobacillus helveticus CBS N116411 and Streptococcus salivarius DSM 14685 were assessed for their ability to inhibit the formation of and disrupt Candida albicans biofilms. Co-incubation with probiotic supernatants under hyphae-inducing conditions reduced C. albicans biofilm formation by >75 % in all treatment groups. Likewise, combinations of live probiotics reduced biofilm formation of C. albicans by >67 %. When live probiotics or their supernatants were overlaid on preformed C. albicans biofilms, biofilm size was reduced by >63 and >65 % respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that the combined supernatants of SD5870 and CBS N116411 significantly reduced the expression of several C. albicans genes involved in the yeast-hyphae transition: ALS3 (adhesin/invasin) by 70 % (P biofilm formation) by >99 % (P formation of and removing preformed C. albicans biofilms. Our novel results point to the downregulation of several Candida genes critical to the yeast-hyphae transition, biofilm formation, tissue invasion and cellular damage.

  20. Comparison of Switching and Biofilm Formation between MTL-Homozygous Strains of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

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    Pujol, Claude; Daniels, Karla J; Soll, David R

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture in comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit a far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilms composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to a pseudohypha-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved.

  1. Lipopeptides from Bacillus strain AR2 inhibits biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

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    Rautela, Ria; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Abha; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-05-01

    The ability of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to reversibly switch between different morphological forms and establish biofilms is crucial for establishing infection. Targeting phenotypic plasticity and biofilm formation in C. albicans represents a new concept for antifungal drug discovery. The present study evaluated the influence of cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AR2 on C. albicans biofilms. The biosurfactant was characterized as a mixture of iturin and fengycin by MALDI-TOF and amino acid analysis. The biosurfactant exhibited concentration dependent growth inhibition and fungicidal activity. The biosurfactant at sub-minimum growth inhibition concentration decreased cell surface hydrophobicity, hindered germ tube formation and reduced the mRNA expression of hyphae-specific gene HWP1 and ALS3 without exhibiting significant growth inhibition. The biosurfactants inhibited biofilm formation in the range of 46-100 % depending upon the concentration and Candida strains. The biosurfactant treatment dislodged 25-100 % of preformed biofilm from polystyrene plates. The biosurfactant retained its antifungal and antibiofilm activity even after exposure to extreme temperature. By virtue of the ability to inhibit germ tube and biofilm formation, two important traits of C. albicans involved in establishing infection, lipopeptides from strain AR2 may represent a potential candidate for developing heat stable anti-Candida drugs.

  2. Polymicrobial biofilm formation by Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain and medium dependent.

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    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Alnuaimi, Ali D; Dashper, Stuart; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Oral biofilms comprise of extracellular polysaccharides and polymicrobial microorganisms. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polymicrobial interactions of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus mutans on biofilm formation with the hypotheses that biofilm biomass and metabolic activity are both C. albicans strain and growth medium dependent. To study monospecific biofilms, C. albicans, A. naeslundii, and S. mutans were inoculated into artificial saliva medium (ASM) and RPMI-1640 in separate vials, whereas to study polymicrobial biofilm formation, the inoculum containing microorganisms was prepared in the same vial prior inoculation into a 96-well plate followed by 72 hours incubation. Finally, biofilm biomass and metabolic activity were measured using crystal violet and XTT assays, respectively. Our results showed variability of monospecies and polymicrobial biofilm biomass between C. albicans strains and growth medium. Based on cut-offs, out of 32, seven RPMI-grown biofilms had high biofilm biomass (HBB), whereas, in ASM-grown biofilms, 14 out of 32 were HBB. Of the 32 biofilms grown in RPMI-1640, 21 were high metabolic activity (HMA), whereas in ASM, there was no biofilm had HMA. Significant differences were observed between ASM and RPMI-grown biofilms with respect to metabolic activity (P biofilm biomass and metabolic activity were both C. albicans strain and growth medium dependent.

  3. STUDY OF BIOFILM FORMATION AS A VIRULENCE MARKER IN CANDIDA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SPEC IMENS

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    Saroj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Candida species can be either commensals or opportunis tic pathogens with the ability to cause a variety of inf ections, ranging from superficial to life threatening. Nosocomial infections due to candida a re also becoming increasingly important. Early and prompt diagnosis, proper treatment and prevent ion of candidemia due to biofilms pose a major challenge for microbiologists and clini cians worldwide. Added to this is the emerging trend of antifungal drug resistance among the biofilm producing strains of Candida. AIMS: The aim of this study was to detect biofilm producti on in Candida species isolated from various clinical samples obtained from patients hospit alized in Dr. B.R Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 Candida species (Candida albicans49 and non-albicans Candida59 species isola ted from various specimens (urine, blood, respiratory tract, genital samples, plastic devices an d pus samples were included in the study.The various candida isolates were identified by using conventional methods and their ability to produce biofilm was detected by the tube method. RESULTS: Out of 108 candida species, non-albicans Candida 59(54.63% was the pred ominant species isolated. Biofilm positivity was seen with 71(65.74% isolates and the biofilm production was observed more with non-albicans Candida species 44(61.97% compare d to C.albicans species 27(38.03%. Among the non-albicans Candida species, strong biofi lm producers were C.krusei(80.77% and C.tropicalis(72.73%. Biofilm positivity was found to be higher in the bloodstream Candida isolates (81.82% compared to isolates from other si tes. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests an increasing prevalence of non-albicans Ca ndida species in the various clinical samples isolated and also shows them as strong biofi lm producers compared to C.albicans species. These data suggest that, biofilm formation as a potential virulence factor might

  4. Inhibitory activity of hinokitiol against biofilm formation in fluconazole-resistant Candida species

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    Choi, Jeong Su; Lee, Seung Gwan; Park, Jee Yoon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of hinokitiol to inhibit the formation of Candida biofilms. Biofilm inhibition was evaluated by quantification of the biofilm metabolic activity with XTT assay. Hinokitiol efficiently prevented biofilm formation in both fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species. We determined the expression levels of specific genes previously implicated in biofilm development of C. albicans cells by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of genes associated with adhesion process, HWP1 and ALS3, were downregulated by hinokitiol. Transcript levels of UME6 and HGC1, responsible for long-term hyphal maintenance, were also decreased by hinokitiol. The expression level of CYR1, which encodes the component of signaling pathway of hyphal formation-cAMP-PKA was suppressed by hinokitiol. Its upstream general regulator RAS1 was also suppressed by hinokitiol. These results indicate that hinokitiol may have therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of biofilm-associated Candida infections. PMID:28152096

  5. Treatment with some anti-inflammatory drugs reduces germ tube formation in Candida albicans strains

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    Elena Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.

  6. Biofilm formation by and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates from urine.

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    Jain, N; Kohli, R; Cook, E; Gialanella, P; Chang, T; Fries, B C

    2007-03-01

    Biofilm formation (BF) in the setting of candiduria has not been well studied. We determined BF and MIC to antifungals in Candida spp. isolates grown from urine samples of patients and performed a retrospective chart review to examine the correlation with risk factors. A total of 67 Candida spp. isolates were grown from urine samples from 55 patients. The species distribution was C. albicans (54%), C. glabrata (36%), and C. tropicalis (10%). BF varied greatly among individual Candida isolates but was stable in sequential isolates during chronic infection. BF also depended on the growth medium and especially in C. albicans was significantly enhanced in artificial urine (AU) compared to RPMI medium. In nine of the C. albicans strains BF was 4- to 10-fold higher in AU, whereas in three of the C. albicans strains and two of the C. glabrata strains higher BF was measured in RPMI medium than in AU. Determination of the MICs showed that planktonic cells of all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB) and caspofungin (CASPO) and that three of the C. glabrata strains and two of the C. albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole (FLU). In contrast, all biofilm-associated adherent cells were resistant to CASPO and FLU. The biofilms of 14 strains (28%) were sensitive to AMB (MIC(50) of Candida strains that varies greatly among clinical strains and is dependent on the growth medium. Resistance to AMB is associated with higher BF in AU, which may represent the more physiologic medium to test BF. Future studies should address whether in vitro BF can predict treatment failure in vivo.

  7. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

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    Michelle Peneluppi Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p≤0.05.

  8. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  9. Biofilm formation and Candida albicans morphology on the surface of denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susewind, Sabine; Lang, Reinhold; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Fungal biofilms may contribute to the occurrence of denture stomatitis. The objective of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation and morphology of Candida albicans in biofilms on the surface of denture base materials. Specimens were prepared from different denture base materials. After determination of surface properties and salivary pellicle formation, mono- and multispecies biofilm formation including Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was initiated. Relative amounts of adherent cells were determined after 20, 44, 68 and 188 h; C. albicans morphology was analysed employing selective fluorescence microscopic analysis. Significant differences were identified in the relative amount of cells adherent to the denture base materials. Highest blastospore/hyphae index suggesting an increased percentage of hyphae was observed in mono- and multispecies biofilms on the soft denture liner, which did not necessarily respond to the highest relative amount of adherent cells. For both biofilm models, lowest relative amount of adherent cells was identified on the methacrylate-based denture base material, which did not necessarily relate to a significantly lower blastospore/hyphae index. The results indicate that there are significant differences in both biofilm formation as well as the morphology of C. albicans cells in biofilms on the surface of different denture base materials.

  10. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation by antimycotics released from modified polydimethyl siloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prijck, Kristof; De Smet, Nele; Honraet, Kris; Christiaen, Steven; Coenye, Tom; Schacht, Etienne; Nelis, Hans J

    2010-03-01

    Unlike various disinfectants, antifungals have not been commonly incorporated so far in medical devices, such as catheters or prostheses, to prevent biofilm formation by Candida spp. In the present study, five antimycotics were added to polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) disks via admixture (nystatin) or impregnation (trimethylsilyl-nystatin (TMS-nystatin), miconazole, tea tree oil (TTO), zinc pyrithione). Nystatin-medicated PDMS disks exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on biofilm formation in a microtiter plate (MTP) but not in a Modified Robbins Device (MRD). This observation, together with HPLC data and agar diffusion tests, indicates that a small fraction of free nystatin is released, which kills Candida albicans cells in the limited volume of a MTP well. In contrast, biofilm inhibition amounted to more than one log unit in the MRD on disks impregnated with miconazole, TTO, and zinc pyrithione. It is hypothesized that the reduction in biofilm formation by these compounds in a flow system occurs through a contact-dependent effect.

  11. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Furletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  12. Biofilm formation is a risk factor for mortality in patients with Candida albicans bloodstream infection—Scotland, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, R.; Sherry, L.; Nile, C.J.; Sherriff, A.; Johnson, E.M.; Hanson, M.F.; Williams, C.; Munro, C.A.; Jones, B.J.; Ramage, G.

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Biofilm formation by Candida species is an important virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. A prospective analysis of patients with Candida bloodstream infection (n = 217) in Scotland (2012–2013) was performed to assess the risk factors associated with patient mortality, in particular the impact of biofilm formation. Candida bloodstream isolates (n = 280) and clinical records for 157 patients were collected through 11 different health boards across Scotland. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was assessed in vitro with standard biomass assays. The role of biofilm phenotype on treatment efficacy was also evaluated in vitro by treating preformed biofilms with fixed concentrations of different classes of antifungal. Available mortality data for 134 patients showed that the 30-day candidaemia case mortality rate was 41%, with predisposing factors including patient age and catheter removal. Multivariate Cox regression survival analysis for 42 patients showed a significantly higher mortality rate for Candida albicans infection than for Candida glabrata infection. Biofilm-forming ability was significantly associated with C. albicans mortality (34 patients). Finally, in vitro antifungal sensitivity testing showed that low biofilm formers and high biofilm formers were differentially affected by azoles and echinocandins, but not by polyenes. This study provides further evidence that the biofilm phenotype represents a significant clinical entity, and that isolates with this phenotype differentially respond to antifungal therapy in vitro. Collectively, these findings show that greater clinical understanding is required with respect to Candida biofilm infections, and the implications of isolate heterogeneity. PMID:26432192

  13. Levorotatory carbohydrates and xylitol subdue Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Eugenio; Ionescu, Andrei C; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Ottobelli, Marco; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Dietary carbohydrates and polyols affect the microbial colonization of oral surfaces by modulating adhesion and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a select group of l-carbohydrates and polyols on either Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro. S. mutans or C. albicans suspensions were inoculated on polystyrene substrata in the presence of Tryptic soy broth containing 5% of the following compounds: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-glucose, l-mannose, d- and l-glucose (raceme), d- and l-mannose (raceme), l-glucose and l-mannose, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Microbial adhesion (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated using MTT-test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Xylitol and l-carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d-carbohydrates relative to their l-carbohydrate counterparts. These results elucidate, hitherto undescribed, interactions of the individually tested strains with l- and d-carbohydrates, and how they impact fungal and bacterial colonization. In translational terms, our data raise the possibility of using l-form of carbohydrates and xylitol for dietary control of oral plaque biofilms.

  14. Control of Candida albicans metabolism and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Diana K; Grahl, Nora; Okegbe, Chinweike; Dietrich, Lars E P; Jacobs, Nicholas J; Hogan, Deborah A

    2013-01-29

    Candida albicans has developmental programs that govern transitions between yeast and filamentous morphologies and between unattached and biofilm lifestyles. Here, we report that filamentation, intercellular adherence, and biofilm development were inhibited during interactions between Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through the action of P. aeruginosa-produced phenazines. While phenazines are toxic to C. albicans at millimolar concentrations, we found that lower concentrations of any of three different phenazines (pyocyanin, phenazine methosulfate, and phenazine-1-carboxylate) allowed growth but affected the development of C. albicans wrinkled colony biofilms and inhibited the fungal yeast-to-filament transition. Phenazines impaired C. albicans growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and led to increased production of fermentation products (ethanol, glycerol, and acetate) in glucose-containing medium, leading us to propose that phenazines specifically inhibited respiration. Methylene blue, another inhibitor of respiration, also prevented the formation of structured colony biofilms. The inhibition of filamentation and colony wrinkling was not solely due to lowered extracellular pH induced by fermentation. Compared to smooth, unstructured colonies, wrinkled colony biofilms had higher oxygen concentrations within the colony, and wrinkled regions of these colonies had higher levels of respiration. Together, our data suggest that the structure of the fungal biofilm promotes access to oxygen and enhances respiratory metabolism and that the perturbation of respiration by bacterial molecules such as phenazines or compounds with similar activities disrupts these pathways. These findings may suggest new ways to limit fungal biofilms in the context of disease. IMPORTANCE Many of the infections caused by Candida albicans, a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, involve both morphological transitions and the formation of surface-associated biofilms. Through the

  15. Candida albicans Amphotericin B-Tolerant Persister Formation is Closely Related to Surface Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Zhigang; Chu, Haoyue; Guo, Jing; Jiang, Guangshui; Qi, Qingguo

    2016-02-01

    Candida albicans persisters have so far been observed only in biofilm environment; the biofilm element(s) that trigger(s) persister formation are still unknown. In this study, we tried to further elucidate the possible relationship between C. albicans persisters and the early phases of biofilm formation, especially the surface adhesion phase. Three C. albicans strains were surveyed for the formation of persisters. We tested C. albicans persister formation dynamically at different time points during the process of adhesion and biofilm formation. The number of persister cells was determined based on an assessment of cell viability after amphotericin B treatment and colony-forming unit assay. None of the planktonic cultures contained persisters. Immediately following adhesion of C. albicans cells to the surface, persister cells emerged and the proportion of persisters reached a peak of 0.2-0.69 % in approximately 2-h biofilm. As the biofilm matured, the proportion of persisters decreased and was only 0.01-0.02 % by 24 h, while the number of persisters remained stable with no significant change. Persisters were not detected in the absence of an attachment surface which was pre-coated. Persisters were also absent in biofilms that were scraped to disrupt surface adhesion prior to amphotericin B treatment. These results indicate that C. albicans antifungal-tolerant persisters are produced mainly in surface adhesion phase and surface adhesion is required for the emergence and maintenance of C. albicans persisters.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md; Ganesan, K; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-03-31

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation.

  17. Genetic control of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P; Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D; Bennett, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced - under a specialized set of conditions - to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such "pheromone-stimulated" biofilms with that of "conventional" C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former.

  18. Effect of ferrocene-substituted porphyrin RL-91 on Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Rainer; Vojnovic, Sandra; Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Jux, Norbert; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Vasiljevic, Branka; Stankovic, Nada

    2014-08-01

    Ferrocene-substituted porphyrin RL-91 exhibits antifungal activity against opportune human pathogen Candida albicans. RL-91 efficiently inhibits growth of both planktonic C. albicans cells and cells within biofilms without photoactivation. The minimal inhibitory concentration for plankton form (PMIC) was established to be 100 μg/mL and the same concentration killed 80% of sessile cells in the mature biofilm (SMIC80). Furthermore PMIC of RL-91 efficiently prevents C. albicans biofilm formation. RL-91 is cytotoxic for human fibroblasts in vitro in concentration of 10 μg/mL, however it does not cause hemolysis in concentrations of up to 50 μg/mL. These findings open possibility for application of RL-91 as an antifungal agent for external antibiofilm treatment of medical devices as well as a scaffold for further development of porphyrin based systemic antifungals.

  19. Antifungal effects of undecylenic acid on the biofilm formation of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongmei; Zhao, Yaxin; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Shen, Yongnian; Lu, Guixia; Mei, Huan; Qiu, Ying; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-05-01

    Undecylenic acid can effectively control skin fungal infection, but the mechanism of its fungal inhibition is unclear. Hyphal growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and biofilm formation have been well recognized as important virulence factors for the initiation of skin infection and late development of disseminated infection. In this study, we seek to investigate antifungal mechanisms of undecylenic acid by evaluating the virulence factors of C. albicans during biofilm formation. We found that undecylenic acid inhibits biofilm formation of C. albicans effectively with optimal concentration above 3 mM. In the presence of this compound, the morphological transition from yeast to filamentous phase is abolished ultimately when the concentration of undecylenic acid is above 4 mM. Meanwhile, the cell surface is crumpled, and cells display an atrophic appearance under scanning electron microscopy even with low concentration of drug treatment. On the other hand, the drug treatment decreases the transcriptions of hydrolytic enzymes such as secreted aspartic protease, lipase, and phospholipase. Hyphal formation related genes, like HWP1, are significantly reduced in transcriptional level in drug-treated biofilm condition as well. The down-regulated profile of these genes leads to a poorly organized biofilm in undecylenic acid treated environment.

  20. Biofilm formation in Candida glabrata: What have we learnt from functional genomics approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Enfert, Christophe; Janbon, Guilhem

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are a source of therapeutic failures because of their intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials. Candida glabrata is one of the pathogenic yeasts that is responsible for life-threatening disseminated infections and able to form biofilms on medical devices such as vascular and urinary catheters. Recent progresses in the functional genomics of C. glabrata have been applied to the study of biofilm formation, revealing the contribution of an array of genes to this process. In particular, the Yak1 kinase and the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex have been shown to relieve the repression exerted by subtelomeric silencing on the expression of the EPA6 and EPA7 genes, thus allowing the encoded adhesins to exert their key roles in biofilm formation. This provides a framework to evaluate the contribution of other genes that have been genetically linked to biofilm development and, based on the function of their orthologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, appear to have roles in adaptation to nutrient deprivation, calcium signaling, cell wall remodeling and adherence. Future studies combining the use of in vitro and animal models of biofilm formation, omics approaches and forward or reverse genetics are needed to expand the current knowledge of C. glabrata biofilm formation and reveal the mechanisms underlying their antifungal tolerance.

  1. Antimicrobial activity, synergism and inhibition of germ tube formation by Crocus sativus-derived compounds against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Chimenti, Paola; Fazzari, Marina; Granese, Arianna; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The limited arsenal of synthetic antifungal agents and the emergence of resistant Candida strains have prompted the researchers towards the investigation of naturally occurring compounds or their semisynthetic derivatives in order to propose new innovative hit compounds or new antifungal combinations endowed with reduced toxicity. We explored the anti-Candida effects, for the first time, of two bioactive compounds from Crocus sativus stigmas, namely crocin 1 and safranal, and some semisynthetic derivatives of safranal obtaining promising biological results in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC) values, synergism and reduction in the germ tube formation. Safranal and its thiosemicarbazone derivative 5 were shown to display good activity against Candida spp.

  2. Formation of In Vitro Mixed-Species Biofilms by Lactobacillus pentosus and Yeasts Isolated from Spanish-Style Green Table Olive Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Romero, Ángela; Domínguez-Manzano, Jesús; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

    2015-11-13

    The present work details the in vitro interactions between Lactobacillus pentosus and yeast strains isolated from table olive processing to form mixed biofilms. Among the different pairs assayed, the strongest biofilms were obtained from L. pentosus and Candida boidinii strain cocultures. However, biofilm formation was inhibited in the presence of d-(+)-mannose. In addition, biofilm formation by C. boidinii monoculture was stimulated in the absence of cell-cell contact with L. pentosus. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a sort of "sticky" material formed by the yeasts contributed to substrate adherence. Hence, the data obtained in this work suggest that yeast-lactobacilli biofilms may be favored by the presence of a specific mate of yeast and L. pentosus, and that more than one mechanism might be implicated in the biofilm formation. This knowledge will help in the design of appropriate mixed starter cultures of L. pentosus-yeast species pairs that are able to improve the quality and safety of Spanish-style green table olive processing.

  3. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch; Fabíola Silveira-Gomes; Renata Antunes Esteves; Simone Soares Pedrosa; Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel; Alberto Cardoso Arruda; Silvia Helena Marques-da-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demo...

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide inhibits Candida albicans hyphae formation and alters gene expression during biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, H M H N; K Cheung, B P; Watt, R M; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P

    2013-02-01

    Elucidation of bacterial and fungal interactions in multispecies biofilms will have major impacts on understanding the pathophysiology of infections. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Candida albicans hyphal development and transcriptional regulation, (ii) investigate protein expression during biofilm formation, and (iii) propose likely molecular mechanisms for these interactions. The effect of LPS on C. albicans biofilms was assessed by XTT-reduction and growth curve assays, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Changes in candidal hypha-specific genes (HSGs) and transcription factor EFG1 expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, respectively. Proteome changes were examined by mass spectrometry. Both metabolic activities and growth rates of LPS-treated C. albicans biofilms were significantly lower (P GDH1), CaO19.11135(PGK1), CaO19.9877(HNT1) by P. aeruginosa LPS. Our data imply that bacterial LPS inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. The P. aeruginosa LPS likely target glycolysis-associated mechanisms during candidal filamentation.

  5. Biofilm formation by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in the presence of farnesol: a quantitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Renan Aparecido; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Arias, Laís Salomão; Fernandes, Gabriela Lopes; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the QS molecule farnesol on single and mixed species biofilms formed by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The anti-biofilm effect of farnesol was assessed through total biomass quantification, counting of colony forming units (CFUs) and evaluation of metabolic activity. Biofilms were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that farnesol reduced the formation of single and mixed biofilms, with significant reductions of 37% to 90% and 64% to 96%, respectively, for total biomass and metabolic activity. Regarding cell viability, farnesol treatment promoted significant log reductions in the number of CFUs, ie 1.3-4.2 log10 and 0.67-5.32 log10, respectively, for single and mixed species biofilms. SEM images confirmed these results, showing decreases in the number of cells in all biofilms. In conclusion, these findings highlight the role of farnesol as an alternative agent with the potential to reduce the formation of pathogenic biofilms.

  6. Streptococcus mutans Can Modulate Biofilm Formation and Attenuate the Virulence of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; de Alvarenga, Janaína Araújo; Velloso, Marisol dos Santos; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are found together in the oral biofilms on dental surfaces, but little is known about the ecological interactions between these species. Here, we studied the effects of S. mutans UA159 on the growth and pathogencity of C. albicans. Initially, the effects of S. mutans on the biofilm formation and morphogenesis of C. albicans were tested in vitro. Next, we investigate the influence of S. mutans on pathogenicity of C. albicans using in vivo host models, in which the experimental candidiasis was induced in G. mellonella larvae and analyzed by survival curves, C. albicans count in hemolymph, and quantification of hyphae in the host tissues. In all the tests, we evaluated the direct effects of S. mutans cells, as well as the indirect effects of the subproducts secreted by this microorganism using a bacterial culture filtrate. The in vitro analysis showed that S. mutans cells favored biofilm formation by C. albicans. However, a reduction in biofilm viable cells and inhibition of hyphal growth was observed when C. albicans was in contact with the S. mutans culture filtrate. In the in vivo study, injection of S. mutans cells or S. mutans culture filtrate into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, a reduction in hyphal formation was observed in larval tissues when C. albicans was associated with S. mutans culture filtrate. These findings suggest that S. mutans can secrete subproducts capable to inhibit the biofilm formation, morphogenesis and pathogenicity of C. albicans, attenuating the experimental candidiasis in G. mellonella model.

  7. Comparison of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Candida species in a tertiary care center, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Agwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Biofilms are colonies of microbial cells encased in a self-produced organic polymeric matrix. The biofilm production is more important for nonalbicans Candida (NAC; as C. albicans possess many other mechanisms to establish infections. Correct identification of Candida species has gained importance due to persistent rise in infections caused by NAC. We sought to isolate, identify Candida species in clinical isolates and study biofilm formation. Materials and Methods: Modified microtiter plate method was performed to study biofilm formation by isolates in Sabouraud's dextrose broth. It was then quantitatively assessed using a spectrophotometer. Biofilm formation was graded as negative, +1, +2, +3 and + 4 on the basis of percentage absorbance. Results: Biofilm formation was observed in 16 of 40 (40.0% isolates of C. albicans as compared to 39 of 78 (50.0% of isolates of NAC. Strong (+4 biofilm production was seen in maximum biofilm producers in C. tropicalis (12 of 27 followed by C. albicans (8 of 16. Total biofilm producers were significantly more among high vaginal swab isolates 63.2% (12 of 19 and urine isolates 59.2% (29 of 49, when compared to blood isolates 34.2% (13 of 38 as well as other isolates 27.5% (11 of 40. Interpretation and Conclusions: NAC species are qualitatively and quantitatively superior biofilm producers than C. albicans. Biofilm production is the most important virulence factor of NAC species and compared to other lesions, it is more significantly associated with luminal infections.

  8. Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis AC7 inhibit adhesion and biofilm formation of Candida albicans on silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Chiara; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Chiono, Valeria; Carmagnola, Irene; Allegrone, Gianna; Fracchia, Letizia

    2016-10-01

    Candida albicans is the major fungus that colonises medical implants, causing device-associated infections with high mortality. Antagonistic bacterial products with interesting biological properties, such as biosurfactants, have recently been considered for biofilm prevention. This study investigated the activity of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis AC7 (AC7 BS) against adhesion and biofilm formation of C. albicans on medical-grade silicone elastomeric disks (SEDs). Chemical analysis, stability, surface activities of AC7 BS crude extract and physicochemical characterisation of the coated silicone disk surfaces were also carried out. AC7 BS showed a good reduction of water surface tension, low critical micelle concentration, good emulsification activity, thermal resistance and pH stability. Co-incubation with 2 mg ml(-1) AC7 BS significantly reduced adhesion and biofilm formation of three C. albicans strains on SEDs in a range of 67-69 % and of 56-57 %, respectively. On pre-coated SEDs, fungal adhesion and biofilm formation were reduced by 57-62 % and 46-47 %, respectively. Additionally, AC7 BS did not inhibit viability of C. albicans strains in both planktonic and sessile form. Chemical analysis of the crude extract revealed the presence of two families of lipopeptides, principally surfactin and a lower percentage of fengycin. The evaluation of surface wettability indicated that AC7 BS coating of SEDs surface was successful although uneven. AC7 BS significantly prohibits the initial deposition of C. albicans and slows biofilm growth, suggesting a potential role of biosurfactant coatings for preventing fungal infection associated with silicone medical devices.

  9. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the essential oil of R. officinalis modulates C. albicans pathogenicity through its primary virulence factor (i.e., germ tube formation was suppressed.

  10. Inhibition of germ tube's formation of Candida albicans by lactobacillus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huan; WEI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 6 strains of lactobacilli and their main culture metabolites on the morphogenesis of Candida albicans (C. albicans) so as to screen medicinal strains as antifungal agents. Methods: Spent culture supernatant (SCS) at different culture time points, live lactobacilli, heatkilled bacteria and bacterial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with different molarities were incubated with C. albicans respectively. Crystal violet-based germ tube assay was used to detect the germination of C. albicans and the inhibitory efficiency of each addition was tested by germination rate. Results: SCS of lactobacillus spp. decreased the germination significantly and live bacteria of L. rhamnosus. GG, L. acidophilus L050103-12 as well as L. johnsonii JCM1022 could partially inhibit the conversion, however, all the heatkilled bacteria failed to control the germ tube formation. In addition, only butyric acid blocked the conversion of yeast to hypha among all the SCFA. Conclusion: The excellent fungistasis activities make L.rhamnosus. GG, L. acidophilus L050103-12 and L. johnsonii JCM1022 potential strains as antifungal drugs and the inhibition seems to have direct correlation to the metabolites.

  11. Differential effects of antifungal agents on expression of genes related to formation of Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse specific molecular mechanisms involved in the intrinsic resistance of C. albicans biofilms to antifungals. We investigated the transcriptional profile of three genes (BGL2, SUN41, ECE1) involved in Candida cell wall formation in response to voriconazole or anidulafungin after the production of intermediate and mature biofilms. C. albicans M61, a well-documented biofilm producer strain, was used for the development of intermediate (12 h and 18 h) and completely mature biofilms (48 h). After exposure of cells from each biofilm growth mode to voriconazole (128 and 512 mg l(-1)) or anidulafungin (0.25 and 1 mg l(-1)) for 12-24 h, total RNA samples extracted from biofilm cells were analysed by RT-PCR. The voriconazole and anidulafungin biofilm MIC was 512 and 0.5 mg l(-1) respectively. Anidulafungin caused significant up-regulation of SUN41 (3.7-9.3-fold) and BGL2 (2.2-2.8 fold) in intermediately mature biofilms; whereas, voriconazole increased gene expression in completely mature biofilms (SUN41 2.3-fold, BGL2 2.1-fold). Gene expression was primarily down-regulated by voriconazole in intermediately, but not completely mature biofilms. Both antifungals caused down-regulation of ECE1 in intermediately mature biofilms.

  12. Serological differences between the multiple amine oxidases of yeasts and comparison of the specificities of the purified enzymes from Candida utilis and Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Haywood, G W; Large, P J

    1983-05-01

    1. Antiserum to purified methylamine oxidase of Candida boidinii formed precipitin lines (with spurs) in double-diffusion tests with crude extracts of methylamine-grown cells of the following yeast species: Candida nagoyaensis, Candida nemodendra, Hansenula minuta, Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pinus. No cross-reaction was observed with extracts of Candida lipolytica, Candida steatolytica, Candida tropicalis, Candida utilis, Pichia pastoris, Sporobolomyces albo-rubescens, Sporopachydermia cereana or Trigonopsis variabilis. Quantitative enzyme assays enabled the relative titre of antiserum against the various methylamine oxidases to be determined. 2. The amine oxidases from two non-cross-reacting species, C. utilis and P. pastoris, were purified to near homogeneity. 3. The methylamine oxidases, despite their serological non-similarity, showed very similar catalytic properties to methylamine oxidase from C. boidinii. Their heat-stability, pH optima, molecular weights, substrate specificities and sensitivity to inhibitors are reported. 4. The benzylamine oxidases of C. utilis and P. pastoris both oxidized putrescine, and the latter enzyme failed to show any cross-reaction with antibody to C. boidinii methylamine oxidase. Benzylamine oxidase from C. boidinii itself also did not cross-react with antibody to methylamine oxidase. The heat-stability, molecular weights, substrate specificities and sensitivity to inhibitors of the benzylamine/putrescine oxidases are reported. 5. The benzylamine/putrescine oxidase of C. utilis differed only slightly from that of C. boidinii. 6. Benzylamine/putrescine oxidase from P. pastoris differed from the Candida enzymes in heat-stability, subunit molecular weight and substrate specificity. In particular it catalysed the oxidation of the primary amino groups of spermine, spermidine, lysine, ornithine and 1,2-diaminoethane, which are not substrates for either of the Candida benzylamine oxidases that have been purified. 7. Spermine and

  13. Formation, topography and reactivity of Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on silicon surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletic, Nemanja; Fahriansyah, [No Value; Nguyen, Le-Thu T.; Loos, Katja; Miletić, Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) was immobilized on silicon wafers previously modified with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and activated with glutaraldehyde (GLA). The various steps of immobilization were characterized using transmission FTIR, AFM, contact angle measurements and XPS. Furthermo

  14. Candida albicans SUR7 contributes to secretion, biofilm formation, and macrophage killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Stella M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans SUR7 has been shown to be required for plasma membrane organization and cell wall synthesis, but its role in virulence is not known. Using a bioinformatics strategy, we previously identified several novel putative secretion pathway proteins potentially involved in virulence, including the C. albicans homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocytosis-related protein Sur7p. We therefore generated a C. albicans sur7Δ null mutant and examined its contribution to key virulence attributes. Results Structurally, the C. albicans sur7Δ mutant was impaired in response to filamentation-inducing conditions, and formed aberrant hyphae with extensive accumulation of plasma membrane-derived structures within the cell. Absence of SUR7 resulted in a temperature-sensitive growth defect at high temperatures (42°C, which was partially rescued by addition of NaCl. We next examined the role of the SUR7 paralog C. albicans FMP45 in this temperature-sensitive phenotype. Analysis of C. albicans Fmp45p-GFP demonstrated co-localization of Fmp45p with Sur7p and increased fluorescence in the plasma membrane in the presence of high salt. We next focused on key virulence-related phenotypes. The C. albicans sur7Δ null mutant exhibited secretory defects: reduced lipase secretion, and increased levels of secreted Sap2p. The null mutant was hyper-susceptible to sub-inhibitory concentrations of caspofungin, but not amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. Functionally, the sur7Δ mutant demonstrated increased adhesion to polystyrene and of note, was markedly defective in biofilm formation. In an in vitro macrophage model of virulence, the sur7Δ mutant was impaired in macrophage killing. Conclusions Plasma membrane and cell wall organization are important for cell morphology, and alterations of these structures contributed to impairment of several key virulence-associated phenotypes in the C. albicans sur7Δ mutant.

  15. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo,1 Donaji Velasco-Arias,3 Juan Jose Martinez-Sanmiguel,2 David Diaz,3 Inti Zumeta-Dube,3 Katiushka Arevalo-Niño,1 Claudio Cabral-Romero2 1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Mexico; 2Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, México; 3Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Distrito Federal, México Abstract: Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85% and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized

  16. The MP65 gene is required for cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MP65 gene of Candida albicans (orf19.1779 encodes a putative β-glucanase mannoprotein of 65 kDa, which plays a main role in a host-fungus relationship, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of a mp65Δ mutant to assess the role of this protein in cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation. Results The mp65Δ mutant showed a high sensitivity to a range of cell wall-perturbing and degrading agents, especially Congo red, which induced morphological changes such as swelling, clumping and formation of hyphae. The mp65Δ mutant showed an activation of two MAPKs (Mkc1p and Cek1p, a high level of expression of two stress-related genes (DDR48 and SOD5, and a modulated expression of β-glucan epitopes, but no gross changes in cell wall polysaccharide composition. Interestingly, the mp65Δ mutant displayed a marked reduction in adhesion to BEC and Caco-2 cells and severe defects in biofilm formation when compared to the wild type. All of the mentioned properties were totally or partially recovered in a revertant strain, demonstrating the specificity of gene deletion. Conclusions We demonstrate that the MP65 gene of Candida albicans plays a significant role in maintaining cell wall integrity, as well as in adherence to epithelia and biofilm formation, which are major virulence attributes of this fungus.

  17. Cyclosporine A decreases the fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration of Candida albicans clinical isolates but not biofilm formation and cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, T; Nurrokhman; Baly, I; Daeli, P R; Kartasasmita, G; Wijayanti, N

    2015-03-01

    Among the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most abundant species in humans. One of the virulent factors of C. albicans is its ability to develop biofilm. Biofilm forming microbes are characterized by decreasing of its susceptibility to antibiotics and antifungal. The fungicidal effect of fluconazole may be enhanced by cyclosporine A in laboratory engineered C. albicans strains. The aim of this work is to analyze the synergistic effect of cyclosporine A with fluconazole in C. albicans clinical isolates and the effect of cycolsporine A alone in the biofilm formation. Six fluconazole resistant and six sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates were analyzed for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs), biofilm formation, and cell growths. A semi-quantitative XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay was conducted to measure the biofilm formation. Cyclosporine A has synergistic effect with fluconazole that was shown by decreasing MICs of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. However, cyclosporine A alone did not influence the biofilm formation and cell growth of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. These results indicated that cyclosporine A might be a promising candidate of adjuvant therapy for fluconazole against both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates.

  18. Streptococcus mutans Competence-Stimulating Peptide Inhibits Candida albicans Hypha Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C.; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the huma

  19. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poláková, S.; Blume, C.; Zárate, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    , Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping...

  20. Atomistic Model for the Polyamide Formation from beta-Lactam Catalyzed by Candida antarctica Lipase B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baum, Iris; Elsaesser, Brigitta; Schwab, Leendert W.; Loos, Katja; Fels, Gregor; Elsässer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is an established biocatalyst for a variety of transesterification, amidation, and polymerization. reactions. In contrast to polyesters, poly amides are not yet generally accessible via enzymatic polymerization. In this regard, an enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening poly

  1. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, L.M.; Deng, D.M.; van der Mei, H.C.; Crielaard, W.; Krom, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the huma

  2. Distribution of Candida Species in different clinical samples and their virulence: Biofilm formation, proteinase and phospholipase production: A study on hospitalized patients in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinitha Mohandas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucosa. The importance of epidemiological monitoring of yeasts involved in pathogenic processes is unquestionable due to the increase of these infections over the last decade; Materials and Methods: The clinical samples from the respiratory tract (sputum, bronchial wash, tracheal secretions, saliva, blood, urine, middle ear discharge, vitreous fluid, corneal ulcer, and plastic devices (endotracheal tube, catheter tip, suction tip were collected and cultured. The species of Candida isolated were identified. Results: A total of 111 isolates of Candida species were recovered from 250 diverse clinical sources. C. albicans (39.64% was the most isolated species, although the Candida non albicans species with 60.36% showed the major prevalence. In blood cultures, C. krusei (38.23% and C. albicans (20.58% were isolated frequently. C. albicans (63.27% was the predominant species in mucosal surface. Urinary tract infections caused by yeasts were more frequent in hospitalized patients, C. krusei (50.0% being commonly isolated, followed by C. albicans (25.0%. Discussion: Several virulence factors like, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, etc. contribute to the pathogenecity. Early detection of virulence factors by Candida is useful in clinical decision making. We therefore have aimed at demonstrating the formation of biofilm using the method proposed by Branchini et al, (1994. The proteinase produced by Candida was estimated as per the method of Staib et al, (1965. Phospholipase assay was carried out as per the method of Samaranayake et al, (2005. Conclusions : The data suggests that the capacity of Candida species to produce biofilm may be a reflection of the pathogenic potential of the isolates. C. krusei and C. tropicalis showed strong slime production. The non-Candida albicans produced more proteinase than C. albicans. C. albicans produced higher levels of phospholipase than non

  3. Influence of culture media on biofilm formation by Candida species and response of sessile cells to antifungals and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  4. The role of Bgl2p in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyue; Zhang, Ruoyu; Takada, Ayako; Iwatani, Shun; Oka, Chiemi; Kitamoto, Toshitaka; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a transition from yeast cells to filamentous cells that is related to its pathogenicity. The complex multicellular processes involved in biofilm formation by this fungus also include this transition. In this work, we investigated the morphological role of the Bgl2 protein (Bgl2p) in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans. Bgl2p has been identified as a β-1, 3-glucosyltransferase, and transcription of the CaBGL2 gene is upregulated during biofilm formation. We used scanning electron microscopy to observe the microstructure of a bgl2 null mutant during biofilm formation and found a delay in the transition to filamentous cells in the premature phase (24 hours) of biofilm formation. Deletion of the CaBGL2 gene led to a decrease in the expression of CPH2 and TEC1, which encode transcription factors required for the transition to the filamentous form. These findings indicate that Bgl2p plays a role in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  5. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Jayant S; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Chauhan, Nitin M; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections caused by Candida albicans and associated drug resistant micro-organisms are serious problems for immunocompromised populations. Molecules which can prevent or remove biofilms are needed. Twenty-eight terpenoids of plant origin were analysed for their activity against growth, virulence attributes, and biofilms of C. albicans. Eighteen molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of terpenoids resulted in significant (p terpenoids were identified as inhibitors of mature biofilms. This study demonstrated the antibiofilm potential of terpenoids, which need to be further explored as therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated infections of C. albicans.

  6. Transcription Factors Efg1 and Bcr1 Regulate Biofilm Formation and Virulence during Candida albicans-Associated Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Yu, Alika; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis (DS) is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. The disease is caused by Candida albicans, which readily colonizes and form biofilms on denture materials. While evidence for biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces initiating Candida infections is accumulating, a role for biofilms in DS remains unclear. Using an established model of DS in immunocompetent animals, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of biofilm formation in mucosal damage during pathogenesis using C. albicans or mutants defective in morphogenesis (efg1-/-) or biofilm formation (bcr1-/-). For in vivo analyses, rats fitted with custom dentures, consisting of fixed and removable parts, were inoculated with wild-type C. albicans, mutants or reconstituted strains and monitored weekly for fungal burden (denture and palate), body weight and tissue damage (LDH) for up to 8 weeks. C. albicans wild-type and reconstituted mutants formed biofilms on dentures and palatal tissues under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions as indicated by microscopy demonstrating robust biofilm architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast, both efg1-/- and bcr1-/- mutants exhibited poor biofilm growth with little to no ECM. In addition, quantification of fungal burden showed reduced colonization throughout the infection period on dentures and palates of rats inoculated with efg1-/-, but not bcr1-/-, compared to controls. Finally, rats inoculated with efg1-/- and bcr1-/- mutants had minimal palatal tissue damage/weight loss while those inoculated with wild-type or reconstituted mutants showed evidence of tissue damage and exhibited stunted weight gain. These data suggest that biofilm formation is associated with tissue damage during DS and that Efg1 and Bcr1, both central regulators of virulence in C. albicans, have pivotal roles in pathogenesis of DS.

  7. Transcription Factors Efg1 and Bcr1 Regulate Biofilm Formation and Virulence during Candida albicans-Associated Denture Stomatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Yano

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis (DS is characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa in direct contact with dentures and affects a significant number of otherwise healthy denture wearers. The disease is caused by Candida albicans, which readily colonizes and form biofilms on denture materials. While evidence for biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces initiating Candida infections is accumulating, a role for biofilms in DS remains unclear. Using an established model of DS in immunocompetent animals, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of biofilm formation in mucosal damage during pathogenesis using C. albicans or mutants defective in morphogenesis (efg1-/- or biofilm formation (bcr1-/-. For in vivo analyses, rats fitted with custom dentures, consisting of fixed and removable parts, were inoculated with wild-type C. albicans, mutants or reconstituted strains and monitored weekly for fungal burden (denture and palate, body weight and tissue damage (LDH for up to 8 weeks. C. albicans wild-type and reconstituted mutants formed biofilms on dentures and palatal tissues under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions as indicated by microscopy demonstrating robust biofilm architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM. In contrast, both efg1-/- and bcr1-/- mutants exhibited poor biofilm growth with little to no ECM. In addition, quantification of fungal burden showed reduced colonization throughout the infection period on dentures and palates of rats inoculated with efg1-/-, but not bcr1-/-, compared to controls. Finally, rats inoculated with efg1-/- and bcr1-/- mutants had minimal palatal tissue damage/weight loss while those inoculated with wild-type or reconstituted mutants showed evidence of tissue damage and exhibited stunted weight gain. These data suggest that biofilm formation is associated with tissue damage during DS and that Efg1 and Bcr1, both central regulators of virulence in C. albicans, have pivotal roles in pathogenesis of DS.

  8. An easy and economical in vitro method for the formation of Candida albicans biofilms under continuous conditions of flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppuluri, Priya; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans can develop biofilms on medical devices and these biofilms are most often nourished by a continuous flow of body fluids and subjected to shear stress forces. While many C. albicans biofilm studies have been carried out using in vitro static models, more limited information is available for biofilms developed under conditions of flow. We have previously described a simple flow biofilm model (SFB) for the development of C. albicans biofilms under conditions of continuous media flow. Here, we recount in detail from a methodological perspective, this model that can be assembled easily using materials commonly available in most microbiological laboratories. The entire procedure takes approximately two days to complete. Biofilms developed using this system are robust, and particularly suitable for studies requiring large amounts of biofilm cells for downstream analyses. This methodology simplifies biofilm formation under continuous replenishment of nutrients. Moreover, this technique mimics in vivo flow conditions, thereby making it physiologically more relevant than the currently dominant static models.

  9. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavarce, Rafaela A S; Saldanha, Luiz L; Almeida, Nara Ligia M; Porto, Vinicius C; Dokkedal, Anne L; Lara, Vanessa S

    2015-01-01

    Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum), Equisetaceae, commonly called "giant horsetail," is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

  10. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon; Nile, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  12. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. S. Alavarce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum, Equisetaceae, commonly called “giant horsetail,” is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

  13. [In vitro biofilm formation and relationship with antifungal resistance of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and intrauterine device string samples of women with vaginal complaints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Seyda; Keçeli Özcan, Sema; Cınar, Selvi; Corakçı, Aydın; Calışkan, Eray

    2011-10-01

    Intrauterin device (IUD) application is a widely used effective, safe and economic method for family planning. However IUD use may cause certain changes in vaginal ecosystem and may disturb microflora leading to increased colonization of various opportunistic pathogen microorganisms. The aims of this study were (i) to detect the biofilm production characteristics of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples of women with IUDs, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between biofilm production and antifungal resistance. A total of 250 women (mean age: 34.4 ± 7.6 years) admitted to gynecology outpatient clinics with vaginal symptoms (discharge and itching) were included in the study. The patients have been implanted CuT380a type IUDs for a mean duration of 59.8 ± 42.4 months. Without removing IUD, string samples were obtained by cutting and simultaneous vaginal swab samples were also collected. Isolated Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods and API 20C AUX (BioMerieux, Fransa) system. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B were determined by broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was evaluated by crystal violet staining and XTT-reduction assays, and the isolates which yielded positive results in both of the methods were accepted as biofilm-producers. In the study, Candida spp. were isolated from 33.2% (83/250) of the vaginal and 34% (85/250) of the IUD string samples, C.albicans being the most frequently detected species (54 and 66 strains for the samples, respectively). The total in vitro biofilm formation rate was 25% (21/83) for vaginal isolates and 44.7% (38/85) for IUD string isolates. Biofilm formation rate of vaginal C.albicans isolates was significantly lower than vaginal non-albicans Candida spp. (14.8% and 44.8%, respectively; p= 0.003). Biofilm formation rate of C.albicans strains isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples were found

  14. Analysis of Candida albicans mutants defective in the Cdk8 module of mediator reveal links between metabolism and biofilm formation.

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    Allia K Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans biofilm formation is a key virulence trait that involves hyphal growth and adhesin expression. Pyocyanin (PYO, a phenazine secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inhibits both C. albicans biofilm formation and development of wrinkled colonies. Using a genetic screen, we identified two mutants, ssn3Δ/Δ and ssn8Δ/Δ, which continued to wrinkle in the presence of PYO. Ssn8 is a cyclin-like protein and Ssn3 is similar to cyclin-dependent kinases; both proteins are part of the heterotetrameric Cdk8 module that forms a complex with the transcriptional co-regulator, Mediator. Ssn3 kinase activity was also required for PYO sensitivity as a kinase dead mutant maintained a wrinkled colony morphology in the presence of PYO. Furthermore, similar phenotypes were observed in mutants lacking the other two components of the Cdk8 module-Srb8 and Srb9. Through metabolomics analyses and biochemical assays, we showed that a compromised Cdk8 module led to increases in glucose consumption, glycolysis-related transcripts, oxidative metabolism and ATP levels even in the presence of PYO. In the mutant, inhibition of respiration to levels comparable to the PYO-treated wild type inhibited wrinkled colony development. Several lines of evidence suggest that PYO does not act through Cdk8. Lastly, the ssn3 mutant was a hyperbiofilm former, and maintained higher biofilm formation in the presence of PYO than the wild type. Together these data provide novel insights into the role of the Cdk8 module of Mediator in regulation of C. albicans physiology and the links between respiratory activity and both wrinkled colony and biofilm development.

  15. Quantitative Analyses of Force-Induced Amyloid Formation in Candida albicans Als5p: Activation by Standard Laboratory Procedures.

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    Cho X J Chan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans adhesins have amyloid-forming sequences. In Als5p, these amyloid sequences cluster cell surface adhesins to create high avidity surface adhesion nanodomains. Such nanodomains form after force is applied to the cell surface by atomic force microscopy or laminar flow. Here we report centrifuging and resuspending S. cerevisiae cells expressing Als5p led to 1.7-fold increase in initial rate of adhesion to ligand coated beads. Furthermore, mechanical stress from vortex-mixing of Als5p cells or C. albicans cells also induced additional formation of amyloid nanodomains and consequent activation of adhesion. Vortex-mixing for 60 seconds increased the initial rate of adhesion 1.6-fold. The effects of vortex-mixing were replicated in heat-killed cells as well. Activation was accompanied by increases in thioflavin T cell surface fluorescence measured by flow cytometry or by confocal microscopy. There was no adhesion activation in cells expressing amyloid-impaired Als5pV326N or in cells incubated with inhibitory concentrations of anti-amyloid dyes. Together these results demonstrated the activation of cell surface amyloid nanodomains in yeast expressing Als adhesins, and further delineate the forces that can activate adhesion in vivo. Consequently there is quantitative support for the hypothesis that amyloid forming adhesins act as both force sensors and effectors.

  16. Specific and sustainable bioelectro-reduction of carbon dioxide to formate on a novel enzymatic cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Junyi; Ong, Jacky; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-11-01

    To specifically convert waste CO2 into renewable chemicals, enzymatic electrosynthesis (EES) of formate from CO2 reduction was investigated in a bioelectrochemical system (BES). A novel cathode with immobilized enzyme and electropolymerized mediator-regenerator was fabricated for such bioelectrocatalytic EES. Formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDH) was set as a new model enzyme in BES. Modified Nafion micelles with appropriate pore size were found to be suitable for immobilization of CbFDH and protection of its enzymatic activity and lifetime at optimal pH of 6.0. The enzymatic electrosynthesis activity of immobilized CbFDH was characterized systematically. Quite a small overpotential was required in the bioelectrochemical EES reaction. A two-electron transfer process was confirmed in the CbFDH-catalyzed reduction of bicarbonate to formate. With electro-polymerized neutral red (PolyNR) as a NADH (mediator)-regenerator, efficient formate production could be achieved at a maximum rate of 159.89 mg L(-1) h(-1) under poised potential of -0.80 V (vs. SHE). The immobilized CbFDH and electropolymerized PolyNR on an enzymatic cathode contributed greatly to sustainable EES, giving energy-rich formate as the only catalysis product.

  17. STUDY OF BIOFILM FORMATION AS A VIRULENCE MARKER IN CANDIDA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SPEC IMENS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj; Vivek; Sangeetha; Vasudha

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Candida species can be either commensals or opportunis tic pathogens with the ability to cause a variety of inf ections, ranging from superficial to life threatening. Nosocomial infections due to candida a re also becoming increasingly important. Early and prompt diagnosis, proper treatment and prevent ion of candidemia due to biofilms pose a major challenge for microbiologists and clini cians worldwide. Added to this is the emerging tren...

  18. Candida albicans ethanol stimulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa WspR-controlled biofilm formation as part of a cyclic relationship involving phenazines.

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    Annie I Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In chronic infections, pathogens are often in the presence of other microbial species. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common and detrimental lung pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF and co-infections with Candida albicans are common. Here, we show that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and phenazine production were strongly influenced by ethanol produced by the fungus C. albicans. Ethanol stimulated phenotypes that are indicative of increased levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP, and levels of c-di-GMP were 2-fold higher in the presence of ethanol. Through a genetic screen, we found that the diguanylate cyclase WspR was required for ethanol stimulation of c-di-GMP. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that ethanol stimulates WspR signaling through its cognate sensor WspA, and promotes WspR-dependent activation of Pel exopolysaccharide production, which contributes to biofilm maturation. We also found that ethanol stimulation of WspR promoted P. aeruginosa colonization of CF airway epithelial cells. P. aeruginosa production of phenazines occurs both in the CF lung and in culture, and phenazines enhance ethanol production by C. albicans. Using a C. albicans adh1/adh1 mutant with decreased ethanol production, we found that fungal ethanol strongly altered the spectrum of P. aeruginosa phenazines in favor of those that are most effective against fungi. Thus, a feedback cycle comprised of ethanol and phenazines drives this polymicrobial interaction, and these relationships may provide insight into why co-infection with both P. aeruginosa and C. albicans has been associated with worse outcomes in cystic fibrosis.

  19. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Ali, Shakir; Shukla, Praveen K

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipids and fluidity of yeast cell membranes. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AA alone or in combination with antifungal agents on biofilm formation and production of prostaglandin (PGE2) in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans amphotericin B resistant strain (AmBR). Maximum biofilm formation was found to be in the case of C. albicans compared to C. non-albicans species. However, among the non-albicans species C. tropicalis exhibited highest biofilm formation. Treatment with AA in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole and terbinafine separately exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in biofilm formation against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and AmBR as compared to their individual effect. Further, these two antifungal agents in combination with AA caused an increase in production of prostaglandin from fungal cell itself which was significant (p<0.05) in case of all the strains tested.

  20. Secreted aspartic protease cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 activates Cek1 MAPK signaling affecting biofilm formation and oropharyngeal candidiasis.

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    Sumant Puri

    Full Text Available Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK pathway. We show here that Msb2 is localized to the yeast cell wall and is further enriched on hyphal surfaces. A msb2Δ/Δ strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1 phosphorylation was absent in the msb2Δ/Δ mutant. The extracellular domain of Msb2 was shed in cells exposed to elevated temperature and carbon source limitation, concomitant with germination and Cek1 phosphorylation. Msb2 shedding occurred differentially in cells grown planktonically or on solid surfaces in the presence of cell wall and osmotic stressors. We further show that Msb2 shedding and Cek1 phosphorylation were inhibited by addition of Pepstatin A (PA, a selective inhibitor of aspartic proteases (Saps. Analysis of combinations of Sap protease mutants identified a sap8Δ/Δ mutant with reduced MAPK signaling along with defects in biofilm formation, thereby suggesting that Sap8 potentially serves as a major regulator of Msb2 processing. We further show that loss of either Msb2 (msb2Δ/Δ or Sap8 (sap8Δ/Δ resulted in higher C. albicans surface β-glucan exposure and msb2Δ/Δ showed attenuated virulence in a murine model of oral candidiasis. Thus, Sap-mediated proteolytic cleavage of Msb2 is required for activation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway in response to environmental cues including those that induce germination. Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence.

  1. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

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    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  2. 念珠菌黏附性与生物膜形成的对比研究%Comparison of adhesivity and biofilm formation among different Candida species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海丽; 陈官芝; 王国英; 肖传顺; 王丽欣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between Candida adhesivity and biofilm formation. Methods Eight Candida strains belonging to 8 species and 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) fluid and agar medium respectively. The flocculation and adhesion of Candida were observed. Candida biofilm models were developed in 96-well microculture plates. The kinetics of biofilm formation was measured. Results All the 9 fungal strains had flocculation capability and could adhere to the surface of the yeast peptone dextrose agar medium. After mild shaking of the fluid medium, it is difficult for C. albicans, C. kefyr, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis to resuspend, but easy for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The adhesivity of C. albicans, C. kefyr, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was stronger than that of the other Candida strains. Common pathogenic Candida strains could form biofilm, and the metabolic activity of Candida cells in the biofilm increased over time. A significant increment was observed in the ability of C. albicans and C. kefyr to form biofilm compared with the other species (all P < 0.05), and in that of C. tropicalis and C. glabrata compared with C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. gulliermondii (all P < 0.05). The nonpathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae could not form biofilm. Conclusions Candida has the ability to adhere and form biofilm,and the ability varies with Candida species. Moreover, the ability to form biofilm positively correlates with the adhesivity of Candida.%目的 探讨念珠菌黏附性与生物膜形成的关系。方法 将8株念珠菌和1株酿酒酵母均分别在YPD液体培养基和琼脂培养基中培养,观察其絮凝沉淀和黏附现象,进一步在96孔微量培养皿中建立生物膜模型,测定生物膜的生长动力学变化。结果 9株菌株均具有絮凝沉淀的能力,经轻微振荡后白念珠菌、乳酒念珠菌、光滑念珠菌和热带念珠菌不易重新悬浮,而酿

  3. Effects of Angelica Oil on Germ Tube Formation and Adhesion of Candida albicans%当归油对白色念珠菌芽管形成及黏附性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑天红; 罗喜荣; 佘晓玲; 贺娟; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究当归油对白色念珠菌芽管形成及其黏附人口腔上皮细胞的影响.方法:将100、50、10mg/L当归油分别与白色念珠菌悬液、白色念珠菌与人口腔上皮细胞混合液共同孵育,显微镜下计数芽管形成率、白色念珠菌对人口腔上皮细胞的黏附百分率,分别设立阳性对照组和阴性对照组,重复5次试验.结果:当归油各剂量组白色念珠菌芽管生成率及对口腔上皮细胞黏附率低于阴性对照组(P<0.05),100mg/L当归油组白色念珠菌芽管生成率及对口腔上皮细胞黏附率低于50mg/L、10mg/L当归油组(P<0.05),与阳性对照组无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:当归油对体外白色念珠菌的芽管形成及黏附性有较强抑制作用.%Objective; To investigate the effects of angelica oil on Candida albicans germ tube forma-tion and adhesion of Candida albicans to human oral epithelial cells. Methods: Candida albicans sus-pension and mixed suspension of Candida albicans with human oral epithelial cells were incubated with various concentrations of angelica oil (100, 50, 10 mg/L) respectively. The rates of germ tube forma-tion and Candida albicans adhering to human oral epithelial cells were counted under microscope. Re-sults : All concentrations of angelica oil inhibited Candida albicans germ tube formation and adhesion of Candida albicans to oral epithelial cells. Conclusions; Angelica oil could inhibit Candida albicans germ tube formation and adhesion of Candida albicans to oral epithelial cells.

  4. Alteration of hydrogen metabolism of ldh-deleted Enterobacter aerogenes by overexpression of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Lai, Qiheng; Wu, Xi; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2010-03-01

    The NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase FDH1 gene (fdh1), cloned from Candida boidinii, was expressed in the ldh-deleted mutant of Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1183 strain. The plasmid of pCom10 driven by the PalkB promoter was used to construct the fdh1 expression system and thus introduce a new dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) regeneration pathway from formate in the ldh-deleted mutant. The knockout of NADH-consuming lactate pathway affected the whole cellular metabolism, and the hydrogen yield increased by 11.4% compared with the wild strain. Expression of fdh1 in the ldh-deleted mutant caused lower final cell concentration and final pH after 16 h cultivation, and finally resulted in 86.8% of increase in hydrogen yield per mole consumed glucose. The analysis of cellular metabolites and estimated redox state balance in the fdhl-expressed strain showed that more excess of reducing power was formed by the rewired NADH regeneration pathway, changing the metabolic distribution and promoting the hydrogen production.

  5. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issam Alshami; Ahmed E Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract.Methods:In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results: Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.

  6. Host cell and expression engineering for development of an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst: Enhancement of formate dehydrogenase activity for regeneration of NADH

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    Mädje Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic NADH or NADPH-dependent reduction is a widely applied approach for the synthesis of optically active organic compounds. The overall biocatalytic conversion usually involves in situ regeneration of the expensive NAD(PH. Oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2; FDH, presents an almost ideal process solution for coenzyme regeneration that has been well established for NADH. Because isolated FDH is relatively unstable under a range of process conditions, whole cells often constitute the preferred form of the biocatalyst, combining the advantage of enzyme protection in the cellular environment with ease of enzyme production. However, the most prominent FDH used in biotransformations, the enzyme from the yeast Candida boidinii, is usually expressed in limiting amounts of activity in the prime host for whole cell biocatalysis, Escherichia coli. We therefore performed expression engineering with the aim of enhancing FDH activity in an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst. The benefit resulting from improved NADH regeneration capacity is demonstrated in two transformations of technological relevance: xylose conversion into xylitol, and synthesis of (S-1-(2-chlorophenylethanol from o-chloroacetophenone. Results As compared to individual expression of C. boidinii FDH in E. coli BL21 (DE3 that gave an intracellular enzyme activity of 400 units/gCDW, co-expression of the FDH with the ketoreductase (Candida tenuis xylose reductase; XR resulted in a substantial decline in FDH activity. The remaining FDH activity of only 85 U/gCDW was strongly limiting the overall catalytic activity of the whole cell system. Combined effects from increase in FDH gene copy number, supply of rare tRNAs in a Rosetta strain of E. coli, dampened expression of the ketoreductase, and induction at low temperature (18°C brought up the FDH activity threefold to a level of 250 U/gCDW while reducing the XR activity by

  7. Effects of fluconazole treatment of mice infected with fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida tropicalis on fungal cell surface hydrophobicity, adhesion and biofilm formation

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    R L Kanoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The incidence of Candida tropicalis less susceptible to fluconazole (FLC has been reported in many parts of the world. Objectives : The aim of this study was to examine the changes of putative virulence attributes of Candida tropicalis accompanying the development of resistance to FLC in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods : A FLC-resistant strain (FLC-R was obtained after sequential exposure of a clinical isolate FLC-sensitive (FLC-S to increasing concentrations of the antifungal. The course of infection by both strains was analyzed in BALB/c mice. Analyses of gene expression were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction PCR. The cell surface hydrophobicity, adhesion and biofilm formation were also determined. Results : Development of resistance to FLC could be observed after 15 days of subculture in azole-containing medium. Overexpression of MDR1 and ERG11 genes were observed in FLC-R, and this strain exhibited enhanced virulence in mice, as assessed by the mortality rate. All mice challenged with the FLC-R died and FLC-treatment caused earlier death in mice infected with this strain. All animals challenged with FLC-S survived the experiment, regardless of FLC-treatment. Overall, FLC-R derivatives strains were significantly more hydrophobic than FLC-S strains and showed greater adherence and higher capacity to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Conclusions : The expression of virulence factors was higher in FLC-R-C. tropicalis and it was enhanced after FLC-exposure. These data alert us to the importance of identifying microorganisms that show resistance to the antifungals to establish an appropriate management of candidiasis therapy.

  8. Disruption of the Candida albicans TPS1 Gene Encoding Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Impairs Formation of Hyphae and Decreases Infectivity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Blazquez, Miguel A.; Gancedo, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    The TPS1 gene from Candida albicans, which encodes trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, has been cloned by functional complementation of a tps1 mutant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast with the wild-type strain, the double tps1/tps1 disruptant did not accumulate trehalose at stationary phase or after heat shock. Growth of the tps1/tps1 disruptant at 30°C was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. However, at 42°C it did not grow on glucose or fructose but grew normally on galactose or glycerol. At 37°C, the yeast-hypha transition in the mutant in glucose-calf serum medium did not occur. During growth at 42°C, the mutant did not form hyphae in galactose or in glycerol. Some of the growth defects observed may be traced to an unbalanced sugar metabolism that reduces the cellular content of ATP. Mice inoculated with 106 CFU of the tps1/tps1 mutant did not show visible symptoms of infection 16 days after inoculation, while those similarly inoculated with wild-type cells were dead 12 days after inoculation. PMID:9683476

  9. Critical role for CaFEN1 and CaFEN12 of Candida albicans in cell wall integrity and biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfatah, Md.; Bari, Vinay K.; Nahar, Anubhav S.; Bijlani, Swati; Ganesan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids are involved in several cellular functions, including maintenance of cell wall integrity. To gain insight into the role of individual genes of sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, we have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deleted in these genes for sensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents calcofluor white and congo red. Only deletants of FEN1 and SUR4 genes were found to be sensitive to both these agents. Candida albicans strains deleted in their orthologs, CaFEN1 and CaFEN12, respectively, also showed comparable phenotypes, and a strain deleted for both these genes was extremely sensitive to cell wall perturbing agents. Deletion of these genes was reported earlier to sensitise cells to amphotericin B (AmB), which is a polyene drug that kills the cells mainly by binding and sequestering ergosterol from the plasma membrane. Here we show that their AmB sensitivity is likely due to their cell wall defect. Further, we show that double deletant of C. albicans is defective in hyphae formation as well as biofilm development. Together this study reveals that deletion of FEN1 and SUR4 orthologs of C. albicans leads to impaired cell wall integrity and biofilm formation, which in turn sensitise cells to AmB. PMID:28079132

  10. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

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    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  11. Candida Immunity

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    Julian R. Naglik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. C. albicans primarily infects immunocompromised individuals as a result of either immunodeficiency or intervention therapy, which highlights the importance of host immune defences in preventing fungal infections. The host defence system utilises a vast communication network of cells, proteins, and chemical signals distributed in blood and tissues, which constitute innate and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade the identity of many key molecules mediating host defence against C. albicans has been identified. This review will discuss how the host recognises this fungus, the events induced by fungal cells, and the host innate and adaptive immune defences that ultimately resolve C. albicans infections during health.

  12. Roles of Candida albicans Gat2, a GATA-type zinc finger transcription factor, in biofilm formation, filamentous growth and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Han; Guan, Guobo; Xie, Jing; Sun, Yuan; Tong, Yaojun; Zhang, Lixin; Huang, Guanghua

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen, causing not only superficial infections, but also life-threatening systemic disease. C. albicans can grow in several morphological forms including unicellular yeast-form, elongated hyphae and pseudohyphae. In certain natural environments, C. albicans also exists as biofilms, which are structured and surface-attached microbial communities. Transcription factors play a critical role in morphogenesis and biofilm development. In this study, we identified four adhesion-promoting transcription factors (Tec1, Cph1, Ume6 and Gat2) by screening a transcription factor overexpression library. Sequence analysis indicates that Gat2 is a GATA-type zinc finger transcription factor. Here we showed that the gat2/gat2 mutant failed to form biofilms on the plastic and silicone surfaces. Overexpression of GAT2 gene promoted filamentous and invasive growth on agar containing Lee's medium, while deletion of this gene had an opposite effect. However, inactivation of Gat2 had no obvious effect on N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) induced hyphal development. In a mouse model of systemic infection, the gat2/gat2 mutant showed strongly attenuated virulence. Our results suggest that Gat2 plays a critical role in C. albicans biofilm formation, filamentous growth and virulence.

  13. The NDR/LATS kinase Cbk1 controls the activity of the transcriptional regulator Bcr1 during biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Gutiérrez-Escribano

    Full Text Available In nature, many microorganisms form specialized complex, multicellular, surface-attached communities called biofilms. These communities play critical roles in microbial pathogenesis. The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is associated with catheter-based infections due to its ability to establish biofilms. The transcription factor Bcr1 is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm development, although the full extent of its regulation remains unknown. Here, we report that Bcr1 is a phosphoprotein that physically interacts with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and undergoes Cbk1-dependent phosphorylation. Mutating the two putative Cbk1 phosphoacceptor residues in Bcr1 to alanine markedly impaired Bcr1 function during biofilm formation and virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Cells lacking Cbk1, or any of its upstream activators, also had reduced biofilm development. Notably, mutating the two putative Cbk1 phosphoacceptor residues in Bcr1 to glutamate in cbk1Δ cells upregulated the transcription of Bcr1-dependent genes and partially rescued the biofilm defects of a cbk1Δ strain. Therefore, our data uncovered a novel role of the NDR/LATS kinase Cbk1 in the regulation of biofilm development through the control of Bcr1.

  14. The Host’s Reply to Candida Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniel E. Nett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are among the most common nosocomial fungal pathogens and are notorious for their propensity toward biofilm formation. When growing on a medical device or mucosal surface, these organisms reside as communities embedded in a protective matrix, resisting host defenses. The host responds to Candida biofilm by depositing a variety of proteins that become incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Compared to free-floating Candida, leukocytes are less effective against Candida within a biofilm. This review highlights recent advances describing the host’s response to Candida biofilms using ex vivo and in vivo models of mucosal and device-associated biofilm infections.

  15. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  16. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Roudbarmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results attained indicated that there is an association between the expression of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. A considerable percent of the isolates expressing the ALS1 and ALS3 genes may have contributed to their adherence to vagina and biofilm formation.

  17. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  18. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  19. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  20. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 17 different species of Candida. Of these, Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. ... blood. In many cases, the species found is Candida albicans , however, other species of Candida, Candida tropicalis , C. ...

  1. Distribution of Candida Species in Different Clinical Samples and Their Virulence: Biofilm Formation, Proteinase and Phospholipase Production: A Study on Hospitalized Patients in Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinitha Mohandas; Mamatha Ballal

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucosa. The importance of epidemiological monitoring of yeasts involved in pathogenic processes is unquestionable due to the increase of these infections over the last decade; Materials and Methods: The clinical samples from the respiratory tract (sputum, bronchial wash, tracheal secretions), saliva, blood, urine, middle ear discharge, vitreous fluid, corneal ulcer, and plastic devices (endotracheal tube, catheter tip, sucti...

  2. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of BaicaIin on the BiofiIm Formation of Candida AIbicans in Vitro%黄芩苷对白色念珠菌生物膜形成的体外抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福明; 汪洋; 汪少华

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of baicalin on Candida albicans biofilm forma-tion.METHODS Biofilm morphology was observed using scanning electron microscope at different culture time.XTT reduction assay was performed to determine the effects of baicalin on Candida albicans activity.Crystal vio-let biofilm assay was applied to determine the effects of baicalin on the biofilm biomass.RESULTS The mature bio-film was formed at 48h.The reduction rate of Candida albicans biofilm activity and biomass were(90.6 ±5.2)%and (90.3 ±2.6)%respectively when the concentration of baicalin was 8.0mg・ mL-1 ,and the biofilm was not observed by inverted microscope.CONCLUSION Baicalin was confirmed to inhibit Candida albicans biofilm formation.%目的:研究黄芩苷体外对白色念珠菌生物膜形成的影响。方法扫描电镜下观察不同培养时间的生物膜形态,并用XTT减低法检测黄芩苷对白色念珠菌生物膜活性的影响,用结晶紫含量测定法检测黄芩苷对白色念珠菌生物膜生物量的影响。结果白色念珠菌在48h时形成成熟的生物膜。黄芩苷在浓度为8.0mg・ mL -1时使白色念珠菌生物膜活性及生物量分别减少(90.6±5.2)%和(90.3±2.6)%,生物膜已基本无活性。结论黄芩苷对白色念珠菌生物膜的形成具有抑制作用。

  4. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  5. Lipidomics of Candida albicans biofilms reveals phase-dependent production of phospholipid molecular classes and role for lipid rafts in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattif, Ali Abdul; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Chandra, Jyotsna; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2011-11-01

    Candida albicans-associated bloodstream infections are linked to the ability of this yeast to form biofilms. In this study, we used lipidomics to compare the lipid profiles of C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, in early and mature developmental phases. Our results showed that significant differences exist in lipid composition in both developmental phases. Biofilms contained higher levels of phospholipid and sphingolipids than planktonic cells (nmol per g biomass, Pbiofilms compared to planktonic cells (P≤0.05). The ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine was lower in biofilms compared to planktonic cells in both early (1.17 vs 2.52, P≤0.001) and late (2.34 vs 3.81, P≤0.001) developmental phases. The unsaturation index of phospholipids decreased with time, with this effect being particularly strong for biofilms. Inhibition of the biosynthetic pathway for sphingolipid [mannosyl diinositolphosphoryl ceramide, M(IP)₂C] by myriocin or aureobasidin A, and disruption of the gene encoding inositolphosphotransferase (Ipt1p), abrogated the ability of C. albicans to form biofilms. The differences in lipid profiles between biofilms and planktonic Candida cells may have important implications for the biology and antifungal resistance of biofilms.

  6. [The evaluation of relationship between the origin of Candida sp. and the ability of biofilm formation on surface of different biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Prazyńska, Małgorzata; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The increase of fungal infections in recent years is connected with the progress in medicine. The vast usage of biomaterials is an inseparable element of contemporary medicine but it also leads to development of infections. The ability to produce biofilm by those yeasts plays an important role in the pathogenesis of candidiasis. Candida biofilm can form on the surface of plastic materials (silicon, polychloride vinyl, polymethacrylate methyl) used to catheters, drains and dentures production that is why it is a serious problem in case of fungal infections in patients who during the diagnosis and treatment have contact with biomaterials. The aim of the study was the assessment of ability to form biofilm on the surface of different biomaterials (latex silicon, polychloride vinyl, polystyrene, nylon and polymethacrylate methyl). 150 strains of Candida sp. were examined: 85 (56.7%) C. albicans and 65 (43.3%) C. non-albicans. The examined yeasts produced biofilm on the surface of polymethacrylate methyl in 39.3%, latex silicone in 38.7%, polychloride vinyl in 38.0%, polystyrene in 35.3% and nylon in 30.7%. Biofilm was most frequently produced by the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. lusitaniae species.

  7. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  8. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white-opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of Ste2 for the cellular response, whereas the first IC loop (IC1) of Ste2 is dispensable for signaling. To also address pheromone-receptor interactions in related species, including apparently asexual Candida species, Ste2 orthologues were heterologously expressed in Candida albicans. Ste2 receptors from multiple Candida clade species were functional when expressed in C. albicans, whereas the Ste2 receptor of Candida lusitaniae was nonfunctional. Significantly, however, expression of a chimeric C. lusitaniae Ste2 receptor containing the C-terminal tail of Ste2 from C. albicans generated a productive response to C. lusitaniae pheromone. This system has allowed us to characterize pheromones from multiple Candida species and indicates that functional pheromone-receptor couples exist in fungal species that have yet to be shown to undergo sexual mating.

  9. Storage of specimens at 4 degrees C or addition of sodium fluoride (1%) prevents formation of ethanol in urine inoculated with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W; Hylén, L; Svensson, E; Helander, A

    1999-09-01

    The microbial synthesis of ethanol was investigated in urine specimens containing 0.5% or 1.0% (w/v) glucose and inoculated with the yeast Candida albicans (100 cfu/mL). Aliquots (10 mL) of urine were dispensed into plastic tubes containing enough sodium fluoride to give final concentrations of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 2% (w/v), and C. albicans was added. The tubes were tightly stoppered and allowed to stand either at room temperature (22 degrees C) or in a refrigerator (4 degrees C) for up to 34 days before concentrations of ethanol were determined by headspace gas chromatography. Urine samples stored at 22 degrees C without sodium fluoride produced 0.25 g/L ethanol after two days, and the concentration increased to 2.10 g/L and 4.50 g/L after eight days for specimens containing 0.5% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) glucose, respectively. The ratio of the serotonin metabolites 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine remained within the reference range (Urine samples kept at 4 degrees C did not produce any ethanol (albicans was stopped completely by adding 1% or 2% (w/v) sodium fluoride but not by concentrations of 0.75% (w/v) or less. The microbial synthesis of ethanol in urine samples initially stored at room temperature without sodium fluoride was slowed down considerably by moving them into a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. In conclusion, the production of ethanol in urine by C. albicans can be prevented by storage of samples in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C or by adding sodium fluoride > or = 1% (w/v). Measuring the ratio of 5HTOL/5HIAA can help to distinguish postsampling production of ethanol from metabolism and excretion processes.

  10. Quercetin Assists Fluconazole to Inhibit Biofilm Formations of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Albicans in In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Managements of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ. Quercetin (QCT is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. Methods: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C. albicans biofilm. Results: We observed that 64 µg/mL QCT and/or 128 µg/mL FCZ could (i be synergistic against 10 FCZ-resistant planktonic and 17 biofilm cells of C. albicans, (ii inhibit fungal adherence, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH, flocculation, yeast-to-hypha transition, metabolism, thickness and dispersion of biofilms; (iii down-regulate the expressions of ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, SUN41, UME6 and ECE1 and up-regulate the expressions of PDE2, NRG1 and HSP90, and we also found that (iv the fungal burden was reduced in vaginal mucosa and the symptoms were alleviated in a murine VVC model after the treatments of 5 mg/kg QCT and/or 20 mg/kg FCZ. Conclusion: Together with these results, it could be demonstrated that QCT could be a favorable antifungal agent and a promising synergist with FCZ in the clinical management of VVC caused by C. albicans biofilm.

  11. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  12. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  13. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  14. Bisbibenzyls, a new type of antifungal agent, inhibit morphogenesis switch and biofilm formation through upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of biofilm formation. The DPP3, encoding phosphatase, is a key gene in regulating farnesol synthesis. In this study, we screened 24 bisbibenzyls and 2 bibenzyls that were isolated from bryophytes or chemically synthesized by using CLSI method for antifungal effect. Seven bisbibenzyls were found to have antifungal effects with IC(80 less than 32 µg/ml, and among them, plagiochin F, isoriccardin C and BS-34 were found to inhibit the hyphae and biofilm formation of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. To uncover the underlying relationship between morphogenesis switch and QSM formation, we measured the farnesol production by HPLC-MS and quantified Dpp3 expression by detecting the fluorescent intensity of green fluorescent protein tagged strain using Confocal Laser Scanning microscopy and Multifunction Microplate Reader. The DPP3 transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. The data indicated that the bisbibenzyls exerted antifungal effects through stimulating the synthesis of farnesol via upregulation of Dpp3, suggesting a potential antifungal application of bisbibenzyls. In addition, our assay provides a novel, visual and convenient method to measure active compounds against morphogenesis switch.

  15. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  16. Candida's arranged marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A; Brown, A J; Odds, F C

    2000-07-14

    Biologists who study the fungus Candida albicans have always assumed that this organism reproduces asexually because they have not found evidence of mating, meiosis, or a haploid stage of the life cycle. However, as Gow et al. explain in a Perspective, sequencing of the C. albicans genome has revealed the existence of a possible mating type locus. This finding has now been extended to demonstrate actual mating in the fungus (Hull et al., Magee and Magee).

  17. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  18. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  19. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  20. Candida parapsilosis and candida guillermondii: Emerging pathogens in nail candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails. Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%. Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%. While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%, those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%, those of spp. were 20 (4.3% and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%. Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1% were men and 331 (70,9% were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of

  1. In vitro formation of biofilm by Candida albicans and its relationship with genotype%白色念珠菌体外生物膜形成与基因分型关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳隽; 张天托; 朱家馨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between in vitro formation of biofilm by Candida albicans (C .albicans) isolates and genotypes .Methods 52 strains of C .albicans isolated from respiratory tract were isolated and incubated for 24 h .The metabolic activities of cells within biofilm were measured by XTT -reduction assay .The genetic similarities of isolates were assessed by rep-polymerase chain reaction(rep-PCR) and analyzed by cluster analysis .Results 26 C .albicans isolates were with high performance of biofilm formation .Similarity coefficient of tested strains was 0 .79 ± 0 .13 .Similarity coefficient of isolates with high or low performance of biofilm formation were 0 .8±0 .14 and 0 .81 ± 0 .12 respectively .Conclusion The relationship among C .albicans isolates from respiratory tract might be close .The isolates with similar ability to form biofilm might be without cluster of genotypes .%目的 探讨白色念珠菌临床分离株体外生物膜形成与基因分型的可能关系.方法 选取52株呼吸道白色念珠菌分离株体外黏附生长24 h,用XTT减低法测定其增殖情况.采用重复序列PCR指纹技术分析白色念珠菌菌株基因类型,并进行聚类分析.结果 根据黏附生长的白色念珠菌增殖情况,有26株临床株形成生物膜能力"高",其余菌株形成生物膜能力"低".实验菌株的遗传相似系数为0.79±0.13,生物膜形成能力"高"及生物膜形成能力"低"的菌株间相似系数分别为0.8±0.14和0.81±0.12.结论 呼吸道白色念珠菌分离株的亲缘关系较近,但生物膜形成能力形似的菌株间未出现基因型聚集.

  2. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  3. Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 discriminates Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Linton, Christopher J; Oliver, Debra; Palmer, Michael D; Szekely, Adrien; Odds, Frank C; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2009-07-01

    Two new cryptic sister species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, were recently identified by consistent DNA sequence differences among several genes within the genetically heterogeneous Candida parapsilosis complex. Here, we present data demonstrating that Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer region 2 rapidly and robustly distinguishes between these three closely related Candida species.

  4. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Balero de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All isolates were able to form biofilms on different substrate surfaces. Eugenol showed inhibitory activity against planktonic and sessile cells of Candida spp. No metabolic activity in biofilm was detected after 24 h of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that eugenol drastically reduced the number of sessile cells on denture material surfaces. Most Candida species showed hydrophobic behavior and a significant difference in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed after exposure of planktonic cells to eugenol for 1 h. Eugenol also caused a significant reduction in adhesion of most Candida spp. to HEp-2 cells and to polystyrene. These findings corroborate the effectiveness of eugenol against Candida species other than C. albicans, reinforcing its potential as an antifungal applied to limit both the growth of planktonic cells and biofilm formation on different surfaces.

  5. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  6. Tyrosol is a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao; Fujita, Masaki; Feng, Qinghua; Clardy, Jon; Fink, Gerald R.

    2004-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans shows a significant lag in growth when diluted into fresh minimal medium. This lag is abolished by the addition of conditioned medium from a high-density culture. The active component of conditioned medium is tyrosol, which is released into the medium continuously during growth. Under conditions permissive for germ-tube formation, tyrosol stimulates the formation of these filamentous protrusions. Because germ-tube formation is inhibited by farnesol, ...

  7. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  8. Tyrosol和Farnesol对白念珠菌生物被膜形成作用初探%Preliminary study on the effect of tyrosol and farnesol on biofilm formation of Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘(王争); 魏昕; 刘卫红

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究密度感应分子(quorum sensing molecule)tyrosol(对羟基苯乙醇)和farnesol(法呢醇)对白念珠菌生物被膜形成的调控作用.方法 在tyrosol和farnesol干预下构建白念珠菌临床株和标准株生物被膜,在倒置显微镜下观察细胞形态,应用RT-PCR技术检测密度感应分子对白念珠菌HTA1和EFG1基因表达的调控作用,并采用MTT法观察密度感应分子对细胞活性的影响.结果 tyrosol对白念珠菌生物被膜的菌丝发生和细胞活性无明显促进作用,也无法中和farnesol对菌丝发生和细胞活性的抑制作用.tyrosol使白念珠菌生物被膜内细胞HTA1的表达增强,对EFG1的表达并无明显影响;tyrosol不能改变famesol对HTA1和EFG1表达的抑制作用.结论 tyrosol能在一定程度恢复口腔白念珠菌生物被膜内细胞的活跃状态,但当tyrosol与famesol同时存在时,tyrosol的作用被后者的抑制效应所掩盖,细胞对farnesol更敏感.%Objective To study the regulation of quorum sensing molecule tyrosol and farnesol on biofilm formation of Candida albicans. Methods Candida albicans biofilms of clinic isolates and standard strain SC5314 were built when quorum sensing molecule existed. And inverted microscope was used to observe the morphology of C. albicans cells. RT-PCR and MTT assay were carried out to investigate the effect of quorum sensing molecule on expression of the two genes (HTA1 and EFG1) and cytoactive. Results Tyrosol could not promote hyphae development and cytoactive of C. albicans biofilms. The expression of HTA1 of C. albicans in biofilms was up-regulated by tyrosol but EFG1 was not. The inhibitory effect of farnesol on hyphae development, cytoactive and gene expression were not changed by addition of tyrosol. Conclusion Tyrosol can make C. albicans biofilms active in early stage. But when tyrosol and farnesol were simultaneously added, the effect of tyrosol were masked by farnesol. And C. albicans cells were more sensitive

  9. GENOTYPING Candida albicans FROM CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA AND NON-CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA SHOWS NO ENRICHMENT OF MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING CLADES BUT ENRICHMENT OF ABC GENOTYPE C IN CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    MC MANUS, BRENDA; Coleman, David

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leu...

  10. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim; Brenda A McManus; Stephen R Flint; David C Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia pati...

  11. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia F. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.

  12. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kenji

    2012-08-28

    An 87-year-old, Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep, central ulceration covered with thick, whitish exudate in the stomach. Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer. Though cured of the lesion, she developed another ulcer in a different position, in which Candida was demonstrated but H. pylori was undetectable. This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world. Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H. pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs, Candida is considered, contrary to the prevailing opinion, to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  13. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    An 87-year-old,Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep,central ulceration covered with thick,whitish exudate in the stomach.Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori).She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer.Though cured of the lesion,she developed another ulcer in a different position,in which Candida was demonstrated but H.pylori was undetectable.This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world.Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H.pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs,Candida is considered,contrary to the prevailing opinion,to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  14. Production of virulence factors in Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Araújo, Maria Izabel Daniel Santos Alves; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups.

  15. Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Maria Silva Pinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3 overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p£0.05. Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients.

  16. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  17. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  18. 呼吸道白色假丝酵母菌分离株生物膜形成及药物敏感性检测%Biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from respiratory tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳隽; 张天托; 朱家馨; 黄静

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To monitor the biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients.METHODS By forming biofilm in cell culture plate in vitro,based on the amount of light blocked passing through the wells, C.albicans isolates were divided into two groups:biofilm-negative isolates and biofilm-positive isolates.The MICs of antifungal drugs against planktonic cells and biofilm-associated adherent cells of 10 isolates were determined respectively.RESULTS Totally 14(26.92%)of 52 isolates were classified as biofilm producer, the other 38(73.08 %)isolates were classified as nonbiofilm producer.The MICs of FLU, CASPO and AMB for biofilm-associated adherent cells were much higher than that for planktonic cells.All biofilm-associated adherent ceils were resistant to FLU and CASPO(SMIC80 >256 μg/ml;>16 μg/ml).The MICs of AMB for biofilms of 4 strains were more than 8 μg/ml.CONCLUSION Biofilm formation varies greatly among individual C.albicans isolates.C.albicans biofilm is highly resistant to antifungal agents.%目的 监测危重病患者下呼吸道分离的白色假丝酵母菌(CAL)体外生物膜形成及对抗真菌药物的敏感性,为临床诊治提供依据.方法 接种CAL于96孔培养板黏附生长形成生物膜,根据相对于空白对照透光度下降的程度将CAL分为生物膜阳性和生物膜阴性菌株,并测定抗真菌药物对10株生物膜阳性CAL游离态和生物膜的MIC值.结果 52株CAL中有14株为生物膜阳性菌株,占26.92%;38株为生物膜阴性菌株,占73.08%;氟康唑、卡泊芬净及两性霉素B对生物膜CAL的MIC值明显高于其游离态MIC值,10株生物膜CAL对氟康唑、卡泊芬净均耐药(SMIC80>256μg/ml及>16μg/ml),而两性霉素B对其中4株生物膜CAL的SMIC80>8μg/ml.结论 呼吸道CAL分离株生物膜形成存在表型差异,生物膜CAL对抗真菌药物的耐药性增高.

  19. Enhanced effect of the combination of aminobutyric acid with caspofungin against biofilm formation of Candida albicans%氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净抗白色假丝酵母菌生物被膜协同作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘懿萱; 叶春林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净抗白色假丝酵母菌生物被膜的协同作用。方法利用白色假丝酵母菌标准菌株SC5314,采用生物被膜形成实验,分为空白对照组、氨基丁酸单用组、卡泊芬净单用组、氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净组,对比各组生物被膜形成情况。采用XT T还原法测定氨基丁酸、卡泊芬净单用以及氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净对成熟生物被膜细胞代谢活性的抑制作用。采用YNB培养基菌丝形成实验,考察氨基丁酸与卡泊芬净合用是否具有协同抑制菌丝形成的作用。结果卡泊芬净0.1μg · mL -1联合氨基丁酸0.1μmol · L -1对白色假丝酵母菌SC5314生物被膜的形成具有显著的抑制作用。此外,XT T还原法测定氨基丁酸6.25μmol · L -1联合卡泊芬净0.1μg · mL -1时降低被膜细胞代谢活性的效率能够达到约15%。采用YNB培养基形成菌丝,氨基丁酸6.25μmol · L -1联合卡泊芬净0.1μg · mL -1对白色假丝酵母菌SC5314菌丝形成能力有显著的抑制作用。结论氨基丁酸联合卡泊芬净表现出显著的体外协同抗白色假丝酵母菌标准菌株SC5314生物被膜作用。%Objective To investigate the enhanced effect of aminobutyric acid (GABA) combined with caspofungin on biofilm forma‐tion of Candida albicans .Methods Standard stains of Candida albicans SC5314 were used in this study .The group of caspofun‐gin with GABA comparing with the group of GABA or caspofungin alone were evaluated by observing the prevention of biofilm formation .Candida albicans SC5314 were cultured in YNB medium to induce the formation of hyphae and the metabolic activity was determined by XTT reduction assay .Results The group of caspofungin (0 .1μg · mL -1 ) showed no inhibition against biofilm formation of Candida albicans ,but caspofungin (0 .1 μg · mL -1 ) with GABA (0 .1 μmol · L -1 ) showed apparent inhibition a

  20. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  1. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  2. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  3. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    testing for germ tube formation or latex Candida agglutination.

  4. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candida guilliermondii. 173.160 Section 173.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  5. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white–opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of ...

  6. Pancreatic infection with Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, R; Serrano-Heranz, R

    1999-01-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans have been implicated as pathogens in intravascular (bloodstream, intravascular devices, endocarditis) and extravascular (arthritis, osteomielitis, endophtalmitis) infections. C. parapsilosis, however, is rarely implicated in intra-abdominal infections (peritonitis during peritoneal dialysis, complicating surgery or solid-organ transplantation). We describe a case of a 48-y-old male with acute pancreatitis who had a pancreatic abscess produced by primary C. parapsilosis infection. Although he received adequate treatment with antifungal medication and surgical drainage, the outcome was fatal. Because the clinical findings are indistinguishable from bacterial abscesses, Candida species should be considered in cases of complicated pancreatitis, in order to establish a prompt adequate treatment.

  7. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; McManus, Brenda A; Flint, Stephen R; Coleman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia patients has been undertaken. This study investigated whether specific C. albicans genotypes were associated with Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia in a cohort of Irish patients. Patients with histopathologically-defined Candida leukoplakia (n = 31) or non-Candida leukoplakia (n = 47) were screened for Candida species by culture of oral rinse and lesional swab samples. Selected C. albicans isolates from Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 25), non-Candida leukoplakia patients (n = 19) and oral carriage isolates from age and sex matched healthy subjects without leukoplakia (n = 34) were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ABC genotyping. MLST revealed that the clade distribution of C. albicans from both Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia lesions overlapped with the corresponding clade distributions of oral carriage isolates and global reference isolates from the MLST database indicating no enrichment of leukoplakia-associated clones. Oral leukoplakia isolates were significantly enriched with ABC genotype C (12/44, 27.3%), particularly Candida leukoplakia isolates (9/25, 36%), relative to oral carriage isolates (3/34, 8.8%). Genotype C oral leukoplakia isolates were distributed in MLST clades 1,3,4,5,8,9 and 15, whereas genotype C oral carriage isolates were distributed in MLST clades 4 and 11.

  8. Expansion of the Candida tanzawaensis yeast clade: 16 novel Candida species from basidiocarp-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; McHugh, Joseph V; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-11-01

    A major clade of new yeast taxa from the digestive tract of basidiocarp-feeding beetles is recognized based on rRNA gene sequence analyses. Almost 30 % of 650 gut isolates formed a statistically well-supported clade that included Candida tanzawaensis. The yeasts in the clade were isolated from 11 families of beetles, of which Tenebrionidae and Erotylidae were most commonly sampled. Repeated isolation of certain yeasts from the same beetle species at different times and places indicated strong host associations. Sexual reproduction was never observed in the yeasts. Based on comparisons of small- and large-subunit rRNA gene sequences and morphological and physiological traits, the yeasts were placed in Candida ambrosiae and in 16 other undescribed taxa. In this report, the novel species in the genus Candida are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. The novel species and their type strains are as follows: Candida guaymorum (NRRL Y-27568(T)=CBS 9823(T)), Candida bokatorum (NRRL Y-27571(T)=CBS 9824(T)), Candida kunorum (NRRL Y-27580(T)=CBS 9825(T)), Candida terraborum (NRRL Y-27573(T)=CBS 9826(T)), Candida emberorum (NRRL Y-27606(T)=CBS 9827(T)), Candida wounanorum (NRRL Y-27574(T)=CBS 9828(T)), Candida yuchorum (NRRL Y-27569(T)=CBS 9829(T)), Candida chickasaworum (NRRL Y-27566(T)=CBS 9830(T)), Candida choctaworum (NRRL Y-27584(T)=CBS 9831(T)), Candida bolitotheri (NRRL Y-27587(T)=CBS 9832(T)), Candida atakaporum (NRRL Y-27570(T)=CBS 9833(T)), Candida panamericana (NRRL Y-27567(T)=CBS 9834(T)), Candida bribrorum (NRRL Y-27572(T)=CBS 9835(T)), Candida maxii (NRRL Y-27588(T)=CBS 9836(T)), Candida anneliseae (NRRL Y-27563(T)=CBS 9837(T)) and Candida taliae (NRRL Y-27589(T)=CBS 9838(T)).

  9. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida biofilms: unique efficacy of amphotericin B lipid formulations and echinocandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, D M; George, T; Chandra, J; Mukherjee, P K; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-06-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have activities against Candida biofilms. We also explored effects of preincubation of C. albicans cells with subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of drugs to see if they could modify subsequent biofilm formation. Finally, we used confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) to image planktonic- and biofilm-exposed blastospores to examine drug effects on cell structure. Candida biofilms were formed on silicone elastomer and quantified by tetrazolium and dry weight (DW) assays. Susceptibility testing of fluconazole, nystatin, chlorhexidine, terbenafine, amphotericin B (AMB), and the triazoles voriconazole (VRC) and ravuconazole revealed resistance in all Candida isolates examined when grown as biofilms, compared to planktonic forms. In contrast, lipid formulations of AMB (liposomal AMB and AMB lipid complex [ABLC]) and echinocandins (caspofungin [Casp] and micafungin) showed activity against Candida biofilms. Preincubation of C. albicans cells with sub-MIC levels of antifungals decreased the ability of cells to subsequently form biofilm (measured by DW; P formulations.

  10. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  11. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  12. Candida albicans: adapting to succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, David; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2013-11-13

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lu et al. (2013) report on the redundancy of signaling pathways controlling Candida albicans filamentation and pathogenicity. In the process, they provide important insight into how this normal commensal of humans adapts to different host microenvironments to become a highly successful opportunistic pathogen.

  13. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  14. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND : The incidence of Candida infections has increased dramatically over the past few decades due to increase in the number of population susceptible to fungal infections. With multiple antifungal ag ents that are available and recovery of clinical isolates that exhibit inherent or developed resistance to commonly used antifungal agents, it has become imperative to do susceptibility testing routinely. The study was done to determine the predisposing fa ctors, species incidence and susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates to commonly use d antifungal agents. METHODS: A total of 108 Candida species were recovered from symptomatic clinical cases. Candida isolates were speciated by germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar and color produced on chromogenic media. Antifungal susceptibility test was done by disk diffusion method for nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin - B. RESULTS: Candida albicans is the m ost frequently isolated species. However, non - albicans Candida species, taken as a group has predominated in clinical samples. Chromogenic agar medium showed good correlation in species identification in comparison with conventional germ tube test and chla mydospore formation on corn meal agar. C. albicans (41, C. tropicalis (33, C. krusei (30 and C. glabrata (04 were isolated. Candida species showed 95.4% susceptibility to amphotericin - B, 77.8% to voriconazol e, 69.4% to nystatin, 64.1% to f luconazole an d 63.9% to itraconazole. CONCLUSION : Increasing incidence of non - albicans species infection. Chromogenic medium can be used for species identification. Increasing resistance of Candida species to commonly used antifungal agents.

  16. [Candida dubliniensis studies and isolation of Candida types in oropharyngeal specimens from oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Alper; Dolapçi, Iştar; Cesur, Salih; Tekeli, Emin; Içli, Fikri

    2002-01-01

    Fungal opportunistic infections, and in particular those caused by the various Candida species, have gained considerable significance as a cause of morbidity and, often, mortality. Although Candida albicans remains to be the most frequently isolated fungal species as an opportunistic oral pathogen, other yeast species are often identified in immunocompromised patients. C. dubliniensis, the recently described species, has been recovered primarily from oropharyngeal candidasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization rates of fungal species, and especially C. dubliniensis, in the oropharyngeal samples from cancer patients. The oropharyngeal swabs of 543 patients were collected during their visits to oncology clinic in 9 months period, and a total of 209 Candida species have been isolated. Of them, 147 isolates were found to be positive for germ tube and chlamydospore formation, and they were tested for the growth inability at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, colony morphology in Staib agar and the intracellular beta-glucosidase activity, in order to identify C. dubliniensis. The results of these tests and carbohydrate assimilation tests by API 20C AUX yeast identification system, yielded that all these 147 (70.3%) isolates were C. albicans. The other isolates were identified as follows; 16 C. parapsilosis (7.6%), 13 C. tropicalis (6.2%), 10 C. glabrata (4.7%), 5 C. guilliermondii (2.3%), 4 C. krusei (1.9%), 3 C. keyfr (1.4%), 3 C. famata (1.4%), 2 S. cerevisiae (0.9%), 2 C. pelliculosa (0.9%), 1 C. utiles (0.4%), 1 C. neoformans (0.4%) and 1 Hansenula polymorpha (0.4%), while no C. dubliniensis was isolated.

  17. Antifungal, anti-biofilm and adhesion activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Usai, Donatella; Maxia, Andrea; Zanetti, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and the toxicity of the antifungal compounds have drawn the attention towards the antimicrobial activity of natural products, an inexpensive alternative. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesion activity, the biofilm formation and the action of the Myrtus communis L. essential oil (EO) on the biofilm formation towards three species isolated from clinical samples: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, we evaluated the antimycotic activity of the EO towards the three species, and the results were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration of six antimycotics. The activity of the EO against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis was better than that obtained against C. tropicalis; moreover, the strains used in the assay were adhesive and biofilm producer, and the effect of myrtle EO on the biofilm formation yielded encouraging results.

  18. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  19. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. Results The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg. However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%, C. novergensis (37%, C. krusei (25%, C. glabrata (20%, and C. kefyr (12%. Conclusions We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates

  20. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Cenci, T.; Deng, D.M.; Kraneveld, E.A.; Manders, E.M.M.; Del Bel Cury, A.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  1. A comparative study of carrier state of Candida and its speciation in oral flora – Among healthy individuals, persons with DM and HIV sero positive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bharathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine colonization rate of candida in oral cavity of healthy individuals, diabetics and HIV seropositive individuals.Material and methods: Samples were collected from oral cavity of 50 HIV sero positive individuals, 50 diabetics and 50 healthy individuals by swabbing palatal mucosa, dorsum of tongue and buccal mucosa with a sterile swab. Samples were processed by inoculating on Hi Chrome Agar and speciation was done by growth on Hi Chrome agar, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on CMA, pellicle formation in SDA broth and growth at 45ºc.Results: 27 HIV sero positive individuals (54% carried candida in their oral cavities (single strain in 44% and combination of strains in 10%. Whereas it was 44% in diabetics (single species in 38% and a combination of species in 6% and 24% in healthy individuals (only single species. Candida albicans accounts for 41.66% in healthy individuals, 68% in diabetics and 42.42% in HIV seropositive persons. other species isolated were Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata in all 3 groups in addition to Candida dubliniensis in healthy and HIV seropositive individuals and C.krusei in HIV seropositive persons only. P value- less than 0.05 between healthy persons & diabetics and between healthy persons & HIV seropositives (significant.Conclusion: candidal carriage was higher in diabetics and HIV seropositive individuals. Candida albicans was the commonest species in all three groups. Candida krusei was seen only in HIV positive persons.

  2. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species. Furthermore, we discuss emerging data suggesting that both the innate and adaptive immune systems display memory characteristics after encountering Candida species.

  3. Synergistic effect of amphotericin B and tyrosol on biofilm formed by Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis from intrauterine device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Sornakumari, Haridevvenkatesan; Lency, Arumugam; Kavitha, Senthil; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2014-11-01

    The presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) provides a solid surface for attachment of microorganisms and an ideal niche for the biofilm to form and flourish. Vaginal candidiasis is often associated with the use of IUDs. Treatment of vaginal candidiasis that develops in connection with IUD use requires their immediate removal. Here, we present in vitro evidence to support the use of combination therapy to inhibit Candida biofilm. Twenty-three clinical Candida isolates (10 C. krusei and 13 C. tropicalis) recovered from endocervical swabs obtained from IUD and non-IUD users were assessed for biofilm-formation ability. The rate of isolation of Candida did not differ significantly among IUD and non-IUD users (P = 0.183), but the biofilm-formation ability of isolates differed significantly (P = 0.02). An in vitro biofilm model with the obtained isolates was subjected to treatment with amphotericin B, tyrosol, and a combination of amphotericin B and tyrosol. Inhibition of biofilm by amphotericin B or tyrosol was found to be concentration dependent, with 50% reduction (P tyrosol and amphotericin B was studied. Interestingly, approximately 90% reduction in biofilm was observed with use of 80 μM tyrosol combined with 4 mg/l amphotericin B (P < 0.001). This represents a first step in establishing an appropriate antibiofilm therapy when yeasts are present.

  4. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Alessia; De Bernardis, Flavia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Sandini, Silvia; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis each represents 1-10% of the infections/colonisations attributed to C. parapsilosis by conventional biochemical tests. Little is known on the virulence properties of these fungi and on their role in the establishment/progression of the infection. In this study, the adhesive properties of clinical isolates belonging to the 'psilosis' species were assessed in an in vitro model of co-incubation with human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs). Ectophosphatase activity was also measured for all isolates, since the activity of this enzyme has previously been linked to adhesion properties in C. parapsilosis. The results indicate that whilst C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains showed similar adhesion abilities, C. metapsilosis isolates displayed a significantly lower ability to adhere to HBECs (Porthopsilosis has a comparable behaviour to C. parapsilosis, whilst C. metapsilosis seems to possess a reduced virulence potential.

  5. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  6. Virulence of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in reconstituted human tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácser, Attila; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Nosanchuk, Jerome S; Salomon, Siegfried; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2007-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an increasingly important human pathogen. To study the interactions of C. parapsilosis with human tissues, we evaluated the effects of the CBS 604 type strain and three different clinical isolates on reconstituted human oral epithelial and epidermal tissues. The newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were also examined in these models. Microscopy of reconstituted tissues infected with yeast cells revealed severe attenuation, morphological changes and cellular damage. C. orthopsilosis caused damage similar to C. parapsilosis isolates, whereas C. metapsilosis was less virulent. To further quantitate tissue damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant. The relative LDH measurements correlated with our histopathological observations. We also examined the effect of the lipase inhibitor Ebelactone B and proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A, to establish the utility of this model for studying factors of C. parapsilosis virulence. Both Ebelactone B and Pepstatin A reduced the destruction of epidermal and epithelial tissues. Our data show that reconstituted human tissues are extremely useful for modeling host interactions with C. parapsilosis and for studying fungal virulence factors.

  7. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans) y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso...

  8. Immune defence against Candida fungal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differin

  9. Betamethasone augments the antifungal effect of menadione--towards a novel anti-Candida albicans combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Ágnes; Emri, Tamás; Sipos, Lilla; Kiss, Ágnes; Kovács, Renátó; Dombrádi, Viktor; Kemény-Beke, Ádám; Balla, József; Majoros, László; Pócsi, István

    2015-08-01

    The fluorinated glucocorticoid betamethasone stimulated both the extracellular phospholipase production and hypha formation of the opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans and also decreased the efficiency of the polyene antimycotics amphotericin B and nystatin against C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, betamethasone increased synergistically the anti-Candida activity of the oxidative stress generating agent menadione, which may be exploited in future combination therapies to prevent or cure C. albicans infections, in the field of dermatology.

  10. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  11. Candida peritonitis in dogs: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Katy; Meinkoth, Jim; McKeirnen, Kelci; Love, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Candida peritonitis is reported in people and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality compared with sterile or bacterial peritonitis. Recognized predisposing risk factors include peritoneal dialysis, hollow viscous organ perforation, abdominal surgery, inflamed intestinal mucosa, antimicrobial administration, and immunosuppression. In this report, we describe 5 cases of dogs with peritonitis complicated by Candida spp; 3 dogs with C albicans, one dog with C albicans and C glabrata, and one dog with C glabrata only. The 3 dogs with C albicans peritonitis presented with duodenal perforation due to NSAID therapy, intestinal resection and anastomosis following postspay-surgery dehiscence, and intestinal foreign body removal. The 2 dogs with C glabrata peritonitis had undergone cholecystectomy due to gall bladder rupture and dehiscence of intestinal biopsy removal sites following exploratory laparatomy. In all cases, initial diagnosis of fungal peritonitis was made via cytologic examination of peritoneal effusions, which revealed marked pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous 3-8 μm oval, deeply basophilic yeast organisms with thin clear capsules noted within phagocytes and extracellularly. In addition, germ tube formation, hyphae, and pseudohyphae were rarely seen in some of the cases with pure C albicans. Identity of the organisms was determined by culture in all cases and confirmed by PCR in 3 cases. Candida spp. are commensals normally inhabiting the alimentary, the upper respiratory, and the lower urogenital tracts of mammals. They are opportunistic pathogens that can invade and colonize tissue when a patient is immune-compromised or there is disruption of the mucosal barrier. Candida peritonitis should be considered in patients with peritoneal contamination with gastrointestinal or biliary contents.

  12. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  13. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  14. Espondilodiscitis por Candida albicans Candida albicans spondylodiscitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina De Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos distintivos en resonancia magnética de las espondilodiscitis fúngicas (Candida albicans y su importancia en el diagnóstico temprano de estas entidades. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, inmunocomprometido, que consulta por fiebre y dolor lumbar. La RM con gadolinio demostró en secuencias T2 hipointensidad de la médula ósea en los cuerpos vertebrales afectados, asociados a cambios en la señal discal y realce intenso discovertebral. Ante un paciente inmunocomprometido con dolor lumbar que presenta modificaciones disco vertebrales atípicas en la resonancia magnética, debe considerarse la infección micótica dentro de las posibilidades diagnósticas. El diagnóstico de certeza requiere la toma de biopsia del tejido afectado mediante punción aspiración y posterior análisis microbiológico. El tratamiento médico es el de elección, aunque en algunos casos se plantea el drenaje quirúrgico. El reconocimiento de las características radiológicas distintivas evita retardos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento.Purpose: To describe Candida albicans spondylodiscitis distinctive imaging findings and treatment. The authors reported a 51 years old, male inmunocompromised patient with fever and lumbar pain. MR findings include bone marrow hypointense signal intensity in T2 weighted of affected vertebral bodies and intense discovertebral enhancement. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of an inmunocompromised patient with lumbar pain and lumbar atypical findings at MR. Biopsy sample is required in order to reach final diagnosis. The first choice treatment is antyfungal drugs although in certain cases surgery is required. Rapid recognition of distinctive imaging findings avoid missdiagnosis and treatment delays.

  15. In vitro aktivnost biofilma vrsta roda Candida izdvojenih iz anatolijskih bivolica s mastitisom u zapadnoj Turskoj.

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEKER, Esra; ÖZENÇ, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Identificirana su bila 66 izolata roda Candida izdvojena iz uzoraka mlijeka upaljenih četvrti vimena anatolijskih bivolica upotrebom sustava API 20 C AUX. Najčešće izdvojene vrste bile su Candida krusei (27,3%), zatim Candida rugosa (16,7%), Candida kefyr (12,1%) i Candida tropicalis (10,6%). Ostale izdvojene vrste bile su Candida albicans (9,1%), Candida zeylanoides (6,1%), Candida parapsilosis (6,1%), Candida guilliermondii (4,5%), Candida famata (3,0%), Candida glabrata (3,0%) i Candida ci...

  16. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  17. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  18. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  19. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  20. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  1. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  2. Anticandidal efficacy of cinnamon oil against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Zaia, José Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Matsumoto, Marcelo T; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2011-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is yeast capable of forming biofilms on medical devices. Novel approaches for the prevention and eradication of the biofilms are desired. This study investigated the anticandidal activity of sixteen essential oils on planktonic and biofilm cultures of C. parapsilosis complex. We used molecular tools, enumeration of colony-forming units, the colourimetric MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a chequerboard assay coupled with software analyses to evaluate the growth kinetics, architecture, inhibition and reduction in biofilms formed from environmental isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex; further, we also evaluated whether essential oils would interact synergistically with amphotericin B to increase their anticandidal activities. Of the environmental C. parapsilosis isolates examined, C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis were identified. Biofilm growth on polystyrene substrates peaked within 48 h, after which growth remained relatively stable up to 72 h, when it began to decline. Details of the architectural analysis assessed by SEM showed that C. parapsilosis complex formed less complex biofilms compared with C. albicans biofilms. The most active essential oil was cinnamon oil (CO), which showed anticandidal activity against C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis in both suspension (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC-250 and 500 μg/ml) and biofilm (minimum biofilm reduction concentration-MBRC-1,000 and 2,000 μg/ml) cultures. CO also inhibited biofilm formation (MBIC) at concentrations above 250 μg/ml for both species tested. However, synergism with amphotericin B was not observed. Thus, CO is a natural anticandidal agent that can be effectively utilised for the control of the yeasts tested.

  3. Comparative phenotypic analysis of the major fungal pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M; Schröder, Markus S; Turner, Siobhán A; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-09-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis.

  4. In vitro phagocytosis of several Candida berkhout species by murine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A

    1985-03-01

    In vitro phagocytosis of thirteen Candida berkhout species by rat leukocytes was studied to assess a possible correlation between pathogenicity and phagocytosis Yeast-leukocyte suspensions were mixed up for 3 h and phagocytic index, germ-tube formation and leukocyte candidacidal activity were evaluated. Highest values for phagocytosis were reached in all cases at the end of the first hour. Leukocyte candidacidal activity was absent. Only C. albicans produced germ-tubes. The various phagocytosis indices were determined depending on the Candida species assayed. Under these conditions, the more pathogenic species presented the lower indices of phagocytosis. It is determined that the in vitro phagocytic index may bear a close relationship with the pathogenicity of the Candida berkhout.

  5. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in three genomes of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongmei

    2016-06-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, which composed of tandem repeated short units of 1-6 bp, have been paying attention continuously. Here, the distribution, composition and polymorphism of microsatellites and compound microsatellites were analyzed in three available genomes of Candida species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata and Candida orthopsilosis). The results show that there were 118,047, 66,259 and 61,119 microsatellites in genomes of C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. orthopsilosis, respectively. The SSRs covered more than 1/3 length of genomes in the three species. The microsatellites, which just consist of bases A and (or) T, such as (A)n, (T)n, (AT)n, (TA)n, (AAT)n, (TAA)n, (TTA)n, (ATA)n, (ATT)n and (TAT)n, were predominant in the three genomes. The length of microsatellites was focused on 6 bp and 9 bp either in the three genomes or in its coding sequences. What's more, the relative abundance (19.89/kbp) and relative density (167.87 bp/kbp) of SSRs in sequence of mitochondrion of C. glabrata were significantly great than that in any one of genomes or chromosomes of the three species. In addition, the distance between any two adjacent microsatellites was an important factor to influence the formation of compound microsatellites. The analysis may be helpful for further studying the roles of microsatellites in genomes' origination, organization and evolution of Candida species.

  6. Candida pneumonia in intensive care unit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Ronny M; Linssen, Catharina F; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N; Bergmans, Dennis C

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make v

  7. Folsomia candida (Collembola): a "standard" soil arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Michelle T; Hopkin, Steve P

    2005-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem 1902, a member of the order Collembola (colloquially called springtails), is a common and widespread arthropod that occurs in soils throughout the world. The species is parthenogenetic and is easy to maintain in the laboratory on a diet of granulated dry yeast. F. candida has been used as a "standard" test organism for more than 40 years for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on nontarget soil arthropods. However, it has also been employed as a model for the investigation of numerous other phenomena such as cold tolerance, quality as a prey item, and effects of microarthropod grazing on pathogenic fungi and mycorrhizae of plant roots. In this comprehensive review, aspects of the life history, ecology, and ecotoxicology of F. candida are covered. We focus on the recent literature, especially studies that have examined the effects of soil pollutants on reproduction in F. candida using the protocol published by the International Standards Organization in 1999.

  8. [Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; Ruiz-Aragón, Jesús; García-Agudo, Lidia; Saldarreaga, Abel; Lozano, María Carmen; Marín, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    A case of possible infection due to Candida ciferrii in an immunocompromised patient is presented. This fungal species has been rarely reported as cause of human infection. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to fluconazole.

  9. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  10. Geographic Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Newly Described Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Comparison to the Closely Related Species Candida parapsilosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. pa...

  11. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  12. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  13. Four novel yeasts from decaying organic matter: Blastobotrys robertii sp. nov., Candida cretensis sp. nov., Candida scorzettiae sp. nov. and Candida vadensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Four novel yeast species are described, two from decaying mushrooms, viz. Candida cretensis and Candida vadensis, and two from rotten wood, viz. Blastobotrys robertii and Candida scorzettiae. Accession numbers for the CBS and ARS Culture Collections, and GenBank accession numbers for the D1/D2 domai

  14. Emergence of non-albicans Candida among candidal vulvovaginitis cases and study of their potential virulence factors, from a tertiary care center, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Candida species and study some of their virulence factors among thevulvovaginal candidiasis(VVCpatients. Study Design and Settings: The study was conducted in a Tertiary Care University Hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out prospectively for a period of 1 year. High vaginal swabs (HVSs were collected from women in childbearing age group attending the gynecology and obstetrics out-patient departments with the complaints suggestive of vulvovaginitis. Samples were plated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slope. Candida spp. isolated was further speciated based on microscopy, biochemical tests and culture characteristics on special media. Virulence factors of these strains were determined by biofilm formation and phospholipase activity. Result: A total of 464 HVS from 232 patients with the complaints of vulvovaginitis were included in this study. Following laboratory workup, 71 specimens were positive for genus Candida (30.6%. Further speciation showed 32.4% as Candida albicans, 45.07% Candida parapsilosis and 22.53% of Candida glabrata. Biofilm production was shown by 50 candidal strains (70.4% and phospholipase activity was given by 41 candidal strains (57.74%. Conclusion: Our study suggests increasing prevalence of non-albicans Candida among the VVC cases along with their virulence factors. Therefore, we recommend that microbiological investigation upto species level should be mandatory to determine the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of VVC.

  15. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  16. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  17. Species Diversity, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Virulence Attributes of Candida Colonising the Oral Cavities of Adult Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%. Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group.

  18. Candida fermenticarens—a. new yeast from arboricole lichen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of an undescribed  Candida species were recovered from arboricole lichen collected in the eastern Cape. A description of the new species, Candida fermenticarens, is given.

  19. Killer behavior within the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; García-Maldonado, Nancy; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan M; González, Gloria M

    2014-11-01

    A group of 29 isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, 29 of Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 of Candida metapsilosis were assayed for the presence of killer activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26609 as a sensitive strain. All C. metapsilosis isolates showed killer activity at 25 °C while strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis did not exhibit this activity. Sensitivity to killer toxins was evaluated using a set of previously reported killer strains of clinical origin. Only 11 isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex were inhibited by at least one killer isolate without resulting in any clear pattern, except for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ATCC 22019, which was inhibited by every killer strain with the exception of C. parapsilosis and Candida utilis. The lack of sensitivity to killer activity among isolates of the genus Candida suggests that their toxins belong to the same killer type. Differentiation of species within the C. parapsilosis complex using the killer system may be feasible if a more taxonomically diverse panel of killer strains is employed.

  20. Effect of usnic acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections.

  1. IDENTIFIKASI SPESIES CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mu`min, Mulia Sari

    2012-01-01

    2011 Abstrak Candida albicans merupakan jenis Candida yang menginfeksi semua organ tubuh manusia, dapat ditemukan pada semua golongan umur, baik pada pria maupun wanita. Candida albicans merupakan fungi patogen oportunistik yang paling sering menginfeksi rongga mulut. Fungi ini dapat ditemukan pada seluruh permukaan rongga mulut, yaitu lidah (punggung lidah merupakan tempat yang disukai Candida albicans untuk tumbuh dan berkembang biak), pipi, mukosa palatal, plak gigi, karies gigi, flo...

  2. In vitro activity of Caspofungin combined with Fluconazole on mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesee, Siripen; Angkananuwat, Chayanit; Tancharoensukjit, Sudarat; Muanmai, Somporn; Sirivan, Pattaraporn; Bubphawas, Manita; Tanarerkchai, Nissara

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of caspofungin (CAS) combined with fluconazole (FLU) on the biofilm biomass and cultivable viability and microstructure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm in vitro.Biofilms were formed in a 96-well microtiter plate for crystal violet assay and colony forming unit (CFU) method and grown on plastic coverslip disks for scanning electron microscopy. MIC50 of CAS and FLU against single Candida spp.and mixed Candida spp.biofilms were evaluated using crystal violet assay. Additional,C. albicans and C. glabrata mixed biofilms were incubated with subinhibitory CAS concentration plus FLU and their percentages of Candida biofilm reduction were calculated. We found that percentages of biofilm reduction were significantly decreased when CAS at 0.25MIC and FLU (0.25 or 0.5MIC) were combined (PCandida glabrata were demonstrated in every group, the total viable cells derived from CAS/FLU combination-treated biofilms at any ratio were not significantly different from positive control. Overall, CAS/FLU combinations appeared to affect the quantity and cell architecture, but number of viable cell, of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata mixed biofilm. This antifungal effect was CAS concentration dependent.

  3. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  4. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  5. Candida costochondritis associated with recent intravenous drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon J. Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida osteoarticular infections are being reported with increasing frequency, possibly due to an expanding population at risk. However, Candida costochondritis is uncommon. We report two cases of Candida costochondritis in patients who presented with subacute-onset chest wall swelling and whose only identifiable risk factor was a history of recent intravenous drug use.

  6. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D; Gow, Neil A R; Maiden, Martin C J; Odds, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.

  7. How to use the Candida Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD. PMID:26519061

  8. How to Use the Candida Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Binkley, Jonathan; Sherlock, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Studying Candida biology requires access to genomic sequence data in conjunction with experimental information that provides functional context to genes and proteins. The Candida Genome Database (CGD) integrates functional information about Candida genes and their products with a set of analysis tools that facilitate searching for sets of genes and exploring their biological roles. This chapter describes how the various types of information available at CGD can be searched, retrieved, and analyzed. Starting with the guided tour of the CGD Home page and Locus Summary page, this unit shows how to navigate the various assemblies of the C. albicans genome, how to use Gene Ontology tools to make sense of large-scale data, and how to access the microarray data archived at CGD.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Viachaslau M; Acheampong, Edward; Powell, Garry; Lobach, Ludmila; Logan, David A; Parveen, Zahida; Armstead, Valerie; Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above) inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections. PMID:17094810

  10. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  11. Chloroquine sensitizes biofilms of Candida albicans to antifungal azoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Bapurao Shinde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic assay were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions between chloroquine and four antifungal drugs were determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Azole resistance in biofilms was reverted significantly (p < 0.05 in presence of 250 µg/mL of chloroquine, which resulted in inhibition of biofilms at very low concentrations of antifungal drugs. No significant alteration in the sensitivity of biofilms to caspofungin and amphotericin B was evident in combination with chloroquine. This study for the first time indicates that chloroquine potentiates anti-biofilm activity of fluconazole and voriconazole.

  12. Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaud, Cécile; Champleboux, Morgane; Maubon, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel; Govin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Adaptation of fungi to drug pressure involves transcriptional regulation, in which chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play a major role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones and actively participate in controlling stress responses. HDAC inhibition has been shown to limit fungal development, virulence, biofilm formation, and dissemination in the infected host, while also improving the efficacy of existing antifungal drugs toward Candida spp. In this article, we review the functional roles of HDACs and the biological effects of HDAC inhibitors on Candida spp., highlighting the correlations between their pathogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. We focus on how HDAC inhibitors could be used to treat invasive candidiasis while also reviewing recent developments in their clinical evaluation. PMID:27547205

  13. Prevalence and Susceptibility Profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: Results from Population-Based Surveillance of Candidemia in Spain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Lopez, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Almirante, B.; Pahissa, A.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  14. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, A; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Rodriguez, D; Almirante, B; Pahissa, A; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2008-04-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  15. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  16. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  17. Genetic diversity of the yeast Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenburg, R; Klinner, U; Ritzerfeld, P; Zimmermann, M; Emeis, C C

    1992-12-01

    The electrophoretic karyotypes and some mtDNA restriction fragment patterns of 13 strains of Candida utilis and one strain of Hansenula jadinii were compared. PFGE separations revealed remarkable chromosome length polymorphisms between two groups of strains suggesting that perhaps they do not belong to the same species. However, all strains had the same or similar EcoRI, HindIII and BamHI mtDNA restriction patterns. The mtDNA genomes had an average size range of 55 kb. These results support the supposition that C. utilis is a yeast with a highly variable electrophoretic karyotype as already known for another imperfect yeast species, Candida albicans.

  18. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re......) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  19. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida.

  20. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.

  1. Characterization of Candida species from different populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Li-Yun; Wang, An-Huei; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The opportunistic Candida species existing as part of commensal microbiota in humans are usually the etiological agents causing infections. We investigated whether isolates collected from different age groups, hospital units, and sources have distinct characteristics. A total of 913 isolates comprising 395 Candida albicans, 230 Candida tropicalis, 202 Candida glabrata, 62 Candida parapsilosis, 13 Candida krusei, and 11 of other six species were analyzed. Urine was the most common source (41.2%), followed by sputum (16.3%), blood (15.2%), and others (27.3%). Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were more prevalent in the working group [from 19 to 65 years], whereas C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the elder one (≥ 66 years). We found that the age of patients and the source of isolates affect the distribution of species. On the other hand, the drug susceptibility of isolates was associated with fungal species and whether patients were hospitalized.

  2. Hosting Infection: Experimental Models to Assay Candida Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. MacCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal species are linked with a variety of infections, including oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, and systemic infections, with C. albicans the major cause of infection. To assess the ability of different Candida species and strains to cause infection and disease requires the use of experimental infection models. This paper discusses the mucosal and systemic models of infection available to assay Candida virulence and gives examples of some of the knowledge that has been gained to date from these models.

  3. Therapeutic approach to Candida bezoar in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wall, L. L.; Van Den Heijkant, M. M C; Bökenkamp, A.; Kuijper, C. F.; Van Der Horst, H. J R; De Jong, T. P V M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Candida bezoar (CB) is a rare finding in neonates and infants with candiduria, presenting as necrotic debris with proliferating mycelia in the collecting system of the kidney. If initial antifungal medical treatment does not result in clearance of candiduria and disappearance of CB on u

  4. Melaleuca alternifolia nanoparticles against Candida species biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M E; Lopes, L Q S; Bonez, P C; Gündel, A; Martinez, D S T; Sagrillo, M R; Giongo, J L; Vaucher, R A; Raffin, R P; Boligon, A A; Santos, R C V

    2017-03-01

    Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species. It was performed the characterization of the oil and nanoparticles. The levels of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and the biomass of biofilms were measured. The chromatographic profile demonstrated that the TTO oil is in accordance with ISO 4730 with major constituents of 41.9% Terpinen-4-ol, 20.1% of γ-Terpinene, 9,8% of α-Terpinene, and 6,0% of 1,8-Cineole. The TTO nanoparticles showed pH of 6.3, mean diameter of 158.2 ± 2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.213 ± 0.017, and zeta potential of -8.69 ± 0.80 mV. The addition of TTO and its nanoparticles represented a significant reduction of biofilm formed by all Candida species, as well as a reduction of proteins and exopolysaccharides levels. It was possible to visualize the reduction of biofilm in presence of TTO nanoparticles by Calcofluor White method.

  5. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...

  6. [Electron microscopic presentation of immune reactions on Candida cells: asteroid bodies in Candida albicans from the urine of nephritis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Takamiya, H; Jaeger, R

    1977-03-01

    Candida albicans cells from the urine of two nephritis patients were concentrated and incubated with ferritin-labeled antihuman grammaglobulin (either anti-IgA, anti-IgG, or anti-IgM). Electron microscopy showed the electron-transparent yeast cell wall to be surrounded by an electron-dense capsule-like substance of remarkable volume. This must be regarded as an antigen-antibody precipitate corresponding to the "asteroid body" of previous authors. The antibodies involved in the formation of the precipitate are mainly those of the IgA and IgG classes. Considering the results of previous authors, the following definition is proposed: "Asteroid Bodies" are light microscopically visible antigen-antibody precipitates on the cell wall of fungi parasitic condition.

  7. The effect of thyme and tea tree oils on morphology and metabolism of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta; Dąbrowska, Mariola

    2014-01-01

    Members of Candida species cause significant problems in medicine and in many industrial branches also. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied as natural, non-toxic, non-pollutive and biodegradable agents with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The aim of the research was to determine changes in morphology and metabolic properties of Candida albicans in the presence of thyme and tea tree oils. Changes of enzymatic activity of isolates were observed in the presence of both tested essential oils, and they were primarily associated with loss or decrease of activity of all enzymes detected for control. Furthermore, only for 3 out of 11 isolates additional activity of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, α-mannosidase, α-fucosidase and trypsin was detected. Vivid changes in biochemical profiles were found after treatment with tea tree oil and they were related to loss of ability to assimilate D-xylose, D-sorbitol and D-trehalose. The main differences in morphology of isolates compared to the control strain concerned formation of pseudohyphae structures. Both examined essential oils caused changes in cell and colony morphology, as well as in the metabolism of Candida albicans. However, the extent of differences depends on the type and concentration of an essential oil. The most important finding is the broad spectrum of changes in yeast enzymatic profiles induced by thyme and tea tree oils. It can be supposed that these changes, together with loss of ability to assimilate saccharides could significantly impact Candida albicans pathogenicity.

  8. Candida colonization and subsequent infections in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, D; Monod, M; Suter, P M; Frenk, E; Auckenthaler, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors determined the role of Candida colonization in the development of subsequent infection in critically ill patients. DESIGN. A 6-month prospective cohort study was given to patients admitted to the surgical and neonatal intensive care units in a 1600-bed university medical center. METHODS. Patients having predetermined criteria for significant Candida colonization revealed by routine microbiologic surveillance cultures at different body sites were eligible for the study. Risk factors for Candida infection were recorded. A Candida colonization index was determined daily as the ratio of the number of distinct body sites (dbs) colonized with identical strains over the total number of dbs tested; a mean of 5.3 dbs per patient was obtained. All isolates (n = 322) sequentially recovered were characterized by genotyping using contour-clamped homogeneous electrical field gel electrophoresis that allowed strain delineation among Candida species. RESULTS. Twenty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion; all were at high risk for Candida infection; 11 patients (38%) developed severe infections (8 candidemia); the remaining 18 patients were heavily colonized, but never required intravenous antifungal therapy. Among the potential risk factors for candida infection, three discriminated the colonized from the infected patients--i.e., length of previous antibiotic therapy (p < 0.02), severity of illness assessed by APACHE II score (p < 0.01), and the intensity of Candida spp colonization (p < 0.01). By logistic regression analysis, the latter two who were the independent factors that predicted subsequent candidal infection. Candida colonization always preceded infection with genotypically identical Candida spp strain. The proposed colonization indexes reached threshold values a mean of 6 days before Candida infection and demonstrated high positive predictive values (66 to 100%). CONCLUSIONS. The intensity of Candida colonization assessed by systematic

  9. Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeland, Laurence; Gazon, Mathieu; Guerin, Claude; Argaud, Laurent; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Bastien, Olivier; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Michallet, Mauricette; Picot, Stephane; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Since the outcomes of patients with candidemia is poor and Candida spp. with increased resistance to antifungal therapy may be associated with these results, the emergence of these blood infections caused by non-C. albicans Candida spp. was explored prospectively over a two-year period (2009-2010). Candidemia was defined as the recovery of Candida spp. in culture from a patient's blood sample. The in vitro susceptibility of each isolate to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined. In addition, characteristics of patients and outcomes were investigated in real-time. The Candida distribution was compared to that observed in a similar study 10 years earlier in the same hospital. A total of 182 patients with candidemia were included in the study. While C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (n = 102), non-C. albicans Candida spp. included; C. glabrata (n = 32), C. parapsilosis (n = 21), C. tropicalis (n = 13), C. krusei (n = 8), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. lusitaniae (n = 2), C. lipolytica (n = 2), C. famata (n = 1), C. guilliermondii (n = 1), C. inconspicua (n = 1), C. dubliniensis (n = 1), C. sake (n = 1) and C. nivariensis (n = 1). In seven patients, C. albicans was associated with another Candida spp. Surprisingly, this prospective study demonstrated that regardless of the department (intensive care unit or hematological department), Candida spp. distribution was no different from that found in the 1998-2001 survey, except for C. krusei. A reduction in the proportion of C. krusei isolates was observed from 2000-2010 (P = 0.028) as a result of its decreased recovery in the hematological department.

  10. 白头翁汤正丁醇提取物对白念珠菌 VVC 临床株体外生物膜形成的抑制作用%The inhibitory effects of Butyl alcohol extract of BaiTouWeng decoction on biofilm formation of Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦翔; 陆克乔; 夏丹; 夏雪; 施高翔; 邵菁; 吴大强; 汪天明; 汪长中

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Butyl alcohol extract of BaiTouWeng decoction (BAEB)on the biofilm formation of Candida albicans clinical strains isolated from vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC).Methods Microdilution meth-ods was used to determine the MIC.XTT reduction assay was applied to determine the SMIC80 .Time-kill curve method was applied to detect the effects of BAEB on living cells of Candida albicans .Crystal violet staining method was used to determine the biomass of the biofilm.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)was applied to observe the morphological changes of the bio-film.Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)was applied to determine the thickness of the biofilm.The quantification re-al-time PCR (qRT-PCR)was used to detect expression changes of genes (HSP90 ,UME6 and PES1 )of the biofilm treated by BAEB.Results The MICs of BAEB against C .albicans strains are determined as 64~256 μg/mL.The SMIC80 s of BAEB against the biofilm of C .albicans strains are determined as ≥1 024 μg/mL.Time-kill curve results indicate that BAEB has a promise antifungal effect at concentrations of 5 12 and 1 024 μg/mL.Crystal violet staining results show that the biomass of C .albicans is reduced by BAEB at 5 12 and 1 024 μg/mL.SEM results indicate that the formation of C .albicans biofilm carriers is inhibited by BAEB on different adhesion,and the morphol-ogy of biofilm is also affected by BAEB.The thickness of C .albicans biofilm is reduced by BAEB accord-ing to CLSM results.Furthermore,qRT-PCR results indicate that expression of UME6 is significantly down-regulated by BAEB at 256,5 12,1 024 μg/mL,and HSP90 is up-regulated at 5 12 and 1 024 μg/mL of BAEB,and PES1 is not affected by BAEB at any concentration.Conclusion BAEB inhibits effectively the biofilm formation of VVC strains of C . albicans .%目的:探讨白头翁汤正丁醇提取物(Butyl alcohol extract of Bai Tou Weng decoction,BAEB)对分离自外阴阴道念珠菌病(vulvovaginal candidiasis

  11. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHARONE, Senda; PORTELA, Maristela Barbosa; MARTINS, Karol de Oliveira; SOARES, Rosangela Maria; CASTRO, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro. PMID:28198976

  12. Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senda CHARONE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+ children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH, Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+ released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140 enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3; mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4; biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5 and medium without Candida (Group 6. Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05 from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

  13. Molecular Identification of Candida Albicans Isolated From the Oncology Patients at Four University Hospitals in Mazandaran Province (2005-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karami, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Early detection of Candida species in body site could improve the survival of the immunosuppressed patients by allowing the initiation of specific treatment while the fungal biomass is still low. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida albicans isolated from the oncology patients by molecular methods.Materials and Methods: Sixty two of Candida albicans isolated identified by phenotypic methods (color of colony on CHROMagar medium, germ-tube formation in horse serum, chlamydospore formation on Cornmeal agar with 1% Tween 80. DNA was extracted by using a glass bead/phenol- chloroform method. The oligonucleotide primer pairs (NL1/NL4 were used to amplify a 620-bp fragment of D1/D2 region of large submit (26s ribosomal DNA gene. PCR-products were electrophoresed in a 1.5% agarose gel. Eighteen PCR-amplified products sequenced and results were evaluated by online BLAST software. Multiple sequence alignment was performed by using online CLUSTAL-W (version 1.83 software.Results: The BLAST search revealed that all of products were Candida albicans. All sequences showed >99% similarity when compared with known reference sequences at the Gene-Bank. Four different strains were obtained of albicans species, including: AA 1622b (13 samples, 24698 (3 samples, TA 62 (1samples and 551 FC (1 sample. A total of 131 nucleotide exchange sites were revealed.Conclusion: The dominant species by phenotypic approaches was Candida albicans. In addition, identification of Candida albicans by (26S rDNA sequencing was 100% concordant to the results obtained by the phenotypic metho

  14. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  15. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  16. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  17. Candida heliconiae sp. nov., Candida picinguabensis sp. nov. and Candida saopaulonensis sp. nov., three ascomycetous yeasts from Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruivo, Carla C C; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Strains belonging to three novel yeast species, Candida heliconiae (four isolates), Candida picinguabensis (three isolates) and Candida saopaulonensis (two isolates), were recovered in the year 2000 from water of flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana L. Emigd. (Heliconiaceae) found in a forest ecosystem site in an Atlantic rainforest of south-eastern Brazil. C. picinguabensis and C. saopaulonensis were nearly identical in morphology and physiology, but sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rDNA indicated that they should be regarded as different species. They belong to the Metschnikowiaceae clade. C. heliconiae had affinities to Pichia mexicana and related species, but was genetically isolated from all currently accepted species in that group. The type strains are C. heliconiae UNESP 00-91C1T (=CBS 10000T=NRRL Y-27813T), C. picinguabensis UNESP 00-89T (=CBS 9999T=NRRL Y-27814T) and C. saopaulonensis UNESP 00-99T (=CBS 10001T=NRRL Y-27815T).

  18. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p tyrosol has an inhibitory effect on Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  19. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis.

  20. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  1. VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDA INFECTION PREVALENCE IN TASHKENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uktam Ziyadullaev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis does not always reflect real situation regarding this disease, since the frequency of patients’ self- treatment remains high, as evidenced by the results of the studies based on anonymous surveys. The prevalence of this disease is growing steadily both in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the world.  Accumulated problems have provided grounds to conduct the research on the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in the juvenile age population of Tashkent city. Method: The study included examining of 2107 adolescent aged girls of high schools, lyceums and colleges of Tashkent city. Results: Thus, in the studied region the prevalence of Candida vulvovaginitis in adolescent population is high, which in turn requires to take steps to further improve treatment and prevention.  

  2. Candida species exhibit differential in vitro hemolytic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Gang; Lakshman P Samaranayake; Yau, Joyce Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 80 Candida isolates representing 14 species were examined for their respective responses to an in vitro hemolytic test. A modification of a previously described plate assay system where the yeasts are incubated on glucose (3%)-enriched sheep blood agar in a carbon dioxide (5%)-rich environment for 48 h was used to evaluate the hemolytic activity. A group of eight Candida species which included Candida albicans (15 isolates), C. dubliniensis (2), C. kefyr (2), C. krusei (4), C. zeyl...

  3. Expression and Mutagenesis studies of Candida antactica lipase B

    OpenAIRE

    Rotticci-Mulder, Johanna C.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Candida antarctica lipase B was successfullyproduced in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Thespecific activities of Candida antarctica lipase B produced inPichia pastoris and commercial Candida antarctica lipase B fromNovozymes were the same. In shake-flask cultivations theexpression levels were about 25 mg L-1. Production levels couldbe increased to 1.5 g L-1, using a fermentor. A model tosimulate growth and oxygen consumption was described. The highcell density growth cou...

  4. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra; Narjara Coelho; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The ...

  5. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Epub October 4th Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole upt...

  6. Candida famata-induced fulminating cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Ramos de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithiasic cholecystitis is classically associated with the presence of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis associated with fungal infections is a rare event related to underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus, steroid use, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use for prolonged periods, as well as pancreatitis and surgery of the digestive tract. Here, we present the first reported case of a gallbladder infection caused by Candida famata.

  7. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  8. Childhood Candida Infections: Single-center Experience

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    Eren Cagan

    2015-06-01

    Results: Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with Candida infection. Of these patients 17 were male (59% and 12 were female (41%. Eleven patients were less than a year old (38%, 9 were between 1-5 years (31% and 9 were above the age of five (31%. The most important underlying disease malignancies were congenital heart disease and neurological diseases. Candida growth was determined in the blood cultures of 17 patients, the urine cultures of 10 patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one patient. While the most commonly used anti-fungal agent was fluconazole (51.7%, others used were caspofungin (41.3% and amfoterisin B (13.7%. No isolated Candida strain showed resistance to anti-fungal agents. Treatment was clinically and microbiologically 96.5% successful. Conclusions: Fluconazole still appears to be an effective treatment choice we believe there is a necessity to review the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values for anti-fungal agents. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 245-251

  9. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  10. Candida bracarensis: Evaluation of Virulence Factors and its Tolerance to Amphotericin B and Fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, André; Silva, Sónia; Botelho, Cláudia; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Candida bracarensis is an uncommon Candida species found during an epidemiological study of candidiasis performed in Braga, Portugal. Initially, it was identified as C. glabrata, but recently detailed analyses pointed out their differences. So, little information is still available about C. bracarensis virulence factors and antifungal susceptibilities. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to evaluate the ability of C. bracarensis to form biofilms, to produce hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, phospholipases and hemolysins), as well as its susceptibility to amphotericin B and fluconazole. It was shown, for the first time, that all C. bracarensis strains were able to form biofilms and display proteinase and hemolytic activities. Moreover, although planktonic cells presented antifungal susceptibility, amphotericin B and fluconazole were unable to inhibit biofilm formation and eradicate pre-formed biofilms. Due to the propensity of C. bracarensis to display antifungal resistance and virulence attributes, the control of these emerging pathogens is recommended.

  11. Antifungal Activity of Coumarin from Ageratum conyzoides L. Leaves on Candida albicans cells

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    Gunawan Pamudji Widodo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the antifungal activity of coumarin isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves and to observe its influence on Candida albicans cells by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Antifungal activity testing by disk diffusion method showed coumarin was active toward pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans with the MIC value of coumarin of 125 g mL-1. The influence of this substance on C. albicans cells was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The result showed that this compound damaged the cell by pores formation on the cell wall. The death of cells occurred due to leakage and necrotic of cytoplasmic content.

  12. Differential virulence of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis: A role for Tor1 kinase?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sullivan, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are two very closely related species of pathogenic yeast. C. albicans is the most prevalent species in the human gastrointestinal tract and is responsible for far more opportunistic infections in comparison with C. dubliniensis. This disparity is likely to be due to the reduced ability of C. dubliniensis to undergo the yeast to hypha transition, a change in morphology that plays an important role in C. albicans virulence. We have recently shown that hypha formation by C. dubliniensis is specifically repressed by nutrients at alkaline pH. In this article, we present new data showing that this can be partly reversed by treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient sensing kinase Tor1 (Target Of Rapamycin). We also provide a speculative model to describe why C. albicans filaments more efficiently in nutrient rich environments, citing recently described data on Mds3, a pH responsive regulator of Tor1 kinase activity.

  13. Identification and differentiation of Candida parapsilosis complex species by use of exon-primed intron-crossing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Wu, Zengbin; Ling, Bo; Pan, Shuming; Liao, Wanqing; Pan, Weihua; Yao, Zhirong

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex is composed of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and the closely related species Lodderomyces elongisporus. An exon-primed intron-crossing PCR assay was developed here to distinguish the members of the species complex on the basis of the distinct sizes of amplicons, and Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis were further discriminated by restriction enzyme analysis.

  14. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

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    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  15. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex. PMID:26168269

  16. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gil-Alonso

    Full Text Available Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction in TK against 5 out of 14 (36% strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%. In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57% strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  17. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  18. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  19. Caspofungin-induced in-vitro post-antifungal effect and its impact on adhesion related traits of oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna Nishantha Bandara; Chandy, Rachel; Khan, Zia Uddin; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) and denture acrylic surfaces (DAS), germ tube (GT) formation and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are all virulence traits involved in the pathogenicity of Candida. Post-antifungal effect (PAFE) also have a bearing on pathogenicity and virulence of Candida. Candida dubliniensis is associated with oral and systemic candidosis, which can be managed with caspofungin. There is no published information on caspofungin-induced PAFE and its impact on adhesion traits of C. dubliniensis isolates. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the in vitro duration of PAFE on 20 C. dubliniensis isolates following transient exposure to caspofungin. Furthermore the impacts of caspofungin-induced PAFE on adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation and CSH of these isolates were also determined. After establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of caspofungin, C. dubliniensis isolates were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (×3 MIC) of caspofungin for 1 hr. Thereafter the duration of PAFE, adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation and CSH were determined by previously described in-vitro assays. MIC (μg/mL) of C. dubliniensis isolates to caspofungin ranged from 0.004 to 0.19. Caspofungin-induced mean PAFE on C. dubliniensis isolates was 2.17 hr. Exposure to caspofungin suppressed the ability of C. dubliniensis isolates to adhere to BEC and DAS, form GT and CSH by 69.97%, 71.95%, 90.06% and 32.29% (P < 0.001 for all), respectively. Thus, transient exposure of C. dubliniensis isolates to caspofungin produces an antifungal effect not only by suppressing its growth but also by altering its adhesion traits.

  20. Non-Candida albicans Candida mediastinitis of odontogenic origin in a diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Mantadakis, Elpis; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Bourolias, Constantinos A; Papazoglou, Georgios; Velegrakis, George A; Samonis, George

    2008-06-01

    Descending mediastinitis occurs as a complication of oropharyngeal or cervical infections and its delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with high mortality. A rare case of an odontogenic infection in a diabetic patient, complicated by Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei parapharyngeal space infection, descending mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia is described. Isolate identification was based on colonial and microscopic morphological characteristics and carbohydrate assimilation test results. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage and debridement, broad spectrum antibacterials and liposomal amphotericin B followed by prolonged oral voriconazole therapy.

  1. The synthetic melanocortin (CKPV2 exerts anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects against Candida albicans vaginitis via inducing macrophage M2 polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xia Ji

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects of the synthetic melanocortin peptide (Ac-Cys-Lys-Pro-Val-NH22 or (CKPV2 against Candida albicans vaginitis. Our in vitro results showed that (CKPV2 dose-dependently inhibited Candida albicans colonies formation. In a rat Candida albicans vaginitis model, (CKPV2 significantly inhibited vaginal Candida albicans survival and macrophages sub-epithelial mucosa infiltration. For mechanisms study, we observed that (CKPV2 inhibited macrophages phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Meanwhile, (CKPV2 administration inhibited macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 release, while increasing the arginase activity and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production, suggesting macrophages M1 to M2 polarization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP production was also induced by (CKPV2 administration in macrophages. These above effects on macrophages by (CKPV2 were almost reversed by melanocortin receptor-1(MC1R siRNA knockdown, indicating the requirement of MC1R in the process. Altogether, our results suggest that (CKPV2 exerted anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities against Candida albicans vaginitis probably through inducing macrophages M1 to M2 polarization and MC1R activation.

  2. Influence of probiotics on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Lima dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that promote benefits to host health, mainly by regulating resident microbiota. Disequilibrium in microbiota can favor the growth of opportunist microorganisms and the development of pathologies, like candidosis caused by yeasts of the Candida genus. This work evaluated whether probiotics consumption was able to influence a specific immunological response to Candida and the presence of these yeasts in the oral cavity. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals and plated in Dextrose Saboraud Agar with chloramphenicol. Individuals presenting Candida in the oral cavity used the probiotic Yakult LBâ for 20 days, after which new collections and identifications were performed. Anti-Candida IgA analysis was conducted using the ELISA technique. Analysis of the results showed a significant reduction in Candida prevalence (46% and mean Candida CFU/mL counts (65%. The Candida species identified were C. albicans (98% and C.tropicalis (2%, before and after probiotics consumption. Immunological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in anti-Candida IgA levels after probiotics use, probably due to less antigenic stimulation. In conclusion, in the individuals studied, probiotics use significantly reduced the amount of Candida in the oral cavity, possibly due to competition between the yeasts rather than by specific secretory immune response stimulation.

  3. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  4. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó Zsuzsanna (1973-) (biológus, biológia-kémia szakos középiskolai tanár); Szilágyi Judit (1984-) (környezettudományi vegyész); Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos Gábor (1974-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobiológus); Rozgonyi Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedigh (1980-) (népegészségügyi szakember, egészségfejlesztő); Majoros László (1966-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobológus)

    2009-01-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 ?g/mL (1?8? MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 ?g/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at ?1? MIC (0....

  5. Comparison of the clinical risk factors between Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species for bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hayama, Brian; Ohji, Goh; Iwata, Kentaro; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors and susceptibilities to antifungal agents of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species (spp.) in candidemia cases in Kobe University Hospital. We investigated all consecutive patients with candida bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2008-2013 for whose full data were available for analyses, examining clinical factors such as gender, general complications, postoperative status or susceptibilities to antifungal agents. These factors were also compared between Candida albicans spp. and Candida non-albicans by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses showed a significantly higher rate of Candida non-albicans species BSI patients cancer (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=2.29 (1.04-5.06) and P=0.040), chemotherapy (OR=4.35 (1.11-17.1) and P=0.035), fluconazole (FLCZ) resistance (OR=77.3 (4.51-1324) and P=0.003), and itraconazole (ITCZ) resistance (OR=15.6 (5.39-45.1) and PCandida albicans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. had significantly higher rate of chemotherapy (OR=4.44 (1.04-19.0) and P=0.045), FLCZ resistance (OR=5.87 (2.01-17.1) and P=0.001), and ITCZ resistance (OR=18.7(5.77-60.4) and PCandida albicans. In conclusion, this study revealed several risk factors for BSI with Candida albicans (underlying cardiovascular diseases and postoperative status) and Candida non-albicans spp. (cancer and chemotherapy), and demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. were more resistant to FLCZ and ITCZ than Candida albicans.

  6. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  7. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  8. Gymnemic acids inhibit hyphal growth and virulence in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindsamy Vediyappan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine.

  9. Integrating Candida albicans metabolism with biofilm heterogeneity by transcriptome mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; May, Ali; Sherry, Leighann; Kean, Ryan; Williams, Craig; Jones, Brian L.; Burgess, Karl V.; Heringa, Jaap; Abeln, Sanne; Brandt, Bernd W.; Munro, Carol A.; Ramage, Gordon

    2016-10-01

    Candida albicans biofilm formation is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of disease, a characteristic which has been shown to be heterogeneous in clinical isolates. Using an unbiased computational approach we investigated the central metabolic pathways driving biofilm heterogeneity. Transcripts from high (HBF) and low (LBF) biofilm forming isolates were analysed by RNA sequencing, with 6312 genes identified to be expressed in these two phenotypes. With a dedicated computational approach we identified and validated a significantly differentially expressed subnetwork of genes associated with these biofilm phenotypes. Our analysis revealed amino acid metabolism, such as arginine, proline, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, were predominantly upregulated in the HBF phenotype. On the contrary, purine, starch and sucrose metabolism was generally upregulated in the LBF phenotype. The aspartate aminotransferase gene AAT1 was found to be a common member of these amino acid pathways and significantly upregulated in the HBF phenotype. Pharmacological inhibition of AAT1 enzyme activity significantly reduced biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that biofilm phenotype is associated with differential regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding and targeting such pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, is potentially useful for developing diagnostics and new antifungals to treat biofilm-based infections.

  10. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  11. Activation of innate immunity during systemic Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased knowledge on the mechanisms of Candida recognition and the networks of innate and adaptive host defense activated during infection, much remains to be learned regarding the distinctive modulatory effects of Candida spp on host immune responses. We showed that the chronic exposu

  12. Rapid identification of Candida species by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Maquelin (Kees); L.P. Choo-Smith; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); H.A. Bruining (Hajo); G.J. Puppels (Gerwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCandida species are important nosocomial pathogens associated with high mortality rates. Rapid detection and identification of Candida species can guide a clinician at an early stage to prescribe antifungal drugs or to adjust empirical therapy when resistant species are

  13. Influence of yeasts on the oil quality indexes of table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    After moisture, fat is the major constituent of table olives. However, scarce studies have been carried out to determine the influence of microorganisms and type of processing on the modification of their quality indexes. The present survey studies the influence of lipolytic (Candida boidinii TOMC Y5 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus TOMC Y10) and nonlipolytic (Debaryomyces etchellsii TOMC Y9 and Pichia galeiformis TOMC Y27) yeasts on the oil quality indexes of Manzanilla and Hojiblanca green fruits processed as directly brined and lye-treated table olives. Overall, the inocula scarcely used available sugars, except the lipolytic C. boidinii strain in lye-treated olives. Acetic acid production was limited in all conditions, except for the D. etchellsii strain in directly brined Manzanilla fruits. Ethanol formation was also reduced, although the W. anomalus (in both types of elaboration) and the C. boidinii (in lye-treated olives) strains produced significantly higher proportions. Apparently, changes in the oil quality indexes of processed olives were not related to the presence of yeasts, and hence, could have been caused by the endogenous activity of the fruits. A principal component analysis using the microbiological, physicochemical, and oil quality data supported this hypothesis, grouping treatments according to olive variety and type of elaboration, while segregation due to yeast inocula was not observed.

  14. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

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    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  15. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)).

  16. The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A exhibits synergism with antifungals against Candida parapsilosis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Macedo, Ramila de Brito; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis complex comprises three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis. In the last decade, antifungal resistance to azoles and caspofungin among C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains has been considered a matter of concern worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic potential of antifungals and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (Cys) against planktonic and biofilms of C. parapsilosis complex from clinical sources. Susceptibility assays with amphotericin, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and Cys were performed by microdilution in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Synergy testing against planktonic cells of C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains was assessed by the chequerboard method. Combinations formed by antifungals with Cys were evaluated against mature biofilms in microtitre plates. No differences in the antifungal susceptibility pattern among species were observed, but C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were more susceptible to Cys than C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Synergism between antifungals and Cys was observed in C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains. Combinations formed by antifungals and Cys were able to prevent biofilm formation and showed an inhibitory effect against mature biofilms of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. These results strengthen the potential of calcineurin inhibition as a promising approach to enhance the efficiency of antifungal drugs.

  17. Comparison of the hemolytic activity between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.

  18. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  19. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

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    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  20. Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species

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    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM. This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes.

  1. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  2. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  3. Cerebral candida abscess in an infant

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    Baradkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained pus material. The patient responded to combination of surgery (drainage and intravenous amphotericin B. Neurological development six months after hospital discharge was normal. The organism being a rare cause of cerebral abscess in pediatric population is reported here.

  4. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  5. Co-occurence of filamentation defects and impaired biofilms in Candida albicans protein kinase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Nina; Morrissey, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is linked with its developmental stages, notably the capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth, and to form biofilms on surfaces. To better understand the cellular processes involved in C. albicans development, a collection of 63 C. albicans protein kinase mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a microtitre plate assay. Thirty-eight mutants displayed some degree of biofilm impairment, with 20 categorised as poor biofilm formers. All the poor biofilm formers were also defective in the switch from yeast to hyphae, establishing it as a primary defect. Five genes, VPS15, IME2, PKH3, PGA43 and CEX1, encode proteins not previously reported to influence hyphal development or biofilm formation. Network analysis established that individual components of some processes, most interestingly MAP kinase pathways, are not required for biofilm formation, most likely indicating functional redundancy. Mutants were also screened for their response to bacterial supernatants and it was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa supernatants inhibited biofilm formation in all mutants, regardless of the presence of homoserine lactones (HSLs). In contrast, Candida morphology was only affected by supernatant containing HSLs. This confirms the distinct HSL-dependent inhibition of filamentation and the HSL-independent impairment of biofilm development by P. aeruginosa.

  6. Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesharaki, Shirinsadat Hashemi; Haghani, Iman; Mousavi, Bita; Kargar, Melika Laal; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Abbasi, Kyomars; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure.

  7. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  8. Function of fungal quorum sensing molecule tyrosol in formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans mixed biofilm%真菌密度感应分子对羟基苯乙醇在白色假丝酵母菌与表皮葡萄球菌混合生物膜形成中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 汤琦; 黄云超; 赵光强; 周友全; 杨堃; 叶联华; 陈颖

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the function of fungal quorum sensing molecule tyrosol in formation of Staphy‐lococcus epidermidis‐Candida albicans mixed biofilm ,so as to provide new ideas for prevention and treatment of mixed microorganism infection related to biomaterials .METHODS The strains of S .epidermidis ATCC 35984 and C .albicans ATCC10231 were co‐cultured in May 2014 to form the model of in vitro mixed biofilms which were di‐vided into the treatment group and the control group by tyrosol treatment .Biofilm mass was semi‐quantified by crystal violet semi‐quantitative adherence assay after 2 ,4 ,6 ,8 ,12 ,24 ,48 ,72 ,96 hours of incubation .XTT as‐say was performed to determine the growth kinetics at the same time .Scanning by electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of biofilms .The real‐time PCR was used to analyze the expression of icaA ,fbe ,aap , hwp1 ,als3 ,and ef g1 genes .RESULTS Crystal violet semi‐quantitative adherence assay showed that the biofilm thickness was significently larger in the treatment group than in the control group after 2 ,4 ,6 hours of incubation (P<0 .05) .XTT assay for determination of biofilm growth kinetics showed that the growth kinetics was higher in the treatment group than in the control group after 12 ,72 hours of incubation ,there was significant difference in 12 h inter‐group comparison(P< 0 .05) .The scanning by electron microscopy revealed the three‐dimensional structure of mix‐biofilm made by large amount of S .epidermidis and C .albicans spores and hypha that densely grew .The real‐time PCR showed that the expression of icaA ,fbe ,aap genes related to formation of S .epider‐midisbiofilminthetreatmentgroupwasup‐regulatedandtheexpressionofhwp1,als3,efg1genesrelatedtoC. albicans biofilm was down‐regulated .CONCLUSION With intervention of the fungal quorum sensing molecule ty‐rosol ,the biofilm in the treatment group was thicker ,which may be more closely correlated to the up

  9. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G.; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2...

  10. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  11. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  12. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  13. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  14. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A R; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-10-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H(2)O(2)) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly significant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts.

  15. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514(T), CBS 5366(T)) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747(T), CBS 10863(T)) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the two anamorphic species are proposed for transfer to Martiniozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 812061) with Martiniozyma abiesophila designated as type species (MycoBank MB 812062). In keeping with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which specifies that related anamorphic and teleomorphic species can be assigned to the same genus, the following Candida species are transferred to Saturnispora to conform with their phylogenetic placement: Candida diversa (NRRL Y-5713(T)), Candida halmiae (CBS 11009(T)), Candida sanitii (CBS 10864(T)), Candida sekii (CBS 10931(T)), Candida siamensis (CBS 11022(T)), Candida silvae (NRRL Y-6725(T)) and Candida suwanaritii (CBS 11021(T)).

  16. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  17. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia

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    Reena Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Methods: Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud′s dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram′s stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori′s methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Results and Conclusions: Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  18. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

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    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  19. ISOLASI SPESIES CANDIDA DARI TINJA PENDERITA HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji K Sjarifuddin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophyte in the human respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract and also in the debris under the nail. Inpatients with compromised immunity such as HIV-AIDS, Candida is able to cause infection, in this case oral candidosisor esophagitis. In this study fungi were isolated from the stools of HIV/AIDS patients. Samples consisting of 95diarrheic stools from HIV/AIDS patients were investigated for the yeast especially Candida spp. The stools were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar then the fungi were identified using morphological methods and Chromagarmedium. Yeast colonies were found in 71 (74,74% out of 95 samples from which Candida was 42 44,21%, Geotrichum 24 (25,26%, and mixed of Candida and Geotrichum 3 (3,16%, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon 1(1,05% each. Species of Candida were identified as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. Although Candida could be isolated from the diarrheic stools of HIV/AIDS patients but its role on the cause of diarrhea is still questionable.

  20. Candida Parapsilosis Arthritis Involving the Ankle in a Diabetes Patient: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Candida parapsilosis is a rare opportunistic fungal pathogen of the musculoskeletal region. Immune function of almost all patients is severely disturbed. Most reported cases of septic arthritis of joints by Candida involve the knee, especially Candida parapsilosis. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of Candida parapsilosis involving the ankle presented on only plain radiography. We report a case of Candida parapsilosis arthritis involving the ankle in a diabetes patient which was shown on MR imaging.

  1. Development of a high-throughput Candida albicans biofilm chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Srinivasan

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-density microarray platform consisting of nano-biofilms of Candida albicans. A robotic microarrayer was used to print yeast cells of C. albicans encapsulated in a collagen matrix at a volume as low as 50 nL onto surface-modified microscope slides. Upon incubation, the cells grow into fully formed "nano-biofilms". The morphological and architectural complexity of these biofilms were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The extent of biofilm formation was determined using a microarray scanner from changes in fluorescence intensities due to FUN 1 metabolic processing. This staining technique was also adapted for antifungal susceptibility testing, which demonstrated that, similar to regular biofilms, cells within the on-chip biofilms displayed elevated levels of resistance against antifungal agents (fluconazole and amphotericin B. Thus, results from structural analyses and antifungal susceptibility testing indicated that despite miniaturization, these biofilms display the typical phenotypic properties associated with the biofilm mode of growth. In its final format, the C. albicans biofilm chip (CaBChip is composed of 768 equivalent and spatially distinct nano-biofilms on a single slide; multiple chips can be printed and processed simultaneously. Compared to current methods for the formation of microbial biofilms, namely the 96-well microtiter plate model, this fungal biofilm chip has advantages in terms of miniaturization and automation, which combine to cut reagent use and analysis time, minimize labor intensive steps, and dramatically reduce assay costs. Such a chip should accelerate the antifungal drug discovery process by enabling rapid, convenient and inexpensive screening of hundreds-to-thousands of compounds simultaneously.

  2. Development of a high-throughput Candida albicans biofilm chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Anand; Uppuluri, Priya; Lopez-Ribot, Jose; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2011-04-22

    We have developed a high-density microarray platform consisting of nano-biofilms of Candida albicans. A robotic microarrayer was used to print yeast cells of C. albicans encapsulated in a collagen matrix at a volume as low as 50 nL onto surface-modified microscope slides. Upon incubation, the cells grow into fully formed "nano-biofilms". The morphological and architectural complexity of these biofilms were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The extent of biofilm formation was determined using a microarray scanner from changes in fluorescence intensities due to FUN 1 metabolic processing. This staining technique was also adapted for antifungal susceptibility testing, which demonstrated that, similar to regular biofilms, cells within the on-chip biofilms displayed elevated levels of resistance against antifungal agents (fluconazole and amphotericin B). Thus, results from structural analyses and antifungal susceptibility testing indicated that despite miniaturization, these biofilms display the typical phenotypic properties associated with the biofilm mode of growth. In its final format, the C. albicans biofilm chip (CaBChip) is composed of 768 equivalent and spatially distinct nano-biofilms on a single slide; multiple chips can be printed and processed simultaneously. Compared to current methods for the formation of microbial biofilms, namely the 96-well microtiter plate model, this fungal biofilm chip has advantages in terms of miniaturization and automation, which combine to cut reagent use and analysis time, minimize labor intensive steps, and dramatically reduce assay costs. Such a chip should accelerate the antifungal drug discovery process by enabling rapid, convenient and inexpensive screening of hundreds-to-thousands of compounds simultaneously.

  3. Fusarium and Candida albicans biofilms on soft contact lenses: model development, influence of lens type and susceptibility to lens care solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal keratitis is commonly caused by Fusarium species, while cases of Candida-associated keratitis are less frequent. Recent outbreaks of Fusarium keratitis were associated with contact lens wear and with MoistureLoc contact lens care solution, and biofilm formation on contact lens/lens cases was...

  4. Pellicle associated adherence film above incubation broth surface - an inexpensive adjunct to recognizing Candida krusei in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripuntanagoon Elia M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species including Candida krusei have become common pathogens, especially in immune-compromised patients. Pellicle on the surface of incubating nutrient broth extending with an adherent film above the broth has been described as a feature of this organism. We investigated whether this easily observable adherent film could be useful in the identification of this yeast. We also wanted to see if this process involved any morphological changes from the yeast form on the part of C. krusei. Findings Common and less frequently isolated species of Candida were inoculated into YPD broth and observed for pellicle formation. For C. krusei different inoculum sizes and time periods were studied to establish earliest period and the smallest number of organisms needed for this process. A cover-slip assay was established to observe the architecture of the film formed by this organism. Among the clinically common Candida species, only C. krusei formed a visible film, requiring 106 organisms to produce it at 24 hours post inoculation. Film formation also differentiated C. krusei from C. inconspicua usually reported as a complex by carbohydrate assimilation assays. Rarely isolated C. famata and C. norvegensis also formed pellicles and film but less robustly. Microscopic observations of the film showed only yeast forms, no hypha or pseudohypha were seen. Conclusions Pellicle formation following inoculation of a clinical specimen into liquid culture, is a useful alert to the probable presence of C. krusei and likely fluconazole resistance, while awaiting the results of more definitive identification assays. Pellicle and adherence film formation are not a result of polymorphic changes on the part of C. krusei as only yeast forms were present.

  5. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  6. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  7. Candida infection in HIV positive patients 1985-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeder, Christian; Kowoll, Susann; Arastéh, Keikawus

    2008-09-01

    Infection with Candida species remains a major problem in HIV infected patients. The analysis of over 15,000 hospitalisations (1985-2007) in the AVK cohort shows an increasing incidence of non-albicans species in candida esophagitis. Although our analysis shows a decreasing incidence of opportunistic infections like PCP, cerebral toxoplasmosis and others since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy the incidence of candida esophagitis remains as high as in the years before the HAART era. This observation might reflect the development of resistance against fluconazole and the selection of non-albicans species as a consequence of a long-term prophylactic treatment of HIV+ patients over years.

  8. Candida arthritis in a patient diagnosed with spondyloarthritis

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    Remzi Çevik

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida arthritis is an unusual manifestation that usually affects the knees. A 35-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of pain and swelling in the right knee. Swelling persisted after anti-inflammatory treatment. Peripheric spondyloarthritis was considered, but methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and methylprednisolone did not reduce the swelling. Direct examination of synovial fluid and a culture were positive for Candida albicans. Intravenous and intra-articular amphotericin-B were administered. The arthritis regressed and a culture and direct staining showed negative results. Candida arthritis should be considered in patients with arthritis that is resistant to treatment and prolonged, even if risk factors are absent.

  9. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood...... isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (

  10. Modulation of Candida albicans Biofilm by Different Carbon Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Suma C; Pruthi, Parul A; Prasad, R; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, the role of carbon sources (glucose, lactate, sucrose, and arabinose) on Candida albicans biofilm development and virulence factors was studied on polystyrene microtiter plates. Besides this, structural changes in cell wall component β-glucan in presence of different carbon sources have also been highlighted. Biofilm formation was analyzed by XTT (2,3-bis[2-Methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay. Glucose-grown cells exhibited the highest metabolic activity during adhesion among all carbon sources tested (p roughness measurements by atomic force microscopy. Exposure to lactate induced hyphal structures with the highest proteinase activity while arabinose-grown cells formed pseudohyphal structures possessing the highest phospholipase activity. Structural changes in β-glucan characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy displayed characteristic band of β-glucan at 892 cm(-1) in all carbon sources tested. The β(1→6) to β(1→3) glucan ratio calculated as per the band area of the peak was less in lactate (1.15) as compared to glucose (1.73), sucrose (1.62), and arabinose (2.85). These results signify that carbon sources influence C. albicans biofilm development and modulate virulence factors and structural organization of cell wall component β-glucan.

  11. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans, and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers. PMID:28280743

  12. Pathogenicity and virulence of Candida dubliniensis: comparison with C. albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, M M S; Kamei, K; Sano, A; Tanaka, R; Uno, J; Takahashi, I; Ito, J; Yarita, K; Miyaji, M

    2002-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly described fungus that is frequently isolated from the oral cavities of HIV-positive patients. Although extensive studies have been performed on the phylogeny of C. dubliniensis, little is known about the pathogenic ecology of this yeast. Here we examined aspects related to C. dubliniensis in comparison with those of C. albicans. When injected intravenously into mice, C. dubliniensis had a higher survival rate than C. albicans. Histopathological analysis disclosed that C. dubliniensis remained mostly in the yeast form in the infected organs, whereas C. albicans changed into the mycelial form. The host inflammatory reaction was aggressive with C. dubliniensis infection and mild with C. albicans infection. Co-culture of the yeasts with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes disclosed that C. dubliniensis is more vulnerable to the fungicidal activity of leukocytes than C. albicans. C. dubliniensis was also more susceptible to the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide. When cultured in vitro, C. dubliniensis grew more slowly than C. albicans, but the formation of germ tubes was faster. When the fungi were cultured in RPMI 1640, a fetal bovine serum supplement suppressed the growth of C. dubliniensis but enhanced that of C. albicans. These results clearly indicated that C. dubliniensis is less virulence than C. albicans.

  13. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  14. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species: quantification, structure and matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, António; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to characterize biofilms produced by three NCAC species, namely C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The biofilm forming ability of clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata recovered from different sources, was evaluated by crystal violet staining. The structure and morphological characteristics of the biofilms were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the biofilm matrix composition analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content. All NCAC species were able to form biofilms although these were less extensive for C. glabrata compared with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. It was evident that C. parapsilosis biofilm production was highly strain dependent, a feature not evident with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences for biofilms with respect to cell morphology and spatial arrangement. Candida parapsilosis biofilm matrices had large amounts of carbohydrate with less protein. Conversely, matrices extracted from C. tropicalis biofilms had low amounts of carbohydrate and protein. Interestingly, C. glabrata biofilm matrix was high in both protein and carbohydrate content. The present work demonstrates that biofilm forming ability, structure and matrix composition are highly species dependent with additional strain variability occurring with C. parapsilosis.

  15. Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to Photodynamic Therapy Using Four Dyes as the Photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasim; Yazdanpanah, Samira; Saki, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Ghapanchi, Janan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. Photodynamic therapy, as one of its proposed treatment modalities, needs a distinct dye for achieving the best effect. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate photosensitization effects of four distinct dyes on standard suspension of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida dubliniensis (C. dubliniensis) and biofilm of C. albicans considering the obtained optimum dye concentration and duration of laser irradiation. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, colony forming units (CFU) of two sets of four groups of Laser plus Dye (L+D+), Dye (L-D+), Laser (L+D-) and No Laser, No Dye (L-D-) were assessed individually with different methylene blue concentrations and laser irradiation period. The photodynamic therapy effect on standard suspension of Candida species (using methylene blue, aniline blue, malachite green and crystal violet) were studied based on the obtained results. Similar investigation was performed on biofilm of C. albicans using the spectral absorbance. Data were imported to SPSS and assessed by statistical tests of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α= 0.05). Results: CFU among the different dye concentration and irradiation time decrease in dose- and time-dependent manner (p> 0.05), all of which were significantly lower than the control groups (p 0.05) though all of them were significantly decrease CFU compared with the control groups (p< 0.05). In L+D- and L+D+ groups, biofilm was significantly destroyed more than that of L-D- (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy might be used as an effective procedure to treat Candida associated mucocutaneous diseases and killing biofilm in the infected surfaces such as dentures. PMID:27942552

  16. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections.

  17. New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Beata; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Różalska, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants.

  18. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  19. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  20. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  1. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  2. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  3. [Gastric perforation associated with Candida infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollo, Jesús; Carrilo, Elena; Lupu, Ion; Caballero, Ferran; Trias, Manel

    2009-01-01

    Notable causes of gastroduodenal ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, neoplastic disease, acid hypersecretory states and secondary peptic ulcer disease. There are case reports of healthy patients or those with risk factors for fungal infection who develop gastroduodenal ulcer perforation associated with the presence of fungi in ascitic fluid or gastroduodenal ulcer tissue but without the above-mentioned etiological factors. Thus, other factors and pathogens may be involved in the pathogenesis of perforation. The use of antifungal agents in patients following surgery for a perforated gastroduodenal ulcer is controversial. We report two cases of healthy patients who underwent surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, in whom the most frequent causes of perforation were excluded. Only the presence of Candida in the ulcer was found.

  4. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rigo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The constants obtained for this model were µmax = 0.246 h-1, Ks = 16.95 mg/L and Ki = 604.85 mg/L.Neste trabalho foi estudada a biodegradação de catecol em frascos de Erlenmeyers em água residuária sintética pela levedura Candida parapsilopsis. As respostas dos ensaios cinéticos mostraram que altas concentrações de catecol ocasionaram uma fase lag longa para a levedura. Portanto, a aclimatização da cultura de levedura empregada para biodegradação de catecol é de fundamental importância, sendo possível reduzir toda a concentração inicial de catecol da água residuária sintética de 910 mg/L em 48 horas. Os dados experimentais da cinética de biodegradação do catecol foram ajustados pelo modelo de Haldane adequadamente, sobre a faixa de concentração de catecol investigada de 36 a 910 mg/L. Os parâmetros cinéticos obtidos do modelo de Haldane foram: µmax = 0,246 h-1, Ks = 16,95 mg/L e Ki = 604,85 mg/L.

  5. [Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from urine samples of patients in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekkaya, Serife; Fındık, Duygu; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Candida strains (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata) isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Identification of the isolates was done according to microscopic morphology (chlamydospor, blastospor, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID 32C bioMérieux, France). Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by in vitro broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). To investigate the clonal relationship of the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed by using Cnd3 primer. Of the 56 Candida isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values for amphotericin B were 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.125 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. Fluconazole MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25-4 µg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.25-16 µg/ml, 0.5 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.5-64 µg/ml, 8 and 16 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. For amphotericin B, none of the isolates had high MIC values (MIC > 1 µg/ml). While one of the C.glabrata isolates was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 µg/ml), one C.tropicalis and two C.glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (MIC: 16-32 µg/ml). The results of RAPD analysis indicated an exogenous spread from two clones for C.albicans, one clone for C.glabrata and one clone for C.tropicalis. This study underlines the importance of molecular epidemiological analysis of clinical samples together with hospital environmental samples in terms of Candida spp. To determine the exogenous origin for the related strains and to prevent

  6. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  7. The distribution of Nymphaea candida C. Presl (Nymphaeaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wajda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea candida C. Presl is a rare species limited in its distribution to NE Poland. It has often been confused with N. alba L., a much more frequent species. It is probably a threatened species.

  8. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus inhibits virulence factors and promotes metabolic changes in Candida yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ezeddinne El Assal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This is the first study to examine the in vitro susceptibility and the expression of virulence factors in Candida species in the presence of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae, a Brazilian plant known as paucravo. Additionally, the mechanisms of action of the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of this plant were investigated. Methods The in vitro susceptibility of Candida was tested using the broth microdilution method, whereas an XTT reduction assay was used for biofilms. Adherence was determined by counting the number of yeast cells that adhered to 100 oral epithelial cells, and hyphal formation was verified in the hyphal induction medium M199. Flow cytometry with propidium iodide and FUN-1 was performed to assess the mechanism of action. Results The results revealed that the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of P. pseudocaryophyllus inhibited the growth of Candida isolates at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ranging from 64 to 256µg/mL, whereas the 50% sessile minimal inhibitory concentration (SMIC50 ranged from 512 to >1,024µg/mL. Adherence and hyphal formation were significantly reduced in the presence of the crude ethanol extract and both fractions. Although cell membrane injury was detected, the predominant mechanism of action appeared to be the alteration of yeast metabolism, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Conclusions Our results indicated that antifungal activity reduced the expression of virulence factors in yeast via the alteration of yeast metabolism, suggesting that the crude extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus and its fractions may contain novel antifungal agents.

  9. Fermentation of fruit juices by the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Andreia Sofia Soares de

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of the fermentation conditions required to modulate the metabolic flux in the osmotolerant yeast Candida magnoliae and evaluate its potential to produce low-alcoholic and low-caloric fermented beverages. For that purpose, two strains, PYCC 2903 and PYCC 3191, were used and fermentation conditions as oxygenation, sugar concentration and the ratio of glucose to fructose were studied using synthetic culture media. Candida magnoliae PYCC 2903 was subsequently ...

  10. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'brien, Deirdre

    2010-12-15

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  11. Candida parapsilosis meningitis associated with Gliadel (BCNU) wafer implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    A 58-year old male presented with meningitis associated with subgaleal and subdural collections 6 weeks following a temporal craniotomy for resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and Gliadel wafer implantation. Candida parapsilosis was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gliadel wafers removed during surgical debridement. He was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Candida parapsilosis meningitis secondary to Gliadel wafer placement.

  12. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  13. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Kevin P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB, an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1 and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http://cgob.ucd.ie.

  14. Complete DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the pathogenic yeasts Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis: insight into the evolution of linear DNA genomes from mitochondrial telomere mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Peter; Valach, Matus; Tomaska, Lubomir; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Nosek, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    We determined complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the two yeast species, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, and compared them with the linear mitochondrial genome of their close relative, C.parapsilosis. Mitochondria of all the three species harbor compact genomes encoding the same set of genes arranged in the identical order. Differences in the length of these genomes result mainly from the presence/absence of introns. Multiple alterations were identified also in the sequences of the ribosomal and transfer RNAs, and proteins. However, the most striking feature of C.orthopsilosis and C.metapsilosis is the existence of strains differing in the molecular form of the mitochondrial genome (circular-mapping versus linear). Their analysis opens a unique window for understanding the role of mitochondrial telomeres in the stability and evolution of molecular architecture of the genome. Our results indicate that the circular-mapping mitochondrial genome derived from the linear form by intramolecular end-to-end fusions. Moreover, we suggest that the linear mitochondrial genome evolved from a circular-mapping form present in a common ancestor of the three species and, at the same time, the emergence of mitochondrial telomeres enabled the formation of linear monomeric DNA forms. In addition, comparison of isogenic C.metapsilosis strains differing in the form of the organellar genome suggests a possibility that, under some circumstances, the linearity and/or the presence of telomeres provide a competitive advantage over a circular-mapping mitochondrial genome.

  15. Rat indwelling urinary catheter model of Candida albicans biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Jeniel E; Brooks, Erin G; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

    2014-12-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract.

  16. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  17. Evolution and Application of Inteins in Candida species: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alex Lourenço Fernandes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species. Although absent in Candida albicans, these elements are present in different sizes, in some environmental Candida spp. and also in most of the non-albicans Candida spp. considered emergent opportunistic pathogens. Besides, the possible role of these inteins in yeast physiology was also discussed in the light of the recent findings on the importance of these elements as post-translational modulators of gene expression, reinforcing their relevance as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-albicans Candida infections, because, once the splicing of an intein is inhibited, its host protein, which is usually a housekeeping protein, becomes nonfunctional.

  18. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ≤31 h with ≥0.5 μg/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails.

  19. Probiotic lactobacilli inhibit early stages of Candida albicans biofilm development by reducing their growth, cell adhesion, and filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor Haruo; Wang, Yi; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus species on different phases of Candida albicans biofilm development. Quantification of biofilm growth and ultrastructural analyses were performed on C. albicans biofilms treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus planktonic cell suspensions as well as their supernatants. Planktonic lactobacilli induced a significant reduction (p  0.05), but significantly reduced the early stages of Candida biofilm formation (p Candida hyphal differentiation, leading to a predominance of budding growth. All lactobacilli negatively impacted C. albicans yeast-to-hyphae differentiation and biofilm formation. The inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus on C. albicans entailed both cell-cell interactions and secretion of exometabolites that may impact on pathogenic attributes associated with C. albicans colonization on host surfaces and yeast filamentation. This study clarifies, for the first time, the mechanics of how Lactobacillus species may antagonize C. albicans host colonization. Our data elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms that define the probiotic candicidal activity of lactobacilli, thus supporting their utility as an adjunctive therapeutic mode against mucosal candidal infections.

  20. Virulence factors of Candida albicans isolates from the oral cavities of HIV-1-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tatiany O A; Gillet, Luciana C S; Menezes, Sílvio A F; Feitosa, Rosimar N M; Ishak, Marluísa O G; Ishak, Ricardo; Marques-da-Silva, Sílvia H; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

    2013-06-01

    The present study assessed the phenotypic aspects of oral-cavity Candida albicans isolates from 300 HIV-1- positive patients, relating the most commonly investigated virulence factors (enzyme typing and germ-tube formation) to the most common morphotypes. The samples were seeded into specific media for isolation and subsequent identification using the automated Vitek 2 system. The following assays were performed for phenotypic characterization: morphotyping, germ-tube formation and enzyme typing. Out of 300 collected samples, 144 tested positive for yeasts of the Candida genus, 98 (32.7 %) of which were identified as C. albicans. The latter samples were attributed to seven different morphotypes; the three most common morphotypes were 7208 (49 %), 7308 (14.3 %) and 3208 (13.3 %). All of the C. albicans isolate samples formed germ tubes and produced the enzymes proteinase and phospholipase, with an activity classified as intermediate to high. Due to the identification of virulence factors among the analyzed samples, monitoring of HIV-1-positive patients colonized by different morphotypes must be established because these morphotypes are extremely pathogenic and can trigger severe fungal infections.

  1. [Neonatal Candida infections and the antifungal susceptibilities of the related Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuncu, Emel; Bilgen, Hülya; Cerikçioğlu, Nilgün; Ilki, Arzu; Ulger, Nurver; Bakır, Mustafa; Akman, Ipek; Ozek, Eren

    2010-10-01

    Among nosocomial infections in the newborns, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising over the last decades. Fluconazole has been a new option for treatment however, expanded use of the drug brought up the development of resistance. In this study, species of the Candida isolates from neonates with candida infections, their antifungal susceptibilities and the effectiveness of the therapy were evaluated. All the species of Candida isolates from blood, urine and sterile body fluids of 54 neonates and their antifungal susceptibilities were evaluated retrospectively over the 13-year period. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, infection foci, Candida species causing infection and their in vitro susceptibilities for fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) and treatment responses were analyzed. The antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by microdilution technique. The median birth weight and gestational age of the study groups were 1735 (660-3990) g and 33 (24-40) weeks, respectively. Among the patients, 19 (35%) were term, while 35 (65%) were preterm [Candida spp. were isolated mostly from blood samples (63%), followed by urine (46%), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 5%), peritoneal fluid (3%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Multifocal growth was determined in 10 (18%) cases. The isolated species were C.albicans (n =36) as being the most common isolate followed by C.parapsilosis (n = 12), C.tropicalis (n = 1), C.kefyr (n = 1), C.lusitaniae (n = 1), C.pelluculosa (n = 1) and Candida spp. (n = 2). Prior antibiotic use, long term hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition and use of lipid solutions, prematurity and catheter use were determined as the most frequently associated factors causing candidal infections. A congenital abnormality, mainly myeloschisis and hydrocephaly, was detected in 18 (33%) of the cases. Overall FCZ resistance rate was 5.5% and the rate of resistance according to the species was 2.8% for C.albicans and 11% for non

  2. Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to fluconazole by terpenoids of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali Kashinath; Raut, Jayant Shankar; Dhawale, Shashikant; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Infections associated with the biofilms of Candida albicans are a challenge to antifungal treatment. Combinatorial therapy involving plant molecules with antifungal drugs would be an effective complementary approach against drug-resistant Candida biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three bioactive terpenoids (carvacrol, eugenol and thymol) in combination with fluconazole against planktonic cells, biofilm development and mature biofilms of C. albicans. Activities of the selected molecules were tested using a microplate-based methodology, while their combinations with fluconazole were performed in a checkerboard format. Biofilms were quantitated by XTT-metabolic assay and confirmed by microscopic observations. Combinations of carvacrol and eugenol with fluconazole were found synergistic against planktonic growth of C. albicans, while that of thymol with fluconazole did not have any interaction. Biofilm development and mature biofilms were highly resistant to fluconazole, but susceptible to three terpenoids. Sensitization of cells by sub-inhibitory concentrations of carvacrol and eugenol resulted in prevention of biofilm formation at low fluconazole concentrations, i.e. 0.032 and 0.002 mg ml(-1), respectively. Addition of thymol could not potentiate activity of fluconazole against biofilm formation by C. albicans. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) for carvacrol-fluconazole and eugenol-fluconazole combinations for biofilm formation were 0.311 and 0.25, respectively. The FICI value of 1.003 indicated a status of indifference for the combination of thymol and fluconazole against biofilm formation. Eugenol and thymol combinations with fluconazole did not have useful interaction against mature biofilms of C. albicans, but the presence of 0.5 mg ml(-1) of carvacrol caused inhibition of mature biofilms at a significantly low concentration (i.e. 0.032 mg ml(-1)) of fluconazole. The study indicated that carvacrol and eugenol

  3. Candida guilliermondii as the aetiology of candidosis Candida guilliermondii como agente de candidose

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    Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii is one of the components of human microbiota. This yeast has been infrequently associated with human infections, which may be related to its low pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to provide clinical and epidemiological data for patients infected with C. guilliermondii at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. From October 1997 to October 2003, C. guilliermondii was isolated from clinical samples from 11 patients. Three patients were excluded because the isolation of the yeast represented colonisation. Specimens from the eight patients included in the study corresponded to blood (n = 5, ascitis fluid (n = 2, and oesophagus biopsy (n = 1. Three patients (37.5% had major immunosuppressed conditions, including solid organ transplantation, AIDS, and leukaemia. Previous use of antibiotics occurred in 87.5%. Main invasive medical procedures were central venous catheter (50.0%, abdominal surgery (25.0%, and peritoneal dialysis (50.0%. No susceptibility data was obtained. Although risk factors for candidaemia were similar amongst patients infected by with C. guilliermondii or other Candida species, mortality associated with C. guilliermondii was significantly lower.Candida guilliermondii é um dos componentes da microbiota humana e infecções associadas com esta levedura têm sido incomuns, o que pode ser atribuído a sua baixa patogenicidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi documentar aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos em pacientes que tiveram C. guilliermondii isolada a partir de amostras biológicas. O estudo foi conduzido na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brasil. Durante outubro de 1997 e outubro de 2003, C. guilliermondii foi isolada de 11 pacientes, três dos quais foram excluídos por se apresentarem apenas colonizados. Espécimes clínicos corresponderam a sangue (n = 5, líquido de ascite (n = 2 e biópsia de esôfago (n = 1. Três pacientes eram imunodeprimidos, incluindo transplante de órgãos sólidos, SIDA e

  4. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA SPECIES TO ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Geeta M Vaghela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in candidaemia is associated with high mortality. A shift has been observed in the relative frequency of each Candida spp. isolated from blood. Options of the antifungal drugs available for treatment of systemic and invasive candidiasis are restricted to polyenes, allylamines, azoles and recently developed echinocandin class of molecules. A rise in the incidence of antifungal resistance to Candida spp. has also been reported over the past decade. Studies on prevalence of infections and antifungal susceptibility testing are useful in deciding clinical strategies. Aims: To do species level identification and detect resistance, if any, among Indian clinical isolates of C. albicans. Methodology: From total 135 patients from a tertiary care hospital of Gujarat, Candida species were isolated from different clinical specimens. The growth of Candida on Sabouraud's dextrose agar was confirmed by Gram staining in which gram positive budding fungal cells were observed. Then its growth was examined for colony morphology on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and chlamydospore production on Corn meal tween 80 agar. Germ tube tests and other biochemical tests like sugar fermentation, sugar assimilation and urease test were performed to identify the species of Candida. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by NCCLS M44-A Disc diffusion method. Results: Out of total 135 samples, C. Albicans were isolated from 52 (38.5%. Among Non Albican Candid (NAC, Candida glabrata was 36 (26.7% followed by Candida tropicalis 25(18.5%. C. albicans was found resistant to Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.9% cases respectively. For NAC, resistance of Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericine B was found in 4.8%, 3.6% and 2.4% cases respectively. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 122-126

  5. Quantitation of Candida CFU in initial positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Samsa, Gregory P; Schell, Wiley A; Reller, L Barth; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-08-01

    One potential limitation of DNA-based molecular diagnostic tests for Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) is organism burden, which is not sufficiently characterized. We hypothesized that the number of CFU per milliliter (CFU/ml) present in an episode of Candida BSI is too low for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. In this study, we determined Candida burden in the first positive blood culture and explored factors that affect organism numbers and patient outcomes. We reviewed records of consecutive patients with a positive blood culture for Candida in the lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) from 1987 to 1991. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed. One hundred fifty-two episodes of Candida BSI were analyzed. Patient characteristics included adult age (72%), indwelling central venous catheters (83%), recent surgery (29%), neutropenia (24%), transplant (14%), and other immune suppression (21%). Rates of treatment success and 30-day mortality for candidemia were each 51%. The median CFU/ml was 1 (mode 0.1, range 0.1 to >1,000). In the multivariate analysis, pediatric patients were more likely than adults to have high organism burdens (odds ratio [OR], 10.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.3 to 26.5). Initial organism density did not affect patient outcome. Candida CFU/ml in the first positive blood culture of a BSI episode varies greatly; >50% of cultures had ≤1 CFU/ml, a concentration below the experimental yeast cell threshold for reliable DNA-based diagnostics. DNA-based diagnostics for Candida BSI will be challenged by low organism density and the need for sufficient specimen volume; future research on alternate targets is warranted.

  6. Disruption of Protein Mannosylation Affects Candida guilliermondii Cell Wall, Immune Sensing, and Virulence

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    María J. Navarro-Arias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungal cell wall contains glycoproteins that interact with the host immune system. In the prominent pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, Pmr1 acts as a Golgi-resident ion pump that provides cofactors to mannosyltransferases, regulating the synthesis of mannans attached to glycoproteins. To gain insight into a putative conservation of such a crucial process within opportunistic yeasts, we were particularly interested in studying the role of the PMR1 homolog in a low-virulent species that rarely causes candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii. We disrupted C. guilliermondii PMR1 and found that loss of Pmr1 affected cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, susceptibility to cell wall perturbing agents, mannan levels, and the wall composition and organization. Despite there was a significant increment in the amount of β1,3-glucan exposed at the wall surface, this positively influenced only the ability of the mutant to stimulate IL-10 production by human monocytes, suggesting that recognition of both mannan and β1,3-glucan, is required to stimulate strong levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, our results indicate C. guilliermondii sensing by monocytes was critically dependent on the recognition of N-linked mannans and β1,3-glucan, as reported in other Candida species. In addition, chemical remotion of cell wall O-linked mannans was found to positively influence the recognition of C. guilliermondii by human monocytes, suggesting that O-linked mannans mask other cell wall components from immune cells. This observation contrasts with that reported in C. albicans. Finally, mice infected with C. guilliermondii pmr1 null mutant cells had significantly lower fungal burdens compared to animals challenged with the parental strain. Accordingly, the null mutant showed inability to kill larvae in the Galleria mellonella infection model. This study thus demonstrates that mannans are relevant for the C. guilliermondii-host interaction, with

  7. Disruption of Protein Mannosylation Affects Candida guilliermondii Cell Wall, Immune Sensing, and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arias, María J.; Defosse, Tatiana A.; Dementhon, Karine; Csonka, Katalin; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; Dias Valério, Aline; González-Hernández, Roberto J.; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Hernández, Nahúm V.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Singh, Dhirendra K.; Vizler, Csaba; Gácser, Attila; Almeida, Ricardo S.; Noël, Thierry; López, Mercedes G.; Papon, Nicolas; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2016-01-01

    The fungal cell wall contains glycoproteins that interact with the host immune system. In the prominent pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, Pmr1 acts as a Golgi-resident ion pump that provides cofactors to mannosyltransferases, regulating the synthesis of mannans attached to glycoproteins. To gain insight into a putative conservation of such a crucial process within opportunistic yeasts, we were particularly interested in studying the role of the PMR1 homolog in a low-virulent species that rarely causes candidiasis, Candida guilliermondii. We disrupted C. guilliermondii PMR1 and found that loss of Pmr1 affected cell growth and morphology, biofilm formation, susceptibility to cell wall perturbing agents, mannan levels, and the wall composition and organization. Despite the significant increment in the amount of β1,3-glucan exposed at the wall surface, this positively influenced only the ability of the mutant to stimulate IL-10 production by human monocytes, suggesting that recognition of both mannan and β1,3-glucan, is required to stimulate strong levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, our results indicate C. guilliermondii sensing by monocytes was critically dependent on the recognition of N-linked mannans and β1,3-glucan, as reported in other Candida species. In addition, chemical remotion of cell wall O-linked mannans was found to positively influence the recognition of C. guilliermondii by human monocytes, suggesting that O-linked mannans mask other cell wall components from immune cells. This observation contrasts with that reported in C. albicans. Finally, mice infected with C. guilliermondii pmr1Δ null mutant cells had significantly lower fungal burdens compared to animals challenged with the parental strain. Accordingly, the null mutant showed inability to kill larvae in the Galleria mellonella infection model. This study thus demonstrates that mannans are relevant for the C. guilliermondii-host interaction, with an atypical role for O

  8. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  9. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc; Glenthøj, Andreas; Borregaard, Niels; Urban, Constantin F

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On the contrary, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans and mouse strains, which facilitates a more accurate interpretation of in vivo results.

  10. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  11. Effects of Two Curcuminoids on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da; LUO Jiao-yang; YAN Dan; JIN Cheng; DONG Xiao-ping; XIAO Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the action of curcuminoids on the causal pathogens of Candida albicans growth.Methods The effects of curcumin (CUR) and demethoxycurcumin (DMC) on C.albicans growth were first investigated and compared by microcalorimetry coupled with multiple analytical methods.The quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters obtained from these curves were analyzed to show difference of the actions.Results By analyzing the main parameters screened from principal component analysis together with 50% inhibiting concentration values,it was demonstrated that both CUR and DMC showed good antifungal activities and CUR was stronger.It was further concluded from structure-activity relationship that the existence of methoxy group might enhance lipophilicity of the mother nucleus,which made it easier for the molecular to enter into the cell membrane of fungi to inhibit its growth.Conclusion This study provides a new method for screening new antifungal agents with high efficacy and low toxicity.Meanwhile,it contributes to the application of curcuminoids as food additive,colorant,and drug.Microcalorimetry is real-time,online,and dynamic,and it could be used to characterize the subtle difference among the effects of synthetic and natural products on the vital process of fungi.

  12. Functional genomics identifies type I interferon pathway as central for host defense against Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Ng, Aylwin; Kumar, Vinod; Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; van Diemen, Cleo; Arts, Peer; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Oosting, Marije; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Hoischen, Alexander; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Scott, William K.; Perfect, John R.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans. Candid

  13. Value of Candida serum markers in patients with invasive candidiasis after myeloablative chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunel, Frans M. Verduyn; Mennink-Kersten, Monique A. S. H.; Ruegebrink, Dorien; van der Lee, Henrich A. L.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Detection of circulating biomarkers has been shown to precede conventional diagnostic methods, which is important in improving outcome. We investigated the performance of multiple biomarkers using Candida antigen

  14. Serum repressing efflux pump CDR1 in Candida albicans

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    Fan Jen-Chung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decades, the prevalence of candidemia has increased significantly and drug resistance has also become a pressing problem. Overexpression of CDR1, an efflux pump, has been proposed as a major mechanism contributing to the drug resistance in Candida albicans. It has been demonstrated that biological fluids such as human serum can have profound effects on antifungal pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of serum in drug susceptibility via monitoring the activity of CDR1 promoter of C. albicans. Results The wild-type C. albicans cells (SC5314 but not the cdr1/cdr1 mutant cells became more susceptible to the antifungal drug when the medium contained serum. To understand the regulation of CDR1 in the presence of serum, we have constructed CDR1 promoter-Renilla luciferase (CDR1p-RLUC reporter to monitor the activity of the CDR1 promoter in C. albicans. As expected, the expression of CDR1p-RLUC was induced by miconazole. Surprisingly, it was repressed by serum. Consistently, the level of CDR1 mRNA was also reduced in the presence of serum but not N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a known inducer for germ tube formation. Conclusion Our finding that the expression of CDR1 is repressed by serum raises the question as to how does CDR1 contribute to the drug resistance in C. albicans causing candidemia. This also suggests that it is important to re-assess the prediction of in vivo therapeutic outcome of candidemia based on the results of standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing, conducted in the absence of serum.

  15. Susceptibility of Candida albicans to new synthetic sulfone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    The influence of halogenated methyl sulfones, i.e. bromodichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named halogenated methyl sulfone 1), dichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 2), and chlorodibromomethyl-4-hydrazino-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 3), on cell growth inhibition, aspartic protease gene (SAP4-6) expression, adhesion to epithelium, and filamentation was investigated. Antifungal susceptibility of the halogenated methyl sulfones was determined with the M27-A3 protocol in the range of 16-0.0313 µg/mL. Adherence to Caco-2 cells was performed in 24-well plates; relative quantification was normalized against ACT1 in cells after 18 h of growth in YEPD and on Caco-2 cells. SAP4-6 expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that halogenated methyl sulfone 1 containing bromodichloromethyl or dichloromethyl function at C-4 (halogenated methyl sulfone 2) of the phenyl ring showed the best activity (100% cell inhibition at 0.5 µg/mL), while hydrazine at C-1 (halogenated methyl sulfone 3) reduced the sulfone potential (100% = 4 µg/mL). SAP4-6 were up- or down-regulated depending on the strains' genetic background and the substitutions on the phenyl ring. Halogenated methyl sulfone 2 repressed germination and affected adherence to epithelium (P ≤ 0.05). The tested halogenated methyl sulfones interfered with the adhesion of Candida albicans cells to the epithelial tissues, without affecting their viability after 90 min of incubation. The mode of action of the halogenated methyl sulfones was attributed to the reduced virulence of C. albicans. SAP5 and SAP6 contribute to halogenated methyl sulfones resistance. Thus, halogenated methyl sulfones can inhibit biofilm formation due to their interference with adherence and with the yeast-to-hyphae transition.

  16. Geographic distribution and antifungal susceptibility of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in comparison to the closely related species Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Messer, Shawn A; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2008-08-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. parapsilosis using Vitek and conventional methods. Of the 1,929 isolates of presumed C. parapsilosis tested, 117 (6.1%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis and 34 (1.8%) as C. metapsilosis. The percentage of presumed C. parapsilosis isolates found to be C. orthopsilosis varied greatly by region, with the highest percentage (10.9%) from South America and the lowest (0.7%) from Africa. The MIC distributions of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were statistically significantly lower than those of C. parapsilosis for all drugs except fluconazole, for which they were significantly higher (P orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis isolates were fluconazole resistant, and all were susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin.

  17. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  18. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  19. Elderly nutritional status effection salivary anticandidal capacity against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly often suffer malnutrition and oral candidiasis. Candida albicans (C. albicans which is the most prominent cause of oral candidiasis, is one of commensal oral micro-flora. Nutritional status affect the characteristic of saliva. Saliva is the regulator in the development of C. albicans from comensal into pathogen. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determining the correlation between elderly nutritional status with salivary total protein and its activity in inhibiting C. albicans growth and biofilm formation. Methods: Using mini nutritional assessment 30 elderly were classified into normal and malnutrition groups. Total protein of unstimulated saliva was measured using Bradford protein assay. The colony forming unit (CFU of C. albicans was counted on 72 hours on SDA cultures without (control or with 2 hour saliva exposure. Biofilm formation was analyzed from the optical density of 10–5 C. albicans suspension without saliva exposure (control or with exposure of 10.000 μg/ml saliva and incubated in 37° C for 2 days. The suspension was put into 96 well plates, stained with crystal-violet dye, and analyzed using microplate reader. Differences between groups were analyzed using independent t-test or Kruskall-Wallis. Correlation between variables was analyzed using Spearman test. Results: Salivary total protein of normal elderly (1.113.5 ± 1.1143.3 was higher than those of malnutrition (613.6 ± 253.6 but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The CFU of C. albicans exposed to saliva of normal samples (2.060 cfu/ml was significantly lower than control (24.100 cfu/ml and those exposed to malnutrition saliva (5.513.3 cfu/ml. C. albicans biofilm formation is highest in controls (0.177, lower in those exposed to malnourished saliva (0.151 and lowest in those exposed to saliva of good nourished elderly (0.133. Conclusion: Although does not cause significant decrease of salivary total protein, malnutrition in elderly results

  20. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  1. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  2. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

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    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  3. Miltefosine is effective against Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Vila, Taissa Vieira; Sousa Quintanilha, Natália; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection that represents ∼50 % of all nail disease cases worldwide. Clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy to avoid chronic disease. Onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds, such as Fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as Candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. Here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, used clinically against leishmaniasis and cutaneous breast metastases, has potent activity against biofilms of Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans formed on human nail fragments in vitro. Miltefosine activity was compared with that of commercially available antifungals in the treatment of biofilms at two distinct developmental phases: formation and maturation (pre-formed biofilms). Drug activity towards biofilms formed on nail fragments and on microplate surfaces (microdilution assays) was evaluated using XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assays, and drug effects on fingernail biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For F. oxysporum, miltefosine at 8 μg ml- 1 inhibited biofilm formation by 93%, whilst 256 μg ml- 1 reduced the metabolic activity of pre-formed nail biofilms by 93%. Treatment with miltefosine at 1000 μg ml- 1 inhibited biofilm formation by 89% and reduced the metabolic activity of pre-formed C. albicans biofilms by 99%. SEM analyses of biofilms formed on fingernail fragments showed a clear reduction in biofilm biomass after miltefosine treatment, in agreement with XTT results. Our results show that miltefosine has potential as a therapeutic agent against onychomycosis and should be considered for in vivo efficacy studies, especially in topical formulations for refractory disease treatment.

  4. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  5. Eucalyptus globulus L. extract as an antifungal agent against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of botanical preparations have been prepared and used for a wide variety of conditions. Different studies have been carried out towards to confirm the effective multitude of health benefits provided by medicinal plants [I]. In parallel with these studies, in the last years, high rates of opportunistic fungal infections have been observed, namely involving Candida species. Candida albicans is the most common but, currently, other non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have also b...

  6. Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms: Unique Efficacy of Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations and Echinocandins

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, D M; T. George; CHANDRA, J; P. K. Mukherjee; Ghannoum, M A

    2002-01-01

    Biofilms, likely the predominant mode of device-related microbial infection, exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents. Evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We examined antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms grown on a bioprosthetic model. In addition to conventional agents, we determined if new antifungal agents (triazoles, amphotericin B lipid formulations, and echinocandins) have ac...

  7. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  8. Prevalence of non-albican candida infection in Maharashtrian women with leucorrhea

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    Seema M Bankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the prevalence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. Objective: To study the prevalence of different species of Candida and the efficiency of different Candida detection methods in women from low socio-economic setup of Miraj and Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 150 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. In the control group, 50 asymptomatic women were included for comparison. Results: In 33% of the women the leucorrhea was due to Candida infection with highest incidence in women of sexually active age (20-40 years. Sabouraud′s culture was the most efficient method (100% efficiency to detect the Candida compared to wet mount, KOH and gram stain method. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida krusei was the least common one. Conclusion: Candida infection is the commonest reason for leucorrhea and non-albican candida species significantly contribute to candidiasis in women of Miraj and Sangli.

  9. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

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    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  10. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

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    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  11. Two new anamorphic yeasts, Candida thailandica sp. nov. and Candida lignicola sp. nov., isolated from insect frass in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tuntirungkij, Manee; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nakase, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Two new yeast strains of the genus Candida were isolated from insect frass collected in Khao-Yai National Park, Nakhonrachasima, Thailand. Based on the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, these two strains were found to represent two distinct undescribed species and were named Candida thailandica sp. nov. (ST-17 = BCC 7717(T) = NBRC 102562(T)=CBS 10 610) and Candida lignicola sp. nov. (ST-33 = BCC 7733(T) = NBRC 102564(T) = CBS 10612). In the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, C. thailandica (GeneBank accession no. AY228491) differs from Candida tsuchiyae, the nearest species, in 66 nucleotide substitutions (10%) and C. lignicola (GeneBank accession no. AY845350) differs from Candida coipomoensis, the nearest species, in nine nucleotides (1.6%). These two new species are clearly distinguished from their closest species by the assimilation of several carbon compounds.

  12. Efficacy of micafungin in invasive candidiasis caused by common Candida species with special emphasis on non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Oliver A; Vazquez, Jose; De Waele, Jan; Betts, Robert; Rotstein, Coleman; Nucci, Marcio; Pappas, Peter G; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. is increasing. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidaemia caused by different Candida spp. This post hoc analysis used data obtained from two randomised phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of micafungin vs. caspofungin and micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B. Treatment success, clinical response, mycological response and mortality were evaluated in patients infected with C. albicans and NAC spp. Treatment success rates in patients with either C. albicans or NAC infections were similar. Outcomes were similar for micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Candida albicans was the most prevalent pathogen recovered (41.0%), followed by C. tropicalis (17.9%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (10.4%), multiple Candida spp. (7.3%) and C. krusei (3.2%). Age, primary diagnosis (i.e. candidaemia or invasive candidiasis), previous corticosteroid therapy and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were identified as potential predictors of treatment success and mortality. Micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B exhibit favourable treatment response rates that are comparable for patients infected with different Candida spp.

  13. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Human Respiratory Epithelium Affected by Invasive Candida Infection.

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    Syed Aun Muhammad

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is potentially life-threatening systemic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans. Candida enters the blood stream and disseminate throughout the body and it is often observed in hospitalized patients, immunocompromised individuals or those with chronic diseases. This infection is opportunistic and risk starts with the colonization of C. albicans on mucocutaneous surfaces and respiratory epithelium. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of virtually every cellular process. They regulate and control the levels of mRNA stability and post-transcriptional gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been associated in many disease states, and miRNA-based therapies are in progress. In this study, we investigated possible variations of miRNA expression profiles of respiratory epithelial cells infected by invasive Candida species. For this purpose, respiratory epithelial tissues of infected individuals from hospital laboratory were accessed before their treatment. Invasive Candida infection was confirmed by isolation of Candia albicans from the blood cultures of the same infected individuals. The purity of epithelial tissues was assessed by flow cytometry (FACSCalibur cytometer; BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany using statin antibody (S-44. TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (in a TaqMan Low Density Array format was used for miRNA expression profiling. MiRNAs investigated, the levels of expression of 55 miRNA were significantly altered in infected tissues. Some miRNAs showed dramatic increase (miR-16-1 or decrease of expression (miR-17-3p as compared to control. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these miRNA-targeted genes suggests that Candidal infection affect many important biological pathways. In summary, disturbance in miRNA expression levels indicated the change in cascade of pathological processes and the regulation of respiratory epithelial functions

  14. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of homeopathic Candida albicans solutions

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    André Luis Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida spp is naturally found in humans’ flora of skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and, in general, up to 75% of the population does not have any symptom [1]. However, oral candidiasis is very common among HIV patients and patients undergoing chemotherapy. The treatment of oral candidiasis is necessary once the disease causes discomfort and dysphagia, resulting in poor nutrition, slow recovery, and prolonged hospital stay [2,3]. Preliminary results obtained by our group with a new biotherapic prepared from Candida albicans (Candida 30x showed a great potential to reduce the candida yeast adhesion rate when the epithelial cells were pre-treated. This study is currently being developed with the evaluation of mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of several homeopathic solutions. Aims: The goal of this study was to assess the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of different homeopathic potencies of C. albicans. Methodology: One part of C. albicans yeast obtained from Brazilian patient’s blood [4] was diluted in 9 parts of sterile water. This sample was submitted to 100 mechanical succussions (approximately 3 Hz, using Autic® Brazilian machine, originating the first dilution (1x. Then, 1 ml of this solution was diluted in 9 ml of solvent, submitted to 100 succussions, obtaining 2x potency. This procedure was successively repeated to obtain 30x potency, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [5]. By the same technique, water vehicle was prepared until 30x to be used as control. All samples were prepared in sterile and aseptic conditions, using laminar flow cabinet, class II and were stored in the refrigerator (8ºC. The samples 1x, 6x, 12x, 18x, 24x and 30x of C. albicans and water 30x (vehicle control were analysed by: the Inductest, which assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a reflection of damage in DNA

  15. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  16. Characterization of biofilms formed by Candida parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattif, Ali Abdul; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Chandra, Jyotsna; Swindell, Kim; Lockhart, Shawn R; Diekema, Daniel J; Pfaller, Michael A; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2010-04-01

    Infections due to Candida parapsilosis have been associated with the ability of this fungus to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Recently, C. parapsilosis isolates were reclassified into 3 genetically non-identical classes: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Little information is available regarding the ability of these newly reclassified species to form biofilms on biomedical substrates. In this study, we characterized biofilm formation by 10 clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Biofilms were allowed to form on silicone elastomer discs to early (6h) or mature (48 h) phases and quantified by tetrazolium (XTT) and dry weight assays. Surface topography and three-dimensional architecture of the biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively. Metabolic activity assay revealed strain-dependent biofilm forming ability of the 3 species tested, while biomass determination revealed that all 3 species formed equivalent biofilms (P>0.05 for all comparisons). SEM analyses of representative isolates of these species showed biofilms with clusters of yeast cells adherent to the catheter surface. Additionally, confocal microscopy analyses showed the presence of cells embedded in biofilms ranging in thickness between 62 and 85 microm. These results demonstrate that similar to C. parapsilosis, the 2 newly identified Candida species (C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis) were able to form biofilms.

  17. Influence of substratum position and acquired pellicle on Candida albicans biofilm

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    Indira Moraes Gomes Cavalcanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the substratum position and the saliva acquired pellicle (AP on Candida albicans biofilm development. Poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA disks were fabricated and randomly allocated to experimental groups: HNP (disks placed in a horizontal position and uncoated by pellicle, VNP (disks placed in a vertical position and uncoated by pellicle, HCP (disks placed in a horizontal position and coated by pellicle, and VCP (disks placed in a vertical position and coated by pellicle. Disks were placed in a 24-well plate and a suspension of 107 cells/mL of Candida albicans was added to each well for biofilm development. The plates were aerobically incubated at 35°C. The biofilms were evaluated at 1.5 (adhesion time point, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The number of viable cells was quantified in terms of the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL. Metabolic activity was measured by the XTT assay. The biofilm structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test, with significance set at 5%. The vertical groups showed less biofilm formation and lower metabolic activity than the horizontal groups (ppp > 0.05. It can be concluded that the substratum position influenced biofilm development.

  18. Pulsed light for the inactivation of fungal biofilms of clinically important pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mary; Andrade Fernandes, Joao Paulo; Rowan, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms are naturally found as biofilm communities more than planktonic free-floating cells; however, planktonic culture remains the current model for microbiological studies, such as disinfection techniques. The presence of fungal biofilms in the clinical setting has a negative impact on patient mortality, as Candida biofilms have proved to be resistant to biocides in numerous in vitro studies; however, there is limited information on the effect of pulsed light on sessile communities. Here we report on the use of pulsed UV light for the effective inactivation of clinically relevant Candida species. Fungal biofilms were grown by use of a CDC reactor on clinically relevant surfaces. Following a maximal 72 h formation period, the densely populated biofilms were exposed to pulsed light at varying fluences to determine biofilm sensitivity to pulsed-light inactivation. The results were then compared to planktonic cell inactivation. High levels of inactivation of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms were achieved with pulsed light for both 48 and 72 h biofilm structures. The findings suggest that pulsed light has the potential to provide a means of surface decontamination, subsequently reducing the risk of infection to patients. The research described herein deals with an important aspect of disease prevention and public health.

  19. Candida albicans stimulates Streptococcus mutans microcolony development via cross-kingdom biofilm-derived metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongyeop; Sengupta, Arjun; Niepa, Tagbo H. R.; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Weljie, Aalim; Freitas-Blanco, Veronica S.; Murata, Ramiro M.; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Lee, Daeyeon; Koo, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection of Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children affected with early-childhood caries, a prevalent and costly oral disease. The presence of C. albicans enhances S. mutans growth within biofilms, yet the chemical interactions associated with bacterial accumulation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate how microbial products from this cross-kingdom association modulate S. mutans build-up in biofilms. Our data revealed that bacterial-fungal derived conditioned medium (BF-CM) significantly increased the growth of S. mutans and altered biofilm 3D-architecture in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in enlarged and densely packed bacterial cell-clusters (microcolonies). Intriguingly, BF-CM induced S. mutans gtfBC expression (responsible for Gtf exoenzymes production), enhancing Gtf activity essential for microcolony development. Using a recently developed nanoculture system, the data demonstrated simultaneous microcolony growth and gtfB activation in situ by BF-CM. Further metabolites/chromatographic analyses of BF-CM revealed elevated amounts of formate and the presence of Candida-derived farnesol, which is commonly known to exhibit antibacterial activity. Unexpectedly, at the levels detected (25–50 μM), farnesol enhanced S. mutans-biofilm cell growth, microcolony development, and Gtf activity akin to BF-CM bioactivity. Altogether, the data provide new insights on how extracellular microbial products from cross-kingdom interactions stimulate the accumulation of a bacterial pathogen within biofilms. PMID:28134351

  20. Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Biomass, Metabolic Activity and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sónia; Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    According to epidemiological data, Candida tropicalis has been related to urinary tract infections and haematological malignancy. Several virulence factors seem to be responsible for C. tropicalis infections, for example: their ability to adhere and to form biofilms onto different indwelling medical devices; their capacity to adhere, invade and damage host human tissues due to enzymes production such as proteinases. The main aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis biofilms of different ages (24-120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their ability to express aspartyl proteinase (SAPT) genes. The reference strain C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and two C. tropicalis isolates from urine were used. Biofilms were evaluated in terms of culturable cells by colony-forming units enumeration; total biofilm biomass was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method; metabolic activity was evaluated by XTT assay; and SAPT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. All strains of C. tropicalis were able to form biofilms in AU, although with differences between strains. Candida tropicalis biofilms showed a decrease in terms of the number of culturable cells from 48 to 72 h. Generally, SAPT3 was highly expressed. C. tropicalis strains assayed were able to form biofilms in the presence of AU although in a strain- and time-dependent way, and SAPT genes are expressed during C. tropicalis biofilm formation.

  1. Extracellular biosynthesis of anti-Candida silver ‎nanoparticles using Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf F; El-Batal, Ahmed I; Abomosalam, Farag M; Tayel, Ahmed A; Shetaia, Yousria M; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-05-01

    An eco-friendly process for the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesis was investigated using the fungus Monascus purpureus as a safe and commercially used microorganism. M. purpureus growth filtrate was used for the reduction of the aqueous silver nitrate into Ag-NPs with almost 100% size range of 1-7 nm, which was considered as one of the smallest microbial biosynthesized Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were structurally characterized using UV, FTIR, DLS, TEM, and XRD. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were stable after 3 months with no alteration in shape or size. M. purpureus showed no nitrate reductase activity, whereas its pigments reducing power was decreased after nanoparticles formation indicating its role in the Ag-NPs biosynthesis. The synthesized Ag-NPs exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against different bacteria and yeasts species. The anti-Candida activity of M. purpureus culture filtrate was enhanced in the presence of Ag-NPs; the maximum increase in microbial inhibition was observed against Candida albicans with 1.73 increased folds of inhibition zones, followed by their activity against C. tropicalis and C. glabrata with 0.919- and 0.694-folds of increase, respectively. The obtained results suggest that the biosynthesized Ag-NPs offers a promising cost-effective, eco-friendly, and an alternative way to the conventional method of synthesis that could have wide applications in medicine.

  2. Transcript profiling reveals rewiring of iron assimilation gene expression in Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-12-01

    Hyphal growth is repressed in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis by the transcription factor Nrg1. Transcript profiling of a C. dubliniensis NRG1 mutant identified a common group of 28 NRG1-repressed genes in both species, including the hypha-specific genes HWP1, ECE1 and the regulator of cell elongation UME6. Unexpectedly, C. dubliniensis NRG1 was required for wild-type levels of expression of 10 genes required for iron uptake including seven ferric reductases, SIT1, FTR1 and RBT5. However, at alkaline pH and during filamentous growth in 10% serum, most of these genes were highly induced in C. dubliniensis. Conversely, RBT5, PGA10, FRE10 and FRP1 did not exhibit induction during hyphal growth when NRG1 is downregulated, indicating that in C. dubliniensis NRG1 is also required for optimal expression of these genes in alkaline environments. In iron-depleted medium at pH 4.5, reduced growth of the NRG1 mutant relative to wild type was observed; however, growth was restored to wild-type levels or greater at pH 6.5, indicating that alkaline induction of iron assimilation gene expression could rescue this phenotype. These data indicate that transcriptional control of iron assimilation and pseudohypha formation has been separated in C. albicans, perhaps promoting growth in a wider range of niches.

  3. [Antibiotic activity of P. aeruginosa against MRSA and Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigemi; Sato, Naotake; Yamada, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Sakiko; Oguri, Toyoko; Igari, Jun

    2002-04-01

    The antibiotic activity demonstrated by P. aeruginosa (Bacillus pyocyaneus) has been reported more than one hundred years ago by Emmerich et al (1899). Studies on such bacterial interference between P. aeruginosa and other pathogenic bacteria or fungi have not been extensively reported in recent years. In this paper, we report on the anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity demonstrated by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa (34 strains). The antibiotic activity was tested by reversed agar plate method, as previously reported, and the degree of the activity was expressed as the diameter of the zone of growth inhibition. The stability of both anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity was evaluated at the time after 24 and 48-hr incubation. Also the effect of agar plate with or without 5% sheep blood on antibiotic activity was evaluated. Strong anti MRSA activity and anti Candida activity was shown at the time after 24-hr incubation. At the time after 48-hr incubation, anti MRSA activities were significantly suppressed but anti Candida activities were persisted. The inhibitory activity was correlated with dye production of P. aeruginosa. Some strains having non or weak dye production, showed the inhibitory activity by 48-hr incubation. Result from these strains without suppression of anti Candida activity by additional blood may suggest that the existence of a new factor produced by P. aeruginosa. Because of frequent isolation of MRSA or Candida from clinical materials, we must consider bacterial flora and bacterial interference against pathogenic bacteria at the time of the antibiotic choice for the patients infected or colonized with P. aeruginosa.

  4. Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichert Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB, but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

  5. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  6. Radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Microbiology); Puccetti, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology)

    1982-08-13

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans.

  7. Invasive Candida Infections in the ICU: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankovszky Péter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have become a serious problem in the critically ill. One of the main reasons is the development of an immunocompromised condition. The most frequently found pathogens are Candida species. In order to provide adequate treatment, understanding this potentially life-threatening infection is mandatory. The aim of this summary is to view Candida infections from a different perspective and to give an overview on epidemiology, the range of pathophysiology from colonization to the invasive infections, and its impact on mortality. New therapeutic options will also be discussed and how these relate to current guidelines. Finally, the key issue of the choice of antifungal agents will be evaluated.

  8. Native valve candida endocarditis complicating pregnancy after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saphina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida endocarditis is an emerging infectious disease, usually involving patients with intravascular prosthetic devices, and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. A 28-year-old primigravida at 32 weeks of gestation was admitted with low-grade fever and lower abdominal pain for 2 weeks. She had undergone open appendicectomy 2 months before admission. Echocardiogram showed a pedunculated 24 mm × 21 mm mass attached to the undersurface of anterior mitral leaflet near the tip and moderate mitral regurgitation. Repeated blood cultures showed growth of nonalbicans candida. She was immediately started on liposomal amphotericin and was taken up for surgery, but despite all efforts she succumbed to her illness.

  9. Separation of phenotypically indistinguishable Candida species, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. parapsilosis, by capillary electromigration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horká, Marie; Růžička, Filip; Kubesová, Anna; Němcová, Eva; Slais, Karel

    2011-06-24

    At the current state of laboratory diagnostics, methods for fast identification of phenotypically indistinguishable species are difficult or inaccurate. An example is represented by Candida parapsilosis, which is the second most common yeast species isolated from bloodstream infections. C. parapsilosis comprises a complex of three genetically distinct groups. Genotypes II and III have been designated as the separate species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, phenotypically indistinguishable. The considerable genetic variability of these newly described yeasts species has caused difficulties in the development of molecular techniques for their precise identification. Similarly, the detection of biofilm formation, which is considered as an important yeast virulence factor, is accompanied by difficulties. In this study we optimize the first precise and reproducible method for the separation and possible identification of C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. parapsilosis as well as the detection of their ability to form biofilm. The method is based on capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. In capillary isoelectric focusing, very narrow pH gradients were established. With such gradients, differences in isoelectric points of biofilm-negative and biofilm-positive species calculated from the migration times of the selected pI markers were below 0.03 pI units. In the capillary zone electrophoresis narrow zones of the cells of Candida species were detected with sufficient resolution. The values of the isoelectric point and the migration velocities of the examined species were independent on the origin of the tested strains. Capillary isoelectric focusing was examined also for the separation and detection of the cultivated biofilm-negative C. parapsilosis in the blood serum.

  10. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  11. Tratamiento con caspofungina de endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol Treatment with caspofungin of Candida tropicalis endocarditis resistant to fluconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo del Castillo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las endocarditis causadas por hongos, (Candida en particular, requieren tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, siendo la anfotericina B la droga de elección. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con gran actividad sobre Candida y Aspergillus. Se presenta un paciente con una endocarditis por Candida tropicalis resistente a fluconazol tratado con caspofungina bajo un esquema de salvataje, luego de haber presentado efectos adversos por anfotericina B. El paciente tuvo respuesta microbiológica.Fungal endocarditis, in particular due to Candida species, requires medical and surgical treatment and amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Caspofungin is an echinocandin very effective against Candida and Aspergillus. We present a patient with Candida tropicalis endocarditis, fluconazol resistant, treated with caspofungin, on a compassional basis as a result of adverse effects with amphotericin B. The patient had a microbiological response.

  12. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  13. [Determination of Candida colonization and Candida score in patients in anesthesia intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Günhan; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Behret, Orhan; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Elmalı, Ferhan; Darçın, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood

  14. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  15. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  16. Occurrence of Candida species colonization in a population of denture-wearing immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, R; Pasquantonio, G; Vitali, L A; Nicoletti, M; Di Girolamo, M; Mirisola, C; Prenna, M; Condo, R; Baggi, L

    2013-01-01

    Infection of the oral cavity and dentures by Candida species are frequent in denture wearers. C. albicans is the most common pathogen; however, other emerging Candida species are also responsible for this condition. Few data are available about the occurrence of Candida species in the oral cavities of denture-wearing immigrants to Italy. In this study, we compare the Candida species found in the oral mucosa and on dentures from a population of denture wearing immigrants to Italy to a matched Italian group. Oral swabs were collected from dentures and the underlying mucosa of patients enrolled in the study and were then cultured to test for the presence of Candida species in each sample. Out of 168 patients enrolled (73 Italians and 95 immigrants), 51 Italians (69.8 percent) and 75 immigrants (78.9 percent) tested positive for the presence of Candida. Candida albicans was the most frequently observed species overall; however, we found a higher occurrence of C. glabrata among immigrants than among Italians. In addition, immigrants displayed a higher incidence of Candida – associated stomatitis and a lower mean age than Candida-positive individuals from the Italian group. Immigrants are more prone to longer colonization of the oral mucosa and dentures by Candida. In these patients, dentures must be checked periodically to prevent the presence of Candida.

  17. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit(ICU) patients.Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed.Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests.Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document.Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples: urine(43.3%), tracheal aspirate(31.1%), urinary catheter(12.2%), endotracheal tube(7.8%),abdominal drains(3.3%), sputum(2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by nonalbicans Candida(NAC) species(63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans(36.7%).The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis(41.1%), Candida glabrata(10%), Candida parapsilosis(6.7%), Candida krusei(3.3%) and Candida kefyr(2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Antifungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8% and 7.8% of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively.Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  18. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing candidemia from 1996 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Tang, Ran-Bin; Fan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Yun-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of 383 Candida species isolated from blood were determined. Candida albicans was the most common species (55.6%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (17.5%), Candida tropicalis (16.5%), Candida glabrata (5.2%), Candida guilliermondii (2.3%), and others (2.9%). All but three isolates, Candida ciferrii, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, one each, were susceptible to amphotericin B. A total of 367 (95.8%) and 15 (4.2%) isolates were susceptible and susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole, respectively. Only one isolate, a C. glabrata, was resistant to fluconazole. Few patients (13%) having prior fluconazole treatments may explain the low rate of resistance to fluconazole in this study.

  19. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  20. Broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility to ketoconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C E; Bennett, R L; Beggs, W H

    1987-01-01

    We performed a detailed investigation of the kinetics of ketoconazole activity in the setting of broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility. Turbidimetric readings reflected parallel quantitative colony counts. The method of endpoint determination markedly affected the results. Determinations of 50% inhibitory concentrations clearly separated the ketoconazole-resistant strains from the susceptible strains.

  1. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  2. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  3. Invasive Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Yeast Candida auris, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya E.; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.; Ceballos-Garzón, Andrés; Martínez, Heidys P.; Rodríguez, Gerson J.; Álvarez-Moreno, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungus that causes a wide range of symptoms. We report finding 17 cases of C. auris infection that were originally misclassified but correctly identified 27.5 days later on average. Patients with a delayed diagnosis of C. auris had a 30-day mortality rate of 35.2%. PMID:27983941

  4. [Candida and the gastrointestinal tract. A medical-research evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, S; Stanescu-Siegmund, A; Schwantes, P A

    1998-02-28

    In immunocompetent persons, Candida species are members of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Budding yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, can, however, in patients with a corresponding disposition, spread topically and systemically, that is, they may become pathogenic. In hematological/oncological patients with severe immunodeficiency, for example, the mycelium may infiltrate the muscularis mucosae, with involvement also of the vascular system. The relationships between recurrent diarrhea and Candida are still discussed controversial; various data do, however, suggest that massive colonization with Candida might well represent a(n additional) diarrhea-provoking factor. Similar considerations may also be assumed to apply to diarrhea induced by antibiotic therapy. For immunocompetent persons, guidelines exist for the yeast cell count in the stools. The interpretation of quantitative findings must, however, always be made on an individual basis and against the background of clinical symptoms and/or any particular predisposition of the patient. Reliable treatment of superficial candidasis can be achieved with oral polyene antifungal antibiotics (nystatin, amphotericin B).

  5. New clonal strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Sharma, Cheshta; Duggal, Shalini; Agarwal, Kshitij; Prakash, Anupam; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Sarika; Kathuria, Shallu; Randhawa, Harbans S; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-10-01

    A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

  6. New clonal strain of Candida auris, Delhi, India.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A new clonal strain of Candida auris is an emerging etiologic agent of fungemia in Delhi, India. In 12 patients in 2 hospitals, it was resistant to fluconazole and genotypically distinct from isolates from South Korea and Japan, as revealed by M13 and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing.

  7. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Oral Candida in Frail Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft-Bodi, E; Jørgensen, M R; Keller, M K

    2015-01-01

    and evening). The intervention period was 12 wk, and saliva and plaque samples were collected at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was prevalence of high Candida counts assessed from chairside tests. Secondary end points were levels of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The groups were...

  8. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 1

  9. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  10. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  11. PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PERMUKAAN POLIESTER EBP-2421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin has been the only polymeric material for denture base for many years. One of the requirements for an ideal polymeric denture base material. It should be resistant to bacterial growth. The growth of Candida albicans on the surface of dentures is a concern for many denture wearers. This organism often is associated with denture stomatitis. A preliminary study showed polyester EBP-2421, a polymeric material for statues can also be manipulated to denture base. This research examined the growth of Candida albicans on the surface of EBP-2421. Research was carried out on strips of polyester EBP-2421 and Selton acrylic resin. Strips were contaminated with Candida albicans for 24 hours. Examinations on polyester EBP-2421 and acrylic resin immersed in saliva significantly differ from the not immersed strips (p<0,05. The lowest frequency were Candida albicans adhered on stripes of polyester EBP-2421 immersed in saliva. This result related with the fact that polyester EBP-2421 has smoother surface topography than acrylic resin.

  12. Growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 on mixed substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick V. Gurgel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown on a mixed substrate comprising glucose and xylose. Inocula were grown using xylose or glucose as carbon source. Results showed that xylose utilization was delayed until glucose was utilized. Inoculum prepared on glucose showed a lag phase in xylose consumption. Cell mass production was higher when glucose was utilized during fermentation.

  13. A naturally occurring proline-to-alanine amino acid change in Fks1p in Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis accounts for reduced echinocandin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Katiyar, Santosh K; Park, Steven; Edlind, Thomas D; Perlin, David S

    2008-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a common cause of invasive fungal infection, especially in Latin America and in the neonatal setting. C. parapsilosis is part of a closely related group of organisms that includes the species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. All three species show elevated MICs for the new echinocandin class drugs caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin relative to other Candida species. Despite potential impacts on therapy, the mechanism behind this reduced echinocandin susceptibility has not been determined. In this report, we investigated the role of a naturally occurring Pro-to-Ala substitution at amino acid position 660 (P660A), immediately distal to the highly conserved hot spot 1 region of Fks1p, in the reduced-echinocandin-susceptibility phenotype. Kinetic inhibition studies demonstrated that glucan synthase from the C. parapsilosis group was 1 to 2 logs less sensitive to echinocandin drugs than the reference enzyme from C. albicans. Furthermore, clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata which harbor mutations at this equivalent position also showed comparable 2-log decreases in target enzyme sensitivity, which correlated with increased MICs. These mutations also resulted in 2.4- to 18.8-fold-reduced V(max) values relative to those for the wild-type enzyme, consistent with kinetic parameters obtained for C. parapsilosis group enzymes. Finally, the importance of the P660A substitution for intrinsic resistance was confirmed by engineering an equivalent P647A mutation into Fks1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant glucan synthase displayed characteristic 2-log decreases in sensitivity to the echinocandin drugs. Overall, these data firmly indicate that a naturally occurring P660A substitution in Fks1p from the C. parapsilosis group accounts for the reduced susceptibility phenotype.

  14. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  15. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsa; Szilágyi, Judit; Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos, Gábor; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedique; Majoros, László

    2009-07-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 microg/mL (1-8x MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 microg/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at > or =1x MIC (0.5-2 microg/mL) against C. parapsilosis and at > or =2x MIC (4-8 microg/mL) against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. Voriconazole inhibited C. parapsilosis at > or =1x MIC (0.015-0.12 microg/mL), but the other 2 species were inhibited only at 4 to 8x MIC (0.25-0.5 microg/mL). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, posaconazole was fungistatic close to the MIC (0.03-0.06 and 0.015-0.03 microg/mL, respectively). Against C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, fluconazole and voriconazole, but not posaconazole, seem to be less active in vitro than against C. parapsilosis.

  16. Chemoenzymatic resolution of {beta}-azidophenylethanols by Candida antarctica and their application for the synthesis of chiral benzotriazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Lenilson C.; Rosset, Isac G.; Melgar, Gliseida Z.; Porto, Andre L.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raminelli, Cristiano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Jeller, Alex H., E-mail: alexjell@uems.br [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Dourados, MS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    The kinetic resolutions of ({+-})-{beta}-azidophenylethanols were carried out using lipase from Candida antarctica, and enantiomerically enriched (R)-{beta}-azidophenylethanols and their corresponding (S)-{beta}-azidophenylethyl acetates were obtained in good enantiomeric excesses (up to > 99%). The enantiomerically enriched (R)-{beta}-azidophenylethanols were subjected to cyclization reaction with 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflate and CsF producing chiral 1,2,3-benzotriazole compounds in good yields (75-86%) by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition, which involves the benzyne formation. (author)

  17. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the food-yeast Candida utilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Tomita

    Full Text Available The industrially important food-yeast Candida utilis is a Crabtree effect-negative yeast used to produce valuable chemicals and recombinant proteins. In the present study, we conducted whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. utilis, which showed that this yeast diverged long before the formation of the CUG and Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces clades. In addition, we performed comparative genome and transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing, which resulted in the identification of genes important for characteristic phenotypes of C. utilis such as those involved in nitrate assimilation, in addition to the gene encoding the functional hexose transporter. We also found that an antisense transcript of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, which in silico analysis did not predict to be a functional gene, was transcribed in the stationary-phase, suggesting a novel system of repression of ethanol production. These findings should facilitate the development of more sophisticated systems for the production of useful reagents using C. utilis.

  18. Thiamin Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Candida albicans: A Remarkable Reaction between Histidine and Pyridoxal Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Rung-Yi; Huang, Siyu; Fenwick, Michael K.; Hazra, Amrita; Zhang, Yang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Philmus, Benjamin; Kinsland, Cynthia; Sanders, Jennie Mansell; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P. (Cornell); (TAM)

    2012-06-26

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thiamin pyrimidine is formed from histidine and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The origin of all of the pyrimidine atoms has been previously determined using labeling studies and suggests that the pyrimidine is formed using remarkable chemistry that is without chemical or biochemical precedent. Here we report the overexpression of the closely related Candida albicans pyrimidine synthase (THI5p) and the reconstitution and preliminary characterization of the enzymatic activity. A structure of the C. albicans THI5p shows PLP bound at the active site via an imine with Lys62 and His66 in close proximity to the PLP. Our data suggest that His66 of the THI5 protein is the histidine source for pyrimidine formation and that the pyrimidine synthase is a single-turnover enzyme.

  19. A sticky situation: untangling the transcriptional network controlling biofilm development in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Nobile, Clarissa J

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism of the human microbiome; it is also the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Many infections caused by C. albicans are a direct consequence of its proclivity to form biofilms--resilient, surface-associated communities of cells where individual cells acquire specialized properties that are distinct from those observed in suspension cultures. We recently identified the transcriptional network that orchestrates the formation of biofilms in C. albicans. These results set the stage for understanding how biofilms are formed and, once formed, how the specialized properties of biofilms are elaborated. This information will provide new insight for understanding biofilms in more detail and may lead to improvements in preventing and treating biofilm-based infections in the future.

  20. Biological decolorization of industrial dyes by Candida tropicalis and Bacillus firmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sucharita; Saini, Harvinder Singh; Singh, Kamaljit

    2011-01-01

    Disperse dyes are chiefly used by textile industries for the coloration of polyester and cellulose triacetate and their blended fibres. Their extensive use and recalcitrant nature, high tinctorial strength renders the voluminous textile effluents intensively colored and causes environmental concerns. Decolorization of representative members of Dianix CC and Dianix S brands (DyStar Pvt. Ltd.) of disperse dyes were tested with Candida tropicalis and Bacillus firmus isolated respectively from contaminated soil samples and sludge of a domestic sewage drain. While both the cultures efficiently remove color from the aqueous solutions of the dyes, the yeast culture was found to decolorize most of the tested disperse dyes through biotransformation, the bacterial culture showed color removal mainly by adsorption on the cell pellets. Formation of cleavage products such as p-nitroaniline was observed in the case of Dianix Orange E-3R, indicating reductive cleavage of the azo linkage of the dye.

  1. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  2. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  4. Elevated chitin content reduces the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species.

  5. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  6. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Esra

    2010-04-01

    In this study, identification of 207 Candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using API 20 C AUX system. The most frequently isolated species were Candida krusei (34.8%), followed by Candida rugosa (16.4%), Candida kefyr (12.6%), Candida albicans (10.1%), and Candida tropicalis (9.2%). Less common isolates were Candida zeylanoides (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%), Candida guilliermondii (3.4%), Candida famata (1.9%), and Candida glabrata (1.5%). Additionally, in vitro hemolytic activity of all Candida strains were also examined in the present study. C. krusei (72 isolates), C. kefyr (26), C. albicans (21), C. tropicalis (19), C. zeylanoides (12), and C. glabrata (3) demonstrated both alpha and beta hemolysis at 48-h postinoculation. Only alpha hemolysis was detected in C. rugosa (34), C. guilliermondii (7), and C. famata (4), while C. parapsilosis (9) did not show any hemolytic activity after incubation for 72 h. Statistically significant difference (P hemolytic activities of Candida strains. The hemolytic activities of C. zeylanoides, C. albicans and C. kefyr were higher than other strains. This is the first study to describe variable hemolysis types exhibited by different Candida strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk in Turkey.

  7. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  8. 氟康唑对近平滑念珠菌生物膜的影响%Effect of fluconazole on biofilm of Candida parapsilosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀荣; 苏建荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究近平滑念珠菌不同时期生物膜对氟康唑的药物敏感性及氟康唑对其生物膜生成的影响。方法甲基四氮盐( XTT)减低法检测不同阶段生物膜对氟康唑的敏感性及生物膜的生成量。结果对氟康唑敏感的近平滑念珠菌在生物膜生成12 h后即对氟康唑耐药。在12、24和48 h时间点,治疗浓度为8μg/mL的氟康唑均可显著抑制氟康唑耐药株生物膜的生成;浓度0.5μg/mL的氟康唑可显著抑制氟康唑敏感株生物膜形成,但要抑制耐药株生物膜的形成则需更高浓度的氟康唑(≥1μg/mL)。结论近平滑念珠菌不同阶段生物膜对氟康唑耐药性不同,氟康唑可显著抑制近平滑念珠菌敏感株和耐药株生物膜的生成。%Objective To explore the sensitivity of Candida parapsilosis cells grown in developing biofilm to fluconazole and the effect of different concentration of fluconazole on Candida parapsilosis biofilm formation .Methods XTT reduction assay was used to evaluate the effect of fluconazole on developing biofilm of Candida parapsilosis and the inhibition of fluconazole on Candida parapsilosis biofilm formation.Results Twelve-hours biofilms of fluconazole-susceptible strains were resistant to fluconazole .At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h time points, biofilm formation by fluconazole-resistant strains was significantly inhibited when fluconazole ( 8 μg/mL ) was present. Concentration of 0.5 μg/mL of fluconazole could reduce the biofilm formation by fluconazole-susceptible strains, but the concentration of fluconazole was higher (≥1 μg/mL) for fluconazole-resistant strains .Conclusion The sensitivity to fluconazole of Candida parapsilosis cells grown in developing biofilms was different .Fluconazole inhibited biofilm formation by a variety of laboratory isolated strains .

  9. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  10. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  11. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Naohito; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshioka, Shinji; Yamano, Masahiro; Henmi, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole. PMID:25215255

  12. Osteomyelitis Caused by Candida glabrata in the Distal Phalanx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Toki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis caused by Candida glabrata is rare and its optimal treatment is unknown. Here we report a case of osteomyelitis caused by C. glabrata in the distal phalanx in a 54-year-old woman. Despite partial resection of the nail and administering a 1-month course of antibiotics for paronychia, the local swelling remained and an osteolytic lesion was found. C. glabrata osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx was later diagnosed after curettage. Thereafter, the patient was treated with antifungal agents for 3 months. The infection eventually resolved, and radiological healing of the osteolytic lesion was achieved. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be performed in the case of osteomyelitis caused by nonalbicans Candida species, due to their resistance to fluconazole.

  13. Characterization of extracellular nucleotide metabolism in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gonçalves, Teresa; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of human disseminated fungal infection. Ectophosphatase and ectonucleotidase activities are known to influence the infectious potential of several microbes, including other non-albicans species of Candida. With the present work we aim to characterize these ecto-enzymatic activities in C. albicans. We found that C. albicans does not have a classical ecto-5'-nucleotidase enzyme and 5'AMP is cleaved by a phosphatase instead of exclusively by a nucleotidase that also can use 3'AMP as a substrate. Moreover, these enzymatic activities are not dependent on secreted soluble enzymes and change when the yeast cells are under infection conditions, including low pH, and higher temperature and CO2 content.

  14. Phenotypic consequences of LYS4 gene disruption in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Kur, Krzysztof; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Pulickal, Anoop S; Bliss, Joseph M; Milewski, Sławomir

    2014-08-01

    A BLAST search of the Candida Genome Database with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYS4 sequence known to encode homoaconitase (HA) revealed ORFs 19.3846 and 19.11327. Both alleles of the LYS4 gene were sequentially disrupted in Candida albicans BWP17 cells using PCR-based methodology. The null lys4Δ mutant exhibited lysine auxotrophy in minimal medium but was able to grow in the presence of l-Lys and α-aminoadipate, an intermediate of the α-aminoadipate pathway, at millimolar concentrations. The presence of d-Lys and pipecolic acid did not trigger lys4Δ growth. The C. albicans lys4Δ mutant cells demonstrated diminished germination ability. However, their virulence in vivo in a murine model of disseminated neonatal candidiasis appeared identical to that of the wild-type strain. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in fungal burden of infected tissues between the strains.

  15. Use of Amorolfine in Candida- associated Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis (DS is an inflammatory lesion, in which there is redness of theoral mucosa underneath a removable denture. Although Candida albicans is a component ofnormal microbial flora, local and systemic factors can cause opportunistic infections. Poorlyfitting or unhygienic dentures leads to the presence of yeasts attached to it., and causeinflammation. Treatment procedures include correction of ill-fitting dentures, plaquecontrol, and topical and systemic antifungal therapy. Nystatin and Amphoteresin B are usedtopically as suspension. Since candidiasis is highly resistant to antifungal agents, systemicusage of ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole are necessary. But the systemic use ofthese drugs can cause side effects like liver toxicity, drug interactions etc. Lucio; Lorengoetal had conducted a study of the efficacy of amorolfine antifungal varnish, by localapplication, and found that it suppresses the nystatin resistant Candida associated denturestomatitis.

  16. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  17. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Nielsen, Lene; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during the years 2004-2008. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene ( SADH) followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme Ban I, using C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. orthopsilosis ATCC 96139 and C. metapsilosis ATCC 96144 as controls. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH gene alone, four isolates (5.1 %) had a pattern identical to the C. orthopsilosis reference strain. Sequence analysis of SADH and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions identified two of these isolates as C. metapsilosis. These results were confirmed by creating a phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of SADH, ITS and 26S rRNA gene sequence regions. Optimal differentiation between C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis was predicted using digestion with NlaIII, producing discriminatory band sizes of: 131 and 505 bp; 74, 288 and 348 bp; and 131, 217 and 288 bp, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Denmark.

  18. Prospective multicenter study of the epidemiology, molecular identification, and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis isolated from patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen; Velasco, David

    2011-12-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species

  19. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.

  20. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan,, V.; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  1. The Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Isolated From Urine Samples to Posaconazole and Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; REZAEI-MATEHKOLAEI, Ali; Ghanavati, Fataemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candiduria is a rising condition among hospitalized patients and Candida albicans is the most common recovered agent. However, non-albicans Candida species (NACs) such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also important. Although most Candida species especially C. albicans are sensitive to routinely used antifungals, an increasing trend in resistance has been observed among NACs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility...

  2. Evolution of Mating within the Candida parapsilosis Species Group▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M.; McGee, Conor F.; Lynch, Denise B.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MT...

  3. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms.

  4. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin.

  5. STUDY OF CHARACTERIZATION & ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT CANDIDA SPECIES

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    Geeta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades Candida has accounted for the most serious opportunistic infections especially in the immuno-compromised individuals. Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections & the rates of resistance to standard antifungal therapies are on the rise. Awareness regarding fungal infections has compelled the clinicians and laboratories to lay more emphasis on the detection of fungi; as speciation and antifungal tests are not routinely done. Over the past decade significant progress has been made with standardization of the methods for antifungal susceptibility testing, correlation between in-vitro results & patient outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate, identify & determine the susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Candida species and study the spectrum of Non-albicans Candida species, thus contributing to overall reduction in the cost of treatment and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: The study was carried out at department of microbiology MVJ Medical Hospital Bangalore for one year from Aug 2010 – July 2011. 50 Candida species which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. They were identified by using various media & identification methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done on Yeast nitrogen base agar by disk diffusion method & analyzed. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida (NAC emerged as the commonest species with [39(22%] causing fungal infection followed by Candida albicans [11(22%]. Among the NAC isolates Candida tropicalis was predominant followed by Candida krusei, Candida glabrata & Candida guilliermondi. CONCLUSION: Studying the speciation & susceptibility patterns of Candida will help us understand the etio-pathology and might assist in better patient care

  6. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna; Shilpa Patel; Madhusudan Astekar Sundarrao; Ravindra Setru Veerabhadrappa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additio...

  7. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  8. Echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis: 12 cases and a review of published reports

    OpenAIRE

    Donal, E.; Abgueguen, P; Coisne, D.; Gouello, J; McFadden, E; Allal, J.; Corbi, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the specific echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis.
DESIGN—Retrospective review of the case records of patients with confirmed candida endocarditis.
SETTING—Cases referred to three French university centres over an eight year period were studied.
DESIGN—12 patients with confirmed Candida species endocarditis infection were identified. The transthoracic (n = 12) and transoesophageal (n = 12) echocardiographic appearances were compared with the surgica...

  9. Antifungal activity of Coriandrum sativum essential oil, its mode of action against Candida species and potential synergism with amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Ferreira, Susana; Duarte, Andreia; Mendonça, Dina I; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2011-12-15

    The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and toxicity of existing antifungal compounds has drawn attention towards the antimicrobial activity of natural products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of coriander essential oil according to classical bacteriological techniques, as well as with flow cytometry. The effect of the essential oil upon germ tube formation, seen as an important virulence factor, and potential synergism with amphotericin B were also studied. Coriander essential oil has a fungicidal activity against the Candida strains tested with MLC values equal to the MIC value and ranging from 0.05 to 0.4% (v/v). Flow cytometric evaluation of BOX, PI and DRAQ5 staining indicates that the fungicidal effect is a result of cytoplasmic membrane damage and subsequent leakage of intracellular components such as DNA. Also, concentrations bellow the MIC value caused a marked reduction in the percentage of germ tube formation for C. albicans strains. A synergetic effect between coriander oil and amphotericin B was also obtained for C. albicans strains, while for C. tropicalis strain only an additive effect was observed. This study describes the antifungal activity of coriander essential oil on Candida spp., which could be useful in designing new formulations for candidosis treatment.

  10. Evolution of mating within the Candida parapsilosis species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Sixiang; Holland, Linda M; McGee, Conor F; Lynch, Denise B; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are closely related to Candida parapsilosis, a major cause of infection in premature neonates. Mating has not been observed in these species. We show that ∼190 isolates of C. parapsilosis contain only an MTLa idiomorph at the mating-type-like locus. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the MTL loci from C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Among 16 C. orthopsilosis isolates, 9 were homozygous for MTLa, 5 were homozygous for MTLα, and 2 were MTLa/α heterozygotes. The C. orthopsilosis isolates belonged to two divergent groups, as characterized by restriction patterns at MTL, which probably represent subspecies. We sequenced both idiomorphs from each group and showed that they are 95% identical and that the regulatory genes are intact. In contrast, 18 isolates of C. metapsilosis contain only MTLα idiomorphs. Our results suggest that the role of MTL in determining cell type is being eroded in the C. parapsilosis species complex. The population structure of C. orthopsilosis indicates that mating may occur. However, expression of genes in the mating signal transduction pathway does not respond to exposure to alpha factor. C. parapsilosis is also nonresponsive, even when the GTPase-activating protein gene SST2 is deleted. In addition, splicing of introns in MTLa1 and MTLa2 is defective in C. orthopsilosis. Mating is not detected. The alpha factor peptide, which is the same sequence in C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis, can induce a mating response in Candida albicans. It is therefore likely either that mating of C. orthopsilosis takes place under certain unidentified conditions or that the mating pathway has been adapted for other functions, such as cross-species communication.

  11. Candida ciferrii: clinical and microbiological features of an emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gentile, L; Bouchara, J P; Cimon, B; Chabasse, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors report six cases of toenail onyxis due to an unusual yeast species, Candida ciferrii. For half of these cases, direct microscopical examination showed the presence of blastospores and pseudo-to-true mycelium, demonstrating the parasitic transition of the fungus. In light of the literature and of their own experience, the authors suggest that C. ciferrii could be an etiological agent of onychomycosis, particularly for elderly patients with extensive trophic disorders.

  12. Candida rugosa Lipase-catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxyalkanephosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永辉; 徐成富; 李晋峰; 袁承业

    2003-01-01

    An efficient lipase-catalyzedenantioselective hydrolysis of butyryloxyalkanephosphonates in water-equillbrated diisopropyl ether was developed. The relationship between the substrates' structure and the reactivity, as well as the enantioselectivlty of this enzymatic transformation was studied. The catalytic preference of crude Candida rugosa lipase toward such molecules was assigned according to modified Mosher's method and Xray crystallographic analysis. Optically pure 2-hydroxy-2-arylethanephosphonates, 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanephosphonate, and 3, 3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanephosphonates were conveniently prepared in this manner.

  13. Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pereira-Cenci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic progress, opportunistic oral fungal infectious diseases have increased in prevalence, especially in denture wearers. The combination of entrapment of yeast cells in irregularities in denture-base and denture-relining materials, poor oral hygiene and several systemic factors is the most probable cause for the onset of this infectious disease. Hence colonization and growth on prostheses by Candida species are of clinical importance. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss several key factors controlling the adhesion of Candida species which are relevant to denture-associated stomatitis. Although there is some consensus on the role of surface properties, studies on several other factors, as the use of denture liners, salivary properties and yeast-bacterial interactions, have shown contradictory findings. A comprehensive fundamental understanding is hampered by conflicting findings due to the large variations in experimental protocols, while other factors have never been thoroughly studied. Surface free energy and surface roughness control the initial adherence, but temporal changes have not been reported. Neither have in vivo studies shown if the substratum type is critical in dictating biofilm accumulation during longer periods in the oral environment. The contribution of saliva is unclear due to factors like variations in its collection and handling. Initial findings have disclosed that also bacteria are crucial for the successful establishment of Candida in biofilms, but the clinical significance of this observation is yet to be confirmed. In conclusion, there is a need to standardize experimental procedures, to bridge the gap between laboratory and in vivo methodologies and findings and - in general - to thoroughly investigate the factors that modulate the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of denture-base materials and the oral mucosa of patients subjected to Candida infections. Information on how

  14. La lipase de Candida rugosa : caractérisation biochimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtibaa Hounaida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les lipases ou triacylglycérols hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.3 sont des enzymes qui agissent en milieu hétérogène. Ces enzymes catalysent l’hydrolyse des liaisons esters des triacylglycérols à l’interface huile/eau [1]. Leur particularité vient du fait que ces enzymes sont plus actives sur les lipides qui sont sous forme agrégée [2]. Les lipases sont présentes dans la plupart des tissus animaux et végétaux ainsi que chez les microorganismes qui constituent une source importante de production de lipases à grande échelle. À ce jour, de nombreuses lipases de microorganismes ont été purifiées et caractérisées et certaines d’entres elles ont été cristallisées (lipase de Pseudomonas glumae [3], lipase de Rhizomucor miehei [4], lipase Geotrichum candidum [5], lipase de Candida rugosa [6].... La lipase de Candida cylindracea (qui est l’ancien nom de Candida rugosa a été cristallisée en présence et en l’absence d’inhibiteurs [7]. Il s’agit d’une alpha/beta hydrolase comprenant 11 brins beta entourés par 8 hélices alpha [6]. La triade catalytique est cachée sous un flap constitué de 26 résidus d’aminoacides. Dans le présent travail, nous avons cherché à étudier quelques caractéristiques biochimiques de la lipase de Candida rugosa (CRL qui a été purifiée dans notre laboratoire à partir de la poudre commercialisée.

  15. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

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    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  16. Evaluation of in vivo pathogenicity of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis with different enzymatic profiles in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P; Elizondo-Zertuche, M; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; González, José G; González, Gloria M

    2014-04-01

    Six isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex with different enzymatic profiles were used to induce systemic infection in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Fungal tissue burden was determined on days 2, 5, 10, and 15 post challenge. The highest fungal load irrespective of post-infection day was detected in the kidney, followed by the spleen, lung, and liver, with a tendency for the fungal burden to decrease by day 15 in all groups. Significant differences among the strains were not detected, suggesting that the three species of the "psilosis" group possess a similar pathogenic potential in disseminated candidiasis regardless of their enzymatic profiles.

  17. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  18. Nuclear fusion occurs during mating in Candida albicans and is dependent on the KAR3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J; Miller, Mathew G; Chua, Penelope R; Maxon, Mary E; Johnson, Alexander D

    2005-02-01

    It is now well established that mating can occur between diploid a and alpha cells of Candida albicans. There is, however, controversy over when, and with what efficiency, nuclear fusion follows cell fusion to create stable tetraploid a/alpha cells. In this study, we have analysed the mating process between C. albicans strains using both cytological and genetic approaches. Using strains derived from SC5314, we used a number of techniques, including time-lapse microscopy, to demonstrate that efficient nuclear fusion occurs in the zygote before formation of the first daughter cell. Consistent with these observations, zygotes micromanipulated from mating mixes gave rise to mononuclear tetraploid cells, even when no selection for successful mating was applied to them. Mating between different clinical isolates of C. albicans revealed that while all isolates could undergo nuclear fusion, the efficiency of nuclear fusion varied in different crosses. We also show that nuclear fusion in C. albicans requires the Kar3 microtubule motor protein. Deletion of the CaKAR3 gene from both mating partners had little or no effect on zygote formation but reduced the formation of stable tetraploids more than 600-fold, as determined by quantitative mating assays. These findings demonstrate that nuclear fusion is an active process that can occur in C. albicans at high frequency to produce stable, mononucleate mating products.

  19. A recently evolved transcriptional network controls biofilm development in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Clarissa J; Fox, Emily P; Nett, Jeniel E; Sorrells, Trevor R; Mitrovich, Quinn M; Hernday, Aaron D; Tuch, Brian B; Andes, David R; Johnson, Alexander D

    2012-01-20

    A biofilm is an organized, resilient group of microbes in which individual cells acquire properties, such as drug resistance, that are distinct from those observed in suspension cultures. Here, we describe and analyze the transcriptional network controlling biofilm formation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, whose biofilms are a major source of medical device-associated infections. We have combined genetic screens, genome-wide approaches, and two in vivo animal models to describe a master circuit controlling biofilm formation, composed of six transcription regulators that form a tightly woven network with ∼1,000 target genes. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the biofilm network has rapidly evolved: genes in the biofilm circuit are significantly weighted toward genes that arose relatively recently with ancient genes being underrepresented. This circuit provides a framework for understanding many aspects of biofilm formation by C. albicans in a mammalian host. It also provides insights into how complex cell behaviors can arise from the evolution of transcription circuits.

  20. Distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing nosocomial candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhak-Baysan, Betil; Ogunc, Dilara; Colak, Dilek; Ongut, Gozde; Donmez, Levent; Vural, Tumer; Gunseren, Filiz

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of Candida species isolated from urine specimens of hospitalized patients in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, as well as their susceptibilities to antifungal agents. A total of 100 patients who had nosocomial candiduria between March 2003 and May 2004 at the facility were included in the study. Organisms were identified by conventional methods and the use of API ID 32C strips. Susceptibilities of the isolates to amphotericin B were determined by Etest, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these same strains to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were assessed using the broth microdilution method. The most common species recovered was C. albicans 44% of all yeasts, followed by C. tropicalis (20%), C. glabrata (18%), C. krusei (6%), C. famata (5%), C. parapsilosis (4%), C. kefyr (2%) and C. guilliermondii (1%). A total of nine (9%) of the isolates, including five C. krusei and four C. glabrata isolates were susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) to fluconazole. In constrast, only two C. glabrata and one C. krusei isolates were resistant to this antifungal. The voriconazole MICs for all Candida isolates were ≤0.5 μg/ml, except for one C. glabrata isolate with a MIC value of 2 μg/ml. Among all isolates, 94% were susceptible to amphotericin B with MIC values of Candida urinary tract infections.

  1. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  2. Ambroxol influences voriconazole resistance of Candida parapsilosis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Panellis, Dimitrios; De Domenico, Giovanni; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2012-06-01

    The ability to form biofilm on different surfaces is typical of most Candida species. Microscopic structure and genetic aspects of fungal biofilms have been the object of many studies because of very high resistance to antimycotic agents because of the scarce permeability of the external matrix and to the alterations in cell metabolism. In our study, 31 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, isolated from bloodstream infections, were tested for their ability to produce biofilm and were found to be good producers. The susceptibility to voriconazole, assayed by colorimetrical XTT assay, revealed a very elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for sessile cells in comparison with planktonic ones. The addition of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent, increased the susceptibility of biofilm forming cells to voriconazole. Expression of the efflux pump genes CDR and MDR was analyzed in biofilms alone or treated with ambroxol, evidencing a role of ambroxol in the expression of genes involved in azole resistance mechanisms of C. parapsilosis biofilms. In conclusion, our data seem to encourage the use of different substances in combination with classical antimycotics, with the aim of finding a solution to the increasing problem of the resistance of biofilms formed on medical devices by nonalbicans Candida species.

  3. O-mannosylation in Candida albicans enables development of interkingdom biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Lindsay C; Nobbs, Angela H; Jepson, Katy; Jepson, Mark A; Vickerman, M Margaret; Aqeel Alawfi, Sami; Munro, Carol A; Lamont, Richard J; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2014-04-15

    Candida albicans is a fungus that colonizes oral cavity surfaces, the gut, and the genital tract. Streptococcus gordonii is a ubiquitous oral bacterium that has been shown to form biofilm communities with C. albicans. Formation of dual-species S. gordonii-C. albicans biofilm communities involves interaction of the S. gordonii SspB protein with the Als3 protein on the hyphal filament surface of C. albicans. Mannoproteins comprise a major component of the C. albicans cell wall, and in this study we sought to determine if mannosylation in cell wall biogenesis of C. albicans was necessary for hyphal adhesin functions associated with interkingdom biofilm development. A C. albicans mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant, with deleted α-1,2-mannosyltransferase genes and thus defective in O-mannosylation, was abrogated in biofilm formation under various growth conditions and produced hyphal filaments that were not recognized by S. gordonii. Cell wall proteomes of hypha-forming mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant cells showed growth medium-dependent alterations, compared to findings for the wild type, in a range of protein components, including Als1, Als3, Rbt1, Scw1, and Sap9. Hyphal filaments formed by mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant cells, unlike wild-type hyphae, did not interact with C. albicans Als3 or Hwp1 partner cell wall proteins or with S. gordonii SspB partner adhesin, suggesting defective functionality of adhesins on the mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant. These observations imply that early stage O-mannosylation is critical for activation of hyphal adhesin functions required for biofilm formation, recognition by bacteria such as S. gordonii, and microbial community development. IMPORTANCE In the human mouth, microorganisms form communities known as biofilms that adhere to the surfaces present. Candida albicans is a fungus that is often found within these biofilms. We have focused on the mechanisms by which C. albicans becomes incorporated into communities containing bacteria, such as Streptococcus. We find that

  4. Candida Infections: An Update on Host Immune Defenses and Anti-Fungal Drugs

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    Ning Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species are becoming increasing prevalent in the human population. Such pathogens cause life-threatening diseases with high mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Host defenses against fungal infections are provided by an exquisite interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, effective anti-fungal agents for Candida infections are limited, and fungal drug resistance is a significant treatment challenge. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of host–fungal interactions, discuss the modes action of anti-fungal drugs, explore host defense mechanisms, and define the new challenges for treating Candida infections.

  5. Neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response in candida vulvovaginitis patients with intracellular microorganism persistence complications

    OpenAIRE

    YAKOVYCHUK NINA DMYTRIVNA; DJUIRIAK VALENTYNA STEPANIVNA

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic neutrophilic granulocytes reactive response and body immune reactivity in general considerably decrease in patients suffering from candida vaginitis on the basis of intracellular microorganisms persistence.

  6. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

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    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  7. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

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    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5. Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g g-1 and volumetric productivity (0.53 g l-1.h-1 were obtained with glucose:xylose ratio of 1:5, resulting in the higher conversion efficiency (64.3%.O efeito da glicose na bioconversão de xilose em xilitol por Candida guilliermondii foi avaliado em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de cana com diferentes relações glicose:xilose (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2,5. Sob as condições experimentais, o aumento da relação glicose:xilose favoreceu a assimilação da xilose presente no hidrolisado, resultando em aumento da biomassa celular e aumento da formação de xilitol e dos sub-produtos glicerol e etanol. Os valores máximos do fator de conversão de xilose em xilitol (0,59 g g-1 e da produtividade volumétrica de xilitol (0,53 g l-1.h-1 foram obtidos com a relação glicose:xilose 1:5, resultando na maior eficiência de conversão (64,3%.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Condensed Tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens: Effect on Candida tropicalis Growth and Adhesion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Alexandre T; de Souza, Felipe C; Santos, Jussevania P; Pereira, Caibe A; Cardoso, Juscelio D; de Almeida, Ricardo S C; Costa, Marco A; de Mello, João C P; Nakamura, Celso V; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are some of the most common causes of fungal infection worldwide. The limited efficacy of clinically available antifungals warrants the search for new compounds for treating candidiasis. This study evaluated the effect of condensed tannin-rich fraction (F2 fraction) of Stryphnodendron adstringens on in vitro and in vivo growth of Candida tropicalis, and on yeast adhesion properties. F2 exhibited a fungistatic effect with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/mL. A significant reduction in biofilm mass was observed after either pretreatment of planktonic cells for 2 h (mean reduction of 46.31±8.17%) or incubation during biofilm formation (mean reduction of 28.44±13.38%) with 4x MIC of F2. Prior exposure of planktonic cells to this F2 concentration also significantly decreased yeast adherence on HEp-2 cells (mean reduction of 43.13±14.29%), cell surface hydrophobicity (mean reduction of 25.89±10.49%) and mRNA levels of the genes ALST1-3 (2.9-, 1.8- and 1.8-fold decrease, respectively). Tenebrio molitor larvae, which are susceptible to C. tropicalis infection, were used for in vivo testing. Treatment with 128 and 256 μg/mL F2 significantly increased the survival of infected larvae. These results indicate a combined effect of F2 on inhibition of yeast growth and interference in yeast adhesion, which may contribute to the suppression of infection caused by C. tropicalis, thus reinforcing the potential of the condensed tannins from S. adstringens for the development of novel antifungal agents.

  9. Biofilms of Candida albicans serotypes A and B differ in their sensitivity to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is classified into different serotypes according to cell wall mannan composition and cell surface hydrophobicity. Since the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the cell wall structure of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotypes A and B to antimicrobial PDT. Reference strains of C. albicans serotype A (ATCC 36801) and serotype B (ATCC 36802) were used for the assays. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (660 nm) was used as the light source and methylene blue (300 μM) as the photosensitizer. After biofilm formation on the bottom of a 96-well microplate for 48 h, each Candida strain was submitted to assays: PDT consisting of laser and photosensitizer application (L + P+), laser application alone (L + P-), photosensitizer application alone (L-P+), and application of saline as control (L-P-). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and transferred to tubes containing PBS. The content of the tubes was homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto Sabouraud agar plates to determine the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The results were compared by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The two strains studied were sensitive to PDT (L + P+), with a log reduction of 0.49 for serotype A and of 2.34 for serotype B. Laser application alone only reduced serotype B cells (0.53 log), and the use of the photosensitizer alone had no effect on the strains tested. It can be concluded that in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotype B were more sensitive to PDT.

  10. Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to various antifungal drugs by cyclosporine A

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    Shinde Ravikumar B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilms formed by Candida albicans are resistant towards most of the available antifungal drugs. Therefore, infections associated with Candida biofilms are considered as a threat to immunocompromised patients. Combinatorial drug therapy may be a good strategy to combat C. albicans biofilms. Methods Combinations of five antifungal drugs- fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VOR, caspofungin (CSP, amphotericin B (AmB and nystatin (NYT with cyclosporine A (CSA were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm growth of C. albicans. Standard broth micro dilution method was used to study planktonic growth, while biofilms were studied in an in vitro biofilm model. A chequerboard format was used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI of combination effects. Biofilm growth was analyzed using XTT-metabolic assay. Results MICs of various antifungal drugs for planktonic growth of C. albicans were lowered in combination with CSA by 2 to 16 fold. Activity against biofilm development with FIC indices of 0.26, 0.28, 0.31 and 0.25 indicated synergistic interactions between FLC-CSA, VOR-CSA, CSP-CSA and AmB-CSA, respectively. Increase in efficacy of the drugs FLC, VOR and CSP against mature biofilms after addition of 62.5 μg/ml of CSA was evident with FIC indices 0.06, 0.14 and 0.37, respectively. Conclusions The combinations with CSA resulted in increased susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. Combination of antifungal drugs with CSA would be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated C. albicans infections.

  11. Sampling of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis by Langerin-positive dendritic cells in mouse Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Magdia; Rodriguez, Adam E; Yagita, Hideo; Ostroff, Gary R; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Candida genus, including C. albicans and C. tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. In healthy populations, however, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are considered benign members of the mycobiome, and are presumably kept in check by the mucosal immune system. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that C. albicans and C. tropicalis are sampled by Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs). Uptake into gut-associated lymphoid tissues occurred rapidly and was at least partly M cell-dependent. C. albicans and C. tropicalis preferentially localized in (and persisted within) a recently identified sub- population of Peyer's patch DCs distinguished by their expression of the C-type lectin receptor, Langerin. This study is the first to identify a subset of PP DCs capable of sampling Candida species.

  12. Rapid molecular differentiation and genotypic heterogeneity among Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis strains isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Zia U

    2009-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have led to the recognition of three distinct species within the Candida parapsilosis complex, namely Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. As currently available yeast identification systems fail to differentiate these species, there is a paucity of information on their occurrence in different geographical regions. This study describes a simple PCR-based protocol for rapid discrimination among C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis strains by using primers derived from unique sequences within the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 region. Retrospective analysis of 114 C. parapsilosis-complex isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait identified 109 as C. parapsilosis, five as C. orthopsilosis and none as C. metapsilosis. The results were further validated by PCR-RFLP patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment. DNA sequencing of the ITS region and the D1/D2 regions of the 28S rRNA gene confirmed the species-specific identification of all five C. orthopsilosis strains. The amplicon length of the intergenic spacer between the 28S and 5S rRNA genes (IGS1) was also species-specific, and PCR-RFLP analyses of the IGS1 region identified two distinct genotypes among the five C. orthopsilosis strains, which corresponded with the ITS region sequence data. The three bloodstream C. orthopsilosis strains were confined to a single genotype. Among 81 randomly selected C. parapsilosis strains, two genotypes were detected by IGS1 region analyses, indicating limited genotypic heterogeneity among C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains. As far as is known, this is the first report on the identification of C. orthopsilosis from a bloodstream infection in the Arabian Gulf region.

  13. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection m...

  14. Produção de fatores de virulência in vitro por espécies patogênicas do gênero Candida Production of virulence factors in vitro by pathogenic species of the genus Candida

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    Kelly Cristina Ortolan Rörig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, in vitro, a capacidade de crescimento em 39ºC e 42ºC, a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas e a atividade hemolítica de 21 cepas clínicas e de referência de sete espécies de Candida spp, Candida dubliniensis e Candida krusei demonstraram menor potencial de virulência e Candida albicans maior.The growth capacity at 39ºC and 42ºC, production of hydrolytic enzymes and hemolytic activity of 21 clinical and reference strains of seven species of Candida spp were evaluated in vitro.Candida dubliniensis and Candida krusei demonstrated lower virulence potential and Candida albicans higher potential.

  15. Effects of tannins extracted from Terminalia chebula Retz on Candida albicans and its biofilm%诃子鞣质对白色念珠菌及其生物被膜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向丽; 周铁军; 叶迎春; 王光西

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究诃子鞣质对生物被膜型白色念珠菌的抑制作用.方法 采用MTT法检测诃子鞣质对生物被膜形成的影响;光镜下观察生物被膜内白色念珠菌的形态学变化;采用荧光显微镜观察吖啶橙/溴化乙锭染色的生物被膜内白色念珠菌的死亡方式.结果 诃子鞣质对生物被膜的形成及成熟期生物被膜中的白色念珠菌有抑制作用,并存在时间和剂量依赖性;鞣质导致被膜内白色念珠菌细胞变形,形态结构改变,芽管和假菌丝形成抑制,但未见确切细胞凋亡.结论 诃子鞣质对白色念珠菌生物被膜的形成有抑制作用,它可能通过非凋亡途径导致生物被膜内白色念珠菌的死亡.%Objective To study the inhibitory effects of tannins extracted from Terminalia chebula Retz on Candida albicans in biofilm.Methods MTT assay was used to detect the effects of tannins extracted from Terminalia chebula Retz on biofilm formation.Light microscope was employed to observe the morphological changes of Candida albicans in biofilm,and fluorescence microscope was adopted to survey the death mode of Candida albicans in biofilm by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining.Results Tannins extracted from Terminalia chebula Retz showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation and Candida albicans in mature biofilm in a time-and dose-dependent manner.Tannins led to cellular deformation, morphological changes of Candida albicans in biofilm,and inhibited germ tubes and pseudohyphae formation, while there was no exact apoptosis was observed.Conclusion Tannins extracted from Terminalia chebula Retz possess inhibitory effect on biofilm formation of Candida albicans,and lead to Candida albicans in biofilm death probably via non-apoptosis pathway.

  16. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

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    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  17. Study on the transcription profiling of biofilm formation by Candida albicans at different phases exposed to tyrosol and farnesol%Tyrosol和Farnesol对白念珠菌生物被膜形成作用的基因表达谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军艳; 张琰; 虞丽华; 马鸣; 陈晓君; 魏昕

    2013-01-01

    tyrosol and farnesol regulated biofilm formation by regulating the genes associated with biofilm formation such as hypha genes and yeast genes.Tyrosol positively regulated gene expression of C.albicans biofilm,while farnesol played negative role.There were striking differences in gene expression patterns between tyrosol or farnesol treated groups and the control.Tyrosol had no antagonistic effect to farnesol.Bioinformatics analysis showed that the differential gene expression was involved in biological process,molecular function process and cell component formation.These genes regulated the C.albicans biofilm formation by encoding proteins involved in the biological metabolism.Conclusion Tyrosol and farnesol influenced the formation of C.albicans biofilm through regulating gene expression which showed differences at different phases of biofilm formation.

  18. Prevalence and distribution profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis responsible for superficial candidiasis in a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Ling, Bo; Yang, Guimei; Yu, Xia; Ren, Daming; Yao, Zhirong

    2012-04-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex consists of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Recently, many studies described the prevalence of this species complex mainly in invasive candidiasis. Additionally, data showed that these three species are different in virulence and in vitro drug susceptibility. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence and distribution of the species complex in superficial candidiasis is not very clear to date. In this study, 2,128 Candida isolates from specimens of superficial candidiasis were collected over a 1-year period. Combination of routine and molecular tools, a total of 214 samples were identified to be positive for the C. parapsilosis complex (10.1%), of which 198 (92.5%) were monofungal and 16 (7.5%) were polyfungal. Among the 198 monofungal isolates, 191 (96.5%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5 (2.5%) as C. metapsilosis, and 2 (1.0%) as C. orthopsilosis species based on the molecular method. All C. parapsilosis complex isolates from the 16 polyfungal populations were found to be C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Further analysis showed that the distribution profiles of the C. parapsilosis complex in adult patients were different from that in pediatric patients, and the prevalence rate of it varied greatly by sites of isolation. This study provides insight into the epidemiology of the species complex in superficial candidiasis.

  19. Mast cells phagocyte Candida albicans and produce nitric oxide by mechanisms involving TLR2 and Dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Karen Henriette; Lima, Heliton Gustavo de; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-02-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a fungus commonly found in the human mucosa, which may cause superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunosuppression. Until now, the main actors in the defense against this fungus are the epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes and dendritic cells. However, mast cells are strategically located to play a first line of anti-Candida defense and it has appropriate mechanisms to do it. As with other cells, the recognition of C. albicans occurs meanly via TLR2 and Dectin-1. We assess the TLR2/Dectin-1 involvement in phagocytosis and production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mast cells challenged with C. albicans. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (MC) from wild type (Wt) or knockout (TLR2-/-) mice C57BL/6 were subjected to in vitro Dectin-1 blockade. After challenged with FITC-labeled C. albicans or zymosan, phagocytosis was analyzed by microscopy. The intracellular production of NO and ROS was measured by DAF-FM diacetate and CellROX Deep/Red Reagent kits. The nitrite formation and hydrogen peroxide release were analyzed by Griess reaction and Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit. Wt/MC phagocytose C. albicans with production of intracellular NO, but not ROS. Moreover, increased levels of nitrite were also observed. The absence and/or blockade of TLR2/Dectin-1 caused significant decreased in C. albicans phagocytosis and NO production. Our results showed that mast cells are able to phagocytose and produce NO against C. albicans via TLR2/Dectin-1. Therefore, mast cells could be important during the course of Candida infection and as a therapeutic target.

  20. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Maia Valério; Rita de Cássia Botelho Weikert-Oliveira; Maria Aparecida de Resende

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did n...

  1. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida

  2. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SPP . ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Sagarika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the changing health scenario fungal infections have increased significantly, contributing to morbidity, mortality and health care cost. Candida is major human fungal pathogens that cause both superficial and deep tissue infections. With emergence of non - albicans Candida species, availability of advanced identification methods and antifungal resistance, the spectrum of candidiasis has changed. OBJ ECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates, risk factors associated with candidiasis and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty nine dif ferent clinical isolates of Candida were collected from indoor patients of a tertiary care centre of Gujarat from May 2009 to June 2010. Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with miniAPI (Analytical Prophylactic Index (Biomerieux, France which is an automatic identification and susceptibility testing instrument. RESULTS: We found that the non ‑ albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans . Candida tropicalis (48.9% was the most common Candida spp. and also more resistant than that of C.albicans . C.albicans showed resistance against fluconazole (3.5% and itraconazole (8.8% whereas C.tropicalis were res istant to amphotericin B (10.3%, fluconazole (20.7%, itraconazole (32.3%, and voriconazole (23.5% and flucytosine (5.8%. Overall resistance rates of Candida for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole and flucytosine were 6.4%, 15. 2%, 22.3%, 12.9%, 5% respectively. CONCLUSION: To achieve better clinical results species ‑ level identification of Candida spp. and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed.

  4. Oral Candida spp carriers: its prevalence in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon Felipe Fernandez; Jaimes-Aveldañez, Alejandra; Hernández-Pérez, Francisco; Arenas, Roberto; Miguel, Guadalupe Fabián-San

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of oral candidiasis in diabetic patients is 13.7-64%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (75-86.5%). OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of Candida carriers among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify the species of the yeast. Study design: It is an open, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study. METHODS: We included voluntary patients from the National Diabetes Marathon and performed a blood glucose measurement, sialometry test, Gram-stained exfoliative cytology, and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida TM. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We examined 141 patients (mean age 57 years): 103 women (73%) and 38 men (26.9%). Exfoliative cytology was positive in 32 cases (23 with oral lesions); 78 had oral lesions but no Candida (93.9%). Candida was isolated in 58 patients (41.1%), 21 (45.6 %) had blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dl, and 37 (38.9%) had less than 126 mg/dl. The most frequent species was C. albicans (82.7%). Forty-two Candida carriers had salivary flow greater than 20 mm (72.4%), and 16 (27.5%) had hyposalivation. Candida was isolated in 25 of 79 patients with dental prosthesis (31.6%), 9 of 15 were smokers (60%), and 22 of 71 had symptoms (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of oral Candida carriers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico was similar to that found in other countries; exfoliative cytology was effective in finding Candida; salivary flow rate, use of prosthesis, and presence of oral lesions and symptoms were similar in oral Candida carriers and negative patients. Most smokers were Candida carriers. PMID:23739717

  5. Prostaglandin E2 from Candida albicans Stimulates the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krause

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans interact synergistically in dual species biofilms resulting in enhanced mortality in animal models.The aim of the current study was to test possible candidate molecules which might mediate this synergistic interaction in an in vitro model of mixed biofilms, such as farnesol, tyrosol and prostaglandin (PG E2. In mono-microbial and dual biofilms of C.albicans wild type strains PGE2 levels between 25 and 250 pg/mL were measured. Similar concentrations of purified PGE2 significantly enhanced S.aureus biofilm formation in a mode comparable to that observed in dual species biofilms. Supernatants of the null mutant deficient in PGE2 production did not stimulate the proliferation of S.aureus and the addition of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the S.aureus biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, S. aureus biofilm formation was boosted by low and inhibited by high farnesol concentrations. Supernatants of the farnesol-deficient C. albicans ATCC10231 strain significantly enhanced the biofilm formation of S. aureus but at a lower level than the farnesol producer SC5314. However, C. albicans ATCC10231 also produced PGE2 but amounts were significantly lower compared to SC5314.In conclision, we identified C. albicans PGE2 as a key molecule stimulating the growth and biofilm formation of S. aureus in dual S. aureus/C. albicans biofilms, although C. albicans derived farnesol, but not tyrosol, may also contribute to this effect but to a lesser extent.

  6. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanny Wijaya1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans biofilms formation by using in vitro biofilm assay and viability assay. Furthermore, the influence of concentration of cajuput oil on the anti-microbial activities had been analyzed. All the tested concentration of cajuput oil in cajuputs candy was effective to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The provision of flavor components of cajuput and peppermint oil could produce synergistic effects compared to a single flavor component. The addition of cajuput oil at 0.6% was able to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The activities of the cajuput oil showed positive correlation to the concentration. The variable of plus and minus 0.1% addition of the cajuput oil concentration, however, produced no significant difference to inhibit the growth of C. albicans in biofilm. Sensory test, hedonic test, was conducted to evaluate the flavor, aroma, and overall attributes, resulting in no significant difference between 0.6 to 0.8% additions of cajuput oil upon the sensory acceptance.

  7. Interactions Between Candida albicans and Host Interações entre Candida albicans e Hospedeiro

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    Tatiane De Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can cause grave infections in patients who are immunocompromised by diseases, by surgery, or by immunesupresive therapy. The high levels of morbidity and mortality resulting from those infections in hospitalized patients show that C. albicans became a prominent human pathogen. Although the host immune system is the major factor balancing the transition from commensalisms to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans by phagocytic cells, which present receptors Toll-like 4, dectin–1 associated to receptors Toll-like2 and mannose receptors. The cytokine IL-10 (IL-10 produced by phagocytes has a crucial role on susceptibility of host fungal infection, whereas IL-10 produced by regulatory T cells is mainly responsible by commensalisms. In contrast, productions of tumour necrosis factor - α (TNF-α, interleukin–1 β (lL-1 β, (IL-6 and (Il-12 provided protective cell–mediated immunity. The interferon-γ produced by natural killer and TH1 cells stimulates migration of phagocytes and major efficacy on destruction of fungi. In epithelial cells from mucosas the NOD-like receptors and defensins-β cytoplasmatic prevent the translocation of C. albicans from microbiota to tissues, which are modulated by IL-1 β, Il-17 and Il-22 cytokines. to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans

  8. Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaoyu; Du, Faya; Yan, Lan; He, Gonghao; He, Jianchang; Wang, Chengying; Rao, Gaoxiong; Jiang, Yuanying; Xu, Guili

    2015-01-01

    Roemerine (RM) is an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the fresh rattan stem of Fibraurea recisa, and it has been demonstrated to have certain antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of RM and the underlying mechanisms in Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro antifungal activity of RM was evaluated by a series of experiments, including the XTT reduction assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy assay, scanning electron microscope assay. Results showed that 1 μg/mL RM inhibited biofilm formation significantly (p albicans in a dose-dependent manner. The biofilm-specific and hypha-specific genes such as YWP1, SAP5, SAP6, HWP1, ECE1 were up-regulated and EFG1 was down-regulated after 8 μg/mL RM treatment. Furthermore, the toxicity of RM was investigated using C. elegans worms, three cancer cells and one normal cell. The date showed that RM had no significant toxicity. In conclusion, RM could inhibited the formation of C. albicans biofilm in vitro, but it had no fungicidal effect on planktonic C. albicans cells, and the anti-biofilm mechanism may be related to the cAMP pathway.

  9. Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyu Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roemerine (RM is an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the fresh rattan stem of Fibraurea recisa, and it has been demonstrated to have certain antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of RM and the underlying mechanisms in Candida albicans (C. albicans. The in vitro antifungal activity of RM was evaluated by a series of experiments, including the XTT reduction assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy assay, scanning electron microscope assay. Results showed that 1 μg/mL RM inhibited biofilm formation significantly (p < 0.01 both in Spider medium and Lee’s medium. In addition, RM could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. The biofilm-specific and hypha-specific genes such as YWP1, SAP5, SAP6, HWP1, ECE1 were up-regulated and EFG1 was down-regulated after 8 μg/mL RM treatment. Furthermore, the toxicity of RM was investigated using C. elegans worms, three cancer cells and one normal cell. The date showed that RM had no significant toxicity. In conclusion, RM could inhibited the formation of C. albicans biofilm in vitro, but it had no fungicidal effect on planktonic C. albicans cells, and the anti-biofilm mechanism may be related to the cAMP pathway.

  10. Propolis Is an Efficient Fungicide and Inhibitor of Biofilm Production by Vaginal Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Arita, Glaucia Sayuri; Pereira, Raphaela Regina de Araújo; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Negri, Melyssa; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common genital infections in women. The therapeutic arsenal remains restricted, and some alternatives to VVC treatment are being studied. The present study evaluated the influence of a propolis extractive solution (PES) on biofilm production by Candida albicans isolated from patients with VVC. Susceptibility testing was used to verify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PES, with fluconazole and nystatin as controls. The biofilm formation of 29 vaginal isolates of C. albicans and a reference strain that were exposed to PES was evaluated using crystal violet staining. Colony-forming units were evaluated, proteins and carbohydrates of the matrix biofilm were quantified, and scanning electron microscopy was performed. The MIC of PES ranged from 68.35 to 546.87 μg/mL of total phenol content in gallic acid. A concentration of 546.87 μg/mL was able to cause the death of 75.8% of the isolates. PES inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans from VVC. Besides antifungal activity, PES appears to present important antibiofilm activity on abiotic surfaces, indicating that it may have an additional beneficial effect in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25815029

  11. Force nanoscopy of hydrophobic interactions in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Derclaye, Sylvie; Alsteens, David; Kucharíková, Soňa; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-24

    Candida glabrata is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which binds to surfaces mainly through the Epa family of cell adhesion proteins. While some Epa proteins mediate specific lectin-like interactions with human epithelial cells, others promote adhesion and biofilm formation on plastic surfaces via nonspecific interactions that are not yet elucidated. We report the measurement of hydrophobic forces engaged in Epa6-mediated cell adhesion by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we found that C. glabrata wild-type (WT) cells attach to hydrophobic surfaces via strongly adhesive macromolecular bonds, while mutant cells impaired in Epa6 expression are weakly adhesive. Nanoscale mapping of yeast cells using AFM tips functionalized with hydrophobic groups shows that Epa6 is massively exposed on WT cells and conveys strong hydrophobic properties to the cell surface. Our results demonstrate that Epa6 mediates strong hydrophobic interactions, thereby providing a molecular basis for the ability of this adhesin to drive biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces.

  12. A Candida biofilm-induced pathway for matrix glucan delivery: implications for drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T Taff

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are key constituents of the biofilm matrix of many microorganisms. One critical carbohydrate component of Candida albicans biofilms, β-1,3 glucan, has been linked to biofilm protection from antifungal agents. In this study, we identify three glucan modification enzymes that function to deliver glucan from the cell to the extracellular matrix. These enzymes include two predicted glucan transferases and an exo-glucanase, encoded by BGL2, PHR1, and XOG1, respectively. We show that the enzymes are crucial for both delivery of β-1,3 glucan to the biofilm matrix and for accumulation of mature matrix biomass. The enzymes do not appear to impact cell wall glucan content of biofilm cells, nor are they necessary for filamentation or biofilm formation. We demonstrate that mutants lacking these genes exhibit enhanced susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal, fluconazole, during biofilm growth only. Transcriptional analysis and biofilm phenotypes of strains with multiple mutations suggest that these enzymes act in a complementary fashion to distribute matrix downstream of the primary β-1,3 glucan synthase encoded by FKS1. Furthermore, our observations suggest that this matrix delivery pathway works independently from the C. albicans ZAP1 matrix formation regulatory pathway. These glucan modification enzymes appear to play a biofilm-specific role in mediating the delivery and organization of mature biofilm matrix. We propose that the discovery of inhibitors for these enzymes would provide promising anti-biofilm therapeutics.

  13. Evaluation of the Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH probes for identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leslie; Le Febre, Kara M; Deml, Sharon M; Wohlfiel, Sherri L; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2012-04-01

    The Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH kit (YTL) correctly identified Candida spp. in 207/216 (96%) positive blood cultures. Discordant results were seen with known cross-reacting species and cultures containing Candida lambica and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The YTL provides rapid, reliable identification of the five common Candida species found in blood cultures.

  14. Role of Dectin-2 for Host Defense against Systemic Infection with Candida glabrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifrim, D.C.; Bain, J.M.; Reid, D.M.; Oosting, M.; Verschueren, I.; Gow, N.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Brown, G.D.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Koentgen, F.; Erwig, L.P.; Quintin, J.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Although Candida glabrata is an important pathogenic Candida species, relatively little is known about its innate immune recognition. Here, we explore the potential role of Dectin-2 for host defense against C. glabrata. Dectin-2-deficient (Dectin-2(-/-)) mice were found to be more susceptible to C.

  15. Dendritic cell interaction with Candida albicans critically depends on N-linked mannan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambi, A.; Netea, M.G.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Gow, N.A.; Hato, S.V.; Lowman, D.W.; Kullberg, B.J.; Torensma, R.; Williams, D.L.; Figdor, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is the most common cause of mycotic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Little is known about the initial interactions between Candida and immune cell receptors, because a detailed characterization at the structural level is lacking. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells

  16. Enteric Gram-negative bacilli suppress Candida biofilms on Foley urinary catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P

    2014-01-01

    Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p Candida albicans significantly (p Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS.

  17. Identification of a new species, Candida subhashii, as a cause of peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, H.; Groenewald, M.; Mohan, S.; Richardson, S.; Bunn, U.; Gibas, C.F.C; Poutanen, S.; Sigler, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of fungal peritonitis from which a novel Candida species was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene show that the Candida species is distinct from, but related to,

  18. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  19. Characterization of atypical Candida tropicalis and other uncommon clinical yeast isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlitzer, R L; Ahearn, D G

    1982-01-01

    Clinical yeast isolates representing alpha-glucoside-deficient variants of Candida tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, atypical C. albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized. Additional physiological tests, including cellobiose fermentation, rhamnose assimilation, and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction, are recommended for the detection and presumptive identification of uncommon Candida spp. in the clinical laboratory.

  20. Role of autophagy genetic variants for the risk of Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentul, D.C.; Plantinga, T.S.; Farcas, M.; Oosting, M.; Hamza, O.J.M.; Scott, W.K.; Alexander, B.D.; Yang, J.C.; Laird, G.M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Johnson, M.D.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans can cause candidemia in neutropenic and critically ill patients and oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with low CD4(+) counts. Because all patients at risk do not develop Candida infections, it is possible that a patient's genetic backg