WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancers molecular biology

  1. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  2. Molecular Biology of Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuanXi; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger; PaulM.Schneider

    2004-01-01

    There have been many new developments in our understanding of esophageal carcinoma biology over the past several years. Information regarding both of the major forms of this disease, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, has accumulated in conjunction with data on precursor conditions such as Barrett's esophagus. Interesting and promising findings have included overexpression of proto-oncogenes,loss of heterozygosity at multiple chromosomal loci, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation, and mutations and deletions involving the tumor suppressor gene p53. Important cancer pathways, the cyclin kinase inhibitor cascade and the DNA mismatch repair process, implicated in the genesis of multiple tumor types have also been inculpated in esophageal carcinogenesis. Alterations in the p16 and p15 cyclin kinase inhibitors including point mutations and homozygous deletions have been reported in primary esophageal tumors. Further developments in the field of molecular carcinogenesis of esophageal malignancies promise to yield improvements in prevention, early detection, prognostic categorization, and perhaps gene-based therapy of this deadly disease.

  3. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslav Zavoral; Petra Minarikova; Filip Zavada; Cyril Salek; Marek Minarik

    2011-01-01

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  4. Molecular biology in lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, I.; Biroš, Erik

    Poland: Institute of Nuclear Physics, 2002. s. 32. [NATO advanced research workshop. 23.06.2002-27.06.2002, Krakow - Poland] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : cancer Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  5. Molecular biology of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The advances in molecular biology and genetics, including the modern microarray technology and rapid sequencing techniques, have enabled a remarkable progress into elucidating the lung cancer ethiopathogenesis. Numerous studies suggest that more than 20 different genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulating during the pathogenesis of clinically evident pulmonary cancers as a clonal, multistep process. Thus far, the most investigated alterations are the inactivational mutations and losses of tumour suppressor genes and the overexpression of growth-promoting oncogenes. More recently, the acquired epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized. The early clonal genetic abnormalities that occur in preneoplastic bronchial epithelium damaged by smoking or other carcinogenes are being identified. The molecular distinctions between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as between tumors with different clinical outcomes have been described. These investigations lead to the hallmarks of lung cancer. Conclusions. It is realistic to expect that the molecular and cell culture-based investigations will lead to discoveries of new clinical applications with the potential to provide new avenues for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and most important, new more effective treatment approaches for the lung cancer patients. (author)

  6. [Molecular biological predictors for kidney cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushin, S V; Tarakanova, V O; Zavyalova, M V

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the data available in the modern literature on studies of potential molecular predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Investigations of cell death markers, namely; Bcl-2 as an inhibitor of apoptosis, are of interest. Its high expression correlates with a more favorable prognosis. Inactivation of Berclin 1 that is an authophagy indicator in intact tissues gives rise to t high risk for tumorigenesis. At the same time, high Beclin 1 expression in the tissue of the tumor itself results in the lower efficiency of performed chemotherapy. Excess annexin A2 in the tumor promotes the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Patients with tumor over-expression of SAM68 protein involved in cell proliferation have a lower overall survival rate. The lifespan of patients without distinct metastases survive significantly longer in the overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). High PD-L1 protein expression on the cell membrane is considered to be a potential marker of effective immunotherapy for RCC. PMID:27077146

  7. Current dichotomy between traditional molecular biological and omic research in cancer biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, William C

    2015-12-10

    There is currently a split within the cancer research community between traditional molecular biological hypothesis-driven and the more recent "omic" forms or research. While the molecular biological approach employs the tried and true single alteration-single response formulations of experimentation, the omic employs broad-based assay or sample collection approaches that generate large volumes of data. How to integrate the benefits of these two approaches in an efficient and productive fashion remains an outstanding issue. Ideally, one would merge the understandability, exactness, simplicity, and testability of the molecular biological approach, with the larger amounts of data, simultaneous consideration of multiple alterations, consideration of genes both of known interest along with the novel, cross-sample comparisons among cell lines and patient samples, and consideration of directed questions while simultaneously gaining exposure to the novel provided by the omic approach. While at the current time integration of the two disciplines remains problematic, attempts to do so are ongoing, and will be necessary for the understanding of the large cell line screens including the Developmental Therapeutics Program's NCI-60, the Broad Institute's Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Cancer Genome Project, as well as the the Cancer Genome Atlas clinical samples project. Going forward there is significant benefit to be had from the integration of the molecular biological and the omic forms or research, with the desired goal being improved translational understanding and application. PMID:26677427

  8. Molecular biology-based diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainly described are author's investigations of the title subject through clinical and basic diagnosis/therapeutic approach. Based on their consideration of carcinogenesis and pathological features of pancreatic cancer (PC), analysis of expression of cancer-related genes in clinically available samples like pancreatic juice and cells biopsied can result in attaining their purposes. Desmoplasia, a pathological feature of PC, possibly induces resistance to therapy and one of strategies is probably its suppression. Targeting stem cells of the mesenchyma as well as those of PC is also a strategy in future. Authors' studies have revealed that quantitation of hTERT (coding teromerase) mRNA levels in PC cells micro-dissected from cytological specimens is an accurate molecular biological diagnostic method applicable clinically. Other cancer-related genes are also useful for the diagnosis and mucin (MUC) family genes are shown to be typical ones for differentiating the precancerous PC, PC and chronic pancreatisis. Efficacy of standard gemcitabine chemotherapy can be individualized with molecular markers concerned to metabolism of the drug like dCK. Radiotherapy/radio-chemotherapy are not so satisfactory for PC treatment now. Authors have found elevated MMP-2 expression and HGF/c-Met signal activation in irradiated PC cells, which can increase the invasive capability; and stimulation of phosphorylation and activation of c-Met/MARK in co-culture of irradiated PC cells with messenchymal cells from PC, which possibly leads to progression of malignancy of PC through their interaction, of which suppression, therefore, can be a new approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. Authors are making effort to introducing adenovirus therapy in clinic; exempli gratia (e.g.), the virus carrying wild type p53, a cancer-suppressive gene, induces apoptosis of PC cells often having its mutated gene. (T.T.)

  9. Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Cancer: How Useful Is It in Clinical Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H Sakorafas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Context During the recent two decades dramatic advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is currently accepted that pancreatic cancer has a genetic component. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances could be used in clinical practice. Objective To critically present currently available data regarding clinical application of molecular biology in pancreatic cancer. Methods Reports about clinical implications of molecular biology in patients with pancreatic cancer were retrieved from PubMed. These reports were selected on the basis of their clinical relevance, and the data of their publication (preferentially within the last 5 years. Emphasis was placed on reports investigating diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Results Molecular biology can be used to identify individuals at high-risk for pancreatic cancer development. Intensive surveillance is indicated in these patients to detect pancreatic neoplasia ideally at a preinvasive stage, when curative resection is still possible. Molecular biology can also be used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, with molecular analysis on samples of biologic material, such as serum or plasma, duodenal fluid or preferentially pure pancreatic juice, pancreatic cells or tissue, and stools. Molecular indices have also prognostic significance. Finally, molecular biology may have therapeutic implications by using various therapeutic approaches, such as antiangiogenic factors, purine synthesis inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, factors modulating tumor-stroma interaction, inactivation of the hedgehog pathway, gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, immunotherapy (both passive as well as active etc. Conclusion Molecular biology may have important clinical implications in patients with pancreatic cancer and represents one of the most active areas on cancer research. Hopefully clinical applications of molecular biology

  10. Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Cancer: How Useful Is It in Clinical Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Sakorafas, George H; Vasileios Smyrniotis

    2012-01-01

    Context During the recent two decades dramatic advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is currently accepted that pancreatic cancer has a genetic component. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances could be used in clinical practice. Objective To critically present currently available data regarding clinical application of molecular biology in pancreatic cancer. Methods Reports about clinical implications of molecular bio...

  11. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis Molecular expression of vascular markers by aggressive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During embryogenesis, the formation of primary vascular networks occurs via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In uveal melanoma, vasculogenic mimicry describes the 'embryonic-like' ability of aggressive, but not nonaggressive, tumor cells to form networks surrounding spheroids of tumor cells in three-dimensional culture; these recapitulate the patterned networks seen in patients' aggressive tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. The molecular profile of these aggressive tumor cells suggests that they have a deregulated genotype, capable of expressing vascular phenotypes. Similarly, the embryonic-like phenotype expressed by the aggressive human breast cancer cells is associated with their ability to express a variety of vascular markers. These studies may offer new insights for consideration in breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies

  13. Molecular biology and riddle of cancer: the ‘Tom & Jerry’ show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Al Mamun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available From the conventional Bird’s eye, cancer initiation and metastasis are generally intended to be understood beneath the light of classical clonal genetic, epigenetic and cancer stem cell model. But inspite decades of investigation, molecular biology has shown hard success to give Eagle’s eye in unraveling the riddle of cancer. And it seems, tiring Tom runs in vague behind naughty Jerry.

  14. Procathepsin D and cancer: From molecular biology to clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vashishta, Aruna; Saraswat-Ohri, Sujata; Vetvickova, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Procathepsin D (pCD) is overexpressed and secreted by cells of various tumor types including breast and lung carcinomas. pCD affects multiple features of tumor cells including proliferation, invasion, metastases and apoptosis. Several laboratories have previously shown that the mitogenic effect of pCD on cancer cells is mediated via its propeptide part (APpCD). However, the exact mechanism of how pCD affects cancer cells has not been identified. Recent observations have also revealed the poss...

  15. Introduction to the cellular and molecular biology of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of papers arose out of the needs of graduate students and research workers in highly specialised fields who had relatively little general knowledge of cancer. The introduction describes the pathology and natural history of the disease, with special reference to leukemia. Further chapters discuss susceptibility to the disease, cell behaviour (radiosensitivity, cell cycling, development of drug resistance etc), chemical and radiation carcinogenesis, the role of growth factors and hormones in cancer, diagnosis and local treatment, the role of monoclonal antibodies, and general epidemiology and risk factors. General glossary and further reading lists. (U.K.)

  16. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  17. Molecular Imaging of Biological Gene Delivery Vehicles for Targeted Cancer Therapy: Beyond Viral Vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon; Nguyen, Vu H. [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [Stanford University, California(United States)

    2010-04-15

    Cancer persists as one of the most devastating diseases in the world. Problems including metastasis and tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have seriously limited the therapeutic effects of present clinical treatments. To overcome these limitations, cancer gene therapy has been developed over the last two decades for a broad spectrum of applications, from gene replacement and knockdown to vaccination, each with different requirements for gene delivery. So far, a number of genes and delivery vectors have been investigated, and significant progress has been made with several gene therapy modalities in clinical trials. Viral vectors and synthetic liposomes have emerged as the vehicles of choice for many applications. However, both have limitations and risks that restrict gene therapy applications, including the complexity of production, limited packaging capacity, and unfavorable immunological features. While continuing to improve these vectors, it is important to investigate other options, particularly nonarrival biological agents such as bacteria, bacteriophages, and bacteria-like particles. Recently, many molecular imaging techniques for safe, repeated, and high-resolution in vivo imaging of gene expression have been employed to assess vector-mediated gene expression in living subjects. In this review, molecular imaging techniques for monitoring biological gene delivery vehicles are described, and the specific use of these methods at different steps is illustrated. Linking molecular imaging to gene therapy will eventually help to develop novel gene delivery vehicles for preclinical study and support the development of future human applications.

  18. Molecular Imaging of Biological Gene Delivery Vehicles for Targeted Cancer Therapy: Beyond Viral Vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer persists as one of the most devastating diseases in the world. Problems including metastasis and tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy have seriously limited the therapeutic effects of present clinical treatments. To overcome these limitations, cancer gene therapy has been developed over the last two decades for a broad spectrum of applications, from gene replacement and knockdown to vaccination, each with different requirements for gene delivery. So far, a number of genes and delivery vectors have been investigated, and significant progress has been made with several gene therapy modalities in clinical trials. Viral vectors and synthetic liposomes have emerged as the vehicles of choice for many applications. However, both have limitations and risks that restrict gene therapy applications, including the complexity of production, limited packaging capacity, and unfavorable immunological features. While continuing to improve these vectors, it is important to investigate other options, particularly nonarrival biological agents such as bacteria, bacteriophages, and bacteria-like particles. Recently, many molecular imaging techniques for safe, repeated, and high-resolution in vivo imaging of gene expression have been employed to assess vector-mediated gene expression in living subjects. In this review, molecular imaging techniques for monitoring biological gene delivery vehicles are described, and the specific use of these methods at different steps is illustrated. Linking molecular imaging to gene therapy will eventually help to develop novel gene delivery vehicles for preclinical study and support the development of future human applications.

  19. On the advent and necessity of molecular biology in the clinical management of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek Sørensen, H; Olsson, L

    1986-12-01

    The very rapidly expanding knowledge and technologies of molecular biology are reviewed with special reference to problems in the clinical management of lung cancer. Genetic events, tumor-associated antigens, production of murine and human monoclonal antibodies, culture of cell lines, intratumoral phenotypic diversity and squamous-lung-cancer-associated antigens are discussed and related to possible therapeutical approaches. A monoclonal antibody with high specificity for squamous cell lung cancer reacted positively in blood samples and tissue extracts in about 80%. Its use as a marker during follow-up after surgical treatment is demonstrated by examples. It is concluded that there will be limiting factors in the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies, such as intratumoral phenotypic diversity. Genetic analysis might be a method for selecting a high risk group of individuals in whom exposure to carcinogenic factors, such as cigarette smoking, would be fatal. Murine monoclonal antibodies can be used in vitro for screening, for histological examination and for prognostic studies. Human monoclonal antibodies should be used for in vivo purposes as well as for the screening of primary tumor and metastases for the therapy. To achieve usable results, the monoclonal antibodies should be raised against the cell membranes that, in particular, are expressed on the stem cells of the neoplastic cell population. PMID:2433792

  20. Molecular Biological Study of Anti-cancer Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chan-Yol

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available To study anti-cancer effect and molecular biological mechanism of bee venom for aqua-acupuncture, the effects of bee venom on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay, tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, flow cytometric analysis, and activity of caspase-3 protease activity assay. To explore whether anti-cancer effects of bee venom are associated with the transcriptional control of gene expression, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of apoptosis-related genes was performed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The MTT assay demonstrated that cell viability was decreased by bee venom in a dose-dependant manner. 2. Significant induction of apoptosis was identified using tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, and flow cytometric analysis of sub G1 fraction. 3. In analysis of caspase-3 protease activity, the activity had increased significantly, in a dose-dependant manner. 4. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the apoptosis-related genes showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated whereas Bax was up-regulated by bee venom treatment.

  1. Molecular markers and biological targeted therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer: expert opinion and recommendations derived from the 11th ESMO/World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, Barcelona, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cutsem, E; Dicato, M; Arber, N; Berlin, J; Cervantes, A; Ciardiello, F; De Gramont, A; Diaz-Rubio, E; Ducreux, M; Geva, R; Glimelius, B; Glynne Jones, R; Grothey, A; Gruenberger, T; Haller, D; Haustermans, K; Labianca, R; Lenz, H J; Minsky, B; Nordlinger, B; Ohtsu, A; Pavlidis, N; Rougier, P; Schmiegel, W; Van de Velde, C; Schmoll, H J; Sobrero, A; Tabernero, J

    2010-06-01

    The article summarizes the expert discussion and recommendations on the use of molecular markers and of biological targeted therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), as well as a proposed treatment decision strategy for mCRC treatment. The meeting was conducted during the 11th ESMO/World Gastrointestinal Cancer Congress (WGICC) in Barcelona in June 2009. The manuscript describes the outcome of an expert discussion leading to an expert recommendation. The increasing knowledge on clinical and molecular markers and the availability of biological targeted therapies have major implications in the optimal management in mCRC. PMID:20534623

  2. Ontologies for molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Kremer, S

    1998-01-01

    Molecular biology has a communication problem. There are many databases using their own labels and categories for storing data objects and some using identical labels and categories but with a different meaning. A prominent example is the concept "gene" which is used with different semantics by major international genomic databases. Ontologies are one means to provide a semantic repository to systematically order relevant concepts in molecular biology and to bridge the different notions in various databases by explicitly specifying the meaning of and relation between the fundamental concepts in an application domain. Here, the upper level and a database branch of a prospective ontology for molecular biology (OMB) is presented and compared to other ontologies with respect to suitability for molecular biology (http:/(/)igd.rz-berlin.mpg.de/approximately www/oe/mbo.html). PMID:9697223

  3. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  4. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  5. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  6. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer 18F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms

  7. From Molecular Biology to Clinical Trials: Toward Personalized Colorectal Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Sabina; Zwenger, Ariel O; Croce, María V; Abba, Martín C; Lacunza, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    During the past years, molecular studies through high-throughput technologies have led to the confirmation of critical alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the discovery of some new ones, including mutations, DNA methylations, and structural chromosomal changes. These genomic alterations might act in concert to dysregulate specific signaling pathways that normally exert their functions on critical cell phenotypes, including the regulation of cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Targeted therapy against key components of altered signaling pathways has allowed an improvement in CRC treatment. However, a significant percentage of patients with CRC and metastatic CRC will not benefit from these targeted therapies and will be restricted to systemic chemotherapy. Mechanisms of resistance have been associated with specific gene alterations. To fully understand the nature and significance of the genetic and epigenetic defects in CRC that might favor a tumor evading a given therapy, much work remains. Therefore, a dynamic link between basic molecular research and preclinical studies, which ultimately constitute the prelude to standardized therapies, is very important to provide better and more effective treatments against CRC. We present an updated revision of the main molecular features of CRC and their associated therapies currently under study in clinical trials. Moreover, we performed an unsupervised classification of CRC clinical trials with the aim of obtaining an overview of the future perspectives of preclinical studies. PMID:26777471

  8. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  9. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD: a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mocellin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. OBJECTIVE: To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. METHODS: To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method

  10. Molecular biology from bench-to-bedside - which colorectal cancer patients should be referred for genetic counselling and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Dysager, Lars; Lindebjerg, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    validate our previously suggested clinically applicable strategy based on molecular characteristics for identifying which patients to refer for genetic counselling. The strategy was validated in an unselected cohort of 287 colorectal cancer patients. All tumours were tested for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6...... with hereditary cancer. It is feasible to perform a molecular screening to select patients for genetic counselling....

  11. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015. PMID:27583211

  12. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015.

  13. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  14. Molecular control of the cell cycle in cancer: biological and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2003-01-01

    The RB1 pathway and the p53 pathway represent important, interconnected biochemical units frequently perturbed in human cancer. Essential tumor protective mechanisms, such as cellular growth control and apoptosis, are regulated through these systems. Comprehensive studies of these pathways, inclu...

  15. Biologia molecular do câncer colorretal: uma revolução silenciosa em andamento Molecular biology of colorectal cancer: a silent revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Souza Leite Pinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora os estudos sobre biologia molecular permaneçam como a principal expectativa para o surgimento de novos conceitos e recursos para o tratamento do câncer colorretal, a ausência de resultados de real impacto do ponto de vista clínico ao longo dos últimos anos podem representar uma frustração para quem não esteja acompanhando de perto a evolução das pesquisas nesta área. Assim sendo, nosso objetivo no presente texto é apresentar uma breve revisão do caminho percorrido até o momento desde os trabalhos pioneiros sobre carcinogênese colorretal até as pesquisas mais recentes sobre proteômica, demonstrando assim o constante fluxo de grandes avanços os quais possibilitam uma previsão realista a curto ou médio prazo da disponibilização de recursos de amplo impacto, com potencial para alterar de forma relevante os resultados do tratamento desta importante doença.Despite remaining as the main hope for emerging new concepts and strategies for treatment of colorectal cancer, the lack of results with clinical impact over the last years may contribute to frustrate those not entirely aware about current research data. So, the aim of this paper is to present a brief review since the first molecular biology studies in colorectal carcinogenesis until recent advances in proteomics, in order to demonstrate the consistent production of new data supporting a realistic expectancy for a near future availability of high impact resources that may change dramatically the results of treatment of colorectal cancer.

  16. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field.

  17. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  18. Molecular oncology of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Shinichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Soh, Junichi; Aokage, Keiju; Yamane, Masaomi; Oto, Takahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2011-08-01

    Progress in genetic engineering has made it possible to elucidate the molecular biological abnormalities in lung cancer. Mutations in KRAS and P53 genes, loss of specific alleles, and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes were the major abnormalities investigated between 1980 and the 2000s. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that cause oncogene addiction were discovered in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), especially in adenocarcinomas. Because they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), a great deal of knowledge has been acquired in regard to both EGFR and other genes in the EGFR family and their downstream genes. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC; and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers that have this translocation. These discoveries graphically illustrate that molecular biological findings are directly linked to the development of clinical oncology and to improving the survival rates of lung cancer patients. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular biological knowledge acquired thus far in regard to lung cancer, especially NSCLC, and the future possibilities. PMID:21850578

  19. Bilingual teaching of molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently bilingual teaching in China's universities has been widely carried out and become a popular subject for study. In this paper, the reasons for bilingual teaching of molecular biology are pointed out, the textbook of molecular biology and teaching method in bilingual teaching classes are determined after investigation and the practice of bilingually teaching molecular biology use both English and Chinese in a class. The effect has proved good. The bilingual teaching methods, the problem of bilingual teaching, the importance of understanding its significance and the possibilities of improving such teaching of the subject are also discussed.

  20. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  1. From Molecular Biology to Biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From Molecular Biology to Biomedicine. The well known molecular biologist Margarita Salas offered an informative conference at the CSN on progress in these areas since the discovery, more than half a century ago, of the structure of the molecule carrying genetic information, DNA, work that is having an enormous impact in areas such as biomedicine and foodstuff production. (Author)

  2. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  3. A comparative study of the biologic and molecular basis of murine mammary carcinoma: a model for human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated-DNA complementary to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) RNA was synthesized in an endogeneous reaction with MMTV particles. This DNA was used as a probe via molecular hybridization to detect MMTV-specific RNA in 'spontaneous' mammary tumors of several strains of mice, including the 'nonproducer' BALB/c mammary tumors. MMTV-specific RNA was also found in certain normal tissues (spleen, kidney, and epididymis) of a high-mammary-cancer strain (GR). Aging or treatment with nonviral carcinogens also induced the appearance of MMTV-specific RNA in certain normal tissues of the low-mammary-cancer strains, C57BL and BALB/c. The relationship of the presence of MMTV-specific RNA to the etiology and pathogenesis of murine mammary neoplasia and its potential application to human breast cancer are discussed

  4. Advances in molecular biology of lung disease: aiming for precision therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Claire; Sethi, Tariq

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world, accounting for almost one-quarter of all cancer deaths. Traditional treatment algorithms have largely relied on histologic subtype and have comprised pragmatic chemotherapy regimens with limited efficacy. However, because our understanding of the molecular basis of disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved exponentially, it has become apparent that NSCLC can be radically subdivided, or molecularly characterized, based on recurrent driver mutations occurring in specific oncogenes. We know that the presence of such mutations leads to constitutive activation of aberrant signaling proteins that initiate, progress, and sustain tumorigenesis. This persistence of the malignant phenotype is referred to as "oncogene addiction." On this basis, a paradigm shift in treatment approach has occurred. Rational, targeted therapies have been developed, the first being tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which entered the clinical arena > 10 years ago. These were tremendously successful, significantly affecting the natural history of NSCLC and improving patient outcomes. However, the benefits of these drugs are somewhat limited by the emergence of adaptive resistance mechanisms, and efforts to tackle this phenomenon are ongoing. A better understanding of all types of oncogene-driven NSCLC and the occurrence of TKI resistance will help us to further develop second- and third-generation small molecule inhibitors and will expand our range of precision therapies for this disease. PMID:26182407

  5. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  6. Molecular biology of hearing [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diensthuber, Marc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] The inner ear is our most sensitive sensory organ and can be subdivided into three functional units: organ of Corti, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. The appropriate stimulus for the organ of hearing is sound, which travels through the external auditory canal to the middle ear where it is transmitted to the inner ear. The inner ear houses the hair cells, the sensory cells of hearing. The inner hair cells are capable of mechanotransduction, the transformation of mechanical force into an electrical signal, which is the basic principle of hearing. The stria vascularis generates the endocochlear potential and maintains the ionic homeostasis of the endolymph. The dendrites of the spiral ganglion form synaptic contacts with the hair cells. The spiral ganglion is composed of neurons that transmit the electrical signals from the cochlea to the central nervous system. In recent years there has been significant progress in research on the molecular basis of hearing. An increasing number of genes and proteins related to hearing are being identified and characterized. The growing knowledge of these genes contributes not only to greater appreciation of the mechanism of hearing but also to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary hearing loss. This basic research is a prerequisite for the development of molecular diagnostics and novel therapies for hearing loss.

  7. The biology of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Neethan A; Shimono, Yohei; Qian, Dalong; Clarke, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Cancers originally develop from normal cells that gain the ability to proliferate aberrantly and eventually turn malignant. These cancerous cells then grow clonally into tumors and eventually have the potential to metastasize. A central question in cancer biology is, which cells can be transformed to form tumors? Recent studies elucidated the presence of cancer stem cells that have the exclusive ability to regenerate tumors. These cancer stem cells share many characteristics with normal stem cells, including self-renewal and differentiation. With the growing evidence that cancer stem cells exist in a wide array of tumors, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and differentiation because corruption of genes involved in these pathways likely participates in tumor growth. This new paradigm of oncogenesis has been validated in a growing list of tumors. Studies of normal and cancer stem cells from the same tissue have shed light on the ontogeny of tumors. That signaling pathways such as Bmi1 and Wnt have similar effects in normal and cancer stem cell self-renewal suggests that common molecular pathways regulate both populations. Understanding the biology of cancer stem cells will contribute to the identification of molecular targets important for future therapies. PMID:17645413

  8. [Knowledgebases in postgenomic molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsa, A V; Shilov, B V; Evdokimov, P A; Gusev, S A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledgebases can become an effective tool essentially raising quality of information retrieval in molecular biology, promoting the development of new methods of education and forecasting of the biomedical R&D. Knowledge-based technologies should induce "paradigm shift" in the life science due to integrative focusing of research groups towards the challenges of postgenomic era. This paper debates concept of the knowledgebase, which exploits web usage mining to personalize the access of molecular biologist to the Internet resources. PMID:21328913

  9. Department of Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. The majority of our studies are centered on (i) mechanisms of mutagenesis and DNA repair (including MFD) in Escherichia coli, M13, and lambda phages; (ii) inhibitory and miscoding properties of modified bases in DNA; (iii) synthesis and properties of pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotide analogues with potential anti-tumor, anti-virus and anti-parasite activities, including their conformation and substrate/inhibitor properties in some enzyme systems of relevance to chemotherapy; (iv) molecular mechanisms of PUVA (psoralen + UVA) treatment in psoriasis photo-chemotherapy in particular its action on cell membrane; (v) specificity and methods for assays of N-alkyl-purine DNA glycosylase. The spectrum of mutagens tested includes: MMS, DMS, ultraviolet or halogen light and hydroxyl radicals. The enzymes and repair systems investigated include: DNA polymerases and the proofreading activity of DNA pol III, UvrABC-endonuclease, mismatch repair system, and methyl DNA glycosylases. Much attention is focussed on the role of UmuDC proteins in mutagenesis (dependent and independent on DNA replication) and DNA repair, and on the effect of the Tn10 transposon on the survival and mutation frequency of halogen light irradiated bacteria. A new class of nucleosides containing C(2)-hydroxymethyl-ribose (hamamelose) was synthesized, and it was found that uracil and 5-fluorouracil derivatives show a significant antitumor activity. It was found that 2CDA (2-deoxy-2-chloro-adenosine) an anti-lymphoid drug does not induce mutations, when incorporated into DNA, but significantly inhibits DNA replication. In studies with oxidized M13 DNA it was found that Fapy- (formamidopyrimidine)-residues in DNA selectively inhibits DNA synthesis, and the effect depends on the neighboring sequences and the DNA polymerase tested. Highly unstable derivatives of lecithin-psoralen adducts were characterized and their role in PUVA photochemotherapy is being studied. (author)

  10. Molecular classification of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, N-Y; Tan, P

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), a heterogeneous disease characterized by epidemiologic and histopathologic differences across countries, is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Treatment of GC patients is currently suboptimal due to patients being commonly treated in a uniform fashion irrespective of disease subtype. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, GCs are now being investigated in great detail at the molecular level. High-throughput technologies now allow a comprehensive study of genomic and epigenomic alterations associated with GC. Gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, differential gene expression and epigenetic alterations are some of the genetic/epigenetic influences on GC pathogenesis. In addition, integrative analyses of molecular profiling data have led to the identification of key dysregulated pathways and importantly, the establishment of GC molecular classifiers. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) network proposed a four subtype classification scheme for GC based on the underlying tumor molecular biology of each subtype. This landmark study, together with other studies, has expanded our understanding on the characteristics of GC at the molecular level. Such knowledge may improve the medical management of GC in the future. PMID:26861606

  11. Molecular biology of Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Johannes; Bulman, Simon; Rehn, Frank;

    2009-01-01

    of several genes have been revealed, and the expression of those genes has been linked to development of clubroot to some extent. In addition, the sequence data have reinforced the inclusion of the plasmodiophorids within the Cercozoa. The recent successes in molecular biology have produced new approaches...

  12. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  13. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  14. Prostate cancer stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan T.

    2012-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of s...

  15. Biological and Molecular Effects of Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors on Low-Passage Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models.

  16. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A; Muller, W.E.G.

    that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding...

  17. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  18. Deciphering cancer heterogeneity: the biological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWeiWang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most lethal solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are considered incurable due to extensive heterogeneity in clinical presentation and tumor biology. Tumor heterogeneity may result from different cells of origin, patient ethnicity, etiology, underlying disease and diversity of genomic and epigenomic changes which drive tumor development. Cancer genomic heterogeneity thereby impedes treatment options and poses a significant challenge to cancer management. Studies of the HCC genome have revealed that although various genomic signatures identified in different HCC subgroups share a common prognosis, each carries unique molecular changes which are linked to different sets of cancer hallmarks whose misregulation has been proposed by Hanahan and Weinberg to be essential for tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that these specific sets of cancer hallmarks collectively occupy different tumor biological space representing the misregulation of different biological processes. In principle, a combination of different cancer hallmarks can result in new convergent molecular networks that are unique to each tumor subgroup and represent ideal druggable targets. Due to the ability of the tumor to adapt to external factors such as treatment or changes in the tumor microenvironment, the tumor biological space is elastic. Our ability to identify distinct groups of cancer patients with similar tumor biology who are most likely to respond to a specific therapy would have a significant impact on improving patient outcome. It is currently a challenge to identify a particular hallmark or a newly emerged convergent molecular network for a particular tumor. Thus, it is anticipated that the integration of multiple levels of data such as genomic mutations, somatic copy number aberration, gene expression, proteomics, and metabolomics, may help us grasp the tumor biological space occupied by each individual, leading to improved therapeutic intervention and outcome.

  19. Molecular markers′ progress of breast cancer treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Jingwei Xu; Guang Shi; Guanghao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a famous malignant tumor which is caused by varieties of mutation in multiple genes. In order to detect breast cancer in an earlier time and take appropriate treatment which includes  predicting treatment efficacy, we need a more accurate method of discovering the occurrence of breast cancer. With the development of molecular biology and biological detection technologies continue to emerge, molecular markers of breast cancer have gaining more and more widespread attention, an...

  20. Genetic and molecular changes in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Robert L; Gourley, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, and can be divided into five main histological subtypes: high grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous. These subtypes represent distinct disease entities, both clinically and at the molecular level. Molecular analysis has revealed significant genetic heterogeneity in ovarian cancer, particularly within the high grade serous subtype. As such, this subtype has been the focus of much research effort to date, revealing molecular subgroups at both the genomic and transcriptomic level that have clinical implications. However, stratification of ovarian cancer patients based on the underlying biology of their disease remains in its infancy. Here, we summarize the molecular changes that characterize the five main ovarian cancer subtypes, highlight potential opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention and outline priorities for future research.

  1. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  2. Biological heterogeneity of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah J. Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in diagnosis, surgical techniques, and advancements in general patient care, the majority of deaths from cancer are caused by the continuous growth of metastases that are resistant to conventional therapies. In a large number of cancer patients, metastasis may well have occurred by the time of diagnosis. The metastases can be located in different distant organs and in different regions within a single organ. The major obstacle for the eradication of metastases...

  3. Cancer biology in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Shi; He, Yanzheng; Koya, Daisuke; Kanasaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes is a serious metabolic disease that causes multiple organ dysfunctions. Recent evidence suggests that diabetes could contribute to the initiation and progression of certain cancers in addition to the classic diabetic complications. Furthermore, some of the drugs used clinically to treat patients with diabetes might affect cancer initiation, progression and mortality. The recent discovery of the possible anticancer effects of metformin, a classic antidiabetic drug, has led ph...

  4. The molecular biology of ilarviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Herranz, Mari C; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus A; Scott, Simon W

    2013-01-01

    Ilarviruses were among the first 16 groups of plant viruses approved by ICTV. Like Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bromoviruses, and cucumoviruses they are isometric viruses and possess a single-stranded, tripartite RNA genome. However, unlike these other three groups, ilarviruses were recognized as being recalcitrant subjects for research (their ready lability is reflected in the sigla used to create the group name) and were renowned as unpromising subjects for the production of antisera. However, it was recognized that they shared properties with AMV when the phenomenon of genome activation, in which the coat protein (CP) of the virus is required to be present to initiate infection, was demonstrated to cross group boundaries. The CP of AMV could activate the genome of an ilarvirus and vice versa. Development of the molecular information for ilarviruses lagged behind the knowledge available for the more extensively studied AMV, bromoviruses, and cucumoviruses. In the past 20 years, genomic data for most known ilarviruses have been developed facilitating their detection and allowing the factors involved in the molecular biology of the genus to be investigated. Much information has been obtained using Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and the more extensively studied AMV. A relationship between some ilarviruses and the cucumoviruses has been defined with the recognition that members of both genera encode a 2b protein involved in RNA silencing and long distance viral movement. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge of both the taxonomy and the molecular biology of this genus of agronomically and horticulturally important viruses. PMID:23809923

  5. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  6. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  7. Research Status of Molecular Biology in Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jian-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Flax is a kind of worldwide fiber and oil crops, and it has a very important role in economic crop production in the world. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the research of flax molecular level has a very big breakthrough. But, flax molecular biology researches are less reported due to the later starting. This paper summarized the latest research progress of molecular biology of flax, including molecular marker technology, construction of genetic map, gene engineering and omics researches, in order to provide the reference to understand the development and research status for flax molecular breeding researchers.

  8. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  9. Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology investigates the organization, compartmentalization, and biochemistry of eukaryotic cells and the pathology associated...

  10. Biological markers of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Ando, Tomofumi; Fujii, Taku; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Saito, Junichi; Takahashi, Maiko; Hayashida, Tetsu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Biological markers for breast cancer are biomolecules that result from cancer-related processes and are associated with particular clinical outcomes; they thus help predict responses to therapy. In recent years, gene expression profiling has made the molecular classification of breast cancer possible. Classification of breast cancer by immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki-67 is standard practice for clinical decision-making. Assessments of hormone receptor expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression help estimate benefits from targeted therapies and have greatly improved prognoses for women with these breast cancer types. Although Ki-67 positivity is associated with an adverse outcome, its clear identification is an aid to optimal disease management. Standardization of testing methodology to minimize inter-laboratory measurement variations is a remaining issue. Multi-gene assays provide prognostic information and identify those most likely to benefit from systemic chemotherapy. Incorporating molecular profiles with conventional pathological classification would be more precise, and could enhance the clinical development of personalized therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26486826

  11. [Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatogai, Ken; Doi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer has been classified based on the pathological characteristics including microscopic configuration and growth pattern. Although these classifications have been used in studies investigating prognosis and recurrence pattern, they are not considered for decisions regarding the therapeutic strategy. In the ToGA study, trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated clinical efficacy for gastric cancer with HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification. Based on these findings of the ToGA study, the definition of HER2-positive gastric cancer was established. Thereafter, several molecular targeted agents, including agents targeting other receptor tyrosine kinases, have been investigated in gastric cancer. However, to date no biomarker, except HER2, has been established. Based on the recent technological development in the field of gene analysis, a comprehensive molecular evaluation of gastric cancer was performed as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)project, and a new molecular classification was proposed that divided gastric cancer into the following 4 subtypes: tumors positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite instability tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Each subtype has specific molecular alterations including gene mutation and amplification, DNA methylation, and protein overexpression. Additionally, some subtypes were suggested to be correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics or as targets of some molecular targeted agents that are currently under development. The new molecular classification is expected to be a roadmap for patient stratification and clinical trials on molecular targeted therapies in gastric cancer. PMID:27067842

  12. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wrede Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are qu...

  13. Molecular biology of microbial ureases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, H L; Island, M D; Hausinger, R P

    1995-09-01

    progress in our understanding of the molecular biology of microbial ureases is reviewed. PMID:7565414

  14. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrede Paul

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are questions that should be answered in the light of molecular biology and evolution, but with the application of biophysical, physico-chemical, analytical and preparative technologies. As the Section Editor for the molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal, I hope to receive manuscripts that present new approaches aimed at better answering and shedding light upon these fascinating questions related to the chemistry of livings cells.

  15. Molecular biology of lincomycin biosynthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spížek, Jaroslav; Tichý, Pavel; Janata, Jiří

    SissiHeraklion: Hellenic Society of Biological Sciences, 1999. s. 77. [International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes /11./. 24.10.1999-28.10.1999, Sissi-Heraklion] Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Molecular Imaging of Pulmonary Cancer and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Divgi, Chaitanya R.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) may be defined as imaging in vivo using molecules that report on biologic function. This review will focus on the clinical use of radioactive tracers (nonpharmacologic amounts of compounds labeled with a radioactive substance) that permit external imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (planar, SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Imaging of lung cancer has been revolutionized with the use of fluorine-18–labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F...

  17. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in…

  18. Biologia molecular do câncer colorretal: uma revolução silenciosa em andamento Molecular biology of colorectal cancer: a silent revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro de Souza Leite Pinho

    2008-01-01

    Embora os estudos sobre biologia molecular permaneçam como a principal expectativa para o surgimento de novos conceitos e recursos para o tratamento do câncer colorretal, a ausência de resultados de real impacto do ponto de vista clínico ao longo dos últimos anos podem representar uma frustração para quem não esteja acompanhando de perto a evolução das pesquisas nesta área. Assim sendo, nosso objetivo no presente texto é apresentar uma breve revisão do caminho percorrido até o momento desde o...

  19. European Conference on Molecular Biology EMBO

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    European Conference on Molecular Biology, which eventually led to the setting up of EMBO, was held at CERN in April. Olivier Reverdin is adressing the delegates. Bernard Gregory is on the left and Willy Spuhler in the centre.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Knyazev; K. A. Fomicheva; K. M. Nyushko; Kaprin, A. D.; B. Ya. Alekseev; M. Yu. Shkurnikov

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androge...

  2. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  3. Deuterium effects in cancer biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its discovery many experiments were conducted for explaining the effects of deuterium on biological systems. It was observed, in many studies, that by increasing the deuterium concentration, structural, metabolic and functional alterations at different extents are produced, which can lead to organism's death. On the other hand effects of concentration reduction are much less studied. Existing data in literature, with regard to intrinsic deuterium reduction effects on different carcinomas are rather scarce. In vitro studies of deuterium level reduction has evidenced an inhibiting effect upon the cellular proliferation in different tumoral cellular lines: M14 cellular lines (human melanoma), PC3 (prostate cancer) and MCF7 (breast cancer). In vivo researches made on experimental tumours, have shown that the deuterium level reduction determines partial or complete regressions in xenotransplanted tumours, while in veterinary oncological clinic, partial or total tumoral regression were observed in different spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats. (authors)

  4. The Molecular Era of Surfactant Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A Whitsett

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the physiology, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology of the pulmonary surfactant system transformed the clinical care and outcome of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The molecular era of surfactant biology provided genetic insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders, previously termed “idiopathic” that affect newborn infants, children and adults. Knowledge related to the structure and function of the surfactant proteins and their roles in alveolar ...

  5. Biological communication via molecular surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Tim; Byler, K; de Groot, M

    2006-01-01

    The use and characteristics of local properties designed to describe intermolecular interactions projected onto molecular surfaces and based on semiempirical molecular orbital theory are described. After a discussion of the local properties themselves and their relationship to intermolecular interactions and chemical reactivity, two applications are described. The first, surface-integral models for physical properties, involve integrating a functional of the local properties over the molecula...

  6. Molecular imaging in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyners, A K L; Broekman, K E; Glaudemans, A W J M; Brouwers, A H; Arts, H J G; van der Zee, A G J; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27141066

  7. Network-Based Models in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas

    Biological systems are characterized by a large number of diverse interactions. Interaction maps have been used to abstract those interactions at all biological scales ranging from food webs at the ecosystem level down to protein interaction networks at the molecular scale.

  8. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter, as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers.

  9. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by overview on the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. Latest development in molecular ferroele...

  10. Network systems biology for targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The era of targeted cancer therapies has arrived.However,due to the complexity of biological systems,the current progress is far from enough.From biological network modeling to structural/dynamic network analysis,network systems biology provides unique insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the growth and progression of cancer cells.It has also introduced great changes into the research paradigm of cancer-associated drug discovery and drug resistance.

  11. Biological Significance and the Related Molecular Mechanism of Ets1 mRNA Expression in Lung Cancer by Tissue Microarray (TMA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions and molecular mechanism of Ets-1 mRNA, and TGFβ1 and c-Met proteins in the pathogenesis, progression of lung cancer by tissue microarray (TMA) method. Methods: The expressions of Ets-1 mRNA, and TGFβ1 and c-Met proteins were detected in 89 primary lung cancers, 12 lung cancer with lymph-node metastasis and 12 precancerous lesions by FISH(fluorescence in situ hybridization) and immunohistochemical method, and 10 normal lung tissues were used as controls. Results: The expressions of Ets-1 mRNA, and TGFβ1 and c-Met proteins were significantly higher in 89 primary lung cancer than in the control group (P<0.05). The expressions of Ets-1 mRNA, and TGFβ1 and c-Met proteins were related to lymph node metastasis and clinical stages. There was a positive correlation between the Ets-1 mRNA expression and TGFβ1 and c-Met proteins (P<0.05). Conclusion: Ets-1 mRNA, TGFβ1 and c-Met proteins may be related to the pathogenesis, progression and malignant behavior of lung cancer. They may play an important role in prognosis assessment of lung cancer.

  12. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  13. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sairah R; Rockall, Andrea G; Barwick, Tara D

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed. PMID:26859085

  14. Molecular Dimensions of Gastric Cancer: Translational and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine. PMID:26498010

  15. Synthetic Tools for Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dervan, Peter B.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry has made tremendous advances over the past four decades in the broad fields of synthesis and understanding chemical reactivity. In that same time span, a series of revolutionary events occurred in biology. First came the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s by Watson and Crick. This discovery allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms of DNA replication -- how DNA makes copies of itself -- and DNA transcription and translation -- the processes that allow the ...

  16. Molecular genetics of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Julie; Prenen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 90% of colorectal cancer cases are sporadic without family history or genetic predisposition, while in less than 10% a causative genetic event has been identified. Historically, colorectal cancer classification was only based on clinical and pathological features. Many efforts have been made to discover the genetic and molecular features of colorectal cancer, and there is more and more evidence that these features determine the prognosis and response to (targeted) treatment. Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with three known major molecular groups. The most common is the chromosomal instable group, characterized by an accumulation of mutations in specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The second is the microsatellite instable group, caused by dysfunction of DNA mismatch repair genes leading to genetic hypermutability. The CpG Island Methylation phenotype is the third group, distinguished by hypermethylation. Colorectal cancer subtyping has also been addressed using genome-wide gene expression profiling in large patient cohorts and recently several molecular classification systems have been proposed. In this review we would like to provide an up-to-date overview of the genetic aspects of colorectal cancer. PMID:24714764

  17. Cancer Theory from Systems Biology Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaowei; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ao, Ping

    In our previous work, we have proposed a novel cancer theory, endogenous network theory, to understand mechanism underlying cancer genesis and development. Recently, we apply this theory to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A core endogenous network of hepatocyte was established by integrating the current understanding of hepatocyte at molecular level. Quantitative description of the endogenous network consisted of a set of stochastic differential equations which could generate many local attractors with obvious or non-obvious biological functions. By comparing with clinical observation and experimental data, the results showed that two robust attractors from the model reproduced the main known features of normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte respectively at both modular and molecular level. In light of our theory, the genesis and progression of cancer is viewed as transition from normal attractor to HCC attractor. A set of new insights on understanding cancer genesis and progression, and on strategies for cancer prevention, cure, and care were provided.

  18. Molecular biological research on Foraminifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baohua; Kemal Topac ERTAN; Christoph HEMLEBEN

    2005-01-01

    As one of the most important groups in micropaleontology, Foraminifera is traditionally described to have a membranous, agglutinated or carbonate shell according to its morphology, which resembles the marine granuloreticuloseans. However, recent molecular analyses on its ribosomal RNA gene have disclosed the existence of the naked, and also freshwater and terrestrial species.Foraminiferal SSU rDNA sequence suggests that this group is positioned at the base of the Eukaryotes phylogenetic trees, between Euglenoida and Diplomonadida. Existence of a large amount of genetic types in planktonic foraminifera suggests an underestimation of the biodiversity for the nearly 50 species in world oceans and their close relationship with the ocean environment, such as bio-geographic distribution and water currents. This provides a more reliable proxy for future paleoenvironmental study.

  19. Gregory Bateson's relevance to current molecular biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    come as a surprise today to realize how the general ideas that he was postulating for the study of communication systems in biology fit so well with the astonishing findings of current molecular biology, for example in the field of cellular signal transduction networks. I guess this is the case due to......-dependent information, hierarchical contexts and analog/digital communication, which I think molecular biologists could find of great inspiration. In particular I highlight ten “Batesonean ideas” that may prove to be of great relevance to the field of cellular signal transduction....

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  1. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  2. Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Eric J; Kikkert, Marjolein; Fang, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals. They can cause persistent or asymptomatic infections, but also acute disease associated with a respiratory syndrome, abortion or lethal haemorrhagic fever. During the past two decades, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and, to a lesser extent, equine arteritis virus (EAV) have attracted attention as veterinary pathogens with significant economic impact. Particularly noteworthy were the 'porcine high fever disease' outbreaks in South-East Asia and the emergence of new virulent PRRSV strains in the USA. Recently, the family was expanded with several previously unknown arteriviruses isolated from different African monkey species. At the molecular level, arteriviruses share an intriguing but distant evolutionary relationship with coronaviruses and other members of the order Nidovirales. Nevertheless, several of their characteristics are unique, including virion composition and structure, and the conservation of only a subset of the replicase domains encountered in nidoviruses with larger genomes. During the past 15 years, the advent of reverse genetics systems for EAV and PRRSV has changed and accelerated the structure-function analysis of arterivirus RNA and protein sequences. These systems now also facilitate studies into host immune responses and arterivirus immune evasion and pathogenesis. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in the areas of arterivirus genome expression, RNA and protein functions, virion architecture, virus-host interactions, immunity, and pathogenesis. We have also briefly reviewed the impact of these advances on disease management, the engineering of novel candidate live vaccines and the diagnosis of arterivirus infection. PMID:23939974

  3. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  4. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  5. Engineered antibodies for molecular imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Antibody technology has transformed drug development, providing robust approaches to producing highly targeted and active therapeutics that can routinely be advanced through clinical evaluation and registration. In parallel, there is an emerging need to access similarly targeted agents for diagnostic purposes, including non-invasive imaging in preclinical models and patients. Antibody engineering enables modification of key properties (immunogenicity, valency, biological inertness, pharmacokinetics, clearance route, site-specific conjugation) in order to produce targeting agents optimized for molecular imaging. Expanded availability of positron-emitting radionuclides has led to a resurgence of interest and applications of immunoPET (immuno-positron emission tomography). Molecular imaging using engineered antibodies and fragments provides a general approach for assessing cell surface phenotype in vivo and stands to play an increasingly important role in cancer diagnosis, treatment selection, and monitoring of molecularly targeted therapeutics. PMID:24091005

  6. Computational Systems Biology in Cancer: Modeling Methods and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Materi; Wishart, David S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that carcinogenesis is a complex process, both at the molecular and cellular levels. Understanding the origins, growth and spread of cancer, therefore requires an integrated or system-wide approach. Computational systems biology is an emerging sub-discipline in systems biology that utilizes the wealth of data from genomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies to build computer simulations of intra and intercellular processes. Several useful descriptive and pre...

  7. Book review: Baculovirus Molecular Biology, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of cell culture and molecular biology methodologies to the study of baculoviruses has resulted in an explosion of information on this group of insect pathogens. The quantity of the corresponding literature on baculoviruses has reached a level difficult for any one researcher to mast...

  8. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Kazukiyo

    The development of the molecular biology of bacteriophage such as T4, lambda and filamentous phages was described and the process that the fundamental knowledge obtained in this field has subsequently led us to the technology of phage display was introduced.

  9. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  10. Molecular biology of the honey bee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kathe

    While hoeneybees represent model organisms with complex social structures within populations, a comprehensive understanding of developmental regulation in relation to sexual development as well as cast determination still remains. Despite decades of research explanations on mechanistics underlyin...... functional molecular biological techniques to advance current interpretations of heneybee development...

  11. Molecular profiles to biology and pathways: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Vermeulen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting molecular profiles in a biological context requires specialized analysis strategies. Initially, lists of relevant genes were screened to identify enriched concepts associated with pathways or specific molecular processes. However, the shortcoming of interpreting gene lists by using predefined sets of genes has resulted in the development of novel methods that heavily rely on network-based concepts. These algorithms have the advantage that they allow a more holistic view of the signaling properties of the condition under study as well as that they are suitable for integrating different data types like gene expression, gene mutation, and even histological parameters. PMID:27311441

  12. New journal: Algorithms for Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial announces Algorithms for Molecular Biology, a new online open access journal published by BioMed Central. By launching the first open access journal on algorithmic bioinformatics, we provide a forum for fast publication of high-quality research articles in this rapidly evolving field. Our journal will publish thoroughly peer-reviewed papers without length limitations covering all aspects of algorithmic data analysis in computatioal biology. Publications in Algorithms for Molecular Biology are easy to find, highly visible and tracked by organisations such as PubMed. An established online submission system makes a fast reviewing procedure possible and enables us to publish accepted papers without delay. All articles published in our journal are permanently archived by PubMed Central and other scientific archives. We are looking forward to receiving your contributions.

  13. Molecular biology applications to infectious diseases diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project goes directed to the applications of the techniques of molecular biology in hepatitis virus.A great advance of these techniques it allows its application to the diagnose molecular and it becomes indispensable to have these fundamental tools in the field of the Health Public for the detection precocious, pursuit of the treatment, the one predicts and the evolution of the patient hepatitis bearing virus technical.Use of molecular biology to increase the handling and the control of the patients with hepatitis B and C and to detect an adult numbers of positive cases by means of the training and integration of all the countries participating.Implement the technique of PCR to identify the virus of the hepatitis B and C,implement quantification methods and genotipification for these virus

  14. Molecular epidemiology and the genetics of environmental cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, P.G.; Harris, C.C. (Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-08-07

    Environmental, occupational, and recreational exposures to carcinogens contribute to cancer risk in humans. Cancer formation is a multistage process involving tumor initiation, promotion, conversion, and progression. Carcinogens can affect any of these stages through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The association of a suspected carcinogenic exposure and cancer risk can be studied in populations with classic epidemiologic techniques. However, these techniques are not applicable to the assessment of risk in individuals. Molecular epidemiology, in contrast, is a field that integrates molecular biology, in vitro and in vivo laboratory models, biochemistry, and epidemiology to infer individual cancer risk. Carcinogen-macromolecular adduct levels, and somatic cell mutations can be measured to determine the biologically effective dose of a carcinogen. Molecular epidemiology also explores host cancer susceptibilities, such as carcinogen metabolic activation, DNA repair, endogenous mutation rates, and inheritance of mutated tumor suppressor genes. Substantial interindividual variation for each of these biologic end points has been shown and, therefore, highlights the need for assessing cancer risk on an individual basis. Given the pace of the last decade, it is feasible that the next 10 years will allow molecular epidemiologists to develop a cancer-risk profile for an individual that includes assessment of a number of factors. This will help focus preventive strategies and strengthen quantitative risk assessments. 96 refs.

  15. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakumaeki, Juhana M. [Cellular and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Biomedical NMR, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) and Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: juhana.hakumaki@uku.fi; Liimatainen, Timo [Cellular and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Biomedical NMR, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-11-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer. Mechanisms hindering its action are implicated in a number of malignancies. Also, the induction of apoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment regimes such as irradiation, chemotherapy, or hormones. Recent advanced in imaging science have made it now possible for us to detect and visualize previously inaccessible and even unrecognized biological phenomena in cells and tissue undergoing apoptosis in vivo. Not only are these imaging techniques painting an intriguing picture of the spatiotemporal characteristics and metabolic and biophysical of apoptosis in situ, but they are expected to have an ever increasing impact in preclinical testing and design of new anticancer agents as well. Rapid and accurate visualization of apoptotic response in the clinical settings can also be of significant diagnostic and prognostic worth. With the advent of molecular medicine and patient-tailored treatment options and therapeutic agents, such monitoring techniques are becoming paramount.

  16. Molecular knots in biology and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knots and entanglements are ubiquitous. Beyond their aesthetic appeal, these fascinating topological entities can be either useful or cumbersome. In recent decades, the importance and prevalence of molecular knots have been increasingly recognised by scientists from different disciplines. In this review, we provide an overview on the various molecular knots found in naturally occurring biological systems (DNA, RNA and proteins), and those created by synthetic chemists. We discuss the current knowledge in these fields, including recent developments in experimental and, in some cases, computational studies which are beginning to shed light into the complex interplay between the structure, formation and properties of these topologically intricate molecules. (paper)

  17. Molecular knots in biology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nicole C H; Jackson, Sophie E

    2015-09-01

    Knots and entanglements are ubiquitous. Beyond their aesthetic appeal, these fascinating topological entities can be either useful or cumbersome. In recent decades, the importance and prevalence of molecular knots have been increasingly recognised by scientists from different disciplines. In this review, we provide an overview on the various molecular knots found in naturally occurring biological systems (DNA, RNA and proteins), and those created by synthetic chemists. We discuss the current knowledge in these fields, including recent developments in experimental and, in some cases, computational studies which are beginning to shed light into the complex interplay between the structure, formation and properties of these topologically intricate molecules. PMID:26291690

  18. Bioenergetics molecular biology, biochemistry, and pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Ozawa, Takayuki

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of the Biochemical Sciences is underlined by the FAOB symposium in Seoul and highlighted by this Satellite meeting on the "New Bioenergetics. " Classical mitochondrial electron transfer and energy coupling is now complemented by the emerging molecular biology of the respiratory chain which is studied hand in hand with the recognition of mitochondrial disease as a major and emerging study in the basic and clinical medical sciences. Thus, this symposium has achieved an important balance of the fundamental and applied aspects of bioenergetics in the modern setting of molecular biology and mitochondrial disease. At the same time, the symposium takes note not only of the emerging excellence of Biochemical Studies in the Orient and indeed in Korea itself, but also retrospectively enjoys the history of electron transport and energy conservation as represented by the triumvirate ofYagi, King and Slater. Many thanks are due Drs. Kim and Ozawa for their elegant organization of this meeting and its juxtapo...

  19. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gunturu, Krishna S; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.; Saif, M. Wasif

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer.

  20. Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorte, S.L. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France). Plateforme d' Imagerie Dynamique PFID-Imagopole; Frischknecht, F. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Parasitology

    2007-07-01

    'Imaging cellular and molecular biological function' provides a unique selection of essays by leading experts, aiming at scientist and student alike who are interested in all aspects of modern imaging, from its application and up-scaling to its development. Indeed the philosophy of this volume is to provide student, researcher, PI, professional or provost the means to enter this applications field with confidence, and to construct the means to answer their own specific questions. (orig.)

  1. 2004 Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Eisenstein Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Gordon Research Conference on Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology was held at Four Points Sheraton, CA, 1/25-30/2004. The Conference was well attended with 82 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  2. Omics/systems biology and cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Iain J; Jacobi, Carsten; Tardif, Nicolas; Rooyackers, Olav; Fearon, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome generated by interaction between the host and tumour cells with a background of treatment effects and toxicity. The complexity of the physiological pathways likely involved in cancer cachexia necessitates a holistic view of the relevant biology. Emergent properties are characteristic of complex systems with the result that the end result is more than the sum of its parts. Recognition of the importance of emergent properties in biology led to the concept of systems biology wherein a holistic approach is taken to the biology at hand. Systems biology approaches will therefore play an important role in work to uncover key mechanisms with therapeutic potential in cancer cachexia. The 'omics' technologies provide a global view of biological systems. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics approaches all have application in the study of cancer cachexia to generate systems level models of the behaviour of this syndrome. The current work reviews recent applications of these technologies to muscle atrophy in general and cancer cachexia in particular with a view to progress towards integration of these approaches to better understand the pathology and potential treatment pathways in cancer cachexia. PMID:26783720

  3. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Female Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Seon-Hee Yim; Yeun-Jun Chung

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is still a leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer in developed countries started to decrease mainly due to global anti-smoking campaigns. However, the incidence of lung cancer in women has been increasing in recent decades for various reasons. Furthermore, since the screening of lung cancer is not as yet very effective, clinically applicable molecular markers for early diagnosis are much required. Lung cancer in women appears to have differenc...

  5. Molecular biology and its applications in orthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-jin

    2005-01-01

    Molecular biology is an exciting, rapidly expanding field, which has enabled enormously greater understanding of the biology of diseases and malfunctions in many fields. It chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and how these interactions are regulated. Since the introduction of molecular biology into modern science, numerous other fields have been enabled to go "molecular". Advanced molecular biological techniques showed us new avenue towards finding answers to the questions asked for decades. The first part of this article described the history of molecular biology.It started as a joined discipline of other areas of biology, i.e. genetics and biochemistry in the 1930s and 1940s, and enjoyed its classical period and became institutionalized in the 1950s and 1960s. Major molecular techniques manipulating proteins, DNA and RNA were introduced and their mechanisms were concisely illustrated. The current knowledge of molecular biology and their applications in orthodontic and oral and maxillofacial surgery, i.e. osteoclast differentiation and function, regulation of tooth movement, mechanotransduction/cell-signalling, bone fracture healing, oral cancer as well as craniofacial/dental anomalies and distraction osteogenesis were discussed. Although the problems of introducing molecular technologies are still substantial, it is anticipated that the future of medicine/dentistry will be "molecular": molecular prevention, molecular diagnosis and molecular therapy.

  6. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  7. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  8. Molecular imaging for cancer targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Molecular-genetic imaging which has grown rapidly is currently been applied to studies of gene expression regulation, activity of signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, tumor metastases, stem cell migration, and monitoring cells involved in different components of immune response. Our Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core (MAGIC), established in late 2002, has developed a platform of small animal functional, molecular, and morphologic quantitative imaging techniques which are providing data about biochemical, genetic or pharmacological processes in vivo, and repetitively in the same animal. We first established chimeric reporter and therapeutic gene systems for specific targeting on hepatoma of mouse model. In- vivo microPET and bioluminescence imaging demonstrated the usefulness of tissue specific chimeric tk and hNIS genes. For trafficking the stem cell and cancer cells, we also have established dual and triple reporter gene system and correspondent reporter probes for in vivo imaging by microPET or microSPECT. The second application of translational biomedical imaging of cancer targeting therapy is on the inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, the key enzyme of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR have higher levels of basal receptor phosphorylation and that are associated with clinical responsiveness to Iressa in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). High mutation rate for EGFR in Taiwanese patients of adenocarcinoma of lung suggests an urgent requirement of a non-invasive imaging tool for pre-treatment and during therapy evaluation of lung cancer patients using EGFR signalling inhibitor. Our current work on radiosynthesis of the analogue of Iressa--morpholino-[124I]-IPQA and in vitro and in vivo studies of high basal EGFR-expressing H1299's derivatives (L858R and E746-A750 del cell lines) subcutaneous tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice, has proven that [124I]-IPQA is a feasible in vivo imaging

  9. 2011 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism, & Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keneth Stedman

    2011-08-05

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  10. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Julie Maupin- Furlow

    2009-07-26

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  11. Molecular recognition in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persch, Elke; Dumele, Oliver; Diederich, François

    2015-03-01

    Structure-based ligand design in medicinal chemistry and crop protection relies on the identification and quantification of weak noncovalent interactions and understanding the role of water. Small-molecule and protein structural database searches are important tools to retrieve existing knowledge. Thermodynamic profiling, combined with X-ray structural and computational studies, is the key to elucidate the energetics of the replacement of water by ligands. Biological receptor sites vary greatly in shape, conformational dynamics, and polarity, and require different ligand-design strategies, as shown for various case studies. Interactions between dipoles have become a central theme of molecular recognition. Orthogonal interactions, halogen bonding, and amide⋅⋅⋅π stacking provide new tools for innovative lead optimization. The combination of synthetic models and biological complexation studies is required to gather reliable information on weak noncovalent interactions and the role of water. PMID:25630692

  12. Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

  13. 2007 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imke Schroeder

    2008-09-18

    The Archaea are a fascinating and diverse group of prokaryotic organisms with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of this GRC conference, 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology', expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting the evolution and composition of microbial communities and novel archaeal species, their impact on the environment, archaeal metabolism, and research that stems from sequence analysis of archaeal genomes. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple reputable areas with new scientific topics in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  14. Systems biology and cancer, [Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C; Maini, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The systems approach to complex biological problems has rapidly gained ground during the first decade of this century. There are several reasons for this development. An important one is that while the achievement of sequencing the complete human genome, and those of other species, has been of great benefit to fundamental science, for example in comparative genomics and evolutionary biology, it has not led to the expected quick and simple solutions to multifactorial diseases (2010). On the co...

  15. Inflammatory mediators: Parallels between cancer biology and stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Shyam A; Heinrich, Andrew C; Bobby Y. Reddy; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the ef...

  16. Molecular markers as therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsin-Hui Tseng; Biao He

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is responsible for 29% of cancer deaths in the United States and has very low 5-year survival rates of approximately 11% in men and 15% in women.Although the early diagnosis of lung cancer may increase the survival rate with adequate treatment,advanced lung cancers are often metastasized and receive limited benefit from therapeutic regimens.As conventional treatments for lung cancer reach their limitations,researchers have attempted to discover novel drug therapies aimed at specific targets contributing to the progression of tumorigenesis.Recent advances in systems biology have enabled the molecular biology of lung carcinogenesis to be elucidated.Our understanding of the physiologic processes of tumor development provide a means to design more effective and specific drugs with less toxicity,thereby accelerating the delivery of new drug therapies to the patient's bedside.

  17. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  18. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Huth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients.  Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC. Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53 as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  19. Targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer: Molecular mechanisms of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki; Itamochi

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological cancer. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis.Currently, surgical tumor debulking, followed by platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. However, these patients are at great risk of recurrence and emerging drug resistance. Therefore, novel treatment strategies are required to improve outcomes for women with advanced ovarian cancer. A variety of molecular targeted agents, the majority of which are monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule protein-kinase inhibitors, have been explored in the management of ovarian cancer. The targets of these agents include angiogenesis, the human epidermal growth factor receptor family, ubiquitinproteasome pathway, epigenetic modulators, poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which are aberrant in tumor tissue. The antiangiogenic agent, bevacizumab, has been reported as the most effective targeted agent and should be included in the standard chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced ovarian cancer. PARP inhibitors, which are mainly used in breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene-mutated patients, and mTOR inhibitors are also attractive treatment strategies, either alone or combination with chemotherapy, for ovarian cancer. Understanding the tumor molecular biology and identification of predictive biomarkers are essential steps for selection of the best treatment strategies. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of the most promising targeted agents that are under early phase clinical evaluation for ovarian cancer.

  20. Integrative computational biology for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Kristen; Jurisica, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, high-throughput (HTP) technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry have fundamentally changed clinical cancer research. They have revealed novel molecular markers of cancer subtypes, metastasis, and drug sensitivity and resistance. Some have been translated into the clinic as tools for early disease diagnosis, prognosis, and individualized treatment and response monitoring. Despite these successes, many challenges remain: HTP platforms are often noisy and ...

  1. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  2. Biological functions of decorin in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Bi; Wancai Yang

    2013-01-01

    Decorin is a member of the extracellular matrix small leucine-rich proteoglycans family that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells.Accumulating evidence suggests that decorin affects the biology of various types of cancer by directly or indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth,survival,metastasis,and angiogenesis.More recent studies show that decorin plays important roles during tumor development and progression and is a potential cancer therapeutic agent.In this article,we summarize recent studies of decorin in cancer and discuss decorin's therapeutic and prognostic value.

  3. Molecular therapeutics in pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vignesh; Weekes, Colin D

    2016-04-15

    The emergence of the "precision-medicine" paradigm in oncology has ushered in tremendous improvements in patient outcomes in a wide variety of malignancies. However, pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has remained an obstinate challenge to the oncology community and continues to be associated with a dismal prognosis with 5-year survival rates consistently less than 5%. Cytotoxic chemotherapy with gemcitabine-based regimens has been the cornerstone of treatment in PDAC especially because most patients present with inoperable disease. But in recent years remarkable basic science research has improved our understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of PDAC. Whole genomic analysis has exemplified the genetic heterogeneity of pancreas cancer and has led to ingenious efforts to target oncogenes and their downstream signaling cascades. Novel stromal depletion strategies have been devised based on our enhanced recognition of the complex architecture of the tumor stroma and the various mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment that sustain tumorigenesis. Immunotherapy using vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has also risen to the forefront of therapeutic strategies against PDAC. Furthermore, adoptive T cell transfer and strategies to target epigenetic regulators are being explored with enthusiasm. This review will focus on the recent advances in molecularly targeted therapies in PDAC and offer future perspectives to tackle this lethal disease. PMID:27096032

  4. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  5. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers. PMID:24511645

  6. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  7. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  8. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  9. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  10. A Boolean-based systems biology approach to predict novel genes associated with cancer: Application to colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reverter Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer has remarkable complexity at the molecular level, with multiple genes, proteins, pathways and regulatory interconnections being affected. We introduce a systems biology approach to study cancer that formally integrates the available genetic, transcriptomic, epigenetic and molecular knowledge on cancer biology and, as a proof of concept, we apply it to colorectal cancer. Results We first classified all the genes in the human genome into cancer-associated and non-cancer-associated genes based on extensive literature mining. We then selected a set of functional attributes proven to be highly relevant to cancer biology that includes protein kinases, secreted proteins, transcription factors, post-translational modifications of proteins, DNA methylation and tissue specificity. These cancer-associated genes were used to extract 'common cancer fingerprints' through these molecular attributes, and a Boolean logic was implemented in such a way that both the expression data and functional attributes could be rationally integrated, allowing for the generation of a guilt-by-association algorithm to identify novel cancer-associated genes. Finally, these candidate genes are interlaced with the known cancer-related genes in a network analysis aimed at identifying highly conserved gene interactions that impact cancer outcome. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using colorectal cancer as a test case and identify several novel candidate genes that are classified according to their functional attributes. These genes include the following: 1 secreted proteins as potential biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer (FXYD1, GUCA2B, REG3A; 2 kinases as potential drug candidates to prevent tumor growth (CDC42BPB, EPHB3, TRPM6; and 3 potential oncogenic transcription factors (CDK8, MEF2C, ZIC2. Conclusion We argue that this is a holistic approach that faithfully mimics cancer characteristics, efficiently predicts

  11. Chemical kinetic mechanistic models to investigate cancer biology and impact cancer medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Edward C.

    2013-04-01

    Traditional experimental biology has provided a mechanistic understanding of cancer in which the malignancy develops through the acquisition of mutations that disrupt cellular processes. Several drugs developed to target such mutations have now demonstrated clinical value. These advances are unequivocal testaments to the value of traditional cellular and molecular biology. However, several features of cancer may limit the pace of progress that can be made with established experimental approaches alone. The mutated genes (and resultant mutant proteins) function within large biochemical networks. Biochemical networks typically have a large number of component molecules and are characterized by a large number of quantitative properties. Responses to a stimulus or perturbation are typically nonlinear and can display qualitative changes that depend upon the specific values of variable system properties. Features such as these can complicate the interpretation of experimental data and the formulation of logical hypotheses that drive further research. Mathematical models based upon the molecular reactions that define these networks combined with computational studies have the potential to deal with these obstacles and to enable currently available information to be more completely utilized. Many of the pressing problems in cancer biology and cancer medicine may benefit from a mathematical treatment. As work in this area advances, one can envision a future where such models may meaningfully contribute to the clinical management of cancer patients.

  12. Testicular cancer: biology and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looijenga, Leendert H J; Stoop, Hans; Biermann, Katharina

    2014-03-01

    The term "human germ cell tumors" (GCTs) refers to a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, all with a defined histological appearance. They have specific epidemiological characteristics, clinical behavior, and pathogenesis. Histologically, GCTs contain various tissue elements, which are homologs of normal embryogenesis. We have proposed a subclassification of GCTs in five subtypes, three of which preferentially occur in the testis. These include teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants (type I), seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults (type II), and spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly (type III). Both spontaneous and induced animal models have been reported, of which the relevance for human GCTs is still to be clarified. Multidisciplinary studies have recently shed new light on the (earliest steps in the) pathogenesis of GCTs, mainly in regard of malignant type II GCTs (germ cell cancer (GCC)). This review discusses novel understanding of the pathogenesis of (mainly) GCC, focusing on identification of informative diagnostic markers suitable for application in a clinical setting. These include OCT3/4, SOX9/FOXL2, SOX17/SOX2, as well as embryonic microRNAs. These markers have been identified through studies on normal embryogenesis, specifically related to the gonads, including the germ cell lineage. Their strengths and limitations are discussed as well as the expected future approach to identify the group of individuals at highest risk for development of a GCC. The latter would allow screening of defined populations, early diagnosis, optimal follow-up, and potentially early treatment, preventing long-term side effects of systemic treatment. PMID:24487784

  13. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  14. State of the art biological therapies in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one ofthe most lethal malignancies with a five-year survivalrate of approximately 5%. Several target agents havebeen tested in PDAC, but almost all have failed todemonstrate efficacy in late phase clinical trials, despitethe better understanding of PDAC molecular biologygenerated by large cancer sequencing initiatives in thepast decade. Eroltinib (a small-molecule tyrosine-kinaseinhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor) plusgemcitabine is the only schedule with a biological agentapproved for advanced pancreatic cancer, but it hasresulted in a very modest survival benefit in unselectedpatients. In our work, we report a summary of the mainclinical trials (closed and ongoing) that refer to biologicaltherapy evaluation in pancreatic cancer treatment.

  15. Epidemiology and biology of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, W M; Janicek, M F; Mirhashemi, R

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, cancer of the cervix is the second leading cause of cancer death in women: each year, an estimated 500,000 cases are newly diagnosed. Among populations, there are large differences in incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer: these reflect the influence of environmental factors, screening Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 51 have been recovered from more than 95% of cervical cancers. We have made great strides in understanding the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis of this virus, focusing on the action of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. These oncoproteins function by inactivating cell cycle regulators p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb), thus providing the initial event in progression to malignancy. Cervical cancers develop from precursor lesions, which are termed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and are graded as high or low, depending on the degree of disruption of epithelial differentiation. Viral production occurs in low-grade lesions and is restricted to basal cells. In carcinomas, viral DNA is found integrated into the host genome, but no viral production is seen. The well-defined pre-invasive stages, as well as the viral factors involved at the molecular level, make cervical carcinoma a good model for investigating immune therapeutic alternatives or adjuvants to standard treatments. PMID:10225296

  16. Current practice in and considerations for personalized medicine in lung cancer: From the patient's molecular biology to patient values and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Pricivel M; Ormond, Meghann

    2015-09-01

    Both at the individual and health system levels, the burden of complex illnesses associated with and which rise in mid- to later life, such as cancer, is expected to increase further. The advent of personalized medicine, or the use of a patient's genetic profile to guide medical decisions, is touted to substantially improve drug tolerance and efficacy and, in so doing, also improve the effectiveness and efficiency of oncological care. Amidst the hype and hope surrounding personalized cancer care, there is increasing concern about its unnecessary, unintended effects especially with regards to the financial burden of targeted therapies using specialty drugs. In this paper, we take a patient-centered perspective on the therapeutic benefits of personalized medicine as well as the limitations of current practice and its psychological and financial toxicities by focusing on advanced-stage lung cancer. We argue that the modest clinical benefits of targeted therapy, premium prices for many specialty drugs and the narrow focus on the genetic constitution of individual patients run the risk of undercutting personalized lung cancer care's contribution to realizing health and non-health outcomes. We discuss the contribution of grading the financial burden of treatment and seamless integration of palliative care as key action areas regarding patients' access to and appropriateness of care given patients' needs and preferences. PMID:25981825

  17. Molecular Profiling of Prostate Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nna, Emmanuel Okechukwu

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, more than 30 000 men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer (PCa) and about 10 000 men die from it each year. Although several molecular markers have been associated with prostate cancer development and/ or progression, only few of them are used in diagnostic pathology. The current standard tests include serum PSA test, digital rectal examination and histology of prostate biopsy. Recently the PCA-3 molecular test was approved in the European Union, and it is now...

  18. [Prognosis factors of cholangiocarcinoma: contribution of recent molecular biology tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, G; Dreyer, C; Guedj, N; Paradis, V; Degos, F; Belghiti, J; Le Tourneau, C; Faivre, S; Raymond, E

    2009-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma represents the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. Although few patients are candidates for surgery, surgical resection represents the only potential curative option. The prognosis for patients remains poor, despite advances in the understanding of mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. This review aims to assess clinicopathological factors and biological markers for the ability to predict prognosis. Clinicopathologic factors most often cited are tumor size, lymph node involvement, resecability and surgical margins involvement. Molecular biomarkers have been examined and a number of these, including mdm2, p27, matrix metalloproteinases and vitamin D receptor appear to have prognostic utility. The advent of 'omic'-based profiling offers the potential to assess many different biomarkers at the same time. This 'protein/gene signature' could open the way for developing valid and reproducible predictors of survival based on protein or gene profiles. PMID:19357015

  19. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  20. 2003 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Shand

    2004-09-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2003 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology was held at Proctor Academy, Andover, NH from August 3-8, 2003. The Conference was well-attended with 150 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, ''free time'' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. I want to personally thank you for your support of this Conference. As you know, in the interest of promoting the presentation of unpublished and frontier-breaking research, Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings. If you wish any further details, please feel free to contact me. Thank you, Dr. Richard F. Shand, 2003 Conference Chair.

  1. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  2. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rietman Edward A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.

  3. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  4. Fluctuation as a tool of biological molecular machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for biological molecular machines is different from that of man-made ones. Recently single molecule measurements and other experiments have revealed unique operations where biological molecular machines exploit thermal fluctuation in response to small inputs of energy or signals to achieve their function. Understanding and applying this mechanism to engineering offers new artificial machine designs. PMID:18583025

  5. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  6. The nucleic acid revolution continues – will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to “forensic molecular biology.” Aside from DNA’s established role in identifying the “who” in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emer...

  7. Molecular Concordance Between Primary Breast Cancer and Matched Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer is increasingly personalized and based on molecular profiling. Often, primary tumors are used as proxies for systemic disease at the time of recurrence. However, recent studies have revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, both with respect to traditional clinical treatment targets and on the genomic and transcriptomic level. With the increasing use of molecularly targeted therapy, discordance of actionable molecular targets between primary tumors and recurrences can result in nonoptimal treatment or unnecessary side effects. The purpose of this review is to illuminate the extent of cancer genome evolution through disease progression and the degree of molecular concordance between primary breast cancers and matched metastases. We present an overview of the most prominent studies investigating the expression of endocrine receptors, transcriptomics, and genome aberrations in primary tumors and metastases. In conclusion, biopsy of metastatic lesions at recurrence of breast cancer is encouraged to provide optimal treatment of the disease. Furthermore, molecular profiling of metastatic tissue provides invaluable mechanistic insight into the biology underlying metastatic progression and has the potential to identify novel, potentially druggable, drivers of progression. PMID:27089067

  8. Recent advances in molecular biology of gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧树东; 冉志华

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major health care problem and the second most common fatal cancer worldwide. In the last decade, better insight has been gained into the molecular basis underlying the neoplasitc transformation of stomach. The dramatic variation in the incidence of gastric cancer in different geographical areas and from one generation to the next have led to the hypothesis that the incidence of gastric cancer is determined largely by environmental rather than genetic factors.

  9. Molecular Imaging Approaches to Understanding the Roles of Hydrogen Peroxide Biology in Stress and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Bryan Craig

    2010-01-01

    The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological systems is associated with a variety of pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and the general process of aging. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the reactivity of this particular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also harnessed for physiological processes. Molecular imaging using fluorescence microscopy offers a valuable approach for deciphering the multifaceted roles of H2O2 in biological processes. ...

  10. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar Sunil; Salt David E; Kane Michael D; Stephenson Alan; Ouyang Qi; Zhang Mingwu; Burgner John; Buck Charles; Zhang Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferr...

  11. Cancer Genomics and Biology 2015 – Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Louis WC.; Costa, Luis; Teh, Bin-Tean; Li, Da-Qiang; Feng, Gu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Nair, Asha; Zhu, Li; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Dutt, Amit; Toi, Masakazu; Gupta, Sudeep; Badwe, Rajendra; Knapp, Stefan; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer Genomics and Biology 2015 meeting embodied a three way collaboration among colleagues from the Global Cancer Genomics Consortium (GCGC), the Unifaith Cancer Institute China and Jiujiang University of China. The meeting marks the fifth and the last meeting of GCGC, which was formed in 2010. Previous four GCGC meetings have been held at the Tata Memorial Center- Mumbai, Institute of Molecular Medicine-Lisbon, and Graduate Medical School Kyoto University-Kyoto. In contrast to the genomic themes of the previous meetings, the 2015 conference theme was at the interface of laboratory and translation research and emerging therapeutics as reflected in the shared interests of all three collaborative entities – Cancer Genomics and Biology 2015. This year's conference was co-organized by the Jiujiang University at the Run Run Shaw building, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang City, China, on November 13 and 14, 2015. The conference attracted over 174 participants with 13 platform presentations. Scientific sessions included a plenary and five platform scientific sessions with themes ranging from biomarkers, stem cells and markers of the tumor microenvironment, proteomics and epigenetics, big data, to hormone and expression profiles. The meeting concluded with closing remarks by conference co-chairs emphasizing with the need to broaden membership across the globe, establishing priorities, and redrafting a white paper to launch a new consortium.

  12. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  13. Unconventional biological threats and the molecular biological response to biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ronald A; Lutz, Brock D; Huycke, Mark M; Gilmore, Michael S

    2002-06-01

    This article concludes this symposium on potential agents of warfare and terrorism with discussion of 3 topics. First, influenza A virus is discussed as a potential biological weapon. Although it does not receive much attention in this role, the potential for mass casualties and public panic certainly exist if an epidemic of a virulent influenza A virus were initiated. Second, agroterrorism, terrorism directed at livestock or poultry or crops, is briefly discussed. Finally, the potential role of techniques of modern molecular biology to create new agents for bioterrorism or enhance the terrorist potential of available agents, and the known roles of these techniques in defense against biological warfare or terrorism are discussed. PMID:12074489

  14. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  15. A Novel Gene Signature for Molecular Diagnosis of Human Prostate Cancer by RT-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzi, Federica; Belloni, Lucia; Crafa, Pellegrino; Lazzaretti, Mirca; Remondini, Daniel; Ferretti, Stefania; Cortellini, Piero; Corti, Arnaldo; Bettuzzi, Saverio

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (CaP) is one of the most relevant causes of cancer death in Western Countries. Although detection of CaP at early curable stage is highly desirable, actual screening methods present limitations and new molecular approaches are needed. Gene expression analysis increases our knowledge about the biology of CaP and may render novel molecular tools, but the identification of accurate biomarkers for reliable molecular diagnosis is a real challenge. We describe here the di...

  16. Molecular subtyping of DCIS: heterogeneity of breast cancer reflected in pre-invasive disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, S. E.; Warwick, J.; Carpenter, R.; Bowen, R L; Duffy, S W; Jones, J L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Molecular profiling has identified at least four subtypes of invasive breast carcinoma, which exhibit distinct clinical behaviour. There is good evidence now that DCIS represents the non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancer and therefore it should be possible to identify similar molecular subtypes at this stage. In addition to a limited five-marker system to identify molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer, it is evident that other biological molecules may identify di...

  17. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. Molecular biological techniques permit study of the abundance, distribution, diversity, and physiology of microorganisms in situ. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  18. Biological effects of progestins in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, J R; Ebert, C; Chetrite, G S

    2001-12-01

    The action of progestins is derived from many factors: structure, affinity for the progesterone receptor or for other steroid receptors, the target tissue considered, the biological response, the experimental conditions, the dose and metabolic transformation. The proliferative response to progestins in human breast cancer cells is contradictory: some progestins inhibit, others stimulate, have no effect at all, or have a dual action. For instance, medroxyprogesterone acetate has a stimulatory effect on breast cancer cells after a short period of treatment, but this effect becomes inhibitory when treatment is prolonged. It has been demonstrated that, in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells, various progestins (nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) are potent sulfatase inhibitory agents. The progestins can also involve the inhibition of the mRNA expression of this enzyme. In another series of studies it was also demonstrated that some progestins are very active in inhibiting 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase for the conversion of estrone to estradiol. More recently it was observed that the progestins promegestone and medrogestone stimulate sulfotransferase for the formation of estrogen sulfates. Consequently, the action of progestins in blocking estradiol formation via sulfatase, or in stimulating the effect on sulfotransferase activity, can open interesting and new possibilities in clinical applications in breast cancer. PMID:12227886

  19. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  20. Mechanistic Effects of Calcitriol in Cancer Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, promotes cell differentiation and acts as anti-inflammatory factor within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we address the different mechanisms of action involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol.

  1. CSMB | Center For Structural Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Structural Molecular Biologyat ORNL is dedicated to developing instrumentation and methods for determining the 3-dimensional structures of proteins,...

  2. Modeling Cancer Metastasis using Global, Quantitative and Integrative Network Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoof, Erwin; Erler, Janine

    understanding of molecular processes which are fundamental to tumorigenesis. In Article 1, we propose a novel framework for how cancer mutations can be studied by taking into account their effect at the protein network level. In Article 2, we demonstrate how global, quantitative data on phosphorylation dynamics...... can be generated using MS, and how this can be modeled using a computational framework for deciphering kinase-substrate dynamics. This framework is described in depth in Article 3, and covers the design of KinomeXplorer, which allows the prediction of kinases responsible for modulating observed...... phosphorylation dynamics in a given biological sample. In Chapter III, we move into Integrative Network Biology, where, by combining two fundamental technologies (MS & NGS), we can obtain more in-depth insights into the links between cellular phenotype and genotype. Article 4 describes the proof...

  3. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Psychological Stress and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yu Jin; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Park, Seorim; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Follo, Matilde Yung; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an emotion experienced when people are under mental pressure or encounter unexpected problems. Extreme or repetitive stress increases the risk of developing human disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), immune diseases, mental disorders, and cancer. Several studies have shown an association between psychological stress and cancer growth and metastasis in animal models and case studies of cancer patients. Stress induces the secretion of stress-related mediators, such as catecholamine, cortisol, and oxytocin, via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis or the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). These stress-related hormones and neurotransmitters adversely affect stress-induced tumor progression and cancer therapy. Catecholamine is the primary factor that influences tumor progression. It can regulate diverse cellular signaling pathways through adrenergic receptors (ADRs), which are expressed by several types of cancer cells. Activated ADRs enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of cancer cells, alter cell activity in the tumor microenvironment, and regulate the interaction between cancer and its microenvironment to promote tumor progression. Additionally, other stress mediators, such as glucocorticoids and oxytocin, and their cognate receptors are involved in stress-induced cancer growth and metastasis. Here, we will review how each receptor-mediated signal cascade contributes to tumor initiation and progression and discuss how we can use these molecular mechanisms for cancer therapy. PMID:26916018

  5. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  6. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  7. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  8. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  9. 09091 Executive Summary -- Formal Methods in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Breitling, Rainer; Gilbert, David Roger; Heiner, Monika; Priami, Corrado

    2009-01-01

    Formal logical models play an increasing role in the newly emerging field of Systems Biology. Compared to the classical, well-established approach of modeling biological processes using continuous and stochastic differential equations, formal logical models offer a number of important advantages. Many different formal modeling paradigms have been applied to molecular biology, each with its own community, formalisms and tools. In this seminar we brought together modelers from variou...

  10. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  11. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  12. New molecular targets against cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas-Gonzalez A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Duenas-Gonzalez,1,2 Alberto Serrano-Olvera,3 Lucely Cetina,4 Jaime Coronel4 1Unit of Biomedical Research in Cancer, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, 2ISSEMyM Cancer Center, Toluca, 3Medical Oncology Service, ABC Medical Center, Mexico City, 4Division of Clinical Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico On behalf of the Tumor Study Group Abstract: Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. Major advances but still insufficient achievements in the treatment of locally advanced and high-risk early stage patients have occurred in the last decade with the incorporation of concurrent cisplatin with radiation and, lately, gemcitabine added to cisplatin chemoradiation. Despite a number of clinical studies incorporating molecular-targeted therapy as radiosensitizers being in progress, so far, only antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab added to cisplatin chemoradiation has demonstrated safety and shown encouraging results in a Phase II study. In advanced disease, cisplatin doublets do not have a great impact on the natural history of the disease with median survival rates not exceeding 13 months. The first Phase III study of bevacizumab, added to cisplatin or a non-cisplatin-containing doublet, showed significant increase in both overall survival and progression-free survival. Further studies are needed before bevacizumab plus chemotherapy can be considered the standard of care for advanced disease. Characterization of the mutational landscape of cervical cancer has already been initiated, indicating that, for now, few of these targetable alterations match with available agents. Progress in both the mutational landscape knowledge and developments of novel targeted therapies may result in more effective and individualized treatments for cervical cancer. The potential efficacy of

  13. Molecular markers and targets for colorectal cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveena B JANAKIRAM; Chinthalapally V RAO

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. If detected at an early stage, treatment often might lead to cure. As prevention is better than cure, epidemiological studies reveal that having a healthy diet often protects from pro-moting/developing cancer. An important consideration in evaluating new drugs and devices is determining whether a product can effectively treat a targeted disease. There are quite a number of biomarkers making their way into clinical trials and few are awaiting the preclinical efficacy and safety results to enter into clinical trials. Researchers are facing challenges in modifying trial design and defining the right control population, validating biomarker assays from the bio-logical and analytical perspective and using biomarker data as a guideline for decision making. In spite of following all guidelines, the results are disappointing from many of the large clinical trials. To avoid these disappointments, selection of biomarkers and its target drug needs to be evaluated in appropriate animal models for its toxicities and efficacies. The focus of this review is on the few of the potential molecular targets and their biomarkers in colorectal cancers. Strengths and limitations of biomarkers/surrogate endpoints are also discussed. Various pathways involved in tumor cells and the specific agents to target the altered molecular biomarkerin biomolecular pathwayare elucidated. Importance of emerging new platforms siRNAs and miRNAs technology for colorectal cancer therapeutics is reviewed.

  14. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  15. The cellular and molecular biology of medulloblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peringa, A; Fung, KM; Muragaki, Y; Trojanowski, JQ

    1995-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are prototypical of primitive neuroectodermal tumors which are some of the most frequent malignant brain tumors of childhood. The cell biology of medulloblastomas is still poorly understood, but recent studies of the expression of trophic factors and their receptors in medulloblasto

  16. Imaging of Lung Cancer in the Era of Molecular Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nishino, Mizuki; Jackman, David M.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Jänne, Pasi A.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Van den Abbeele, Annick D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries characterizing the molecular basis of lung cancer brought fundamental changes in lung cancer treatment. The authors review the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer, including genomic abnormalities, targeted therapies, and resistance mechanisms, and discuss lung cancer imaging with novel techniques. Knowledge of the molecular basis of lung cancer is essential for radiologists to properly interpret imaging and assess response to therapy. Quantitative and functional imaging h...

  17. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielaga, B.A.; Kilbane, J.J.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to use Molecular Genetics to develop strains of bacteria (esp. Rhodococcus) with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal, and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. 5 figs.

  18. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Bielaga, B.A.

    1991-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use molecular genetics to develop strains of bacteria with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal, and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. (VC)

  19. The surgeon's role in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Gaetano

    2012-09-01

    The biomolecular era is rapidly becoming shaped around the supreme interest in targeted therapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tissue analysis has become crucial in the definition of biomarkers and genomic signatures able to predict the response to treatment or even survival. Lung screening programs and minimally invasive thoracic surgery are jointly aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of specimens of non-small cell lung cancer caught at the earliest stages with the attendant, significant, effect on patient survival. In addition, biomolecular researchers are disclosing an ever-increasing cohort of patients with specific genetic mutations that make their cancer susceptible to individualized treatment. When needed for immunohistochemical characterization, investigators are ready to request "research biopsies" to consolidate tissue availability for clinical trials, translational research, and in biobanks. With unique and diverse tools in the surgical armamentarium, the thoracic surgeon plays a central role in this new multidisciplinary professional environment, actively participating in creating the foundations of the biomolecular era. PMID:22739075

  20. Interactive analysis of systems biology molecular expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one another and work through dependent interactions. Molecular correlations and comparative studies of molecular expression are crucial to establishing interdependent connections in systems biology. The existing software packages provide limited data mining capability. The user must first generate visualization data with a preferred data mining algorithm and then upload the resulting data into the visualization package for graphic visualization of molecular relations. Results Presented is a novel interactive visual data mining application, SysNet that provides an interactive environment for the analysis of high data volume molecular expression information of most any type from biological systems. It integrates interactive graphic visualization and statistical data mining into a single package. SysNet interactively presents intermolecular correlation information with circular and heatmap layouts. It is also applicable to comparative analysis of molecular expression data, such as time course data. Conclusion The SysNet program has been utilized to analyze elemental profile changes in response to an increasing concentration of iron (Fe in growth media (an ionomics dataset. This study case demonstrates that the SysNet software is an effective platform for interactive analysis of molecular expression information in systems biology.

  1. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D; Mehra, Rohit; Kenneth J Pienta

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer pre...

  2. [Molecular bases of cancer immunology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Rodríguez, R; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Madrid-Marina, V

    1995-01-01

    The immune system is a tight network of different types of cells and molecules. The coordinated action of these elements mounts a precise immune response against tumor cells. However, these cells present several escape mechanisms, leading to tumor progression. This paper shows several cellular and molecular events involved in the regulation of the immune response against tumor cells. The interaction of several molecules such as MHC, TcR, adhesins, tumor antigens and cytokines are discussed, as well as the most recent knowledge about escape mechanisms and immunotherapy. PMID:7502157

  3. The pathology of familial breast cancer: Immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive studies of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast tumours have been carried out in the few years since the identification of these familial breast cancer predisposing genes. The morphological studies suggest that BRCA1 tumours differ from BRCA2 tumours and from sporadic breast cancers. Recent progress in immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques has enabled in-depth investigation of molecular pathology of these tumours. Studies to date have investigated issues such as steroid hormone receptor expression, mutation status of tumour suppressor genes TP53 and c-erbB2, and expression profiles of cell cycle proteins p21, p27 and cyclin D1. Despite relative paucity of data, strong evidence of unique biological characteristics of BRCA1-associated breast cancer is accumulating. BRCA1-associated tumours appear to show an increased frequency of TP53 mutations, frequent p53 protein stabilization and absence of imunoreactivity for steroid hormone receptors. Further studies of larger number of samples of both BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated tumours are necessary to clarify and confirm these observations

  4. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  5. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging

  6. Cancer of the Pancreas: Molecular Pathways and Current Advancement in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polireddy, Kishore; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers among all malignances, with a median overall survival of cancers harbor a variety of genetic alternations that render it difficult to treat even with targeted therapy. Recent studies revealed that pancreatic cancers are highly enriched with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which is resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and therefore escapes chemotherapy and promotes tumor recurrence. Cancer cell epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with metastasis, generation of CSCs, and treatment resistance in pancreatic cancer. Reviewed here are the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer, the major signaling pathways regulating pancreatic cancer EMT and CSCs, and the advancement in current clinical and experimental treatments for pancreatic cancer.

  7. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research: a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xu; Yan-Chun Liang; Juan Cui

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6, 2012 in Changchun, China. The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer, and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation, progression, diagnosis, and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  8. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research:a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cui; Yan-Chun Liang; Ying Xu

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6,2012 in Changchun,China.The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer,and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation,progression,diagnosis,and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  9. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the western world for both men and women. Lung cancer appears to be a perfect candidate for a screening program, since it is the number one cancer killer, it has a long preclinical phase, curative treatment for the minority of patients who are diagnosed early and a target population at risk (smokers and it is also a major economic burden. The earliest approaches to identifying cancer markers were based on preliminary clinical or pathological observations, although molecular biology is a strong candidate for occupying a place among the set of methods. In search of markers, several alterations, such as mutations, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, DNA methylation, mitochondrial DNA mutations, viral DNA, modified expression of mRNA, miRNA and proteins, and structurally altered proteins have all been analysed. MicroRNAs (miRNA are small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides long and encoded in genomes of plants, animals, fungi and viruses. It has been reported that miRNAs may have multiple functions in lung development and that aberrant expression of miRNAs could induce lung tumorigenesis. We review here the role of miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis and also as a novel type of biomarker.-----------------------------------Cite this article as:Silva J, Garcia V, Lopez-Gonzalez A, Provencio M. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:010111. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0101.11

  10. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  11. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  12. Vitamin D and colorectal cancer: molecular, epidemiological and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ruoxu; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Manson, JoAnn E; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    In many cells throughout the body, vitamin D is converted into its active form calcitriol and binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which functions as a transcription factor to regulate various biological processes including cellular differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D-metabolising enzymes (including CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) and VDR play major roles in exerting and regulating the effects of vitamin D. Preclinical and epidemiological studies have provided evidence for anti-cancer effects of vitamin D (particularly against colorectal cancer), although clinical trials have yet to prove its benefit. In addition, molecular pathological epidemiology research can provide insights into the interaction of vitamin D with tumour molecular and immunity status. Other future research directions include genome-wide research on VDR transcriptional targets, gene-environment interaction analyses and clinical trials on vitamin D efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, we review the literature on vitamin D and colorectal cancer from both mechanistic and population studies and discuss the links and controversies within and between the two parts of evidence. PMID:27245104

  13. Archaea: Evolution, Physiology, and Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduced by Crafoord Prize winner Carl Woese, this volume combines reviews of the major developments in archaeal research over the past 10-15 years with more specialized articles dealing with important recent breakthroughs. Drawing on major themes presented at the June 2005 meeting held in Munich...... to honor the archaea pioneers Wolfram Zillig and Karl O. Stetter, the book provides a thorough survey of the field from its controversial beginnings to its ongoing expansion to include aspects of eukaryotic biology. The editors have assembled articles from the premier researchers in this rapidly...... burgeoning field, including an account by Carl Woese of his original discovery of the Archaea (until 1990 termed archaebacteria) and the initially mixed reactions of the scientific community. The review chapters and specialized articles address the emerging significance of the Archaea within a broader...

  14. Overview of selected molecular biological databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayl, K.D.; Gaasterland, T.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the purpose, content, and design of a subset of the currently available biological databases, with an emphasis on protein databases. Databases included in this summary are 3D-ALI, Berlin RNA databank, Blocks, DSSP, EMBL Nucleotide Database, EMP, ENZYME, FSSP, GDB, GenBank, HSSP, LiMB, PDB, PIR, PKCDD, ProSite, and SWISS-PROT. The goal is to provide a starting point for researchers who wish to take advantage of the myriad available databases. Rather than providing a complete explanation of each database, we present its content and form by explaining the details of typical entries. Pointers to more complete ``user guides`` are included, along with general information on where to search for a new database.

  15. Choice of adjuvant drug therapy on the basis of the molecular classification of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Besova

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis identified some biological subtypes of breast cancer (BC): luminal A, luminal B, HER2 positive, and basal-like (including triple negative). The surrogate clinical and morphological criteria including the immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors, the hyperexpression and/or amplification of HER2, Ki-67, or tumor grade (G) are used to identify the biological subtypes of BC in clinical practice. The biological subtypes are distinguished b...

  16. Comparative molecular modelling of biologically active sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Mariusz; Mazerski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Membrane sterols are targets for a clinically important antifungal agent - amphotericin B. The relatively specific antifungal action of the drug is based on a stronger interaction of amphotericin B with fungal ergosterol than with mammalian cholesterol. Conformational space occupied by six sterols has been defined using the molecular dynamics method to establish if the conformational features correspond to the preferential interaction of amphotericin B with ergosterol as compared with cholesterol. The compounds studied were chosen on the basis of structural features characteristic for cholesterol and ergosterol and on available experimental data on the ability to form complexes with the antibiotic. Statistical analysis of the data obtained has been performed. The results show similarity of the conformational spaces occupied by all the sterols tested. This suggests that the conformational differences of sterol molecules are not the major feature responsible for the differential sterol - drug affinity.

  17. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  18. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; D' Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  19. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO6-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O6-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  20. Molecular mechanisms of metastasis in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel W.Clarke; Claire A.Hart; Mick D.Brown

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) preferentially metastasizes to the bone marrow stroma of the axial skeleton.This activity is the principal cause of PCa morbidity and mortality.The exact mechanism of PCa metastasis is currently unknown,although considerable progress has been made in determining the key players in this process.In this review,we present the current understanding of the molecular processes driving PCa metastasis to the bone.

  1. Inflammatory mediators: Parallels between cancer biology and stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Patel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Shyam A Patel1,2,3, Andrew C Heinrich2,3, Bobby Y Reddy2, Pranela Rameshwar21Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Department of Medicine – Division of Hematology/Oncology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 3These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the effects of inflammatory reactions on stem cells and extrapolate on information pertaining to cancer biology. The discussion focuses on integrins and cytokines, and identifies the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB as central to the inflammatory response. Since stem cell therapy has been proposed for type II diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, pulmonary edema, these disorders are used as examples to discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators. We propose prospects for future research on targeting the NFκB signaling pathway. Finally, we explore the bridge between inflammation and stem cells, including neural stem cells and adult stem cells from the bone marrow. The implications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine as pertaining to inflammation are vast based on their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Such features of stem cells offer great potential for therapy in graft-versus-host disease, conditions with a significant inflammatory component, and tissue regeneration.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, cancer, cytokines

  2. Molecular circuits, biological switches, and nonlinear dose-response relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Melvin E.; Yang, Raymond S.H.; French, C. Tenley; Chubb, Laura S; Dennison, James E

    2002-01-01

    Signaling motifs (nuclear transcriptional receptors, kinase/phosphatase cascades, G-coupled protein receptors, etc.) have composite dose-response behaviors in relation to concentrations of protein receptors and endogenous signaling molecules. "Molecular circuits" include the biological components and their interactions that comprise the workings of these signaling motifs. Many of these molecular circuits have nonlinear dose-response behaviors for endogenous ligands and for exogenous toxicants...

  3. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all are...... important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...

  4. Molecular Markers with Predictive and Prognostic Relevance in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alphy Rose-James; TT, Sreelekha

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths worldwide of which non-small-cell lung carcinoma alone takes a toll of around 85%. Platinum-based therapy is the stronghold for lung cancer at present. The discovery of various molecular alterations that underlie lung cancer has contributed to the development of specifically targeted therapies employing specific mutation inhibitors. Targeted chemotherapy based on molecular profiling has shown great promise in lung cancer treatment...

  5. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-...

  6. Molecular biological mechanism II. Molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell cycle in eukaryotes is regulated by central cell cycle controlling protein kinase complexes. These protein kinase complexes consist of a catalytic subunit from the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family (CDK), and a regulatory subunit from the cyclin family. Cyclins are characterised by their periodic cell cycle related synthesis and destruction. Each cell cycle phase is characterised by a specific set of CDKs and cyclins. The activity of CDK/cyclin complexes is mainly regulated on four levels. It is controlled by specific phosphorylation steps, the synthesis and destruction of cyclins, the binding of specific inhibitor proteins, and by active control of their intracellular localisation. At several critical points within the cell cycle, named checkpoints, the integrity of the cellular genome is monitored. If damage to the genome or an unfinished prior cell cycle phase is detected, the cell cycle progression is stopped. These cell cycle blocks are of great importance to secure survival of cells. Their primary importance is to prevent the manifestation and heritable passage of a mutated genome to daughter cells. Damage sensing, DNA repair, cell cycle control and apoptosis are closely linked cellular defence mechanisms to secure genome integrity. Disregulation in one of these defence mechanisms are potentially correlated with an increased cancer risk and therefore in at least some cases with an increased radiation sensitivity. (orig.)

  7. A possible molecular metric for biological evolvability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditya Mittal; B Jayaram

    2012-07-01

    Proteins manifest themselves as phenotypic traits, retained or lost in living systems via evolutionary pressures. Simply put, survival is essentially the ability of a living system to synthesize a functional protein that allows for a response to environmental perturbations (adaptation). Loss of functional proteins leads to extinction. Currently there are no universally applicable quantitative metrics at the molecular level for either measuring ‘evolvability’ of life or for assessing the conditions under which a living system would go extinct and why. In this work, we show emergence of the first such metric by utilizing the recently discovered stoichiometric margin of life for all known naturally occurring (and functional) proteins. The constraint of having well-defined stoichiometries of the 20 amino acids in naturally occurring protein sequences requires utilization of the full scope of degeneracy in the genetic code, i.e. usage of all codons coding for an amino acid, by only 11 of the 20 amino acids. This shows that the non-availability of individual codons for these 11 amino acids would disturb the fine stoichiometric balance resulting in non-functional proteins and hence extinction. Remarkably, these amino acids are found in close proximity of any given amino acid in the backbones of thousands of known crystal structures of folded proteins. On the other hand, stoichiometry of the remaining 9 amino acids, found to be farther/distal from any given amino acid in backbones of folded proteins, is maintained independent of the number of codons available to synthesize them, thereby providing some robustness and hence survivability.

  8. Low-molecular-weight cyclin E: the missing link between biology and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclin E, a key mediator of transition during the G1/S cellular division phase, is deregulated in a wide variety of human cancers. Our group recently reported that overexpression and generation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) isoforms of cyclin E were associated with poor clinical outcome among breast cancer patients. However, the link between LMW cyclin E biology in mediating a tumorigenic phenotype and clinical outcome is unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we assessed the role of LMW isoforms in breast cancer cells; we found that these forms of cyclin E induced genomic instability and resistance to p21, p27, and antiestrogens in breast cancer. These findings suggest that high levels of LMW isoforms of cyclin E not only can predict failure to endocrine therapy but also are true prognostic indicators because of their influence on cell proliferation and genetic instability

  9. Breast Cancer Biology and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in New Zealand: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women. Materials and Methods Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biologica...

  10. Human Cancer Classification: A Systems Biology- Based Model Integrating Morphology, Cancer Stem Cells, Proteomics, and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday A Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Human cancer classification is currently based on the idea of cell of origin, light and electron microscopic attributes of the cancer. What is not yet integrated into cancer classification are the functional attributes of these cancer cells. Recent innovative techniques in biology have provided a wealth of information on the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in cancer cells. The emergence of the concept of cancer stem cells needs to be included in a classification model to capture...

  11. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  12. Molecular targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer%胃肠癌分子靶向治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Xiang; Ximing Xu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer is one of the highly prevalent malignant diseases worldwide which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world and its management,especially in advanced stages, has evolved relatively little [1]. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide [2]. The surgical treatment is still the most effective therapy for the gastrointestinal cancer. However, the majority of the patients had lost the opporunity of surgical therapy when it was detected at advanced stage, so to seek means other than surgical treatment of gastrointestinal cancer metastasis and recurrence also has an important significance. With the deeping research of the molecular biology, molecular targeted therapy has become the hotspot and focus of comprehensive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer which is proposed against the molecular biological targets such as tumor cell growth, apoptosis, cell cycle, invasion and angiogenesis. Molecular targeted therapy can be grouped into six main areas: the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, anti-angiogenic factors, cell cycle inhibitors, apoptosis promoters and matrix metalloproteinase innhibitors, cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The review of the progress are as follows.

  13. Gene Concepts in Higher Education Cell and Molecular Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pitombo Maiana; de Almeida, Ana Maria Rocha; El-Hani, Nino Charbel

    2008-01-01

    Despite being a landmark of 20th century biology, the "classical molecular gene concept," according to which a gene is a stretch of DNA encoding a functional product, which may be a single polypeptide or RNA molecule, has been recently challenged by a series of findings (e.g., split genes, alternative splicing, overlapping and nested genes, mRNA…

  14. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  15. A Streamlined Molecular Biology Module for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Gregory W.; Chihade, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology techniques, including plasmid manipulation and restriction analysis, are commonly used tools in the biochemistry research laboratory. In redesigning our biochemistry lab curricula, we sought to integrate these techniques into a term-long, project-based course. In the module presented here,…

  16. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  17. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia : recent molecular biology findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraszewska, Monika D.; Dawidowska, Malgorzata; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Witt, Michal

    2012-01-01

    For many years, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has been considered and treated as a single malignancy, but divergent outcomes in T-ALL patients receiving uniform treatment protocols encouraged intensive research on the molecular biology of this disease. Recent findings in the field dem

  18. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  19. From Molecular Biology to Biomedicine; De la Biologia Molecular a la Biomedicina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, M.

    2009-07-01

    From Molecular Biology to Biomedicine. The well known molecular biologist Margarita S alas offered an informative conference at the CSN on progress in these areas since the discovery, more than half a century ago, of the structure of the molecule carrying genetic information, DNA, work that is having an enormous impact in areas such as biomedicine and foodstuff production. (Author)

  20. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology. PMID:26549858

  1. Cellular and Molecular Biological Approaches to Interpreting Ancient Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dianne K.; Neubauer, Cajetan; Ricci, Jessica N.; Wu, Chia-Hung; Pearson, Ann

    2016-06-01

    Our ability to read the molecular fossil record has advanced significantly in the past decade. Improvements in biomarker sampling and quantification methods, expansion of molecular sequence databases, and the application of genetic and cellular biological tools to problems in biomarker research have enabled much of this progress. By way of example, we review how attempts to understand the biological function of 2-methylhopanoids in modern bacteria have changed our interpretation of what their molecular fossils tell us about the early history of life. They were once thought to be biomarkers of cyanobacteria and hence the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, but we now believe that 2-methylhopanoid biosynthetic capacity originated in the Alphaproteobacteria, that 2-methylhopanoids are regulated in response to stress, and that hopanoid 2-methylation enhances membrane rigidity. We present a new interpretation of 2-methylhopanes that bridges the gap between studies of the functions of 2-methylhopanoids and their patterns of occurrence in the rock record.

  2. Diet & Cancer: An Update for Biology Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Clifford J.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on dietary substances which act against cancer-causing agents. Indicates that adapting a lifestyle which combines reduced fat intake with increased fiber-containing foods will reduce the risk of some common cancers. Provides teaching strategies and activities to help students analyze their lifestyles for a reduction in cancer risk. (RT)

  3. Deciphering The Complex Biological Interactions Of Nitric Oxide In Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perwez Hussain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NO• is a free radical and is involved in a number of critical physiological processes including vasodilation, neurotransmission, immune regulation and inflammation. There are convincing evidence suggesting a role of NO• in the development and progression of different cancer types. However, the role of NO• in tumorigenesis is highly complex and both pro- and anti-neoplastic functions have been reported, which largely depends on the amount of NO•, cell types, cellular microenvironment, its interaction with other reactive species and presence of metals. An interesting interaction occurs between NO• and p53 tumor suppressor, in which NO•-induced DNA damage causes the stabilization and accumulation of p53, which in turn, transrepresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 in a negative feedback loop. In chronic inflammatory diseases, for example ulcerative colitis, NO• induces p53 stabilization and the initiation of DNA-damage response pathway, and also generation of p53 mutation and subsequent clonal selection of p53 mutant cells. Genetic deletion of NOS2 in p53-deficient mice can either suppress or enhance lymphomagenesis depending on the inflammatory microenvironment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the complex biological interaction of NO• in the context of the molecular makeup of each individual cancer to design NO•-targeted treatment strategies.

  4. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we rev...

  5. Biology-driven cancer drug development: back to the future

    OpenAIRE

    Ashworth Alan; Lord Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most of the significant recent advances in cancer treatment have been based on the great strides that have been made in our understanding of the underlying biology of the disease. Nevertheless, the exploitation of biological insight in the oncology clinic has been haphazard and we believe that this needs to be enhanced and optimized if patients are to receive maximum benefit. Here, we discuss how research has driven cancer drug development in the past and describe how recent advances...

  6. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  7. Oral cancer: molecular technologies for risk assessment and diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Tao Chen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Purpose: The effective biomarkers related to diagnosis, metastasis, drug resistance and irradiation sensitivity of oral cancers will help the pathologist and oncologist to determine the molecular taxonomy diagnosis and design the individualization treatment for the patients with oral cancers.

  8. Surgery and radiation therapy of triple-negative breast cancers: From biology to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; Poortmans, Philip M P

    2016-08-01

    Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours. The objective of this review is to provide an insight into the biological and clinical behaviour of triple-negative breast cancers and revisit the most recent advances in their management, focussing on local-regional treatments. PMID:27318170

  9. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  10. Ki-67 Proliferation Index in Gastric Cancer - Biologic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, C.; Caldeira Fradique, A; Oliveira, M.; Quaresma, L.; Gualdino Silva, J; Vasconcelos, V.; Sacadura, J.; Costa, L; Cabrita, F; Mateus Marques, R; Esteves, J.; Fernandez, G.; Guedes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Introdution: Ki-67 protein has been used as an indicator of proliferation activity in tumor cells. In gastric cancer the prognostic value has not been fully understood. This study was designed to assess the biologic significance of Ki-67 proliferation index (PI) in gastric cancer. Material/Methods: Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer were evaluated. These patients underwent gastric resection, and the tumor tissue was stained immunohistochemically. Ki-67 PI was defi...

  11. PathSys: integrating molecular interaction graphs for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Alpan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of information integration in systems biology is to combine information from a number of databases and data sets, which are obtained from both high and low throughput experiments, under one data management scheme such that the cumulative information provides greater biological insight than is possible with individual information sources considered separately. Results Here we present PathSys, a graph-based system for creating a combined database of networks of interaction for generating integrated view of biological mechanisms. We used PathSys to integrate over 14 curated and publicly contributed data sources for the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae and Gene Ontology. A number of exploratory questions were formulated as a combination of relational and graph-based queries to the integrated database. Thus, PathSys is a general-purpose, scalable, graph-data warehouse of biological information, complete with a graph manipulation and a query language, a storage mechanism and a generic data-importing mechanism through schema-mapping. Conclusion Results from several test studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in retrieving biologically interesting relations between genes and proteins, the networks connecting them, and of the utility of PathSys as a scalable graph-based warehouse for interaction-network integration and a hypothesis generator system. The PathSys's client software, named BiologicalNetworks, developed for navigation and analyses of molecular networks, is available as a Java Web Start application at http://brak.sdsc.edu/pub/BiologicalNetworks.

  12. Molecular Subtyping of Serous Ovarian Tumors Reveals Multiple Connections to Intrinsic Breast Cancer Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Johansson, Ida; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transcriptional profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer has revealed molecular subtypes correlating to biological and clinical features. We aimed to determine gene expression differences between malignant, benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors, and investigate similarities with the...... well-established intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS: Global gene expression profiling using Illumina's HT12 Bead Arrays was applied to 59 fresh-frozen serous ovarian malignant, benign and borderline tumors. Nearest centroid classification was performed applying previously published...... gene profiles for the ovarian and breast cancer subtypes. Correlations to gene expression modules representing key biological breast cancer features were also sought. Validation was performed using an independent, publicly available dataset. RESULTS: 5,944 genes were significantly differentially...

  13. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Saletta

    2014-06-01

    General significance: The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  14. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  15. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ISMB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Goldberg; Matthew Hibbs; Lukas Kall; Ravikumar Komandurglayavilli; Shaun Mahony; Voichita Marinescu; Itay Mayrose; Vladimir Minin; Yossef Neeman; Guy Nimrod; Marian Novotny; Stephen Opiyo; Elon Portugaly; Tali Sadka; Noboru Sakabe; Indra Sarkar; Marc Schaub; Paul Shafer; Olena Shmygelska; Gregory Singer; Yun Song; Bhattacharya Soumyaroop; Michael Stadler; Pooja Strope; Rong Su; Yuval Tabach; Hongseok Tae; Todd Taylor; Michael Terribilini; Asha Thomas; Nam Tran; Tsai-Tien Tseng; Akshay Vashist; Parthiban Vijaya; Kai Wang; Ting Wang; Lai Wei; Yong Woo; Chunlei Wu; Yoshihiro Yamanishi; Changhui Yan; Jack Yang; Mary Yang; Ping Ye; Miao Zhang

    2009-12-29

    The Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference has provided a general forum for disseminating the latest developments in bioinformatics on an annual basis for the past 13 years. ISMB is a multidisciplinary conference that brings together scientists from computer science, molecular biology, mathematics and statistics. The goal of the ISMB meeting is to bring together biologists and computational scientists in a focus on actual biological problems, i.e., not simply theoretical calculations. The combined focus on “intelligent systems” and actual biological data makes ISMB a unique and highly important meeting, and 13 years of experience in holding the conference has resulted in a consistently well organized, well attended, and highly respected annual conference. The ISMB 2005 meeting was held June 25-29, 2005 at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan. The meeting attracted over 1,730 attendees. The science presented was exceptional, and in the course of the five-day meeting, 56 scientific papers, 710 posters, 47 Oral Abstracts, 76 Software demonstrations, and 14 tutorials were presented. The attendees represented a broad spectrum of backgrounds with 7% from commercial companies, over 28% qualifying for student registration, and 41 countries were represented at the conference, emphasizing its important international aspect. The ISMB conference is especially important because the cultures of computer science and biology are so disparate. ISMB, as a full-scale technical conference with refereed proceedings that have been indexed by both MEDLINE and Current Contents since 1996, bridges this cultural gap.

  16. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  17. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  18. Potential of biological images for radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent technical advances in 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy (3DCRT and IMRT) based, on patient-specific CT and MRI images, have the potential of delivering exquisitely conformal dose distributions to the target volume while avoiding critical structures. Emerging clinical results in terms of reducing treatment-related morbidity and increasing local control appear promising. Recent developments in imaging have suggested that biological images may further positively impact cancer diagnosis, characterization and therapy. While in the past radiological images are largely anatomical, the new types of images can provide metabolic, biochemical, physiological, functional and molecular (genotypic and phenotypic) information. For radiation therapy, images that give information about factors (e.g. tumor hypoxia, Tpot) that influence radiosensitivity and treatment outcome can be regarded as radiobiological images. The ability of IMRT to 'paint' (in 2D) or 'sculpt' (in 3D) the dose, and produce exquisitely conformal dose distributions begs the '64 million dollar question' as to how to paint or sculpt, and whether biological imaging may provide the pertinent information. Can this new approach provide 'radiobiological phenotypes' non-invasively, and incrementally improve upon the predictive assays of radiobiological characteristics such as proliferative activity (Tpot - the potential doubling time), radiosensitivity (SF2 - the surviving fraction at a dose of 2 Gy), energy status (relative to sublethal damage repair), pH (a possible surrogate of hypoxia), tumor hypoxia, etc. as prognosticator(s) of radiation treatment outcome. Important for IMRT, the spatial (geometrical) distribution of the radiobiological phenotypes provide the basis for dose distribution design to conform to both the physical (geometrical) and the biological attributes. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  19. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekanova M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets

  20. Abstracts of the 27. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  1. Abstracts of the 26. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  2. Applications of Case-Based Reasoning in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jurisica, Igor; Glasgow, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a computational reasoning paradigm that involves the storage and retrieval of past experiences to solve novel problems. It is an approach that is particularly relevant in scientific domains, where there is a wealth of data but often a lack of theories or general principles. This article describes several CBR systems that have been developed to carry out planning, analysis, and prediction in the domain of molecular biology.

  3. Towards an Upper-Level Ontology for Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; Wermter, Joachim; Hahn, Udo

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing need for the general-purpose description of the basic ontological entities in the life sciences domain. Up until now, upper-level models are mainly purpose-driven, such as the GENIA ontology, originally devised as a vocabulary for corpus annotation. As an alternative, we here present BioTop, a description-logic-based top-level ontology for molecular biology, as an ontologically more conscious re-design of the GENIA ontology.

  4. Molecular biological factors in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Ponomareva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a complex analysis of the molecular biological factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. They have revealed that infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with suppressed apoptosis and enhanced cellular proliferative activity, which can be effectively used in the diagnosis and prediction of cervical neoplasias to optimize management tac- tics and to improve the results of treatment.

  5. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism to Meloidogyne Molecular Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, B. C.; Whipple, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have enabled the genotyping of individual nematodes, facilitating the analysis of genetic variability within and among plant-pathogenic nematode isolates. This review first describes representative examples of how RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and DNA sequence analysis have been employed to describe populations of several phytonematodes, including the pinewood, burrowing, root-knot, and cyst nematodes. The second portion of this paper evaluates the utility of a size-v...

  6. Towards an upper level ontology for molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Beisswanger, Elena; Wermter, Joachim; Hahn, Udo

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing need for the general-purpose description of the basic conceptual entities in the life sciences. Up until now, upper level models have mainly been purpose-driven, such as the GENIA ontology, originally devised as a vocabulary for corpus annotation. As an alternative,we here present BioTop, a description-logic-based top level ontology for molecular biology, which we consider as an ontologically conscious redesign of the GENIA ontology. PMID:17238430

  7. Biological Moleculars: Have Most of Our Problems Already Been Solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James P.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Evolution has resulted in biological machinery that engineers have great reason to envy and at present can only poorly mimic. This is not just a curiosity as biological systems perform many functions that are desired industrial processes. Examples include photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, energy storage, low temperature chemical conversion, reproducible manufacture of chemical compounds, etc. The bases of biological machinery are the proteins and nucleic acids that comprise living organisms. Each molecule functions as a part of a biological machine. In many cases the molecule can be properly regarded as a stand alone machine of its own. Concepts and methods for harnessing the power of biological molecules exist but are often overlooked in the industrial world. Some are old and appear crude but are quite effective, e.g. the fermentation of grains and fruits. Currently, there is a revolution in progress regarding the harnessing biological processes. These include techniques such as genetic manipulation via polymerase chain reaction, forced evolution also known as evolution in a test tube, determination of molecular structure, and combinatorial chemistry. The following is a brief discussion on how these processes are performed and how they may relate to industrial and aerospace processes.

  8. Molecular profiling of multiple human cancers defines an inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern and uncovers KPNA2 as a uniform poor prognostic cancer marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M Rachidi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune evasion is one of the recognized hallmarks of cancer. Inflammatory responses to cancer can also contribute directly to oncogenesis. Since the immune system is hardwired to protect the host, there is a possibility that cancers, regardless of their histological origins, endow themselves with a common and shared inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern (iCAMP to promote oncoinflammation. However, the definition of iCAMP has not been conceptually and experimentally investigated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome-wide cDNA expression data was analyzed for 221 normal and 324 cancer specimens from 7 cancer types: breast, prostate, lung, colon, gastric, oral and pancreatic. A total of 96 inflammatory genes with consistent dysregulation were identified, including 44 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated genes. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for some of these genes. The iCAMP contains proteins whose roles in cancer have been implicated and others which are yet to be appreciated. The clinical significance of many iCAMP genes was confirmed in multiple independent cohorts of colon and ovarian cancer patients. In both cases, better prognosis correlated strongly with high CXCL13 and low level of GREM1, LOX, TNFAIP6, CD36, and EDNRA. An "Inflammatory Gene Integrated Score" was further developed from the combination of 18 iCAMP genes in ovarian cancer, which predicted overall survival. Noticeably, as a selective nuclear import protein whose immuno-regulatory function just begins to emerge, karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2 is uniformly up-regulated across cancer types. For the first time, the cancer-specific up-regulation of KPNA2 and its clinical significance were verified by tissue microarray analysis in colon and head-neck cancers. CONCLUSION: This work defines an inflammatory signature shared by seven epithelial cancer types and KPNA2 as a consistently up-regulated protein in cancer. Identification of iCAMP may not only

  9. Molecular diagnosis for personalized target therapy in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In advanced and metastatic gastric cancer, the conventional chemotherapy with limited efficacy shows an overall survival period of about 10 months. Patient specific and effective treatments known as personalized cancer therapy is of significant importance. Advances in high-throughput technologies such as microarray and next generation sequencing for genes, protein expression profiles and oncogenic signaling pathways have reinforced the discovery of treatment targets and personalized treatments. However, there are numerous challenges from cancer target discoveries to practical clinical benefits. Although there is a flood of biomarkers and target agents, only a minority of patients are tested and treated accordingly. Numerous molecular target agents have been under investigation for gastric cancer. Currently, targets for gastric cancer include the epidermal growth factor receptor family, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor axis, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Deeper insights of molecular characteristics for gastric cancer has enabled the molecular classification of gastric cancer, the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the prediction of prognosis, the recognition of gastric cancer driver genes, and the discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Not only have we deeper insights for the molecular diversity of gastric cancer, but we have also prospected both affirmative potentials and hurdles to molecular diagnostics. New paradigm of transdisciplinary team science, which is composed of innovative explorations and clinical investigations of oncologists, geneticists, pathologists, biologists, and bio-informaticians, is mandatory to recognize personalized target therapy. PMID:24156032

  10. Biological planning of treatment that combines local external radiotherapy with molecular systemic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of different therapy modalities for cancer treatment has been often used in order to enhance the outcomes. Therapeutic schemes that combines external beam irradiation ('eLRT') and systemic molecular radiotherapy (sMRT) could be an alternative in those patients with multiple lesions or when the constrains for OARs will difficult the planning. The formulation could be used for biological evaluation of prescriptions in treatment that combines external beam radiotherapy with systemic molecular radiotherapy. The advantage of ccRT v.s. scRT depends of treatment prescription (administered activity and dose fractioning) and tissue response. Treatment planning and optimization it is possible to be done in those cases where highly conformed dose boost using systemic molecular radiotherapy could be an option (author)

  11. The Molecular Biology of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas and Current Trends in Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Quesada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in sarcoma models has been fundamental in the discovery of scientific milestones leading to a better understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Yet, clinical research in sarcoma has lagged behind other cancers because of the multiple clinical and pathological entities that characterize sarcomas and their rarity. Sarcomas encompass a very heterogeneous group of tumors with diverse pathological and clinical overlapping characteristics. Molecular testing has been fundamental in the identification and better definition of more specific entities among this vast array of malignancies. A group of sarcomas are distinguished by specific molecular aberrations such as somatic mutations, intergene deletions, gene amplifications, reciprocal translocations, and complex karyotypes. These and other discoveries have led to a better understanding of the growth signals and the molecular pathways involved in the development of these tumors. These findings are leading to treatment strategies currently under intense investigation. Disruption of the growth signals is being targeted with antagonistic antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and inhibitors of several downstream molecules in diverse molecular pathways. Preliminary clinical trials, supported by solid basic research and strong preclinical evidence, promises a new era in the clinical management of these broad spectrum of malignant tumors.

  12. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Geider, R. [Delaware Univ., Lewes, DE (United States). Coll. of Marine Studies

    1992-07-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  13. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Geider, R. (Delaware Univ., Lewes, DE (United States). Coll. of Marine Studies)

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  14. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  15. Molecular biology of the skin introduction: approaches and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C; Goldsmith, L A

    1993-09-01

    This issue of Seminars in Dermatology describes our current understanding of the molecular nature of skin diseases. Some would say it is hubris to even contemplate this charge considering the rapid progress in molecular genetics. We implore the gods protecting the nucleotides to look kindly on our efforts. This introductory article discussed some general methodological considerations and techniques and provides a glossary of common terms used in molecular biology, useful for understanding this issue of Seminars in Dermatology. This article is aimed at neophytes to enhance their ability to enter the magical realm of the gene. The articles in this issue describe diseases with a defined defect at the DNA level or diseases in which there is a rapid closing in on the basic defect. PMID:8217556

  16. A comprehensive study into the molecular methodology and molecular biology of methanogenic Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    procedures. Efficient genetic manipulation systems, including shuttle and integration vector systems, have appeared for mesophilic, but not for thermophilic species within the last few years and will have a major impact on future investigations of methanogenic molecular biology.......Methanogens belong to the kingdom of Euryarchaeota in the domain of Archaea. The Archaea differ from Bacteria in many aspects important to molecular work. Among these are cell wall composition, their sensitivity to antibiotics, their translation and transcription machinery, and their very strict...

  17. [Usefulness of the oncogenetic molecular counselling in adults whith familial cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor M; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor E

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 cancer susceptibility syndromes (CSS) have been recognized through performing classic epidemiologic studies and genetic linkage analysis. In most CSSs clinical conditions of the patients have been identified as well as their hereditary patterns and the predisponent genes to cancer development. Cancer hereditary identification is a useful condition, since cancer family integrants may benefit of efficient strategies in early screening and in tumor prevention strategies; this consultation is performed by oncogenetic molecular medical consultants who must be scientifically competent for Human Genetics and Cancer molecular biology domains. The oncogenetic molecular consult of patients and family relatives of cancer predisposition families is a medical service in health programs of developed and developing countries; in our country this type of medical service needs to be organized and settled to be part of the integral oncology medical service. The oncogenetic molecular consultation is a structural process of assessment and communication of the associated integral problems of the cancer inherited susceptibility in familial cancer. PMID:27100983

  18. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  19. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  20. Intraductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast—Terminology and Biology Matter: Premalignant Lesions or Preinvasive Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mauri; Lucio Fortunato; Leopoldo Costarelli; Domenico Campagna

    2012-01-01

    Morphological criteria for the diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast have been an object of research and much controversy, and its terminology is rather confusing. Knowledge of the molecular aspects of this disease probably necessitates further research to clarify if these entities can be identified as breast cancer precursors or as a malignant preinvasive disease. These issues are of great interest not only for their biological implications, but also to the clinician w...

  1. Ten Years’ Experience with an E-Learning Lecture Series on Cancer Biology and Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Efferth

    2013-01-01

    In life sciences, the internet is an indispensable medium for research, but has not yet realized its full potential for teaching. The concept of e-learning has been developed over the past decades for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate programs. We set up an e-learning lecture on cancer biology and pharmacology that was first offered in 2003 to students of Molecular Biotechnology at the University of Heidelberg and to students of Pharmacy at the University of Mainz, Germany. The present...

  2. Hormonal and molecular aspects of endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Vincentius Hubertus Willibrordus Maria

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concerns the expression and prognostic value of various hormones and molecular markers playing a role n endometrioid endometrial cancer. Especially we were interested in the enzyme aromatase, its expression and (prognostic) role in endometrioid endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is t

  3. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H. D. Hallett; William J. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  4. Support of the IMA summer program molecular biology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.

    1995-08-01

    The revolutionary progress in molecular biology within the last 30 years opens the way to full understanding of the molecular structures and mechanisms of living organisms. The mathematical sciences accompany and support much of the progress achieved by experiment and computation, as well as provide insight into geometric and topological properties of biomolecular structure and processes. The 4 week program at the IMA brought together biologists and mathematicians leading researchers, postdocs, and graduate students. It focused on genetic mapping and DNA sequencing, followed by biomolecular structure and dynamics. High-resolution linkage maps of genetic marker were discussed extensively in relation to the human genome project. The next level of DNA mapping is physical mapping, consisting of overlapping clones spanning the genome. These maps are extremely useful for genetic analysis. They provide the material for less redundant sequencing and for detailed searches for a gene among other things. This topic was also extensively studied by the participants. From there, the program moved to consider protein structure and dynamics; this is a broad field with a large array of interesting topics. It is of key importance in answering basic scientific questions about the nature of all living organisms, and has practical biomedical applications. The major subareas of structure prediction and classification, techniques and heuristics for the simulation of protein folding, and molecular dynamics provide a rich problem domain where mathematics can be helpful in analysis, modeling, and simulation. One of the important problems in molecular biology is the three-dimensional structure of proteins, DNA and RNA in the cell, and the relationship between structure and function. The program helped increased the understanding of the topology of cellular DNA, RNA and proteins and the various life-sustaining mechanisms used by the cell which modify this molecular topology.

  5. The genetics and biology of KRAS in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.K.Westcott; Minh D.To

    2013-01-01

    Mutational activation of KRAS is a common oncogenic event in lung cancer and other epithelial cancer types.Efforts to develop therapies that counteract the oncogenic effects of mutant KRAS have been largely unsuccessful,and cancers driven by mutant KRAS remain among the most refractory to available treatments.Studies undertaken over the past decades have produced a wealth of information regarding the clinical relevance of KRAS mutations in lung cancer.Mutant Kras-driven mouse models of cancer,together with cellular and molecular studies,have provided a deeper appreciation for the complex functions of KRAS in tumorigenesis.However,a much more thorough understanding of these complexities is needed before clinically effective therapies targeting mutant KRAS-driven cancers can be achieved.

  6. Towards molecular computers that operate in a biological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Maya; Gil, Binyamin; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-07-01

    important consequences when performed in a proper context. We envision that molecular computers that operate in a biological environment can be the basis of “smart drugs”, which are potent drugs that activate only if certain environmental conditions hold. These conditions could include abnormalities in the molecular composition of the biological environment that are indicative of a particular disease. Here we review the research direction that set this vision and attempts to realize it.

  7. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  8. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects cell signaling in breast cancer - molecularly distinct behavior of cathepsin K in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Gouvea, Iuri Estrada; Silva, Mariana Cristina C.; Castro, Eloísa Dognani; de Paula, Cláudia A. A.; Okamoto, Debora; Oliveira, Lilian; Peres, Giovani Bravin; Ottaiano, Tatiana; Facina, Gil; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Campos, Antonio Hugo J. F. M.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Juliano, Maria; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer comprises clinically and molecularly distinct tumor subgroups that differ in cell histology and biology and show divergent clinical phenotypes that impede phase III trials, such as those utilizing cathepsin K inhibitors. Here we correlate the epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition breast cancer cells and cathepsin K secretion with activation and aggregation of platelets. Cathepsin K is up-regulated in cancer cells that proteolyze extracellular matrix and contributes t...

  9. Biology of Human Papillomavirus–Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Jason D.; Chung, Christine H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent data show that human papillomavirus–positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has a distinct biological and clinical behavior compared with human papillomavirus–negative OPC. As this subset of head and neck cancer represents an increasing public health concern, a thorough understanding of the causative and mechanistic differences between these diseases and how these distinctions impact clinical treatment is required. In this review, we will summarize recent data in epidemiology, the mechanis...

  10. Modern classification of breast cancer: should we stick with morphology or convert to molecular profile characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with varied morphologic and biological features, behavior, and response to therapy. The present routine clinical management of breast cancer relies on the availability of robust prognostic and predictive factors to support decision making. Breast cancer patients are stratified into risk groups based on a combination of classical time-dependent prognostic variables (staging) and biological prognostic and predictive variables. Staging variables include tumor size, lymph node stage, and extent of tumor spread. Classical biological variables include morphologic variables such as tumor grade and molecular markers such as hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Although individual molecular markers were introduced in the field of breast cancer management many years ago, the concept of molecular classification was raised after the introduction of global gene expression profiling and the identification of multigene classifiers. Although there is no doubt that gene expression profiling technology has revolutionized the field of breast cancer research and have been widely expected to improve breast cancer prognostication, the unprecedented speed of progress and publicity associated with the introduction of these commercially-based multigene classifiers should not lead us to expect this technology to replace the classical classification systems. These multigene classifiers have the potential to complement traditional methods through provision of additional biological prognostic and predictive information in presently indeterminate risk groups. Here we present updated information on the present clinical value of classical clinicopathologic factors, molecular taxonomy, and multigene classifiers in routine patients management and provide some critical views and practical expectations. PMID:21654357

  11. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  12. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tőzsér

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences.

  13. Diagnosis of Whipple's disease using molecular biology techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Ángel; Ojeda, Evelia; Muñagorri, Ana I; Gaminde, Eduardo; Bujanda, Luis; Larzabal, Mikel; Gil, Inés

    2011-04-01

    The diagnosis of Whipple's disease (WD) is based on the existence of clinical signs and symptoms compatible with the disease and in the presence of PAS-positive diastase-resistant granules in the macrophages of the small intestine. If there is suspicion of the disease but no histological findings or only isolated extraintestinal manifestations, species-specific PCR using different sequences of the T. whippleii genome from different tissue types and biological fluids is recommended.This study reports two cases: the first patient had diarrhea and the disease was suspected after an endoscopic examination of the ileum, while the second patient had multi-systemic manifestations,particularly abdominal, thoracic, and peripheral lymphadenopathies. In both cases, the diagnosis was confirmed using molecular biology techniques to samples from the small intestine or from a retroperineal lymph node, respectively. PMID:21526877

  14. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio

  15. Cancer Stem Cells: Biological Functions and Therapeutically Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Eugen Ciurea; Ada Maria Georgescu; Stefana Oana Purcaru; Stefan-Alexandru Artene; Ghazaleh Hooshyar Emami; Mihai Virgil Boldeanu; Daniela Elise Tache; Anica Dricu

    2014-01-01

    Almost all tumors are composed of a heterogeneous cell population, making them difficult to treat. A small cancer stem cell population with a low proliferation rate and a high tumorigenic potential is thought to be responsible for cancer development, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Stem cells were reported to be involved in both normal development and carcinogenesis, some molecular mechanisms being common in both processes. No less controversial, stem cells are considered to be importan...

  16. International Symposium on Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are building on the success of the Sixth Chinese Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Symposium, Beijing, held in 2005. The 2005 symposium saw many Chinese and international authorities share their expertise in a broad range of insect science, including analyses of insect genomes and proteomes, functional gene expression and regulation during development, insect immunity, insect neurobiology, insect-host interactions and insect chemical communication. The coming symposium, which will be held in Shandong University,Jinan, Shandong province, September 19-22, 2007, will offer material along similar lines.

  17. A guide on instrument of biochemistry and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about instrument on biochemistry and molecular biology, which consists of six chapters. It deals with introduction of advanced bio-instrument, common utilization and maintain, explanation of each instrument like capillary electrophoresis, interactive laser cytometer, personal computer and software, an electron microscope and DNA/RNS synthesis instrument, large equipment and special system like information system and network, analysis system for genome and large spectro graph, outside donation, examples for common utilization and appendix on data like application form for use.

  18. New approaches in mathematical biology: Information theory and molecular machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    My research uses classical information theory to study genetic systems. Information theory was founded by Claude Shannon in the 1940's and has had an enormous impact on communications engineering and computer sciences. Shannon found a way to measure information. This measure can be used to precisely characterize the sequence conservation at nucleic-acid binding sites. The resulting methods, by completely replacing the use of ''consensus sequences'', provide better models for molecular biologists. An excess of conservation led us to do experimental work on bacteriophage T7 promoters and the F plasmid IncD repeats. The wonderful fidelity of telephone communications and compact disk (CD) music can be traced directly to Shannon's channel capacity theorem. When rederived for molecular biology, this theorem explains the surprising precision of many molecular events. Through connections with the Second Law of Thermodyanmics and Maxwell's Demon, this approach also has implications for the development of technology at the molecular level. Discussions of these topics are held on the internet news group bionet.info-theo. (author). (Abstract only)

  19. Biologic effect of neurogenesis in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Manzoni, Adriana; Florentin, Diego; Fisher, William; Ding, Yi; Lee, MinJae; Ayala, Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCA) is a deadly disease with few systemic therapeutic options. The head of the pancreas is the most innervated part and most common location of cancer. However, little is known about the contribution of the nerve-cancer interaction to facilitate pancreatic progression. To quantify PaCA axonogenesis, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro neurogenesis model. In addition, neurogenesis in human PaCA was analyzed using PGP9.5 immunohistochemistry, deconvolution imaging, and image segmentation and analysis. There was a significant increase of the total area of neurites in the in vitro coculture with dorsal root ganglia group than control. The nerve density in PaCA tissue was significantly higher than normal pancreatic tissue. To study the functional role of nerves in PaCA, male athymic nude (Nu-Nu) mice were divided into 3 groups: (A) animals were coinjected with MIA PaCa-2 cells and 20U/kg weight units of Botulinum toxin (Botox) (n=10); (B) first injected with Botox and 6weeks later MIA PaCa-2 cancer cells (n=4); and (C) control animals were injected with equivalent amounts of saline fluid (n=9). Animals were sacrificed 6weeks later. Tumor size and apoptotic count (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling) were measured. Tumor size was decreased and apoptotic rate increased in Botox-treated PaCA. Our data indicate that neural microenvironment may play an important role in the progression of PaCA. It may lead to novel nerve-targeted coadjuvant therapies for PaCA. PMID:26980040

  20. A Systems Biology View of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Hower, Valerie; Jarrah, Abdul; Torti, Suzy V.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Mendes, Pedro; Torti, Frank M.; Akman, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand how a cancer cell is functionally different from a normal cell it is necessary to assess the complex network of pathways involving gene regulation, signaling, and cell metabolism, and the alterations in its dynamics caused by the several different types of mutations leading to malignancy. Since the network is typically complex, with multiple connections between pathways and important feedback loops, it is crucial to represent it in the form of a computational model that...

  1. Molecular biology of breast tumors and prognosis [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Baldassarre

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Great scientific, economical, and organizational efforts are in place to understand the causes of onset, identify the critical molecular players of progression, and define new lines of intervention providing more benefits and less toxicity. These efforts have certainly not been vain, since overall survival, especially in specific subsets of breast cancer, has greatly improved during the last decades. At present, breast cancer patients’ treatment and care have reached a high standard of quality, and currently one of the most urgent needs resides in the necessity to better distinguish the tumors that need to be more aggressively treated and identify the best therapeutic option tailored to each patient. This objective will be achievable only if the information clarifying the biology of breast cancer can be successfully transferred to the clinic. A common effort by scientists and clinicians toward this integration and toward the use of multidisciplinary approaches will be necessary to reach this important goal.

  2. Cancer Stem Cells: Biological Functions and Therapeutically Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eugen Ciurea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost all tumors are composed of a heterogeneous cell population, making them difficult to treat. A small cancer stem cell population with a low proliferation rate and a high tumorigenic potential is thought to be responsible for cancer development, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Stem cells were reported to be involved in both normal development and carcinogenesis, some molecular mechanisms being common in both processes. No less controversial, stem cells are considered to be important in treatment of malignant diseases both as targets and drug carriers. The efforts to understand the role of different signalling in cancer stem cells requires in depth knowledge about the mechanisms that control their self-renewal, differentiation and malignant potential. The aim of this paper is to discuss insights into cancer stem cells historical background and to provide a brief review of the new therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells.

  3. How phenotypic plasticity made its way into molecular biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michel Morange

    2009-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been fashionable in recent years. It has never been absent from the studies of evolutionary biologists, although the availability of stable animal models has limited its role. Although opposed by the reductionist and deterministic approach of molecular biology, phenotypic plasticity has nevertheless recently made its way into this discipline, in particular through the limits of the molecular description. Its resurrection has been triggered by a small group of theoreticians, the rise of epigenetic descriptions and the publicized discovery of stem cell plasticity. The notion of phenotypic plasticity remains vague. History shows that too strong a belief in plasticity can be an obstacle to the development of biology. Two important questions are still pending: the link between the different forms of plasticity present at different levels of organization, and the relation, if any, between the modular organization of organisms and phenotypic plasticity. Future research will help to discriminate between possible and actual mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity, and to give phenotypic plasticity its real place in the living world.

  4. On the shoulders of giants: Molecular Biology in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Melino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    We accepted with great pleasure the invitation by professor Walter Ricciardi,our friend and colleague, to write an editorial in order to introduce this special issue dedicated to Molecular Biology in Hygiene. We are delighted for two connected reasons.

    First, Carmine,as a former professor of Hygiene,has passed his concepts of Hygiene on to his family and, despite significant difficulties, keeps working on the problems of preventive medicine in the work environment and in geriatrics. Second, Gerry, raised in an environment of hygienists, has dedicated all his professional efforts to Molecular Biology. As these two distinct experiences have constantly mixed within our family over time, we appreciate the promiscuous intermingling of these two disciplines in this thematic issue.

    The result is a useful common effort aiming at understanding the problems of diseases in the work environment and in the human environment in general.

    These problems have a profound social meaning, for which it is necessary to create an essential collaboration with scientific research.

    This is the only way to benefit human society.

  5. Integration of proteomics into systems biology of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hanash, S; Schliekelman, M.; Q. Zhang; Taguchi, A

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer benefits from integration of proteomic level data into systems biology efforts. The opportunities available as a result of advances in proteomic technologies, the successes to date and the challenges involved in integrating diverse datasets are addressed in this review.

  6. Mathematical and Statistical Modeling in Cancer Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael eHageman Blair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major health problem with high mortality rates. In the post-genome era, investigators have access to massive amounts of rapidly accumulating high-throughput data in publicly available databases, some of which are exclusively devoted to housing Cancer data. However, data interpretation efforts have not kept pace with data collection, and gained knowledge is not necessarily translating into better diagnoses and treatments. A fundamental problem is to integrate and interpret data to further our understanding in Cancer Systems Biology. Viewing cancer as a network provides insights into the complex mechanisms underlying the disease. Mathematical and statistical models provide an avenue for cancer network modeling. In this article, we review two widely used modeling paradigms: deterministic metabolic models and statistical graphical models. The strength of these approaches lies in their flexibility and predictive power. Once a model has been validated, it can be used to make predictions and generate hypotheses. We describe a number of diverse applications to Cancer Biology, including, the system-wide effects of drug-treatments, disease prognosis, tumor classification, forecasting treatment outcomes, and survival predictions.

  7. The Impact of Collective Molecular Dynamics on Physiological and Biological Functionalities of Artificial and Biological Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2008-03-01

    We use neutron, X-ray and light scattering techniques to determine dynamical and structural properties of artificial and biological membranes. The combination of various techniques enlarges the window to length scales from the nearest-neighbor distances of lipid molecules to more than 10-6m, covering time scales from about 0.1 ps to 1 s. The main research objective is to quantify collective molecular fluctuations in these systems and to establish relationships to physiological and biological functions of the bilayers, such as transmembrane transport. The motivation for this project is twofold: 1) By understanding fundamental properties of bilayers at the microscopic and mesoscopic level, we aim to tailor membranes with specific properties such as permeability and elasticity. 2) By relating dynamical fluctuations to physiological and biological functions, we can gain a deeper understanding of the bilayers on a molecular scale that may help optimizing the transmembrane transport of certain drugs. We show how bilayer permeability, elasticity and inter protein excitations can be determined from the experiments. M.C. Rheinstädter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 108107 (2004); Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 048103 (2006); Phys. Rev. E 75, 011907 (2007);J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A 24, 1191 (2006).

  8. Breast cancer biology and ethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality in new zealand: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeewa Seneviratne

    Full Text Available Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women.Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biological characteristics between Māori and NZ European women were explored adjusting for age and socioeconomic deprivation in logistic regression models. Impacts of socioeconomic deprivation, stage and cancer biological characteristics on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women were explored in Cox regression models.Compared with NZ European women (n=2304, Māori women (n=429 had significantly higher rates of advanced and higher grade cancers. Māori women also had non-significantly higher rates of ER/PR negative and HER-2 positive breast cancers. Higher odds of advanced stage and higher grade remained significant for Māori after adjusting for age and deprivation. Māori women had almost a 100% higher age and deprivation adjusted breast cancer mortality hazard compared with NZ European women (HR=1.98, 1.55-2.54. Advanced stage and lower proportion of screen detected cancer in Māori explained a greater portion of the excess breast cancer mortality (HR reduction from 1.98 to 1.38, while the additional contribution through biological differences were minimal (HR reduction from 1.38 to 1.35.More advanced cancer stage at diagnosis has the greatest impact while differences in biological characteristics appear to be a minor contributor for inequities in breast cancer mortality between Māori and NZ European women. Strategies aimed at reducing breast cancer mortality in Māori should focus on earlier diagnosis, which will likely have a greater impact on reducing breast

  9. Personalized medicine approaches for colon cancer driven by genomics and systems biology: OncoTrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David; Ogilvie, Lesley A; Hoyle, Nicholas; Keilholz, Ulrich; Lange, Bodo; Lehrach, Hans

    2014-09-01

    The post-genomic era promises to pave the way to a personalized understanding of disease processes, with technological and analytical advances helping to solve some of the world's health challenges. Despite extraordinary progress in our understanding of cancer pathogenesis, the disease remains one of the world's major medical problems. New therapies and diagnostic procedures to guide their clinical application are urgently required. OncoTrack, a consortium between industry and academia, supported by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, signifies a new era in personalized medicine, which synthesizes current technological advances in omics techniques, systems biology approaches, and mathematical modeling. A truly personalized molecular imprint of the tumor micro-environment and subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic insight is gained, with the ultimate goal of matching the "right" patient to the "right" drug and identifying predictive biomarkers for clinical application. This comprehensive mapping of the colon cancer molecular landscape in tandem with crucial, clinical functional annotation for systems biology analysis provides unprecedented insight and predictive power for colon cancer management. Overall, we show that major biotechnological developments in tandem with changes in clinical thinking have laid the foundations for the OncoTrack approach and the future clinical application of a truly personalized approach to colon cancer theranostics. PMID:25074435

  10. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidHVOLLE

    2012-11-01

    Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  11. Integrating biological knowledge into variable selection: an empirical Bayes approach with an application in cancer biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Steven M; Neve Richard M; Bayani Nora; Kuo Wen-Lin; Ziyad Safiyyah; Spellman Paul T; Gray Joe W; Mukherjee Sach

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An important question in the analysis of biochemical data is that of identifying subsets of molecular variables that may jointly influence a biological response. Statistical variable selection methods have been widely used for this purpose. In many settings, it may be important to incorporate ancillary biological information concerning the variables of interest. Pathway and network maps are one example of a source of such information. However, although ancillary informatio...

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted molecularly therapies of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been known to be a significant factor in the development and growth of many types of cancers. It is now accepted that the EGFR signal transduction net work plays an important role in multiple tumorigenic processes, contributing to cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as protection from apoptosis. Recently, EGFR monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors have been validated as new treatment approach for those EGFR-positive cancers and have shown activity aginst advanced, chemofractory cancers in clinical trials. This article focuses on three EGFR targeted molecularly therapies of cancers. (authors)

  13. Molecular concept in human oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in...

  14. Epidemiological-molecular evidence of metabolic reprogramming on proliferation, autophagy and cell signaling in pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, Kjetil; Sund, Malin

    2015-01-28

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest human cancers with little progress made in survival over the past decades, and 5-year survival usually below 5%. Despite this dismal scenario, progresses have been made in understanding of the underlying tumor biology through among other definition of precursor lesions, delineation of molecular pathways, and advances in genome-wide technology. Further, exploring the relationship between epidemiological risk factors involving metabolic features to that of an altered cancer metabolism may provide the foundation for new therapies. Here we explore how nutrients and caloric intake may influence the KRAS-driven ductal carcinogenesis through mediators of metabolic stress, including autophagy in presence of TP53, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptors (RAGE) and ligands (HMGB1), as well as glutamine pathways, among others. Effective understanding the cancer metabolism mechanisms in pancreatic cancer may propose new ways of prevention and treatment. PMID:24704294

  15. Applications of molecular MRI and optical imaging in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Penet, Marie-France; Mikhaylova, Maria; Li, Cong; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Glunde, Kristine; Pathak, Arvind P.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most exciting advances in molecular-functional imaging of cancer are occurring at the interface between chemistry and imaging. Several of these advances have occurred through the development of novel imaging probes that report on molecular pathways, the tumor micro-environment and the response of tumors to treatment; as well as through novel image-guided platforms such as nanoparticles and nanovesicles that deliver therapeutic agents against specific targets and pathways. Cancer c...

  16. Newcastle disease: Molecular-biological diagnosis in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcastle disease is registered in the Russian Federation and for last time it is seen an upward tendency of ND outbreaks in backyards poultry due to lack of specific prophylaxis. Reports on ND outbreaks from 2004 to 2007 submitted to OIE are shown. The use of molecular-biological methods can reveal ND virus in the lab. ARRIAH has acquired practical experience in the diagnosis of ND virus and holds data on ND viruses identified or isolated in the course of the current diagnostic and monitoring investigations of samples from wild and domestic birds. The developed set of molecular-biological methods allows ND virus to be reliably and rapidly detected in field samples. They are also able to characterize ND viruses with F-gene sequencing that can be used for the assessment of potential virulence, their phylogenetic belonging which will aid in making decisions of how to fight the disease, to trace a possible source of infection and further spread. The developed set of molecular-biological methods of ND diagnosis includes: - ND virus detection with RT-PCR and F-gene sequencing, determination of potential virulence based on F0-amino acid restriction site; - ND virus detection with RT-PCR and ND-gene sequencing; - ND virus detection with RT-PCR and vaccine strain La-Sota differentiation based on the Fgene; - Genotyping of ND viruses revealed in Russia Genetic characterization of ND viruses allows rapid and reliable determination of their group belonging and also helps make conclusions about presence or absence of any epizootic links among outbreaks, their possible source, spread routes, current and potential threat to poultry farms. A total of 657 field samples from wild and domestic birds were PCR tested in 2007. The samples covered 20 regions of Russia and the Ukraine. ND virus was found in 8 regions of Russia. 516 samples were from wild birds with 9 positive results and 141 samples were from domestic birds with 16 positive results. PCR and sequencing identified 17

  17. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  18. Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

  19. Exploiting Molecular Biology by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Francis; Fattinger, Christof

    Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal fluorophore. With fluorescence lifetimes in the microsecond range and fluorescence quantum yield of 0.4 some water soluble complexes of Ruthenium like modified Ru(sulfobathophenanthroline) complexes fulfill these properties. They are outstanding fluorescent labels for ultrasensitive assays as illustrated in two examples, in drug discovery and in point of care testing.We discuss the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of the most sensitive time-gated fluorescence assays. We reflect on how the imaging devices currently employed for readout of these assays might evolve in the future. Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal

  20. Molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Clarke, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been prescribed to millions of females for breast cancer prevention or treatment. However, tamoxifen is known to significantly enhance the risk of developing endometrial lesions, including hyperplasia, polyps, carcinomas, and sarcoma. Notably, tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer often has a poor clinical outcome. Understanding the molecular mechanism of tamoxifen-induced endometrial cancer is essential for developing strategies that minimize tamoxifen’s effects on the endome...

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  2. Salivary Gland Cancers: Biology and Systemic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mehdi, Syed A; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with variable pathologic and phenotypic characteristics. The lack of clinical outcomes data and randomized controlled trials pertaining to them makes it difficult to formulate definitive treatment protocols that could help with making decisions regarding choice of therapy. Most studies involving systemic chemotherapy have not shown promising patient outcome results. With recent advances in molecular technology, however, it is now possible to identify specific genetic alterations and biomarkers as possible targets for therapeutic purposes. For example, in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one of the most common types of malignant salivary gland tumors, a commonly seen genetic translocation [t(11;19)(q21;p13), which involves the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes] has been found to be associated with improved survival, making it a possible prognostic marker. Also, this translocation gives rise to a fusion protein that appears to render tumors highly sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. However, the results of phase II trials of EGFR inhibitors-as well as other targeted agents--in salivary gland tumors have been disappointing: there has been some disease stabilization but no objective responses. There remains a need for well-designed prospective clinical studies to improve management of these tumors. PMID:26470903

  3. Traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors to organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, D; Nishinari, K; Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukayotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In particular, some of the methods of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, pioneered almost a hundred years ago by Einstein, Langevin and others, turned out to be powerful theoretical tools for quantitative analysis of mode...

  4. Molecular biology in medicine: laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, M L

    1996-01-01

    Clinical mycobacteriology has benefited much from the application of molecular biology techniques. Early detection and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are achieved by the combined use of the BACTEC system and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. High-performance liquid chromatography is the other alternative used in some laboratories. Polymerase chain reaction is still a research tool because of its many problems and limitations. Other promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for example, the serological diagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test, DNA hybridization, the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tubes System and the strand displacement amplification system are currently under evaluation. The discovery of drug resistant genes such as katG and apoB has important implications for the development of new tests for the rapid detection of resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs. PMID:8779555

  5. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  6. Molecular markers for detection, surveillance and prognostication of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested and almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. Currently molecular and genetic changes play an important role in the discovery of new molecular marker

  7. New generation of breast cancer clinical trials implementing molecular profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Zardavas; Martine Piccart-Gebhart

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of molecular profiling technologies in oncology deepens our knowledge for the molecular landscapes of cancer diagnoses, identifying aberrations that could be linked with specific therapeutic vulnerabilities. In particular, there is an increasing list of molecularly targeted anticancer agents undergoing clinical development that aim to block specific molecular aberrations. This leads to a paradigm shift, with an increasing list of specific aberrations dictating the treatment of patients with cancer. This paradigm shift impacts the field of clinical trials, since the classical approach of having clinico-pathological disease characteristics dictating the patients' enrolment in oncology trials shifts towards the implementation of molecular profiling as pre-screening step. In order to facilitate the successful clinical development of these new anticancer drugs within specific molecular niches of cancer diagnoses, there have been developed new, innovative trial designs that could be classified as follows: i) longitudinal cohort studies that implement (or not) "nested" downstream trials, 2) studies that assess the clinical utility of molecular profiling, 3) "master" protocol trials, iv) "basket" trials, v) trials following an adaptive design. In the present article, we review these innovative study designs, providing representative examples from each category and we discuss the challenges that still need to be addressed in this era of new generation oncology trials implementing molecular profiling. Emphasis is put on the field of breast cancer clinical trials.

  8. The promise of molecular epidemiology in defining the association between radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular epidemiology involves the inclusion in epidemiologic studies of biologic measurements made at a genetic and molecular level and aims to improve the current knowledge of disease etiology and risk. One of the goals of molecular epidemiology studies of cancer is to determine the role of environmental and genetic factors in initiation and progression of malignancies and to use this knowledge to develop preventive strategies. This approach promises extraordinary opportunities for revolutionizing the practice of medicine and reducing risk. However, this will be accompanied by the need to address and resolve many challenges, such as ensuring the appropriate interpretation of molecular testing and resolving associated ethical, legal, and social issues. Traditional epidemiologic approaches determined that exposure to ionizing radiation poses significantly increased risk of leukemia and several other types of cancer. Such studies provided the basis for setting exposure standards to protect the public and the workforce from potentially adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These standards were set by using modeling approaches to extrapolate from the biological effects observed in high-dose radiation studies to predicted, but mostly immeasurable, effects at low radiation doses. It is anticipated that the addition of the molecular parameters to the population-based studies will help identify the genes and pathways characteristic of cancers due to radiation exposure of individuals, as well as identify susceptible or resistant subpopulations. In turn, the information about the molecular mechanisms should aid to improve risk assessment. While studies on radiogenic concerns are currently limited to only a few candidate genes, the exponential growth of scientific knowledge and technology promises expansion of knowledge about identity of participating genes and pathways in the future. This article is meant to provide an introductory overview of recent advances in

  9. Molecular Sociology: Further Insights from Biological and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Jumah Mahmoud Al-Khatib

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study expanded our previous study in which features of molecular sociology were mentioned. In this study, we added the microbial dimensions in which it is thought that religiosity may be impacted by microbes that manipulate brains to create better conditions for their existence. This hypothesis is called “biomeme hypothesis”. We talked about other environmental impacts on human behaviors through three studies in which exposure to lead caused violent behaviors ending with arresting in prisons. By conclusion, the present study has expanded our horizon about interferences on various levels including biological and environmental impacts with our behaviors. Although we are convinced that behavior is a very diverse and complex phenomenon and cannot be understood within certain frame as either biologically or environmentally, but further new insights are possible to participate in better understanding of human behaviors. Many behaviors have their roots in religion, and we showed how religious rituals may be affected by some microbes that make to form a microenvironment within the host for microbial benefits.

  10. Low angle neutron data acquisition system for molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low angle spectrometer system utilizing a 2-dimensional position sensitive counter was designed to accommodate a variety of experiments in molecular biology requiring good low angle resolution. Biological structures requiring low angle analysis techniques fall into two groups: non-ordered systems (proteins or protein complexes in solution) and ordered systems with large spacings like muscle, collagen, and membranes. For structural investigations into such systems, data are ideally needed to a low scattering angle of 0.20 at 4.5 A or a minimum Q of 0.005 A-1 (Q = theta . 2π/lambda). Depending on the type of structure, data often extend to the high angle region, say 300. Apart from the low angle requirements, the spectrometer has to have good resolution to resolve diffraction peaks from samples with crystal spacings up to 1000 A or even larger. While it is desirable to build a spectrometer to such scattering conditions, given reactor conditions might not permit this and compromises have to be made between flux, resolution and lowest angle. The low angle spectrometer described here was designed to be used at the HFBR neutron beam pipe working at approximately 4.2 A or at the H4 satellite station working at 2.4 A

  11. Molecular codes in biological and chemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Görlich

    Full Text Available Shannon's theory of communication has been very successfully applied for the analysis of biological information. However, the theory neglects semantic and pragmatic aspects and thus cannot directly be applied to distinguish between (bio- chemical systems able to process "meaningful" information from those that do not. Here, we present a formal method to assess a system's semantic capacity by analyzing a reaction network's capability to implement molecular codes. We analyzed models of chemical systems (martian atmosphere chemistry and various combustion chemistries, biochemical systems (gene expression, gene translation, and phosphorylation signaling cascades, an artificial chemistry, and random reaction networks. Our study suggests that different chemical systems possess different semantic capacities. No semantic capacity was found in the model of the martian atmosphere chemistry, the studied combustion chemistries, and highly connected random networks, i.e. with these chemistries molecular codes cannot be implemented. High semantic capacity was found in the studied biochemical systems and in random reaction networks where the number of second order reactions is twice the number of species. We conclude that our approach can be applied to evaluate the information processing capabilities of a chemical system and may thus be a useful tool to understand the origin and evolution of meaningful information, e.g. in the context of the origin of life.

  12. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Bishnu P. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wang, Thomas D., E-mail: thomaswa@umich.edu [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.

  13. Targeted Gold Nanoparticles enable Molecular CT Imaging of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Popovtzer, Rachela; Agrawal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Popovtzer, Aron; Balter, James; Carey, Thomas E.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-01-01

    X-ray based computed tomography (CT), is among the most convenient imaging/diagnostic tools in hospitals today in terms of availability, efficiency and cost. However, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and various nuclear medicine imaging modalities, CT is not considered a molecular imaging modality since targeted and molecularly specific contrast agents have not yet been developed. Here we describe a targeted molecular imaging platform that enables, for the first time, cancer de...

  14. Molecular Concordance Between Primary Breast Cancer and Matched Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Thomassen, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    receptors, transcriptomics, and genome aberrations in primary tumors and metastases. In conclusion, biopsy of metastatic lesions at recurrence of breast cancer is encouraged to provide optimal treatment of the disease. Furthermore, molecular profiling of metastatic tissue provides invaluable mechanistic......Clinical management of breast cancer is increasingly personalized and based on molecular profiling. Often, primary tumors are used as proxies for systemic disease at the time of recurrence. However, recent studies have revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, both....... The purpose of this review is to illuminate the extent of cancer genome evolution through disease progression and the degree of molecular concordance between primary breast cancers and matched metastases. We present an overview of the most prominent studies investigating the expression of endocrine...

  15. Novel approaches for the molecular classification of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert H. Getzenberg

    2010-01-01

    @@ Among the urologic cancers, prostate cancer is by far the most common, and it appears to have the potential to affect almost all men throughout the world as they age. A number of studies have shown that many men with prostate cancer will not die from their disease, but rather with the disease but from other causes. These men have a form of prostate cancer that is de-scribed as "very low risk" and has often been called indolent. There are however a group of men that have a form of prostate cancer that is much more aggressive and life threatening. Unlike other cancer types, we have few tools to provide for the molecular classification of prostate cancer.

  16. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  17. Investigation of the molecular relationship between breast cancer and obesity by candidate gene prioritization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Garshasbi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer and obesity are two major public health concerns. More than 12 million cases of cancer are reported annually. Many reports confirmed obesity as a risk factor for cancer. The molecular relationship between obesity and breast cancer has not been clear yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate priorities of effective genes in the molecular relationship between obesity and breast cancer. Methods: In this study, computer simulation method was used for prioritizing the genes that involved in the molecular links between obesity and breast cancer in laboratory of systems biology and bioinformatics (LBB, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, from March to July 2014. In this study, ENDEAVOUR software was used for prioritizing the genes and integrating multiple data sources was used for data analysis. Training genes were selected from effective genes in obesity and/or breast cancer. Two groups of candidate genes were selected. The first group was included the existential genes in 5 common region chromosomes (between obesity and breast cancer and the second group was included the results of genes microarray data analysis of research Creighton, et al (In 2012 on patients with breast cancer. The microarray data were analyzed with GER2 software (R online software on GEO website. Finally, both training and candidate genes were entered in ENDEAVOUR software package. Results: The candidate genes were prioritized to four style and five genes in ten of the first priorities were repeated twice. In other word, the outcome of prioritizing of 72 genes (Product of microarray data analysis and genes of 5 common chromosome regions (Between obesity and breast cancer showed, 5 genes (TNFRSF10B, F2, IGFALS, NTRK3 and HSP90B1 were the priorities in the molecular connection between obesity and breast cancer. Conclusion: There are some common genes between breast cancer and obesity. So, molecular relationship is confirmed. In this study the possible effect

  18. Molecular mechanisms of radioresistance: applications for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant part of head and neck cancers is clinically radioresistant. The mechanisms of acquired or intrinsic radioresistance of head and neck tumors are still unclear. More recently molecular research focused on alterations in cell cycle control and resistance to programmed cell death in tumor cells as possible mechanisms of radioresistance. Some molecular targets of radiosensitivity or radioresistance (e.g. specific oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes) are known in specific tumor cells or tumor model systems. Such key targets for head and neck cancer cells are also emerging in in vitro studies. However, it is unclear so far if the modification of such molecular targets in vivo leads to an increased tumor selective radiosensitivity. Nevertheless, selected molecular targets could be potential novel tools for modifying radiosensitivity through gene therapy in patients with radioresistant head and neck cancers. (orig.)

  19. Molecular Genetics Techniques to Develop New Treatments for Brain Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Jacob; Fathallan-Shaykh, Hassan

    2006-09-22

    The objectives of this report are: (1) to devise novel molecular gene therapies for malignant brain tumors, (2) advance our understanding of the immune system in the central nervous system; and (3) apply genomics to find molecular probes to diagnose brain tumors, predict prognosis, biological behavior and their response to treatment.

  20. Molecular epidemiology as a tool for understanding sporadic colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel

    Prague : EEMS, 2006. s. 131-131. [Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society /36./. 02.07.2006-06.07.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2626; GA MZd NR8563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Molecular Epidemiology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. The molecular biology of ear development - “Twenty years are nothing”#

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldez, Fernando; FRITZSCH, BERND

    2007-01-01

    Views of classical biological problems changed dramatically with the rise of molecular biology as a common framework. It was indeed the new language of life sciences. Molecular biology increasingly moved us towards a unified view of developmental genetics as ideas and techniques were imported to vertebrates from other biological systems where genetics was in a more advanced state. The ultimate advance has been the ability to actually perform genetic manipulations in vertebrate organisms that ...

  2. The Important Molecular Markers on Chromosome 17 and Their Clinical Impact in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Abnormalities of chromosome 17 are important molecular genetic events in human breast cancers. Several famous oncogenes (HER2, TOP2A and TAU), tumor suppressor genes (p53, BRCA1 and HIC-1) or DNA double-strand break repair gene (RDM1) are located on chromosome 17. We searched the literature on HER2, TOP2A, TAU, RDM1, p53, BRCA1 and HIC-1 on the Pubmed database. The association of genes with chromosome 17, biological functions and potential significance are reviewed. In breast cancer, the poly...

  3. Molecular profiling of breast cancer: portraits but not physiognomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancers differ in response to treatment and may have a divergent clinical course despite having a similar histopathological appearance. New technology using DNA microarrays provides a systematic method to identify key markers for prognosis and treatment response by profiling thousands of genes expressed in a single cancer. Microarray profiling of 38 invasive breast cancers now confirms striking molecular differences between ductal carcinoma specimens and suggests a new classification for oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Future approaches will need to include methods for high-throughput clinical validation and the ability to analyze microscopic samples

  4. Molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma: implications for future research and clinical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Maria-Pia; Ngan, Samuel Y; Michael, Michael; Lynch, A Craig; Heriot, Alexander G; Ramsay, Robert G; Phillips, Wayne A

    2015-12-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a human papillomavirus-related disease, in which no substantial advances in treatment have been made in over 40 years, especially for those patients who develop disease relapse and for whom no surgical options exist. HPV can evade the immune system and its role in disease progression can be exploited in novel immunotherapy platforms. Although several studies have investigated the expression and inactivation (through loss of heterozygosity) of tumour suppressor genes in the pathways to cancer, no clinically valuable biomarkers have emerged. Regulators of apoptosis, including survivin, and agents targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway, offer opportunities for targeted therapy, although robust data are scarce. Additionally, antibody therapy targeting EGFR may prove effective, although its safety profile in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy has proven to be suboptimal. Finally, progress in the treatment of anal cancer has remained stagnant due to a lack of preclinical models, including cell lines and mouse models. In this Review, we discuss the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma, clinical trials in progress, and implications for novel therapeutic targets. Future work should focus on preclinical models to provide a resource for investigation of new molecular pathways and for testing novel targets. PMID:26678214

  5. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian

  6. Correlation of microarray-based breast cancer molecular subtypes and clinical outcomes: implications for treatment optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimizing treatment through microarray-based molecular subtyping is a promising method to address the problem of heterogeneity in breast cancer; however, current application is restricted to prediction of distant recurrence risk. This study investigated whether breast cancer molecular subtyping according to its global intrinsic biology could be used for treatment customization. Gene expression profiling was conducted on fresh frozen breast cancer tissue collected from 327 patients in conjunction with thoroughly documented clinical data. A method of molecular subtyping based on 783 probe-sets was established and validated. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate molecular subtypes with survival outcome and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Heterogeneity of molecular subtypes within groups sharing the same distant recurrence risk predicted by genes of the Oncotype and MammaPrint predictors was studied. We identified six molecular subtypes of breast cancer demonstrating distinctive molecular and clinical characteristics. These six subtypes showed similarities and significant differences from the Perou-Sørlie intrinsic types. Subtype I breast cancer was in concordance with chemosensitive basal-like intrinsic type. Adjuvant chemotherapy of lower intensity with CMF yielded survival outcome similar to those of CAF in this subtype. Subtype IV breast cancer was positive for ER with a full-range expression of HER2, responding poorly to CMF; however, this subtype showed excellent survival when treated with CAF. Reduced expression of a gene associated with methotrexate sensitivity in subtype IV was the likely reason for poor response to methotrexate. All subtype V breast cancer was positive for ER and had excellent long-term survival with hormonal therapy alone following surgery and/or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not provide any survival benefit in early stages of subtype V patients. Subtype V was consistent with a unique subset of luminal A intrinsic

  7. A comprehensive study into the molecular methodology and molecular biology of methanogenic Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    Methanogens belong to the kingdom of Euryarchaeota in the domain of Archaea. The Archaea differ from Bacteria in many aspects important to molecular work. Among these are cell wall composition, their sensitivity to antibiotics, their translation and transcription machinery, and their very strict...... demands to anaerobic culture conditions. These differences may, at least partly, be responsible for the delay in availability of genetic research tools for methanogens. At present, however, the research within genetics of methanogens and their gene regulation and expression is in rapid progress. Two...... procedures. Efficient genetic manipulation systems, including shuttle and integration vector systems, have appeared for mesophilic, but not for thermophilic species within the last few years and will have a major impact on future investigations of methanogenic molecular biology....

  8. Protocatechuic acid and human disease prevention: biological activities and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, R; Santangelo, C; D'Archivio, M; Li Volti, G; Giovannini, C; Galvano, F

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown that a high dietary intake of vegetables and fruit rich in polyphenols is associated with a reduction of cancer incidence and mortality from coronary heart disease. The healthy effects associated with polyphenol consumption have made the study of the mechanisms of action a matter of great importance. In particular, the hydroxybenzoic acid protocatechuic acid (PCA) has been eliciting a growing interest for several reasons. Firstly, PCA is one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols such as anthocyanins and procyanidins that are normally found at high concentrations in vegetables and fruit, and are absorbed by animals and humans. Since the daily intake of anthocyanins has been estimated to be much higher than that of other polyphenols, the nutritional value of PCA is increasingly recognized. Secondly, a growing body of evidence supports the concept that PCA can exert a variety of biological effects by acting on different molecular targets. It has been shown that PCA possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as antihyperglycemic and neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, PCA seems to have chemopreventive potential because it inhibits the in vitro chemical carcinogenesis and exerts pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in different tissues. This review is aimed at providing an up-dated and comprehensive report on PCA giving a special emphasis on its biological activities and the molecular mechanisms of action most likely responsible for a beneficial role in human disease prevention. PMID:22519395

  9. Molecular self-assembly for biological investigations and nanoscale lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheunkar, Sarawut

    Small, diffusible molecules when recognized by their binding partners, such as proteins and antibodies, trigger enzymatic activity, cell communication, and immune response. Progress in analytical methods enabling detection, characterization, and visualization of biological dynamics at the molecular level will advance our exploration of complex biological systems. In this dissertation, analytical platforms were fabricated to capture membrane-associated receptors, which are essential proteins in cell signaling pathways. The neurotransmitter serotonin and its biological precursor were immobilized on gold substrates coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of oligo(ethylene glycol)alkanethiols and their reactive derivatives. The SAM-coated substrates present the biologically selective affinity of immobilized molecules to target native membrane-associated receptors. These substrates were also tested for biospecificity using antibodies. In addition, small-molecule-functionalized platforms, expressing neurotransmitter pharmacophores, were employed to examine kinetic interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors and their associated neurotransmitters. The binding interactions were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance equipped with liquid-flow injection. The interaction kinetics of G-protein-coupled serotonin 1A receptor and 5-hydroxytyptophan-functionalized surfaces were studied in a real-time, label-free environment. Key binding parameters, such as equilibrium dissociation constants, binding rate constants, and dissociative half-life, were extracted. These parameters are critical for understanding and comparing biomolecular interactions in modern biomedical research. By integrating self-assembly, surface functionalization, and nanofabrication, small-molecule microarrays were created for high-throughput screening. A hybrid soft-lithography, called microcontact insertion printing, was used to pattern small molecules at the dilute scales necessary for highly

  10. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  11. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  12. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another. Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms from a wider assortment of lineages on the tree of life. There are many model organisms, such as viruses (e.g., Phage lambda virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, etc., bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio fischeri, etc., algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Emiliania huxleyi, etc., molds (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, etc., yeasts (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, etc., higher plants (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Lemna gibba, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabaccum, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, Zea mays, etc. and animals (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, dog, frog, Hydra, Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, fish, etc..

  13. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

  14. Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Ingvarsson 1956

    1999-01-01

    Somatic changes in the genome of breast cancer cells include amplifications, deletions and gene mutations. Several chromosome regions harboring known oncogenes are found amplified in breast tumors. Despite the high number of chromosome regions deleted in breast tumors the functional relationship to known genes at these locations and cancer growth is mainly undiscovered. Mutations in two tumor suppressor genes (TSG) have been described in a subset of breast carcinomas. These TSG are the TP53, ...

  15. Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand: impacts of socio-demographic factors, breast cancer screening and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Harvey, Vernon; Ramsaroop, Reena; Elwood, Mark; Scott, Nina; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regiona...

  16. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  17. Which, when and why? Rational use of tissue-based molecular testing in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A E; D'Amico, A V; Freedland, S J

    2016-03-01

    An increased molecular understanding of localized prostate cancer and the improved ability for molecular testing of pathologic tissue has led to the development of multiple clinical assays. Here we review the relevant molecular biology of localized prostate cancer, currently available tissue-based tests and describe which is best supported for use in various clinical scenarios. Literature regarding testing of human prostate cancer tissue with Ki-67, PTEN (by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluroescence in situ hybridization (FISH)), ProMark, Prolaris, OncotypeDX Prostate and Decipher was reviewed to allow for generation of expert opinions. At diagnosis, evaluation of PTEN status, use of ProMark or OncotypeDX Prostate in men with Gleason 6 or 3+4=7 disease may help guide the use of active surveillance. For men with Gleason 7 or above disease considering watchful waiting, Ki-67 and Prolaris add independent prognostic information. For those men who have undergone prostatectomy and have adverse pathology, Decipher testing may aid in the decision to undergo adjuvant radiation. Newly available molecular tests bring opportunities to improve decision making for men with localized prostate cancer. A review of the currently available data suggests clinical scenarios for which each of these tests may have the greatest utility. PMID:26123120

  18. The Molecular Biology of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. L. Lever

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is widespread in feline populations and causes an AIDS-like illness in domestic cats. It is highly prevalent in several endangered feline species. In domestic cats FIV infection is a valuable small animal model for HIV infection. In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in FIV, in part to exploit this, but also because of the potential it has as a human gene therapy vector. Though much less studied than HIV there are many parallels in the replication of the two viruses, but also important differences and, despite their likely common origin, the viruses have in some cases used alternative strategies to overcome similar problems. Recent advances in understanding the structure and function of FIV RNA and proteins and their interactions has enhanced our knowledge of FIV replication significantly, however, there are still many gaps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of FIV molecular biology and its similarities with, and differences from, other lentiviruses.

  19. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BULLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  20. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using molecular biology technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Garberi; Jorge Labrador; Federico Garberi; Juan Ezequiel Garberi; Julian Peneipil; Miguel Garberi; Luis Scigliano; Alcides Troncoso

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To present an integrated molecular biology dedicated system for tuberculosis diagnosis.Methods:One hundred and five sputum specimens from patients strongly suspected by clinical parameters of tuberculosis were studied by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, by cultivation on solid medium and by a balanced heminested fluorometricPCR system (OrangeG3TB) that could preserve worker safety and produce a rather pure material free of potential inhibitors. DNA amplification was performed in a low cost tuberculosis termocycler-fluorometer. Produced double stranded DNA was flurometrically detected. The whole reaction was conducted in one single tube which would not be opened after adding the processed sample in order to minimize the risk of cross contamination with amplicons.Results: The assay was able to detect30 bacillus per sample mL with99.8% interassay variation coefficient.PCR was positive in23 (21.9%) tested samples (21 of them were smear negative). In our study it showed a preliminary sensitivity of 94.5% for sputum and an overall specificity of98.7%.Conclusions:Total run time of the test is4 h with2.5 real working time. AllPCR positive samples are also positive by microbiological culture and clinical criteria. Results show that it could be a very useful tool to increase detection efficiency of tuberculosis disease in low bacilus load samples. Furthermore, its low cost and friendly using make it feasible to run in poor regions.

  1. Recent molecular biology methods for foulbrood and nosemosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, M P; Ribière, M; Chauzat, M P

    2013-12-01

    Honey-bee colony losses are an increasing problem in Western countries. There are many different causes, including infections due to various pathogens. Molecular biology techniques have been developed to reliably detect and identify honey-bee pathogens. The most sensitive, specific and reliable is the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methodology. This review of the literature describes various studies where qPCR was used to detect, identify and quantify four major honey-bee pathogens: the bacteria Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius (the causative agents of American foulbrood and European foulbrood, respectively) and the microsporidia Nosema apis and N. ceranae (the causative agents of nosemosis). The application of qPCR to honey-bee pathogens is very recent, and techniques are expected to improve rapidly, leading to potential new prospects for diagnosis and control. Thus, qPCR techniques could shortly become a powerful tool for investigating pathogenic infections and increasing our understanding of colony losses. PMID:24761740

  2. Do biological molecular machines act as Maxwell's demons?

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    In the intention of its creator, Maxwell's demon was thought to be an intelligent being able to perform work at the expense of the entropy reduction of a closed operating system. The perplexing notion of the demon's intelligence was formalized in terms of the memory and information processing by Szilard and followers. A non-informational formulation of the problem was proposed by Smoluchowski and popularized by Feynman as the ratchet and pawl machine. A. F. Huxley and followers adopted this way of thinking to propose numerous ratchet mechanisms of the protein molecular machines action, but no entropy reduction takes place for these models. More general models of protein dynamics have been proposed with a number of intramolecular states organized in a network of stochastic transitions. Here, a computer realization of such a network is investigated, displaying, like networks of the systems biology, a transition from the fractal organization on a small length-scale to the small-world organization on the large le...

  3. Molecular Aspects of Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Da Silva; Simpson, Peter T.; Sunil R. Lakhani; Saunus, Jodi M; Majid Momeny

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of the biology underlying the development of brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer has improved over the last decade due to large clinical epidemiological studies, animal models of metastasis, and the use of high-resolution gene expression profiling technologies. However, there are still major gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms utilized by breast cancer cells to colonize the brain microenvironment, thus our arsenal of therapies remains relatively nonspecific, and the...

  4. Just Working with the Cellular Machine: A High School Game for Teaching Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Dumpel, Renata; Gomes da Silva, Luisa B.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Santos, Dilvani O.; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Castro, Helena C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular biology is a difficult comprehension subject due to its high complexity, thus requiring new teaching approaches. Herein, we developed an interdisciplinary board game involving the human immune system response against a bacterial infection for teaching molecular biology at high school. Initially, we created a database with several…

  5. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  6. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we c

  7. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol...

  8. Molecular epidemiology, prenatal exposure and prevention of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Epidemiology was originally conceived as a preventive approach, providing a valuable tool for investigating risk factors for cancer in vulnerable populations. Biomarkers can be used as early indicators of risk for preventative purposes and risk assessment. The present contribution mainly refers to in utero exposures to carcinogens, since humans are especially vulnerable during fetal development. Environmental exposures in utero can increase risks for both childhood and adult cancers...

  9. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: molecular pathogenesis and emerging therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Smallridge, Robert C.; Marlow, Laura A.; Copland, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare malignancy. While external beam radiation therapy has improved locoregional control, the median survival of ∼ 4 months has not changed in more than half a century due to uncontrolled systemic metastases. The objective of this study was to review the literature in order to identify potential new strategies for treating this highly lethal cancer. PubMed searches were the principal source of articles reviewed. The molecular pathogenesis of ATC includes m...

  10. Choline metabolism-based molecular diagnosis of cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Glunde, Kristine; Penet, Marie-France; Jiang, Lu; Jacobs, Michael A.; Zaver M Bhujwalla

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal choline metabolism continues to be identified in multiple cancers. Molecular causes of abnormal choline metabolism are changes in choline kinase-α, ethanolamine kinase-α, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and -D and glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterases, as well as several choline transporters. The net outcome of these enzymatic changes is an increase in phosphocholine and total choline (tCho) and, in some cancers, a relative decrease of glycerophosphocholine. The incre...

  11. Molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a recently identified member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family[1]. Numerous studies indicate that TRAIL can induce apoptosis of cancer cells but not of normal cells, pointing to the possibility of de-veloping TRAIL into a cancer drug[2-4]. This review will summary the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and discuss the questions to be resolved in this field.

  12. Integrated molecular portrait of non-small cell lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Vladimir; Suo, Chen; Orear, Cedric; van den Oord, Joost; Balogh, Zsofia; Guegan, Justine; Job, Bastien; Meurice, Guillaume; Ripoche, Hugues; Calza, Stefano; Hasmats, Johanna; Lundeberg, Joakim; Lacroix, Ludovic; Vielh, Philippe; Dufour, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of cancer deaths, represents a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, mostly comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). The objectives of this study were to utilize integrated genomic data including copy-number alteration, mRNA, microRNA expression and candidate-gene full sequencing data to characterize the molecular distinctions between AC and SCC. Methods Comparative genomic hybridiz...

  13. Biological basis of heavy ion beams for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutron therapy has started firstly and proton therapy has commenced secondly, fast neutron shows better biological effects compared to conventional radiations but its dose distribution is not good, and proton demonstrates excellent dose distribution but its biological effects are almost the same as that of conventional radiations. On the other hand, negative pi-mesons and heavy ions indicate high radiobiological effect and excellent dose distribution, therefore these particle radiations is considered to be more attractive for radiotherapeutic radiations to enhance cure rate of cancers. The biological strong points of these particles are as follows : 1) cells exposed to these particle radiations shows less recovery after irradiation compared to conventional radiations, 2) these radiations show high biological effects (high value of relative biological effectiveness = RBE) when the same dose is given, 3) big effects on hypoxic cells which exsist in tumor, i.e. the value of oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) is low, 4) the differences in radiosensitivity by stages of cell cycle are not so great (data was not shown in present paper), 5) biological effects at prepeak plateau region in depth dose curve formed by these particle radiations is less than that at peak region (therefore, if beam is modulated to cover tumor at spraed out broad peak, tumors is given more biological effect compared to normal tissues which is to be exposed to radiations at prepaeak region). Clinical trial using heavy ions are being performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which is only one facility to be able to try clinical trial. The results of clinical trials at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory suggest to be very prospective to enhance tumor cure rate, however it is too early to estimate the effect of heavy ion therapy. (J.P.N.)

  14. DNA aptamers as molecular probes for colorectal cancer study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Sefah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular features of specific tumors can increase our knowledge about the mechanism(s underlying disease development and progression. This is particularly significant for colorectal cancer, which is a heterogeneous complex of diseases developed in a sequential manner through a multistep carcinogenic process. As such, it is likely that tumors with similar characteristics might originate in the same manner and have a similar molecular behavior. Therefore, specific mapping of the molecular features can be potentially useful for both tumor classification and the development of appropriate therapeutic regimens. However, this can only be accomplished by developing high-affinity molecular probes with the ability to recognize specific markers associated with different tumors. Aptamers can most easily meet this challenge based on their target diversity, flexible manipulation and ease of development. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Using a method known as cell-based Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX and colorectal cancer cultured cell lines DLD-1 and HCT 116, we selected a panel of target-specific aptamers. Binding studies by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that these aptamers have high affinity and selectivity. Our data further show that these aptamers neither recognize normal colon cells (cultured and fresh, nor do they recognize most other cancer cell lines tested. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The selected aptamers can identify specific biomarkers associated with colorectal cancers. We believe that these probes could be further developed for early disease detection, as well as prognostic markers, of colorectal cancers.

  15. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miakhil I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous molecular markers for bladder cancer have been identified and investigated with various laboratory techniques. Molecular markers are isolated from tissue, serum and urine. They fall into proteomic, genetic and epigenetic categories. Some of molecular markers show promising results in terms of facilitating early diagnosis and guiding treatment. Molecular markers or the so- called biomarkers can provide additional information alongside staging, grading and lymphovascular invasion, for better prognostication.Aim:This studyprovides an up-to-date review of the frequently studied and most important biomarkers that have shown consistent relevance in relation to bladder cancer. Methods: The key words were searched on the PubMed, Google scholar and NHS library search engines. Results: More than twenty biomarkers as per our methodology were identified but only half of them have shown consistence relevance in bladder cancer. Conclusion: It is envisaged that a combination of a few biomarkers, which are investigated frequently and have shown clinical relevance, could possibly provide useful information in predicting recurrence and provide useful prognostic information. So far none of the biomarkers for bladder cancer are adopted in the UK standard practice. Despite that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA had approved some of these biomarkers, none of the urology associations incorporated them in to their guidelines as yet. However, it won’t be long before a final consensus is reached to integrate molecular staging in to the current TNM staging system.

  16. Correlation of morphological and molecular parameters for colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Roney, Celeste A.; Li, Qian; Jiang, James; Cable, Alex; Summers, Ronald M.; Chen, Yu

    2010-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. There is great interest in studying the relationship among microstructures and molecular processes of colorectal cancer during its progression at early stages. In this study, we use our multi-modality optical system that could obtain co-registered optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) images simultaneously to study CRC. The overexpressed carbohydrate α-L-fucose on the surfaces of polyps facilitates the bond of adenomatous polyps with UEA-1 and is used as biomarker. Tissue scattering coefficient derived from OCT axial scan is used as quantitative value of structural information. Both structural images from OCT and molecular images show spatial heterogeneity of tumors. Correlations between those values are analyzed and demonstrate that scattering coefficients are positively correlated with FMI signals in conjugated. In UEA-1 conjugated samples (8 polyps and 8 control regions), the correlation coefficient is ranged from 0.45 to 0.99. These findings indicate that the microstructure of polyps is changed gradually during cancer progression and the change is well correlated with certain molecular process. Our study demonstrated that multi-parametric imaging is able to simultaneously detect morphology and molecular information and it can enable spatially and temporally correlated studies of structure-function relationships during tumor progression.

  17. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies

  18. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.N. [Harvard Medical School (United States). Joint Center for Radiation Therapy

    1999-07-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies.

  19. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    reveal the molecular differences between cancer and normal that may be exploited to therapeutic benefit or that provide targets for molecular assays that may enable early cancer detection, and predict individual disease progression or response to treatment. This chapter reviews current and future directions in genome analysis and summarizes studies that provide insights into breast cancer pathophysiology or that suggest strategies to improve breast cancer management.

  20. Endometrial cancer : from a molecular genetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Smid-Koopman (Ellen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe first observations indicative of a role of genetic factors in carcinogenesis were made as early as 1912, when Rous demonstrated that a filterable agent (i.e. virus) could induce cancer in chicken (Rous 1965). In 1914, Boveri postulated a "genetic" theory on carcinogenesis by hypothes

  1. Advances and challenges in the molecular biology and treatment of glioblastoma-is there any hope for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Ignacio; Loo, Yong; Castillo, Omar; Karachaliou, Niki; Nigro, Olga; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), present some of the greatest challenges in the management of cancer patients worldwide. Even with aggressive surgical resections and recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM patients remains dismal and quality of life is poor. Although new molecular pathways crucial to the biology and invasive ability of GBM are coming to light, translation of basic science achievements into clinical practice is slow. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications arising from both disease and treatment. To help illustrate "where we are going" with GBM, we here include a detailed depiction of the molecular alterations underlying this fatal disease, as well as intensive research over the past two decades that has led to considerable advances in the understanding of basic GBM biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25705639

  2. Abstracts of the 30. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioreceptor assay) and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  3. Abstracts of the 29. annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals (including man), plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioenzymatic assay, radioreceptor assay and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  4. The epidemiology and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rosalyn D; Gallagher, Emily J; Scheinman, Eyal J; Damouni, Rawan; LeRoith, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity is associated with increasing rates of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have reported that these conditions are linked to increased rates of cancer incidence and mortality. Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and the development of dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and ultimately type 2 diabetes. Although many metabolic abnormalities occur with obesity and type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia appear to be central to these conditions and may contribute to dyslipidemia and altered levels of circulating estrogens and androgens. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological and molecular links between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, and how hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia may contribute to cancer development. We will discuss how these metabolic abnormalities may interact with estrogen signaling in breast cancer growth. Finally, we will discuss the effects of type 2 diabetes medications on cancer risk. PMID:23810003

  5. Molecular Targets of TRAIL-Sensitizing Agents in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monteleone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL, a member of the TNF superfamily, interacts with its functional death receptors (DRs and induces apoptosis in a wide range of cancer cell types. Therefore, TRAIL has been considered as an attractive agent for cancer therapy. However, many cancers are resistant to TRAIL-based therapies mainly due to the reduced expression of DRs and/or up-regulation of TRAIL pathway-related anti-apoptotic proteins. Compounds that revert such defects restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, suggesting that combined therapies could help manage neoplastic patients. In this article, we will focus on the TRAIL-sensitizing effects of natural products and synthetic compounds in colorectal cancer (CRC cells and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which such agents enhance the response of CRC cells to TRAIL.

  6. The role of the ALK receptor in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, B; Palmer, R H

    2016-09-01

    A vast array of oncogenic variants has been identified for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Therefore, there is a need to better understand the role of ALK in cancer biology in order to optimise treatment strategies. This review summarises the latest research on the receptor tyrosine kinase ALK, and how this information can guide the management of patients with cancer that is ALK-positive. A variety of ALK gene alterations have been described across a range of tumour types, including point mutations, deletions and rearrangements. A wide variety of ALK fusions, in which the kinase domain of ALK and the amino-terminal portion of various protein partners are fused, occur in cancer, with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK being the most prevalent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Different ALK fusion proteins can mediate different signalling outputs, depending on properties such as subcellular localisation and protein stability. The ALK fusions found in tumours lack spatial and temporal regulation, which can also affect dimerisation and substrate specificity. Two ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), crizotinib and ceritinib, are currently approved in Europe for use in ALK-positive NSCLC and several others are in development. These ALK TKIs bind slightly differently within the ATP-binding pocket of the ALK kinase domain and are associated with the emergence of different resistance mutation patterns during therapy. This emphasises the need to tailor the sequence of ALK TKIs according to the ALK signature of each patient. Research into the oncogenic functions of ALK, and fast paced development of ALK inhibitors, has substantially improved outcomes for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. Limited data are available surrounding the physiological ligand-stimulated activation of ALK signalling and further research is needed. Understanding the role of ALK in tumour biology is key to further optimising therapeutic strategies for ALK

  7. Tracking metastatic breast cancer: the future of biology in biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y C; Wiegmans, A P

    2016-04-01

    Circulating tumour cells associated with breast cancer (brCTCs) represent cells that have the capability to establish aggressive secondary metastatic tumours. The isolation and characterization of CTCs from blood in a single device is the future of oncology diagnosis and treatment. The methods of enrichment of CTCs have primarily utilized simple biological interactions with bimodal reporting with biased high purity and low numbers or low purity and high background. In this review, we will discuss the advances in microfluidics that has allowed the use of more complex selection criteria and biological methods to identify CTC populations. We will also discuss a potential new method of selection based on the response of the oncogenic DNA repair pathways within brCTCs. This method would allow insight into not only the oncogenic signalling at play but the chemoresistance mechanisms that could guide future therapeutic intervention at any stage of disease progression. PMID:26995223

  8. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Endostar on Liver Cancer through Optical Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Qian ZHANG; Du, Yang; Xue, Zhenwen; Chi, Chongwei; Jia, Xiaohua; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug treatment response, and it has become an important tool to promote biological studies in recent years. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic effects of Endostar on liver cancer based on the optical molecular imaging systems including micro-computer tomography (Micro-CT), bioluminescence molecular imaging (BLI) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT...

  10. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  11. Integrating tumor microenvironment with cancer molecular classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Etienne; De Reyniès, Aurélien; Fridman, Wolf H.

    2015-01-01

    Editorial summary The composition of the tumor microenvironment is associated with a patient's prognosis and can be therapeutically targeted. A link between the cellular composition and genomic features of the tumor and its response to immunotherapy is beginning to emerge. Analyzing the microenvironment of tumor molecular subgroups can be a useful approach to tailor immunotherapies.

  12. Molecular buckets: cyclodextrins for oral cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, P.; Huarte, J; Agüeros, M.; Ruiz-Gaton, L. (Luisa); Espuelas, S.; J.M. Irache

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is preferred by patients for drug administration due to its convenience, resulting in improved compliance. Unfortunately, for a number of drugs (e.g., anticancer drugs), this route of administration remains a challenge. Oral chemotherapy may be an attractive option and especially appropriate for chronic treatment of cancer. However, this route of administration is particularly complicated for the administration of anticancer drugs ascribed to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical C...

  13. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  14. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm in...... medicine towards more individualized treatment....

  15. The redox biology network in cancer pathophysiology and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Manda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The review pinpoints operational concepts related to the redox biology network applied to the pathophysiology and therapeutics of solid tumors. A sophisticated network of intrinsic and extrinsic cues, integrated in the tumor niche, drives tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Critical mutations and distorted redox signaling pathways orchestrate pathologic events inside cancer cells, resulting in resistance to stress and death signals, aberrant proliferation and efficient repair mechanisms. Additionally, the complex inter-cellular crosstalk within the tumor niche, mediated by cytokines, redox-sensitive danger signals (HMGB1 and exosomes, under the pressure of multiple stresses (oxidative, inflammatory, metabolic, greatly contributes to the malignant phenotype. The tumor-associated inflammatory stress and its suppressive action on the anti-tumor immune response are highlighted. We further emphasize that ROS may act either as supporter or enemy of cancer cells, depending on the context. Oxidative stress-based therapies, such as radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy, take advantage of the cytotoxic face of ROS for killing tumor cells by a non-physiologically sudden, localized and intense oxidative burst. The type of tumor cell death elicited by these therapies is discussed. Therapy outcome depends on the differential sensitivity to oxidative stress of particular tumor cells, such as cancer stem cells, and therefore co-therapies that transiently down-regulate their intrinsic antioxidant system hold great promise. We draw attention on the consequences of the damage signals delivered by oxidative stress-injured cells to neighboring and distant cells, and emphasize the benefits of therapeutically triggered immunologic cell death in metastatic cancer. An integrative approach should be applied when designing therapeutic strategies in cancer, taking into consideration the mutational, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative status of tumor cells, cellular

  16. Environmental effects on molecular biomarkers expression in pancreatic and brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Lawrence; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Massodi, Iqbal; Anbil, Sriram; Mai, Zhiming; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-03-01

    A complete understanding of the biological mechanisms regulating devastating disease such as cancer remains elusive. Pancreatic and brain cancers are primary among the cancer types with poor prognosis. Molecular biomarkers have emerged as group of proteins that are preferentially overexpressed in cancers and with a key role in driving disease progression and resistance to chemotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cell proliferative biomarker is particularly highly expressed in most cancers including brain and pancreatic cancers. The ability of EGFR to sustain prolong cell proliferation is augmented by biomarkers such as Bax, Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, proteins regulating the apoptotic process. To better understand the role and effect of the microenvironment on these biomarkers in pancreatic cancer (PaCa); we analysed two pancreatic tumor lines (AsPc-1 and MiaPaCa-2) in 2D, 3D in-vitro cultures and in orthotopic tumors at different growth stages. We also investigated in patient derived glioblastoma (GBM) tumor cultures, the ability to utilize the EGFR expression to specifically deliver photosensitizer to the cells for photodynamic therapy. Overall, our results suggest that (1) microenvironment changes affect biomarker expression; thereby it is critical to understand these effects prior to designing combination therapies and (2) EGFR expression in tumor cells indeed could serve as a reliable and a robust biomarker that could be used to design targeted and image-guided photodynamic therapy.

  17. The origin, dynamics, and molecular evolution of transmissible cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones EA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Jones, Yuanyuan Cheng, Katherine BelovFaculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Three transmissible cancers are known to have emerged naturally in the wild: canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT; Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD; and a recently discovered leukemia-like cancer in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria. These cancers have all acquired the ability to pass between individuals. DFTD emerged approximately 20 years ago and has decimated the Tasmanian devil population. CTVT arose over 10,000 years ago in an ancient breed of dog. The clam cancer is believed to have evolved at least 40 years ago. In this manuscript, we review CTVT and DFTD, the two transmissible mammalian cancers, and provide an overview of the leukemia-like cancer of clams. We showcase how genetics and genomics have enhanced our understanding of the unique biology, origins, and evolutionary histories of these rare cancers.Keywords: transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease, DFTD, canine transmissible venereal tumor, origin, evolution

  18. Molecular genetics of cancer and tumorigenesis: Drosophila models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Min Deng

    2011-01-01

    Why do some cells not respond to normal control of cell division and become tumorous? Which signals trigger some tumor cells to migrate and colonize other tissues? What genetic factors are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer development? What environmental factors play a role in cancer formation and progression? In how many ways can our bodies prevent and restrict the growth of cancerous cells?How can we identify and deliver effective drugs to fight cancer? In the fight against cancer,which kills more people than any other disease,these and other questions have long interested researchers from a diverse range of fields.To answer these questions and to fight cancer more effectively,we must increase our understanding of basic cancer biology.Model organisms,including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,have played instrumental roles in our understanding of this devastating disease and the search for effective cures.Drosophila and its highly effective,easy-touse,and ever-expanding genetic tools have contributed toand enriched our knowledge of cancer and tumor formation tremendously.

  19. Molecular biology in the diagnosis and prognosis of solid and lymphoid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, R M; Albrecht, S

    1992-01-01

    The application of molecular biology to the study of human malignancies has led to tremendous gains in our understanding of their pathogenesis. Although their practical applications are still somewhat limited at this point, the use of molecular diagnostic tools is likely to grow at a very rapid rate as newer and more accurate prognostic markers are identified. The availability of reliable prognostic markers should allow earlier intervention in patients with aggressive disease but exhibiting only limited extent of disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Early intervention in such cases could realistically increase the probability of cure, since highly aggressive tumor cells are more likely to be eliminated by early institution of cytotoxic chemotherapy (4). The p53 tumor suppressor gene clearly represents the most promising potential prognostic marker at present, because of both the multiple phenotypic alterations caused by different p53 mutations and the high frequency of p53 mutations which have been observed in a variety of human cancers. Other prognostic markers related to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are almost certain to follow. Validation of new prognostic markers requires a knowledge of both histopathologic diagnostic criteria as well as the consequences for the patient of each diagnosis. There is bound to be some "shake-out" in the field of molecular diagnostics just as there was with other recently introduced techniques such as immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry which were found to provide additional useful information for some tumors and not for others. Since the clinical-pathologic studies needed for verification of putative prognostic markers require relatively long periods of follow up, progress in this area will almost certainly lag behind the ability of molecular biologists to identify new and potentially useful prognostic markers. Our collective ability to reap tangible gains in the clinical arena from our heavy investments in

  20. TCGA divides gastric cancer into four molecular subtypes:implications for individualized therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. The treatment of gastric cancer is chalenging because of its highly heterogeneous etiology and clinical characteristics. Recent genomic and molecular characterization of gastric cancer, especialy the findings reported by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), have shed light on the heterogeneity and potential targeted therapeutics for four different subtypes of gastric cancer.

  1. Research Needs for Understanding the Biology of Overdiagnosis in Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhir; Reid, Brian J; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kramer, Barnett S

    2016-09-01

    Many cancers offer an extended window of opportunity for early detection and therapeutic intervention that could lead to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. The pursuit of early detection in screening settings has resulted in decreased incidence and mortality for some cancers (e.g., colon and cervical cancers), and increased incidence with only modest or no effect on cause-specific mortality in others (e.g., breast and prostate). Whereas highly sensitive screening technologies are better at detecting a number of suspected "cancers" that are indolent and likely to remain clinically unimportant in the lifetime of a patient, defined as overdiagnosis, they often miss cancers that are aggressive and tend to present clinically between screenings, known as interval cancers. Unrecognized overdiagnosis leads to overtreatment with its attendant (often long-lasting) side effects, anxiety, and substantial financial harm. Existing methods often cannot differentiate indolent lesions from aggressive ones or understand the dynamics of neoplastic progression. To correctly identify the population that would benefit the most from screening and identify the lesions that would benefit most from treatment, the evolving genomic and molecular profiles of individual cancers during the clinical course of progression or indolence must be investigated, while taking into account an individual's genetic susceptibility, clinical and environmental risk factors, and the tumor microenvironment. Practical challenges lie not only in the lack of access to tissue specimens that are appropriate for the study of natural history, but also in the absence of targeted research strategies. This commentary summarizes the recommendations from a diverse group of scientists with expertise in basic biology, translational research, clinical research, statistics, and epidemiology and public health professionals convened to discuss research directions. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1870-1875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley

  2. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... that make up tissues. Tissues make up the skin and other organs of the body. Normal cells ...

  3. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  4. 2012 PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 15-20, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  5. Molecular eco-systems biology: towards an understanding of community function

    OpenAIRE

    Raes, J.; Bork, P.

    2008-01-01

    Systems-biology approaches, which are driven by genome sequencing and high-throughput functional genomics data, are revolutionizing single-cell-organism biology. With the advent of various high-throughput techniques that aim to characterize complete microbial ecosystems (metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and meta-metabolomics), we propose that the time is ripe to consider molecular systems biology at the ecosystem level (eco-systems biology). Here, we discuss the necessary data types that ar...

  6. Strategies to Optimize Molecularly Targeted Anti-Cancer Agent Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Erdogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic agents which are used in cancer chemotherapy reduced several times the number of neoplastic cells but not fully. Therefore, usage of and ldquo;targeted therapeutics" which were developed with much more rational approach is increasing markedly in patients with solid cancer. Targeted therapeutics due to selective targets aims cancer cells with specific molecular defect thereby, kils the cancer cells, which makes it possible to continue normal cells in a healthy environment. The rapid emergence of hundreds of new agents that modulates ever-growing list of the cancer-specific molecular targets promise great hope for cancer patients. Evaluation of the target agent individually, in combination with standard therapy and other target agents bring about important development challenges. As possible combinations of drugs number is unlimited, the identification of the most promising combinations and giving priority to assessing their strategies are very important.In this article important elements of the development strategy of the target agent combinations will be considered. Difficulties in this kind of combinations of rational pre-clinical and clinical evaluation and possible approaches to overcome these challenges will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 432-451

  7. Evolving molecularly targeted therapies for advanced-stage thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Ryder, Mabel

    2016-07-01

    Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered - and might further refine - patient care, and identify open questions for future research. PMID:26925962

  8. Application of Proteomics to Cancer Molecular Diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam HANASH

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strategies to achieve personalized medicine and improve public health encompass assessment of an individual's risk for disease, early detection and molecular classification of disease resulting in an informed choice of the most appropriate treatment instituted at an early stage of disease develop- ment. A major contribution of proteomics in this field is the development of blood based tests to achieve the goals of personalized medicine.

  9. Remaining Mysteries of Molecular Biology: The Role of Polyamines in the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Campbell, Kate; Ralser, Markus

    2015-10-23

    The polyamines (PAs) spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine are an essential class of metabolites found throughout all kingdoms of life. In this comprehensive review, we discuss their metabolism, their various intracellular functions and their unusual and conserved regulatory features. These include the regulation of translation via upstream open reading frames, the over-reading of stop codons via ribosomal frameshifting, the existence of an antizyme and an antizyme inhibitor, ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation, a complex bi-directional membrane transport system and a unique posttranslational modification-hypusination-that is believed to occur on a single protein only (eIF-5A). Many of these features are broadly conserved indicating that PA metabolism is both concentration critical and evolutionary ancient. When PA metabolism is disrupted, a plethora of cellular processes are affected, including transcription, translation, gene expression regulation, autophagy and stress resistance. As a result, the role of PAs has been associated with cell growth, aging, memory performance, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer. Despite comprehensive studies addressing PAs, a unifying concept to interpret their molecular role is missing. The precise biochemical function of polyamines is thus one of the remaining mysteries of molecular cell biology. PMID:26156863

  10. Systems Biology of cancer: Moving toward the Integrative Study of the metabolic alterations in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Erika Hernández Patiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives in systems biology is to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to the phenotype of a microorganism by using high-throughput technologies and genome-scale mathematical modeling. The computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is one systemic and quantitative strategy for characterizing the metabolic phenotype associated with human diseases and potentially for designing drugs with optimal clinical effects. The purpose of this short review is to describe how computational modeling, including the specific case of constraint-based modeling, can be used to explore, characterize and predict the metabolic capacities that distinguish the metabolic phenotype of cancer cell lines. As we show herein, this computational framework is far from a pure theoretical description, and to ensure proper biological interpretation, it is necessary to integrate high-throughput data and generate predictions for later experimental assessment. Hence, genome-scale modeling serves as a platform for the following: 1 the integration of data from high-throughput technologies, 2 the assessment of how metabolic activity is related to phenotype in cancer cell lines and 3 the design of new experiments to evaluate the outcomes of the in silico analysis. By combining the functions described above, we show that computational modeling is a useful methodology to construct an integrative, systemic and quantitative scheme for understanding the metabolic profiles of cancer cell lines, a first step to determine the metabolic mechanism by which cancer cells maintain and support their malignant phenotype in human tissues.

  11. Molecular biology, epidemiology, and the demise of the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime concern of radiation protection policy since 1959 has been protecting DNA from damage. The 1995 NCRP Report 121 on collective dose stases that since no human data provides direct support for the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT), and some studies provide quantitative data that, with statistical significance, contradict LNT, ultimately, confidence in LNT is based on the biophysical concept that the passage of a single charged particle could cause damage to DNA that would result in cancer. Current understanding of the basic molecular biologic mechanisms involved and recent data are examined before presenting several statistically significant epidemiologic studies that contradict the LNT hypothesis. Over eons of time a complex bio-system evolved to control the DNA alterations (oxidative adducts) produced by about 1010 free radicals/cell/d derived from 2-3 % of all metabolized oxygen. Antioxidant prevention, enzymatic repair of DNA damage, and removal of persistent DNA alterations by apoptosis, differentiation, necrosis, and the immune system, sequentially reduce DNA damage from about 106 DNA alterations/cell/d to about 1 mutation/cell/d. These mutations accumulate in stem cells during a lifetime with progressive DNA damage-control impairment associated with aging and malignant growth. A comparatively negligible number of mutations, an average of about 10-7 mutations/cell/d, is produced by low LET radiation background of 0.1 cGy/y. The remarkable efficiency of this bio-system is increased by the adaptive responses to low-dose ionizing radiation. Each of the sequential functions that prevent, repair, and remove DNA damage are adaptively stimulated by long-dose ionizing radiation in contrast to their impairment by high-dose radiation. The biologic effect of radiation is not determined by the number of mutations it creates, but by its effect on the bio-system that controls the relentless enormous burden of oxidative DNA damage. At low doses, radiation

  12. The molecular biological characteristics of childhood thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used molecular biology to study mutation and expression of key oncogenes in childhood thyroid carcinomas from Belarus and Ukraine. All cases were histologically verified by two or more pathologists including at least one from the CIS and one from the EU. We chose to study six genes which have been shown to be involved in thyroid carcinogenesis in adults: ret. Ha, Ki and N ras genes, p53 and the TSH receptor. Expression of the ret oncogene, which has been shown to be activated by translocation in a proportion of papillary carcinomas has been studied by two independent methods. The first, used by the Cambridge group uses RT-PCR to identify the expression of the tyrosine kinase domain of the gene; as the gene is normally silent in follicular cells, this approach allows demonstration of activation of ret, but does not identify the particular translocation involved. The second approach, used by the Naples group, also uses RT-PCR, but amplifies across the breakpoint of each of the three translocations already identified to provide information on the proportion of tumors which express the individual translocations of this gene. Mutations in the TSH receptor, a key modulator of thyroid follicular growth have been sought by the Brussels group using SSCP and direct sequencing. The Munich group have analyzed the samples for presence of mutation in p53, which is believed to play a role in genetic instability which is a features of carcinomas derived from may different tissues. Mutations in the common sites of the ras oncogenes have been studied by the Cambridge group. Analysis of 26 papillary carcinomas so far studied has shown that mutations in the TSH receptor and in p53 do not play a significant role in the genesis of the tumours studied. The proportion of tumours showing ret expression does not differ significantly from that found in a control non exposed population from the UK. However, the pathological study shows that nearly all the increased number of thyroid

  13. Enzymology and molecular biology of glucocorticoid metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Andreas; Maser, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a vital class of steroid hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex and that are regulated by ACTH largely under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. GCs mediate profound and diverse physiological effects in vertebrates, ranging from development, metabolism, neurobiology, anti-inflammation and programmed cell death to many other fuctions. Multiple factors "downstream" of GC secretion, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) number and the abundance of plasma binding proteins have originally been considered as modulators of GC action. However, in the last decade the role of tissue-specific GC activating and inactivating enzymes have been identified as additional determinants in GC signalling pathways. On the cellular level, they function as important pre-receptor regulators by acting as "molecular switches" for receptor-active and receptor-inactive GC hormones. According to their biologic activity to catalyze the interconversion of C11-hydroxyl and C11-oxo GCs these enzymes have been named 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD; EC 1.1.1.146). Two isoforms of 11beta-HSD have been cloned and characterized so far. 11beta-HSD type 1 is found in a wide range of tissues, acts predominantly as a reductase in intact cells and tissues by regenerating active cortisol from cortisone, and has been described to regulate GC access to the GR. 11beta-HSD type 2 is found mainly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as kidney and colon, acts only as a dehydrogenase by producing inactive cortisone, and has been found to protect the mineralocorticoid receptor from high levels of receptor-active cortisol. Recently, 11beta-HSD 1 has become highly topical due to the finding that 11beta-HSD 1 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of central obesity and the appearance of the metabolic syndrome. This review provides an overview on the components involved in GC signalling of 11beta-HSD type 1 as an important pre-receptor control

  14. Emerging Molecular and Biological Functions of MBD2, a Reader of DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Wood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is essential for many biological processes and is linked to diseases such as cancer. Methylation is usually associated with transcriptional silencing, but new research has challenged this model. Both transcriptional activation and repression have recently been found to be associated with DNA methylation in a context-specific manner. How DNA methylation patterns are interpreted into different functional output remains poorly understood. One mechanism involves the protein ‘readers’ of methylation, which includes the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD family of proteins. This review examines the molecular and biological functions of MBD2, which binds to CpG methylation and is an integral part of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NuRD complex. MBD2 has been linked to immune system function and tumorigenesis, yet little is known about its functions in vivo. Recent studies have found the MBD2 protein is ubiquitously expressed, with relatively high levels in the lung, liver and colon. Mbd2 null mice surprisingly show relatively mild phenotypes compared to mice with loss of function of other MBD proteins. This evidence has previously been interpreted as functional redundancy between the MBD proteins. Here we examine and contextualize research that suggests MBD2 has unique properties and functions among the MBD proteins. These functions translate to recently described roles in the development and differentiation of multiple cell lineages, including pluripotent stem cells and various cell types of the immune system, as well as in tumorigenesis. We also consider possible models for the dynamic interactions between MBD2 and NuRD in different tissues in vivo. The functions of MBD2 may have direct therapeutic implications for several areas of human disease, including autoimmune conditions and cancer, in addition to providing insights into the actions of NuRD and chromatin regulation.

  15. Biologic correlates and significance of axonogenesis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olar, Adriana; He, Dandan; Florentin, Diego; Ding, Yi; Ayala, Gustavo

    2014-07-01

    Cancer-related axonogenesis and neurogenesis are recently described biologic phenomena. Our previously published data showed that nerve density and the number of neurons in the parasympathetic ganglia are increased in prostate cancer (PCa) and associated with aggressive disease. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 640 radical prostatectomy specimens with PCa. Anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) antibodies were used to identify and quantify nerve density. Protein expression was objectively analyzed using deconvolution imaging, image segmentation, and image analysis. Data were correlated with clinicopathological variables and tissue biomarkers available in our database. Nerve density, as measured by PGP 9.5 expression, had a weak but significant positive correlation with the lymph node status (ρ = 0.106; P = .0275). By Cox univariate analysis, PGP 9.5 was a predictor of time to biochemical recurrence, but not on multivariate analysis. Increased nerve density correlated with increased proliferation of PCa cells. It also correlated with expression of proteins involved in survival pathways (Phosphorylated alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, NFκB, GSK-2, PIM-2, c-Myc, SKP-2, SRF, P27n, PTEN), with increased levels of hormonal regulation elements (androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α), and coregulators and repressors (SRC-1, SRC-2, AIB-1, DAX). Axonogenesis is a recently described phenomenon of paramount importance in the biology of PCa. Although the degree of axonogenesis is predictive of aggressive behavior in PCa, it does not add to the information present in current models on multivariate analysis. We present data that corroborate that axonogenesis is involved in biologic processes such as proliferation of PCa, through activation of survival pathways and interaction with hormonal regulation. PMID:24767770

  16. Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hidetsugu; Kuroda, Hajime; Imai, Yasuo; Hiraishi, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that lead to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa to adenocarcinoma. Approximately 75% of CRCs are sporadic and occur in people without genetic predisposition or family history of CRC. During the past two decades, sporadic CRCs were classified into three major groups according to frequently altered/mutated genes. These genes have been identified by linkage analyses of cancer-prone families and by individual mutation analyses of candidate genes selected on the basis of functional data. In the first half of this review, we describe the genetic pathways of sporadic CRCs and their clinicopathologic features. Recently, large-scale genome analyses have detected many infrequently mutated genes as well as a small number of frequently mutated genes. These infrequently mutated genes are likely described in a limited number of pathways. Gene-oriented models of CRC progression are being replaced by pathway-oriented models. In the second half of this review, we summarize the present knowledge of this research field and discuss its prospects. PMID:26738600

  17. Tailoring Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Based on Tumor Biology or Tumor Burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnikar, Domen; Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether to offer adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer has always been challenging to answer. It is well known that a substantial proportion of patients with early-stage breast cancer are over treated, especially when staging and hormonal and HER2 receptors are solely taken into consideration. The advances in our knowledge of breast cancer biology and its clinical implications were the basis for the discovery of additional reliable prognostic markers to aid decision making for adjuvant treatment. Gene expression profiling is a molecular tool that more precisely defines the intrinsic characteristics of each individual tumor. The application of this technology has led to the development of gene signatures/profiles with relevant prognostic-and some predictive-value that have become important tools in defining which patients with early-stage breast cancer can be safely spared from chemotherapy. However, the exact clinical utility of these tools will only be determined after the results of two large prospective randomized trials, MINDACT and TailorX, evaluating their role become available. Notwithstanding the existence of these genomic tools, tumor burden (defined as tumor size and nodal status) still has independent prognostic value and must be incorporated in decision making. In addition, these gene signatures have limited predictive value, and new biomarkers and new targets are needed. Therefore close collaboration between clinicians and scientists is crucial. Lastly, issues of cost-effectiveness, reimbursement, and availability are crucial and widely variable around the globe. PMID:27249737

  18. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  19. The correlations between the MRI features of breast cancer and molecular biological behavior%乳腺癌MRI特征与分子生物学行为的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱萍; 蔡忠刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺癌MRI特征与ER、PR、Her-2、Ki-67表达及淋巴结转移的相关性,为乳腺癌的疗效评价提供依据。方法28例乳腺癌患者行MR平扫、MR动态增强( MR-DCE)及弥散加权成像( DWI),分析MRI成像特征(大小、边缘、强化、TIC类型、ADC值),并与肿瘤标记物( ER、PR、Her-2、Ki-67)表达、淋巴结转移进行相关性分析。结果①肿瘤标记物的表达及淋巴结转移:ER 阳性19例(67.86%)、PR 阳性18例(64.29%)、Her-2阳性15例(53.6%)、Ki-67阳性17例(60.71%)、淋巴结转移14例(50%)。②肿块型和非肿块型组、环形强化和非环形强化组与肿瘤标记物表达、淋巴结转移比较,差异无统计学意义。③肿瘤最大径>2 cm和≤2 cm组比较,Her-2阳性表达率差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.073,P<0.05);毛刺征和非毛刺征两组比较,PR阳性表达率差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.857, P<0.05)。④淋巴结转移率在TICⅡ型与Ⅲ型组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=7.337,P<0.05);ADC值在Her-2阳性和阴性组间比较,差异有统计学意义(t=5.624,P<0.01)。结论乳腺癌MRI征象(大小、毛刺征、TIC类型、ADC值)与肿瘤标记物(PR、Her-2)表达、淋巴结转移具有较高的相关性,分析MR征象有助于乳腺癌疗效的评价。%Objective To investigate the correlation between the MRI features of breast cancer and expression of ER, PR, HER-2, Ki-67 and lymph node metastasis, so as to provide basis for therapeutic evaluation of breast cancer.Methods We carried out MR plain scan, MR dynamic enhancement ( MR-DCE) and diffusion weighted imaging on 28 breast cancer patients;analyzed MRI ima-ging features ( size, edge, enhancement, TIC type and ADC value);and conducted correlation analysis with expression of tumor mark-ers ( ER, PR, Her-2, ki-67) and lymph node metastasis

  20. Molecular Biology of Learning: Modulation of Transmitter Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R.; Schwartz, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a behavioral system in Aplysia (marine snail) can be used to examine mechanisms of several forms of learning at different levels of analysis: behavioral, cell-physiological, ultrastructural, and molecular. Focusing on short-term sensitization, suggests how molecular mechanisms can be extended to explain long-term memory and classical…

  1. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Lincová, Eva; Staršíchová, Andrea; Pernicová, Zuzana; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.; Kozubík, Alois

    Brno, 2008. s. 11. ISBN 978-80-7013-474-0. [Aktuální problematika genetické toxikologie, 31. pracovní dny České a slovenské společnosti pro mutagenezi zevním prostředím Československé biologické společnosti. 12.05.2008-14.05.2008, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : prostate cancer * neuroendocrine differentiation * inflammation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. Retinoic acid receptors: from molecular mechanisms to cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Masi, Alessandra; Leboffe, Loris; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Pagano, Francesca; Cicconi, Laura; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Nervi, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the major bioactive metabolite of retinol or vitamin A, induces a spectrum of pleiotropic effects in cell growth and differentiation that are relevant for embryonic development and adult physiology. The RA activity is mediated primarily by members of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subfamily, namely RARα, RARβ and RARγ, which belong to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. RARs form heterodimers with members of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) subfamily and act as ligand-regulated transcription factors through binding specific RA response elements (RAREs) located in target genes promoters. RARs also have non-genomic effects and activate kinase signaling pathways, which fine-tune the transcription of the RA target genes. The disruption of RA signaling pathways is thought to underlie the etiology of a number of hematological and non-hematological malignancies, including leukemias, skin cancer, head/neck cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, glioblastoma and neuroblastoma. Of note, RA and its derivatives (retinoids) are employed as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents because of their differentiation, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects. In humans, retinoids reverse premalignant epithelial lesions, induce the differentiation of myeloid normal and leukemic cells, and prevent lung, liver, and breast cancer. Here, we provide an overview of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that regulate the RA and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, mechanisms through which deregulation of RA signaling pathways ultimately impact on cancer are examined. Finally, the therapeutic effects of retinoids are reported. PMID:25543955

  3. [Development of molecular targeted therapies in lung cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    Human cancers usually possess cumulative genetic aberrations. However, recent studies have revealed that the proliferation and survival of specific subsets of lung cancer depend on a few somatic mutation(s), so-called driver mutations. Representative driver mutations include the EGFR mutation and ALK translocation identified in about 40% and 3% of lung adenocarcinomas in Japan, respectively. These tumors are extremely sensitive to the respective tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This sensitivity has encouraged researchers and clinicians to explore novel driver mutations in lung cancers as future molecular targets. Driver mutations reported so far include the HER2 mutation, BRAF mutation, ROS1 translocation, RET translocation, and NTRK translocation in lung adenocarcinomas, and FGFR1 amplification, DDR2 mutation, and FGFR3 translocation in lung squamous cell carcinomas. However, despite initial dramatic responses, the acquisition of resistance to molecular targeted drugs is almost inevitable. Overcoming resistance to molecular targeted drugs, the key drugs at this time, is an urgent issue to improve the outcomes of lung cancer patients. PMID:24946519

  4. The molecular mechanisms between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-Yuan; Li, Zhi-Rong; Luo, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease. PMID:26891869

  5. Multi-study integration of brain cancer transcriptomes reveals organ-level molecular signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyun Sung

    Full Text Available We utilized abundant transcriptomic data for the primary classes of brain cancers to study the feasibility of separating all of these diseases simultaneously based on molecular data alone. These signatures were based on a new method reported herein--Identification of Structured Signatures and Classifiers (ISSAC--that resulted in a brain cancer marker panel of 44 unique genes. Many of these genes have established relevance to the brain cancers examined herein, with others having known roles in cancer biology. Analyses on large-scale data from multiple sources must deal with significant challenges associated with heterogeneity between different published studies, for it was observed that the variation among individual studies often had a larger effect on the transcriptome than did phenotype differences, as is typical. For this reason, we restricted ourselves to studying only cases where we had at least two independent studies performed for each phenotype, and also reprocessed all the raw data from the studies using a unified pre-processing pipeline. We found that learning signatures across multiple datasets greatly enhanced reproducibility and accuracy in predictive performance on truly independent validation sets, even when keeping the size of the training set the same. This was most likely due to the meta-signature encompassing more of the heterogeneity across different sources and conditions, while amplifying signal from the repeated global characteristics of the phenotype. When molecular signatures of brain cancers were constructed from all currently available microarray data, 90% phenotype prediction accuracy, or the accuracy of identifying a particular brain cancer from the background of all phenotypes, was found. Looking forward, we discuss our approach in the context of the eventual development of organ-specific molecular signatures from peripheral fluids such as the blood.

  6. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  7. Efficient molecular subtype classification of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Huei San; Galletta, Laura; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Köbel, Martin; Ramus, Susan J; Bowtell, David

    2015-07-01

    High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) account for approximately 70% of all epithelial ovarian cancers diagnosed. Using microarray gene expression profiling, we previously identified four molecular subtypes of HGSC: C1 (mesenchymal), C2 (immunoreactive), C4 (differentiated), and C5 (proliferative), which correlate with patient survival and have distinct biological features. Here, we describe molecular classification of HGSC based on a limited number of genes to allow cost-effective and high-throughput subtype analysis. We determined a minimal signature for accurate classification, including 39 differentially expressed and nine control genes from microarray experiments. Taqman-based (low-density arrays and Fluidigm), fluorescent oligonucleotides (Nanostring), and targeted RNA sequencing (Illumina) assays were then compared for their ability to correctly classify fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. All platforms achieved > 90% classification accuracy with RNA from fresh frozen samples. The Illumina and Nanostring assays were superior with fixed material. We found that the C1, C2, and C4 molecular subtypes were largely consistent across multiple surgical deposits from individual chemo-naive patients. In contrast, we observed substantial subtype heterogeneity in patients whose primary ovarian sample was classified as C5. The development of an efficient molecular classifier of HGSC should enable further biological characterization of molecular subtypes and the development of targeted clinical trials. PMID:25810134

  8. The implications of breast cancer molecular phenotype for radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShirinSioshansi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence in the hormone receptor positive luminal subtypes compared to hormone receptor negative subtypes (triple negative and HER2-enriched. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of local recurrence. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of local recurrence for patients with triple negative tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and local recurrence following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased local recurrence in triple negative breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  9. Near Infrared Imaging of Molecular Beacons in Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Britton

    2001-03-01

    The recent demonstrations of the efficacy of the tumor to background contrast in breast cancer using the tricarbo-cyanine near infrared (NIR) agent with time domain 2-D imaging presages the greater efficacy of site-directed optical contrast agents for early detection of cancers which show contrast (tissue to background) of over 20 fold. Further increases of contrast are obtained with structures that quench the fluorescence until the agent is delivered, recognized, and opened by specific enzymatic activity of the tumor. These are termed ``Molecular Beacons". In order to image the localization of the Beacons, we employ light pen ( 20μ) in LN2 gives the desired 3D high resolution image of the location of the Beacon within in the cancer cell. Since cancer prevention is linked to early detection, the high signal to background obtainable with Molecular Beacons enables the detection of very early subsurface cancers, especially breast and prostate (NIH, UIP). Thus the fluorescent Beacon excites and emits in the NIR window and signals from several cm deep in breast are detected by diffusive wave optical tomography (DWOT). Detection of objects ( 800 nm) affording 0.2 mm object detection of even low Beacon concentrations. One, two, and 3-D localization is made possible by one, two, and three orthogonal phase array null planes.

  10. Molecular subtyping of breast cancer: opportunities for new therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, P B; Millikan, R C

    2007-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that breast cancer is not one disease but many separate diseases. DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling has demonstrated subtypes with distinct phenotypic features and clinical responses. Prominent among the new subtypes is 'basal-like' breast cancer, one of the 'intrinsic' subtypes defined by negativity for the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2/neu receptors and positivity for cytokeratins-5/6. Focusing on basal-like breast cancer, we discuss how molecular technologies provide new chemotherapy targets, optimising treatment whilst sparing patients from unnecessary toxicity. Clinical trials are needed that incorporate long-term follow-up of patients with well-characterised tumour markers. Whilst the absence of an obvious dominant oncogene driving basal-like breast cancer and the lack of specific therapeutic agents are serious stumbling blocks, this review will highlight several promising therapeutic candidates currently under evaluation. Thus, new molecular technologies should provide a fundamental foundation for better understanding breast and other cancers which may be exploited to save lives. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957336

  11. Introducing Molecular Biology to Environmental Engineers through Development of a New Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerther, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a molecular biology course designed for environmental engineering majors using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-targeted technology that allows students to identify and study microorganisms in bioreactor environments. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  12. STUDIES OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY BY PATTERN RECOGNITION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attempt to rationalize the connections between the molecular structures of organic compounds and their biological activities comprises the field of structure-activity relations (SAR) studies. Correlations between structure and activity are important for the understanding and ...

  13. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Phair, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist–electrical engineer–systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a fu...

  14. 2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith Berman

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  15. Biologic Mechanisms of Oral Cancer Pain and Implications for Clinical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, C.T.; SCHMIDT, B.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer pain is an ever-present public health concern. With innovations in treatment, cancer patients are surviving longer, but uncontrollable pain creates a poor quality of life for these patients. Oral cancer is unique in that it causes intense pain at the primary site and significantly impairs speech, swallowing, and masticatory functions. We propose that oral cancer pain has underlying biologic mechanisms that are generated within the cancer microenvironment. A comprehensive understanding ...

  16. Cyclin E Transgenic Mice: Discovery Tools for Lung Cancer Biology, Therapy, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and many other countries. This fact underscores the need for clinically relevant models to increase our understanding of lung cancer biology and to help design and implement preventive and more-effective therapeutic interventions for lung cancer. New murine transgenic models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been engineered for this purpose. In one such model, overexpression of the cell-cycle regulator ...

  17. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  18. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  19. Sodium selenite and cancer related lymphedema: Biological and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Christina; Dawzcynski, Horst; Schingale, Franz-Josef

    2016-09-01

    A significant percentage of cancer patients develop secondary lymphedema after surgery or radiotherapy. The preferred treatment of secondary lymphedema is complex physical therapy. Pharmacotherapy, for example with diuretics, has received little attention, because they were not effective and only offered short-term solutions. Sodium selenite showed promise as a cost-effective, nontoxic anti-inflammatory agent. Treatment with sodium selenite lowers reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, causes a spontaneous reduction in lymphedema volume, increases the efficacy of physical therapy for lymphedema, and reduces the incidence of erysipelas infections in patients with chronic lymphedema. Besides biological effects in reducing excessive production of ROS, sodium selenite also displays various pharmacological effects. So far the exact mechanisms of these pharmacological effects are mostly unknown, but probably include inhibition of adhesion protein expression. PMID:27267968

  20. Molecular profiles of screen detected vs. symptomatic breast cancer and their impact on survival: results from a clinical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage shift is widely considered a major determinant of the survival benefit conferred by breast cancer screening. However, factors and mechanisms underlying such a prognostic advantage need further clarification. We sought to compare the molecular characteristics of screen detected vs. symptomatic breast cancers and assess whether differences in tumour biology might translate into survival benefit. In a clinical series of 448 women with operable breast cancer, the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to estimate the likelihood of cancer recurrence and death. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for the multivariate analyses including mode of detection, age at diagnosis, tumour size, and lymph node status. These same models were applied to subgroups defined by molecular subtypes. Screen detected breast cancers tended to show more favourable clinicopathological features and survival outcomes compared to symptomatic cancers. The luminal A subtype was more common in women with mammography detected tumours than in symptomatic patients (68.5 vs. 59.0%, p=0.04). Data analysis across categories of molecular subtypes revealed significantly longer disease free and overall survival for screen detected cancers with a luminal A subtype only (p=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). For women with a luminal A subtype, the independent prognostic role of mode of detection on recurrence was confirmed in Cox proportional hazard models (p=0.03). An independent role of modality of detection on survival was also suggested (p=0.05). Molecular subtypes did not substantially explain the differences in survival outcomes between screened and symptomatic patients. However, our results suggest that molecular profiles might play a role in interpreting such differences at least partially. Further studies are warranted to reinterpret the efficacy of screening programmes in the light of tumour biology

  1. ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

    2012-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevan...

  2. Workshop in computational molecular biology, April 15, 1991--April 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavare, S.

    1995-04-12

    Funds from this award were used to the Workshop in Computational Molecular Biology, `91 Symposium entitled Interface: Computing Science and Statistics, Seattle, Washington, April 21, 1991; the Workshop in Statistical Issues in Molecular Biology held at Stanford, California, August 8, 1993; and the Session on Population Genetics a part of the 56th Annual Meeting, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, San Francisco, California, August 9, 1993.

  3. Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: radioisotopes as historical tracers of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformat...

  4. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Ross

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, which was discovered as a milk‑transmitted, infectious cancer-inducing agent in the 1930s, has been used since that time as an animal model for the study of human breast cancer. Like other complex retroviruses, MMTV encodes a number of accessory proteins that both facilitate infection and affect host immune response. In vivo, the virus predominantly infects lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells. High level infection of mammary epithelial cells ensures efficient passage of virus to the next generation. It also results in mammary tumor induction, since the MMTV provirus integrates into the mammary epithelial cell genome during viral replication and activates cellular oncogene expression. Thus, mammary tumor induction is a by-product of the infection cycle. A number of important oncogenes have been discovered by carrying out MMTV integration site analysis, some of which may play a role in human breast cancer.

  5. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment and Evaluation System for Biotechnology Specialty Students: An Effective Evaluation System to Improve the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suxia; Wu, Haizhen; Zhao, Jian; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to achieve high success in knowledge and technique acquisition as a whole, a biochemistry and molecular biology experiment was established for high-grade biotechnology specialty students after they had studied essential theory and received proper technique training. The experiment was based on cloning and expression of alkaline…

  6. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-based case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel art and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significartly, OR is 3.905 ( 95 % CI = 1.079 ~ 14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blood relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LOH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Conclusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  7. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Obieaites. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-besed case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel-Gart and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymemse chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significantly, OR is 3.905(95% CI = 1.079—14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blnod relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LDH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome abermtions were observed.Condusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  8. Clinical Challenges to Current Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Gagan; Eggert, Ashley; Puri, Neelu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is difficult to treat with a poor prognosis and a five year survival of 15%. Current molecularly targeted therapies are initially effective in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, they are plagued with difficulties including induced resistance and small therapeutically responsive populations. This mini review describes the mechanism of resistance to several molecularly targeted therapies which are currently being used to treat NSCLC. The major targets discussed are c-Met, EGFR, HER2, ALK, VEGFR, and BRAF. The first generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resulted in resistance; however, second and third generation TKIs are being developed, which are generally more efficacious and have potential to treat NSCLC patients with resistance to first generation TKIs. Combination therapies could also be effective in preventing TKI resistance in NSCLC patients.

  9. Interaction of pathology and molecular characterization of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of joint studies of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age between departments in Cambridge, Brussels, Naples and Munich in the European Union, and departments in Minsk, Kiev and Obninsk in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe. The pathology of 264 cases of childhood thyroid cancer out of 430 that have occurred since 1990 in the 3 countries in which high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident occurred has been restudied by NIS and EU pathologists. The overall level of agreement reached was about 97%. The diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and ISH for the differentiation markers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and the tumors were classified according to the WHO, with papillary carcinomas being further subclassified. 99% of the 134 Belarussian cases were papillary carcinomas, as were 94% of the 114 Ukrainian tumors. All 9 of the Russian cases available for study were papillary in type. 76 of 154 cases of childhood thyroid cancer reviewed over a 30 year period in England and Wales and were also studied, 68% of these were papillary carcinoma. Histological study showed that a subtype of papillary carcinoma, rarely found in adults, with a solid/follicular architecture occurred in children. It was found in 72% of the Belarussian papillary carcinomas, 76% of the Ukrainian cases, but only 40% of the England and Wales cases. Molecular biological studies showed that the proportion of cases of papillary carcinoma expressing the ret gene was not significantly different in the exposed and the unexposed tumors, studies of the type of translocation leading to ret gene expression are not yet conclusive. Ras gene mutations were found as expected in follicular carcinoma, but were absent from any papillary carcinoma, whether from exposed or unexposed cases. TSH receptor mutations, normally found in follicular tumors were not found in any papillary carcinomas, nor were any p53 mutations identified. All these results

  10. From Gene to Protein: A 3-Week Intensive Course in Molecular Biology for Physical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a 3-week intensive molecular biology methods course based upon fluorescent proteins, which is successfully taught at the McGill University to advanced undergraduates and graduates in physics, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medicine. No previous knowledge of biological terminology or methods is expected, so…

  11. Size Matters: Molecular Weight Specificity of Hyaluronan Effects in Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime M. Cyphert; Trempus, Carol S.; Stavros Garantziotis

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan signaling properties are unique among other biologically active molecules, that they are apparently not influenced by postsynthetic molecular modification, but by hyaluronan fragment size. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the generation of hyaluronan fragments of different size and size-dependent differences in hyaluronan signaling as well as their downstream biological effects.

  12. Exploring molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangwoo; Nam, Hojung; Lee, Doheon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymph node invasion is one of the most powerful clinical factors in cancer prognosis. However, molecular level signatures of their correlation are remaining poorly understood. Here, we propose a new approach, monotonically expressed gene analysis (MEGA), to correlate transcriptional patterns of lymph node invasion related genes with clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Results Using MEGA, we scored all genes with their transcriptional patterns ov...

  13. Exploring molecular links between lymph node invasion and cancer prognosis in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Sangwoo; Nam Hojung; Lee Doheon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymph node invasion is one of the most powerful clinical factors in cancer prognosis. However, molecular level signatures of their correlation are remaining poorly understood. Here, we propose a new approach, monotonically expressed gene analysis (MEGA), to correlate transcriptional patterns of lymph node invasion related genes with clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. Results Using MEGA, we scored all genes with their transcriptional patterns over progression level...

  14. StrateGene: object-oriented programming in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart, R E; Cash, H D; Moore, J F

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes some of the ways that object-oriented programming methodologies have been used to represent and manipulate biological information in a working application. When running on a Xerox 1100 series computer, StrateGene functions as a genetic engineering workstation for the management of information about cloning experiments. It represents biological molecules, enzymes, fragments, and methods as classes, subclasses, and members in a hierarchy of objects. These objects may have various attributes, which themselves can be defined and classified. The attributes and their values can be passed from the classes of objects down to the subclasses and members. The user can modify the objects and their attributes while using them. New knowledge and changes to the system can be incorporated relatively easily. The operations on the biological objects are associated with the objects themselves. This makes it easier to invoke them correctly and allows generic operations to be customized for the particular object. PMID:3164229

  15. Molecular Targeted Therapies Using Botanicals for Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Nagi; Chornokur, Ganna

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the large number of botanicals demonstrating promise as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, most have failed to prove effectiveness in clinical trials. Critical requirements for moving botanical agents to recommendation for clinical use include adopting a systematic, molecular-target based approach and utilizing the same ethical and rigorous methods that are used to evaluate other pharmacological agents. Preliminary data on a mechanistic rationale for chemoprevention activity...

  16. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes. T

  17. Cloning Yeast Actin cDNA Leads to an Investigative Approach for the Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W.; Tuan, Alice; Jonasson, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of molecular tools in multiple disciplines has elevated the importance of undergraduate laboratory courses that train students in molecular biology techniques. Although it would also be desirable to provide students with opportunities to apply these techniques in an investigative manner, this is generally not possible in the…

  18. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Fales, Andrew; Register, Janna; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-08-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS) exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  20. Biological and clinical implications of cancer stem cells in primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuggeroDe Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic advances, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a lethal disease. The infiltrative nature of this disease and the presence of a cellular population resistant to current medical treatments account for the poor prognosis of these patients. Growing evidence indicates the existence of a fraction of cancer cells sharing the functional properties of adult stem cells, including self-renewal and a greater ability to escape chemo-radiotherapy-induced death stimuli. Therefore, these cells are commonly defined as cancer stem cells (GBM-SCs. The initial GBM-SC concept has been challenged, and refined according to the emerging molecular taxonomy of GBM. This allowed to postulate the existence of multiple CSC types, each one driving a given molecular entity. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that GBM-SCs thrive through a dynamic and bidirectional interaction with the surrounding microenvironment. In this article, we discuss recent advances in GBM-SC biology, mechanisms through which these cells adapt to hostile conditions, pharmacological strategies for selectively killing GBM-SCs, and how novel CSC-associated endpoints have been investigated in the clinical setting.

  1. Feature Selection and Molecular Classification of Cancer Using Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite important advances in microarray-based molecular classification of tumors, its application in clinical settings remains formidable. This is in part due to the limitation of current analysis programs in discovering robust biomarkers and developing classifiers with a practical set of genes. Genetic programming (GP is a type of machine learning technique that uses evolutionary algorithm to simulate natural selection as well as population dynamics, hence leading to simple and comprehensible classifiers. Here we applied GP to cancer expression profiling data to select feature genes and build molecular classifiers by mathematical integration of these genes. Analysis of thousands of GP classifiers generated for a prostate cancer data set revealed repetitive use of a set of highly discriminative feature genes, many of which are known to be disease associated. GP classifiers often comprise five or less genes and successfully predict cancer types and subtypes. More importantly, GP classifiers generated in one study are able to predict samples from an independent study, which may have used different microarray platforms. In addition, GP yielded classification accuracy better than or similar to conventional classification methods. Furthermore, the mathematical expression of GP classifiers provides insights into relationships between classifier genes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GP may be valuable for generating effective classifiers containing a practical set of genes for diagnostic/ prognostic cancer classification.

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone-enhanced breast cancer cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Chen; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) was demonstrated to inhibit migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but to enhance migration in T47D breast cancer cells. To investigate the mechanism responsible for this switch in P4 action, we examined the signaling pathway responsible for the P4-induced migration enhancement in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MCF-7. Here, we demonstrated that P4 activated the cSrc/AKT signaling pathway, subsequently inducing RSK1 activation, which in turn increased phosphorylation of p27 at T198 and formation of the p27pT198-RhoA complex in the cytosol, thereby preventing RhoA degradation, and eventually enhanced migration in T47D cells. These findings were confirmed in the P4-treated MCF-7. Comparing the P4-induced molecular events in between breast cancer cells and VSMCs, we found that P4 increased p27 phosphorylation at T198 in breast cancer cells through RSK1 activation, while P4 increased p27 phosphorlation at Ser10 in VSMCs through KIS activation. P27pT198 formed the complex with RhoA and prevented RhoA degradation in T47D cells, whereas p-p27Ser10 formed the complex with RhoA and caused RhoA degradation in VSMCs. The results of this study highlight the molecular mechanism underlying P4-enhanced breast cancer cell migration, and suggest that RSK1 activation is responsible for the P4-induced migration enhancement in breast cancer cells. PMID:27510838

  3. HMM Search for Apoptotic Domains (MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND INFORMATION-Biological Information Science)

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masahiro; Kanehisa, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    For the purpose of analyzing apoptotic molecular interactions, we have developed a knowledge base, which consists of apoptotic molecular interactions, together with the WWW interface for it. This database and the user interface enabled us to find out entries containing various information about cell death. This information tells us that the apoptotic molecular interactions are likely to be controlled under a series of specific conserved domains. Thus, the viewpoint of domain seems to be more ...

  4. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of…

  5. How was teleology eliminated in early molecular biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Phillip R

    2012-03-01

    This paper approaches the issue of the status of teleological reasoning in contemporary biology through a historical examination of events of the 1930s that surrounded Niels Bohr's efforts to introduce 'complementarity' into biological discussions. The paper examines responses of three theoretical physicists who engaged boundary questions between the biological and physical sciences in this period in response to Bohr-Ernst Pascual Jordan (1902-80), Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961), and Max Delbrück (1906-81). It is claimed that none of these physicists sufficiently understood Bohr's 'critical' teleological arguments, which are traced to the lineage of Kant and Harald Høffding and their respective resolutions of the Antinomy of Teleological Judgment. The positions of these four historical actors are discussed in terms of Ernst Mayr's distinction of 'teleological,' 'teleomatic,' and 'teleonomic' explanations. A return to some of the views articulated by Bohr, and behind him, to Høffding and Kant, is claimed to provide a framework for reintroducing a 'critical' teleology into biological discussions. PMID:22326083

  6. A conundrum in molecular toxicology: molecular and biological changes during neoplastic transformation of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, G E; Shuler, C F; Lee, H; Casto, B C

    1995-12-01

    The process of multistage carcinogenesis lends itself to the concept that the effects of carcinogens are mediated through dose-related, multi-hit, linear changes. Multiple in vitro model systems have been developed that are designed to examine the cellular changes associated with the progression of cells through the different stages in the process; however, these systems may have inherent limitations due to the cell lines used for these studies, the manner of assessing the effects of the carcinogens, and the subsequent growth and differentiation of the exposed cells. Each of these variables results in increasing levels of uncertainty relative to the correlation of the events with the actual process of human tumor development. Therefore, the prediction of the ultimate effect of any carcinogen is difficult. Moreover, relationships between individual biological endpoints resulting from carcinogen treatment appear at best to be approximations. The presence of an activated carcinogen inside the cell can give rise to multiple outcomes, only some of which may be critical events. For example, site-specific modification of the 12th and 13th codons of H-ras is different than that in the adjacent 14th and 15th codons. It is interesting to speculate what effect these differences might have on a biological outcome, e.g., transformation to anchorage-independent growth. The use of different model systems to examine the effects of activated carcinogens also creates additional problems. Comparisons of in vitro transformed cells with similar cells isolated from human tumors indicate that the culture environment appears to influence the expression of a particular phenotype, in that human tumor cells in culture express many of the same parameters as those found in cells transformed with carcinogens in vitro. If the process of transformation is linear, then less aggressive phenotypes should progress to a more aggressive transformed stage. However, in carcinogen-transformed human cells

  7. Diversity-Oriented Synthetic Strategies Applied to Cancer Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Collins; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    How can diversity-oriented strategies for chemical synthesis provide chemical tools to help shape our understanding of complex cancer pathways and progress anti-cancer drug discovery efforts? This review (surveying the literature from 2003 to the present) considers the applications of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS), biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS) and associated strategies to cancer biology and drug discovery, summarising the syntheses of novel and often highly complex scaffolds from p...

  8. Impact of tumor chronology and tumor biology on lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, Ann; Ryckx, Andries; Belmans, Ann; Wildiers, Hans; Neven, Patrick; Floris, Giuseppe; Schöffski, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The significance of nodal metastasis in breast cancer is under discussion. We investigated the impact of variables of tumor chronology and tumor biology on the presence of lymph node metastases. Purpose Lymph node involvement is the main prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, it is under discussion whether nodal metastasis in breast cancer only reflects the chronological age of the tumor or whether it is also a marker of tumor biology. The goal of our study was to investigate t...

  9. Cellular and Developmental Biology of TRPM7 Channel-Kinase: Implicated Roles in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (TRPM7 is a ubiquitously expressed cation-permeable ion channel with intrinsic kinase activity that plays important roles in various physiological functions. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies, in combination with molecular analyses of TRPM7, have generated insights into its functions as a cellular sensor and transducer of physicochemical stimuli. Accumulating evidence indicates that TRPM7 channel-kinase is essential for cellular processes, such as proliferation, survival, differentiation, growth, and migration. Experimental studies in model organisms, such as zebrafish, mouse, and frog, have begun to elucidate the pleiotropic roles of TRPM7 during embryonic development from gastrulation to organogenesis. Aberrant expression and/or activity of the TRPM7 channel-kinase have been implicated in human diseases including a variety of cancer. Studying the functional roles of TRPM7 and the underlying mechanisms in normal cells and developmental processes is expected to help understand how TRPM7 channel-kinase contributes to pathogenesis, such as malignant neoplasia. On the other hand, studies of TRPM7 in diseases, particularly cancer, will help shed new light in the normal functions of TRPM7 under physiological conditions. In this article, we will provide an updated review of the structural features and biological functions of TRPM7, present a summary of current knowledge of its roles in development and cancer, and discuss the potential of TRPM7 as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target in malignant diseases.

  10. Cancer tissue engineering - new perspectives in understanding the biology of solid tumours - a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, C.; Moroni, L.; Danti, S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding cancer biology is a major challenge of this century. The recent insight about carcinogenesis mechanisms, including the role exerted by the tumour microenvironment and cancer stem cells in chemoresistance, relapse and metastases, has made it self-evident that only new cancer models, wit

  11. Study on the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer vascular endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer vascular endothelial cells,including the aspects of morphology,species,genetics,vascular formation ability,and proliferation ability in vitro. Methods The human pancreatic cancer cells were inoculated in nude mice pancreas to get pancreatic cancer

  12. The molecular biology of memory: cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel Eric R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of the contributions to synaptic plasticity and memory of cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB has recruited the efforts of many laboratories all over the world. These are six key steps in the molecular biological delineation of short-term memory and its conversion to long-term memory for both implicit (procedural and explicit (declarative memory. I here first trace the background for the clinical and behavioral studies of implicit memory that made a molecular biology of memory storage possible, and then detail the discovery and early history of these six molecular steps and their roles in explicit memory.

  13. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  14. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of a charged biological membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Cascales, J.J.; García de la Torre, J.; Marrink, S.J.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of a membrane with net charge in its liquid-crystalline state was carried out. It was modeled by dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine lipids with net charge, sodium ions as counterions and water molecules. The behavior of this membrane differs from that was shown by other me

  16. Molecular biology of malignant melanoma and other cutaneous tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M; Quintanilla, M

    2006-07-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Its incidence is doubling every 15-20 years likely because of an aging population, changes in behaviour towards sun exposure, and increased UV light fluency at the earth surface due to ozone depletion. In this review, we summarize the most important genetic changes contributing to the development of malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the main tumor entities arising in the skin. While our understanding of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes involved in the development and progression of skin tumors is still fragmentary, recent advances have shown alterations affecting conserved signalling pathways that control cellular proliferation and viability. These pathways include INK4alpha/Rb, ARF/p53, RAS/MAPKs, and sonic hedgehog/Gli. PMID:16870533

  17. Appraisal of progenitor markers in the context of molecular classification of breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Haviv, Izhak

    2011-01-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer relies on case stratification, which increasingly employs molecular markers. The motivation behind delineating breast epithelial differentiation is to better target cancer cases through innate sensitivities bequeathed to the cancer from its normal progenitor state. A combination of histopathological and molecular classification of breast cancer cases suggests a role for progenitors in particular breast cancer cases. Although a remarkable fraction of the re...

  18. Molecular targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer: Clinical and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Tasuku; Yashiro, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Although recent therapeutic developments for patients with pancreatic cancer have provided survival benefits, the outcomes for patients with pancreatic cancer remain unsatisfactory. Molecularly targeted cancer therapy has advanced in the past decade with the use of a number of pathways as candidates of therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the molecular features of this refractory disease while focusing on the...

  19. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  20. Biologic Therapeutics and Molecular Profiling to Optimize Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Marie N.; Menke, Nathan B.; Boardman, Cecelia H.; Diegelmann, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Non-healing wounds represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for a large portion of the adult population. Wounds that fail to heal are entrapped in a self-sustaining cycle of chronic inflammation leading to the destruction of the extracellular matrix. Among cancer patients, malnutrition, radiation, physical dehabilitation, chemotherapy, and the malignancy itself increase the likelihood of chronic wound formation, and these co-morbidity factors inhibit the normal wound healing p...

  1. RVB1/RVB2: running rings around molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Sudhakar; Dutta, Anindya

    2009-01-01

    RVB1/RVB2 are two highly conserved members of the AAA+ family that are present in different protein and nucleoprotein complexes. Recent studies implicate that RVB-containing complexes play a role in variable cellular processes such as transcription, DNA damage response, snoRNP assembly, cellular transformation and cancer metastasis. In this review we discuss recent advances in the understanding of RVB-containing complexes and the functions of RVBs in these pathways.

  2. Biology and Molecular Markers of Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Germ cell tumors occur both in the gonads of both sexes and in extra-gonadal sites during adoles-cence and early adulthood. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of all cases of ovarian malignancy. In contrast, testicular cancer is the most common malignancy among young males. Most of patients survive the disease. Prognostic factors of gonadal germ cell tumors include histology, clinical stage, size of the primary tumor and residua, and levels of tu...

  3. Transcription factors: molecular targets for prostate cancer intervention by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2007-06-01

    With increasing incidence of cancer at most of the sites, and growing economic burden and associated psychological and emotional trauma, it is becoming clearer that more efforts are needed for cancer cure. Since most of the chemotherapeutic drugs are non-selective because they are also toxic to the normal cells, new and improved strategies are needed that selectively target the killing of cancer cells. Since aberrant activation of numerous signaling pathways is a key element of cancer cell survival and growth, blocking all of them is not that practical, which leads to the step where most of them commonly converge; the transcription factors. Recent research efforts, therefore, are also directed on targeting the activity and activation of transcription factors, which ultimately control the expression of genes that are involved in almost all aspects of cell biology. One class of agents that is becoming increasingly successful, not only in targeting signaling cascades, but also transcription factors is phytochemicals present in diet and those consumed as supplement. The added advantage with these agents is that they are mostly non-toxic when compared to chemotherapeutic agents. This review focuses on the efficacy of various phytochemicals in targeting transcription factors such as AR, Sp1, STATs, E2F, Egr1, c-Myc, HIF-1 alpha, NF-kappaB, AP-1, ETS2, GLI and p53 in the context of prostate cancer intervention. PMID:17979630

  4. Xenogeneic homologous genes, molecular evolution and cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田聆; 魏于全

    2001-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes for death of human beings to date, and cancer biotherapy (mainlyimmunotherapy and gene therapy) has become the most promising approach after surgical therapy, radiotherapy andchemotherapy. However, there are still many limitations on cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy; therefore great ef-fort is being made to develop new strategies. It has been known that, in the process of evolution, a number of genes, theso-called xenogeneic homologous genes, are well-conserved and show the structural and/or functional similarity betweenvarious species to some degree. The nucleotide changes between various xenogeneic homologous genes are derived frommutation, and most of them are neutral mutations. Considering that the subtle differences in xenogeneic homologousgenes can break immune tolerance, enhance the immunogenicity and induce autologous immune response so as to elimi-nate tumor cells, we expect that a strategy of inducing autoimmune response using the property of xenogeneic homologousgenes will become a new therapy for cancer. Moreover, this therapy can also be used in the treatment of other diseases,such as autoimmune diseases and AIDS. This article will discuss the xenogeneic homologous genes, molecular evolutionand cancer therapy.

  5. Molecular targets of cancer chemoprevention by garlic-derived organosulfides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna HERMAN-ANTOSIEWICZ; Anna A POWOLNY; Shivendra V SINGH

    2007-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of Allium vegetables, especially garlic, have been noted throughout recorded history. The known health benefits of Allium vegetables and their constituents include cardiovascular protective effects, stimulation of immune function, reduction of blood glucose level, radioprotection, improvement of memory loss, protection against microbial, viral and fungal infections, as well as anticancer effects. Population-based case control studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of Allium vegetables and the risk of different types of cancers. The anticarcinogenic effect of Allium vegetables in-eluding garlic is attributed to organosulfur compounds (OSC), which are highly effective in affording protection against cancer in animal models induced by a variety of chemical carcinogens. More recent studies have shown that certain naturally occurring OSC analogues can suppress proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. The OSC-induced changes in the proliferation of cancer Cellsare frequently associated with perturbations in cell cycle progression and induc-tion of G2/M phase arrest. The OSC have also been demonstrated to induce apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by altering the ratio of the Bc1-2 family of proteins both in cell culture and in in vivo models. Anti-angiogenic activity for garlic-derived OSC has also been documented. This article summarizes current knowledge on molecular targets of cancer chemoprevention by OSC.

  6. The physiology and molecular biology of sponge tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Sally P; Hill, April

    2012-01-01

    Sponges have become the focus of studies on molecular evolution and the evolution of animal body plans due to their ancient branching point in the metazoan lineage. Whereas our former understanding of sponge function was largely based on a morphological perspective, the recent availability of the first full genome of a sponge (Amphimedon queenslandica), and of the transcriptomes of other sponges, provides a new way of understanding sponges by their molecular components. This wealth of genetic information not only confirms some long-held ideas about sponge form and function but also poses new puzzles. For example, the Amphimedon sponge genome tells us that sponges possess a repertoire of genes involved in control of cell proliferation and in regulation of development. In vitro expression studies with genes involved in stem cell maintenance confirm that archaeocytes are the main stem cell population and are able to differentiate into many cell types in the sponge including pinacocytes and choanocytes. Therefore, the diverse roles of archaeocytes imply differential gene expression within a single cell ontogenetically, and gene expression is likely also different in different species; but what triggers cells to enter one pathway and not another and how each archaeocyte cell type can be identified based on this gene knowledge are new challenges. Whereas molecular data provide a powerful new tool for interpreting sponge form and function, because sponges are suspension feeders, their body plan and physiology are very much dependent on their physical environment, and in particular on flow. Therefore, in order to integrate new knowledge of molecular data into a better understanding the sponge body plan, it is important to use an organismal approach. In this chapter, we give an account of sponge body organization as it relates to the physiology of the sponge in light of new molecular data. We focus, in particular, on the structure of sponge tissues and review descriptive as

  7. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Heinz Wagner; David Cameron-Smith; Barbara Wessner; Bernhard Franzke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a sing...

  8. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken ...

  9. Nutritional systems biology modeling: from molecular mechanisms to physiology.

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, Albert A.; Freidig, Andreas P.; Baukje De Roos; Neema Jamshidi; Matthias Heinemann; Rullmann, Johan A.C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Martin Adiels; Ben van Ommen

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the co...

  10. Nutritional Systems Biology Modeling: From Molecular Mechanisms to Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, A A; Freidig, A.P.; Roos, B.; Jamshidi, N.; M. Heinemann; Rullmann, J.A.C.; Hall, K. D.; Adiels, M.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the co...

  11. Nutritional Systems Biology Modeling: From Molecular Mechanisms to Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, Albert A.; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Roos, Baukje; Jamshidi, Neema; Heinemann, Matthias; Rullmann, Johan A.C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Adiels, Martin; van Ommen, Ben; Bourne, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today’s important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the co...

  12. Optimal Information Retrieval Model for Molecular Biology Information

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Jon Rune

    2007-01-01

    Search engines for biological information are not a new technology. Since the 1960s computers have emerged as an important tool for biologists. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive catalogue containing approximately 14 000 records with information about human genes and genetic disorders. An approach called Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) was introduced in 1990 that is based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). This approach improved the information retrieval and red...

  13. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    József Tőzsér; János András Mótyán; Ferenc Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications ...

  14. Chromatic alteration on marble surfaces analysed by molecular biology tools

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Palla; Elena Tartamella

    2007-01-01

    The patina represents a superficial natural alteration of the constituting matter of the work of art. It emerges from the natural and usual stabilization process that the materials of the surface undergo because of the interaction with outdoor agents characterizing the surrounding environment. Besides, it is not linked to an obvious phenomenon of degradation that can be noticed through the change in the original colour of the matter. This is what we intend when we talk about biological patina...

  15. Molecular Genetics of Williams Syndrome: Windows into Human Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Korenberg

    2009-01-01

    Genetics is my favorite way of thinking: Williams syndrome seen through the eyes of a geneticist. Williams syndrome (WS) is the most compelling model in which to link the basis of human emotion and behavior to their biological origins. The explanatory power of human genetics in WS rests on the recent revolution in understanding the human genome but more specifically on the ability to link genetic with behavioral variation at high resolution. WS is due to the deletion of about 25 g...

  16. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Trevino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell

  17. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antzack, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J; Guindani, Michele; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication networks

  18. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  19. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vidal Campregher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mutations described in several genes have revealed a considerable degree of molecular homogeneity between different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. At the same time, the molecular differences between each subtype have become clearer. While mutations in several genes, such as JAK2, myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL and LNK have been validated in functional assays or animal models as causative mutations, the roles of other recurring mutations in the development of disease, such as TET2 and ASXL1 remain to be elucidated. In this review we will examine the most prevalent recurring gene mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms and their molecular consequences.

  20. Molecular biology on the ICU. From understanding to treating sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winning, J; Claus, R A; Huse, K; Bauer, M

    2006-05-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that beside well established factors, such as virulence of pathogens or site of infection, individual differences in disease manifestation are a result of the genetic predisposition of the patient on an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Specific genetic factors might not only predict the risk to acquire severe infections but also to develop organ dysfunction or ultimately to die. Thus, the advent of molecular techniques allowing screening for a wide variety of genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes controlling expression of important mediator systems in patients as well as their purposeful targeting in animal models of sepsis, are revolutionizing understanding of pathophysiology in the critically ill. Molecular tools are about to challenge ''state-of-the-art'' diagnostic tests such as blood culture as they not only increase sensitivity but dramatically reduce time requirements to identify pathogens and their resistance patterns. Similarly, knowledge of genetic factors might in the near future help to identify ''patients at risk'', i.e. those with a high likelihood to develop organ dysfunction or to guide therapeutic interventions in particular regarding resource-consuming and/or expensive therapies (''theragnostics''). While therapeutic options in molecular intensive care medicine, such as stem cells in the treatment of organ failure or therapeutic gene transfer are possible along the road and might become an option in the future, recombinant DNA technology has already a well defined role in the production of recombinant human proteins from insulin to activated protein C. PMID:16675935