Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.
Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...
Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M
Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.
Pearce, Alison; Bradley, Cathy; Hanly, Paul; O'Neill, Ciaran; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal; Sharp, Linda
When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach. National data were used for cancer, population and economic inputs. Both paid work and unpaid household activities were included. Sensitivity analyses estimated the impact of assumptions around future cancer mortality rates, retirement ages, value of unpaid work, wage growth and discounting. The 233,000 projected deaths from all invasive cancers in Ireland between 2011 and 2030 will result in lost productivity valued at €73 billion; €13 billion in paid work and €60 billion in household activities. These losses represent approximately 1.4 % of Ireland's GDP annually. The most costly cancers are lung (€14.4 billion), colorectal and breast cancer (€8.3 billion each). However, when viewed as productivity losses per cancer death, testis (€364,000 per death), cervix (€155,000 per death) and brain cancer (€136,000 per death) are most costly because they affect working age individuals. An annual 1 % reduction in mortality reduces productivity losses due to all invasive cancers by €8.5 billion over 20 years. Society incurs substantial losses in productivity as a result of cancer-related mortality, particularly when household production is included. These estimates provide valuable evidence to inform resource allocation decisions in cancer prevention and control.
Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Vestergaard Nielsen, Lone; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Martinez, J.A.; Saris, Wim H.M.; Baak, van Marleen A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kunesova, Marie; Jebb, Susan; Blundell, John; Lawton, Clare; Raben, Anne
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy,
Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some...... of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m-2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED...... followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9...
Kitagawa, Yuko; Ando, Shuntaro; Yamasaki, Syudo; Foo, Jerome Clifford; Okazaki, Yuji; Shimodera, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa
Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents, but detection of its risk is often challenging. Many mental illnesses share the common symptom of appetite loss and it is also known that people who suffer from these illnesses are at greater risk of suicide. However, the relationship between appetite loss and suicide risk has yet to be examined. For adolescents in particular, questions about appetite loss may be easier to answer than sensitive questions regarding mental health. The present study aims to investigate the association of appetite loss with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents. Rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm associated with appetite-loss were examined in 18,250 Japanese junior and senior high school students (aged 12-18) using a self-report questionnaire. Insomnia, a physical symptom which has previously been associated with suicide risk, was also controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm significantly increased according to the degree of self-reported appetite loss. Similar results were observed for insomnia. Odds ratios (ORs) for suicidal ideation and self-harm were 5.5 and 4.1 for adolescents with appetite loss compared to those without it, and the ORs were 5.5 and 3.5 for those with insomnia compared to those without it, respectively, adjusting for sex and age (p appetite loss was highly associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents; adolescents reporting physical symptoms such as loss of appetite or insomnia should be given careful attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background/objective: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). Subjects/methods: T...
Metcalfe, L V A; More, S J; Duggan, V; Katz, L M
Weight loss despite a good appetite is a frequent diagnostic challenge for equine veterinarians; however, there are few objective reports and little descriptive information regarding risk factors and prognostic indicators. To provide a descriptive epidemiological analysis of horses evaluated for weight loss despite a good appetite and evaluate relationships between historical and clinicopathological findings and final outcome (survival vs. nonsurvival) to identify risk factors and prognostic indicators. Medical records of horses referred for investigation of weight loss despite a good appetite were reviewed. Data collated included history, case details, clinical and diagnostic findings, diagnoses and outcome. Univariable associations were evaluated with a Mann-Whitney U test (continuous data), Fisher's exact test (categorical or binary data) or Pearson's rank correlation (continuous data), with P≤0.05 significant. Forty cases met the inclusion criteria. Total protein (P = 0.004) and albumin concentrations (P = 0.0008) at admission were higher in survivors than nonsurvivors, with total protein (r(2) = 0.31; P = 0.002) and albumin (r(2) = 0.36; P = 0.0002) positively correlated with outcome. Hypoproteinaemic (P = 0.008, odds ratio (OR) = 12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99-72.4) and hypoalbuminaemic (P = 0.0009, OR = 28, 95% CI = 2.94-266.6) animals were at greater odds for nonsurvival. Body condition score was positively correlated with total protein (r(2) = 0.16; P = 0.05) and albumin (r(2) = 0.53; Pappetite. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.
Saha, Sayoni; Hatch, Daniel J; Hayden, Kathleen M; Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G
Identify depression symptoms during active late-life depression (LLD) that predict conversion to dementia. The authors followed a cohort of 290 participants from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. All participants were actively depressed and cognitively normal at enrollment. Depression symptom factors were derived from prior factor analysis: anhedonia and sadness, suicidality and guilt, appetite and weight loss, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and tension. Cox regression analysis modeled time to Alzheimer disease (AD) and non-AD dementia onset on depression symptom factors, along with age, education, sex, and race. Significant dementia predictors were tested for interaction with age at depression onset. Higher scores on the appetite and weight loss symptom factor were associated with an increased hazard of both AD and non-AD dementia. This factor was moderated by age at first depression onset, such that higher scores were associated with higher risk of non-AD dementia when depression first occurred earlier in life. Other depression symptom factors and overall depression severity were not related to risk of AD or non-AD dementia. Results suggest greater appetite/weight loss symptoms in active episodes of LLD are associated with increased likelihood of AD and non-AD dementia, but possibly via different pathways moderated by age at first depression onset. Results may help clinicians identify individuals with LLD at higher risk of developing AD and non-AD dementia and design interventions that reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Dianjianyi; Tong, Jenny; Williamson, Donald A; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu
Adiponectin plays key roles in regulating appetite and food intake. To investigate interactions between the genetic risk score (GRS) for adiponectin levels and weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on long-term changes in appetite and adiponectin levels. A GRS was calculated based on 5 adiponectin-associated variants in 692 overweight adults from the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Repeated measurements of plasma adiponectin levels and appetite-related traits, including cravings, fullness, prospective consumption, and hunger. Dietary fat showed nominally significant interactions with the adiponectin GRS on changes in appetite score and prospective consumption from baseline to 6 months (P for interaction = 0.014 and 0.017, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, and baseline respective outcome values. The GRS for lower adiponectin levels was associated with a greater decrease in appetite (P appetite and adiponectin levels to weight-loss diets varying in fat intake. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin
Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coutinho, Silvia R; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J
The impact of lifestyle-induced weight loss (WL) on appetite in patients with obesity remains controversial. This study aimed was to assess the short- and long-term impact of WL achieved by diet and exercise, on appetite in patients with obesity. Thirty-five (22 females) adults with severe obesity......), in the fasting and postprandial states, were measured at baseline (B), week 4 (W4), 1 and 2-years (and average values for all fasting and postprandial time points computed). BW was significantly reduced and VO2max (ml/kg/min) increased at all time points compared with B (3.5, 8.1 and 8.4 % WL and 7, 11 and 8...... compared with B. Average GLP-1 was reduced at W4 and CCK increased at 2y. After lifestyle-induced WL, patients with severe obesity will, therefore, have to deal with increased hunger in the long-term. In conclusion, sustained WL at 2y achieved with diet and exercise is associated with increased hunger...
Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A
The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...
Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.
Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272
Leidy, Heather J; Tang, Minghua; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Martin, Carmen B; Campbell, Wayne W
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dietary protein and eating frequency on perceived appetite and satiety during weight loss. A total of 27 overweight/obese men (age 47 ± 3 years; BMI 31.5 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) were randomized to groups that consumed an energy-restriction diet (i.e., 750 kcal/day below daily energy need) as either higher protein (HP, 25% of energy as protein, n = 14) or normal protein (NP, 14% of energy as protein, n = 13) for 12 weeks. Beginning on week 7, the participants consumed their respective diets as either 3 eating occasions/day (3-EO; every 5 h) or 6 eating occasions/day (6-EO; every 2 h), in randomized order, for 3 consecutive days. Indexes of appetite and satiety were assessed every waking hour on the third day of each pattern. Daily hunger, desire to eat, and preoccupation with thoughts of food were not different between groups. The HP group experienced greater fullness throughout the day vs. NP (511 ± 56 vs. 243 ± 54 mm · 15 h; P frequency, for improved appetite control and satiety in overweight/obese men during energy restriction-induced weight loss.
Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.
Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W
Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.
López-Alarcón, Mardya; Furuya-Meguro, María Magdalena; García-Zúñiga, Pedro Alberto; Tadeo-Pulido, Irsa
To evaluate the role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered during the acute phase of pneumonia in infants, on appetite, cytokines and leptin concentrations. Seventeen children between three months and 12 years of age were followed from hospitalization to discharge. Children were randomly assigned to receive DHA or placebo. The effect of treatment was evaluated on energy intake, cytokines, and leptin concentrations. Cytokine concentrations tended to decrease earlier in DHA children. By day 4, concentrations of IL-1beta and TNFalpha had decreased by 12%, while such concentrations increased by 12% and 250% in placebo children. Energy intake recovered in DHA children at discharge, but placebo children were still consuming only 60% of their requirements. Our results suggest that DHA administered in the acute phase of infection could modulate IL-1 and TNF production, and secondarily, decrease the effect of infection on appetite.
Valentova, Miroslava; von Haehling, Stephan; Bauditz, Juergen; Doehner, Wolfram; Ebner, Nicole; Bekfani, Tarek; Elsner, Sebastian; Sliziuk, Veronika; Scherbakov, Nadja; Murín, Ján; Anker, Stefan D; Sandek, Anja
Mechanisms leading to cachexia in heart failure (HF) are not fully understood. We evaluated signs of intestinal congestion in patients with chronic HF and their relationship with cachexia. Of the 165 prospectively enrolled outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, 29 (18%) were cachectic. Among echocardiographic parameters, the combination of right ventricular dysfunction and elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) provided the best discrimination between cachectic and non-cachectic patients [area under the curve 0.892, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.832-0.936]. Cachectic patients, compared with non-cachectic, had higher prevalence of postprandial fullness, appetite loss, and abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound showed a larger bowel wall thickness (BWT) in the entire colon and terminal ileum in cachectic than in non-cachectic patients. Bowel wall thickness correlated positively with gastrointestinal symptoms, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, RAP, and truncal fat-free mass, the latter serving as a marker of the fluid content. Logistic regression analysis showed that BWT was associated with cachexia, even after adjusting for cardiac function, inflammation, and stages of HF (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8; P-value = 0.03). Among the cardiac parameters, only RAP remained significantly associated with cachexia after multivariable adjustment. Cardiac cachexia was associated with intestinal congestion irrespective of HF stage and cardiac function. Gastrointestinal discomfort, appetite loss, and pro-inflammatory activation provide probable mechanisms, by which intestinal congestion may trigger cardiac cachexia. However, our results are preliminary and larger studies are needed to clarify the intrinsic nature of this relationship. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Kalyanasundar, B.; Perez, Claudia I.; Luna, Alvaro; Solorio, Jessica; Moreno, Mario G.; Elias, David; Simon, Sidney A.
Obesity is a worldwide health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. To ameliorate this problem, one approach is the use of appetite suppressants. These compounds are frequently amphetamine congeners such as diethylpropion (DEP), phentermine (PHEN), and bupropion (BUP), whose effects are mediated through serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopaminergic pathways. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell receives dopaminergic inputs and is involved in feeding and motor activity. However, little is known about how appetite suppressants modulate its activity. Therefore, we characterized behavioral and neuronal NAc shell responses to short-term treatments of DEP, PHEN, and BUP. These compounds caused a transient decrease in weight and food intake while increasing locomotion, stereotypy, and insomnia. They evoked a large inhibitory imbalance in NAc shell spiking activity that correlated with the onset of locomotion and stereotypy. Analysis of the local field potentials (LFPs) showed that all three drugs modulated beta, theta, and delta oscillations. These oscillations do not reflect an aversive-malaise brain state, as ascertained from taste aversion experiments, but tracked both the initial decrease in weight and food intake and the subsequent tolerance to these drugs. Importantly, the appetite suppressant-induced weight loss and locomotion were markedly reduced by intragastric (and intra-NAc shell) infusions of dopamine antagonists SCH-23390 (D1 receptor) or raclopride (D2 receptor). Furthermore, both antagonists attenuated appetite suppressant-induced LFP oscillations and partially restored the imbalance in NAc shell activity. These data reveal that appetite suppressant-induced behavioral and neuronal activity recorded in the NAc shell depend, to various extents, on dopaminergic activation and thus point to an important role for D1/D2-like receptors (in the NAc shell) in the mechanism of action for these anorexic compounds. PMID:25972577
Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus
Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium...... were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey.......58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite...
Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.
Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In…
Brielle M Paolini
Full Text Available Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE. The present work is a sub-study (n = 56 of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, superior temporal pole, amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis. After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of
Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.
Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In all experiments, conditioning and extinction were accomplished in single sessions, and retention testing took place 24 h after extinction. In both f...
Dayawansa, S.; Peckins, S.; Ruch, S.
Rats with bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) fail to exhibit sodium appetite. Lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) also block salt appetite. The PBN projection to the LH is largely ipsilateral. If these deficits are functionally dependent, damaging the PBN on one side and the LH on the other should also block Na appetite. First, bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LH were needed because the electrolytic damage used previously destroyed both cells and axons. The ibotenic LH lesions produced substantial weight loss and eliminated Na appetite. Controls with ipsilateral PBN and LH lesions gained weight and displayed robust sodium appetite. The rats with asymmetric PBN-LH lesions also gained weight, but after sodium depletion consistently failed to increase intake of 0.5 M NaCl. These results dissociate loss of sodium appetite from the classic weight loss after LH damage and prove that Na appetite requires communication between neurons in the LH and the PBN. PMID:21270347
Berlinger, Edina; Váradi, Kata
Our article firstly examines to what extent empirical research confirms the model of decision making based on a stable utility function. To this end, we have summarised the fundamental theoretical correlations relating to risk appetite, then went on to present the main results of behavioural research, with special focus on prospect theory, the correlations between socio-demographic and cognitive characteristics and risk propensity, as well as other influencing physical, mental and psychologic...
Nausea still the poor relation in antiemetic therapy? The impact on cancer patients' quality of life and psychological adjustment of nausea, vomiting and appetite loss, individually and concurrently as part of a symptom cluster.
Pirri, Carlo; Bayliss, Evan; Trotter, James; Olver, Ian N; Katris, Paul; Drummond, Peter; Bennett, Robert
Despite significant antiemetic advances, almost 50% of treated cancer patients still experience nausea and vomiting (N&V). The goal of antiemetic therapy--complete prevention of treatment-induced nausea and/or vomiting (TIN+/-V)--remains elusive for several reasons. Potentially, N&V may be part of a symptom cluster where co-occurring symptoms negatively affect antiemetic management. Consequently, we examined TIN+/-V incidence and the impact of nausea, vomiting and symptom cluster(s) containing them, respectively, on patients' quality of life (QoL) and psychological adjustment across treatment. A longitudinal secondary analysis was performed on data from a prospective, observational QoL study involving 200 newly diagnosed cancer patients who underwent combined modality treatment. QoL, psychological adjustment and patient/clinical characteristics were examined at pretreatment, on-treatment (8 weeks) and post-treatment. Overall, 62% of patients experienced TIN+/-V, with TIN (60%) doubling TIV incidence (27 %). Exploratory factor analyses of QoL scores at each treatment time point identified a recurrent gastrointestinal symptom cluster comprising nausea, vomiting and appetite loss. Approximately two thirds of patients reported co-occurrence of all three symptoms, which exerted synergistic effects of multiplicative proportions on overall QoL. Patients who reported co-occurrence of these symptoms during treatment experienced significantly greater QoL impairment (physical, role and social functioning, fatigue, N&V, appetite loss, overall physical health, overall QOL) and psychological distress (cancer distress, premorbid neuroticism) than those unaffected (0.001 > p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, nausea was more pervasive than vomiting or appetite loss across treatment and had a greater impact on overall QoL. While antiemetic therapy was effective for vomiting and helped prevent/relieve associated appetite loss, the benefits for appetite loss were seemingly constrained by its
Chinuck, Ruth; Dewar, Jane; Baldwin, David R; Hendron, Elizabeth
Chronic loss of appetite in cystic fibrosis concerns both individuals and families. Appetite stimulants have been used to help cystic fibrosis patients with chronic anorexia attain optimal body mass index and nutritional status. However, these may have adverse effects on clinical status. The aim of this review is to systematically search for and evaluate evidence on the beneficial effects of appetite stimulants in the management of CF-related anorexia and synthesize reports of any side-effects. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, handsearching reference lists and contacting local and international experts.Last search of online databases: 01 April 2014.Last search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 08 April 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of appetite stimulants, compared to placebo or no treatment for at least one month in adults and children with cystic fibrosis. Authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias within eligible trials. Meta-analyses were performed. Three trials (total of 47 recruited patients) comparing appetite stimulants (cyproheptadine hydrochloride and megesterol acetate) to placebo were included; the numbers of adults or children within each trial were not always reported. The risk of bias of the included trials was graded as moderate.A meta-analysis of all three trials showed appetite stimulants produced a larger increase in weight z score at three months compared to placebo, mean difference 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.93) (P children, appetite stimulants improved only two of the outcomes in this review - weight (or weight z score) and appetite; and side effects were insufficiently reported to determine the full extent of their impact. Whilst the data may suggest the potential use of appetite stimulants in treating anorexia in adults and children with cystic fibrosis
Druce, M; Bloom, S R
The worsening global obesity epidemic, particularly the increase in childhood obesity, has prompted research into the mechanisms of appetite regulation. Complex pathways modulate energy balance, involving appetite centres in the hypothalamus and brain stem, and hormonal signals of energy status released by the gut and by the periphery. Better understanding of appetite regulation improves understanding of the aetiology of obesity. Manipulation of this homoeostatic system offers potentially use...
EffectS of non-nutritive sWeetened beverages on appetITe during aCtive weigHt loss (SWITCH): Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial assessing the effects of non-nutritive sweetened beverages compared to water during a 12-week weight loss period and a follow up weight maintenance period.
Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Christiansen, P; Cuthbertson, D J; Hardman, C A; Robinson, E; Halford, J C G
Acute and medium-term intervention studies suggest that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are beneficial for weight loss, however there is limited human data on the long-term effects of consuming NNS on weight loss, maintenance, and appetite. Further research is therefore required to elucidate the prolonged impact of NNS consumption on these outcome measures. A randomized parallel groups design will be used to assess whether regular NNS beverage intake is equivalent to a water control in promoting weight loss over 12-weeks (weekly weight loss sessions; Phase I), then supporting weight maintenance over 40-weeks (monthly sessions; Phase II) and subsequently independent weight maintenance over 52-weeks (Phase III) in 432 participants. A subset of these participants (n=116) will complete laboratory-based appetite probe days (15 sessions; 3 sessions each at baseline, at the start of phase I and the end of each phase). A separate subset (n=50) will complete body composition scans (DXA) at baseline and at the end of each phase. All participants will regularly be weighed and will complete questionnaires and cognitive tasks to assess changes in body weight and appetitive behaviours. Measures of physical activity and biochemical markers will also be taken. The trial will assess the efficacy of NNS beverages compared to water during a behavioural weight loss and maintenance programme. We aim to understand whether the impact of NNS on weight, dietary adherence and well-being are beneficial or transient and effects on prolonged successful weight loss and weight maintenance through sustained changes in appetite and eating behaviour. Clinical Trials: NCT02591134; registered: 23.10.2015. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdel-Rzaeq, Hikmat N.
Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in cancer patients is often under-recognized and undertreated. The pathogenesis of cancer anemia is complex and most of time multifactorial; involving factors related to the tumor itself or its therapy. While anemia can be present in a wide range of symptoms, involing almost every organ, it is beleived that it contributes much to cancer-related-fatigue, one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients. In addition there is increasing evidence to suggest that anemia is an independent factor adversely affecting tumor reponse and patient survival. While blood transfusion was the only option to treat cancer related anemia, the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is becomig the new standard of care, more so with the recent studies demonstrating the feasibility of a sigle weekly injection .Things are even getting better with the recent approval of a new form of rHuEPO; Darbepoetin an analogue with a 3-fold longer half-life. In addition to its effects in raising homoglobin, several well controlled studies demonstrated decrease in transfusion requirementsand better qualify of life assessed objectively using standard assesments scales. (author)
Pilgrim, Anna; Robinson, Sian; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Roberts, Helen
Poor appetite is a common problem in older people living at home and in care homes, as well as hospital inpatients. It can contribute to weight loss and nutritional deficiencies, and associated poor healthcare outcomes, including increased mortality. Understanding the causes of reduced appetite and knowing how to measure it will enable nurses and other clinical staff working in a range of community and hospital settings to identify patients with impaired appetite. A range of strategies can be used to promote better appetite and increase food intake. PMID:26018489
Aging is often accompanied by anorexia of aging, described as a decline in appetite, a lower dietary intake and followed by unexplained weight loss. The present thesis described research on anorexia of aging. Focus was given to social and physiological determinants of appetite and the
Hansen, Henrik H; Jensen, Majbrit M; Overgaard, Agnete
is not clarified. Tesofensine effectively induces appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese (DIO) rat partially being ascribed to an indirect stimulation of central dopamine receptor function subsequent to blocked dopamine transporter activity. This is interesting, as obese patients have reduced central......Tesofensine is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor which inhibits noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine reuptake. Tesofensine is currently in clinical development for the treatment of obesity, however, the pharmacological basis for its strong and sustained effects in obesity management...... as compared to age-matched chow-fed rats. DIO rats also exhibited a marked reduction in baseline extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as compared to chow-fed rats using microdialysis. While acute administration of tesofensine (2.0mg/kg) normalized accumbal...
Cuvelier, Geoff D E; Baker, Tina J; Peddie, Elaine F; Casey, Linda M; Lambert, Pascal J; Distefano, Dianne S; Wardle, Marlene G; Mychajlunow, Beth A; Romanick, Marcel A; Dix, David B; Wilson, Beverly A
Megestrol acetate (MA) is an appetite stimulant with efficacy in promoting weight gain in adults with cancer-associated anorexia-cachexia. Studies documenting MA efficacy in children, however, are limited. We present the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of MA versus placebo in children with cancer and weight loss. Subjects nutrition, and toxicities. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned (13 MA, 13 placebo). The MA group experienced a mean weight gain of +19.7% compared to a mean weight loss of -1.2% in the placebo group, for a difference of +20.9% (95%CI: +11.3% to +30.5%, P = 0.003) in favor of MA over placebo. MA subjects experienced significant increases in weight for age z-scores, body mass index z-scores, and mid upper arm circumference compared to placebo. DXA scanning suggested disproportionate increases in fat accrual. Adrenal suppression was the main toxicity of MA. In children with high-risk malignancies, MA resulted in significant increases in mean percent weight change compared to placebo. Further studies of MA should be pursued to better delineate the effect on nutritional status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bjerg, Anne Toksvig
resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...
Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.
Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.
Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup
Background : High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL. Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control. Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included. The study was initiated with an 8-wk WL period followed by a 24-wk WM period. During WM, participants consumed the following isocaloric supplements (45-48 g/d): whey and calcium (whey+), whey, soy, or maltodextrin (control). Data were collected at baseline, before WM, and after WM (weeks 0, 8, and 32, respectively) and included body composition, blood biochemistry, and blood pressure. Meal tests were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion. Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1.58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite-sensation profile. Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of
Andreae, Christina; Strömberg, Anna; Årestedt, Kristofer
To explore the prevalence of decreased appetite and factors associated with appetite among patients with stable heart failure. Decreased appetite is an important factor for the development of undernutrition among patients with heart failure, but there are knowledge gaps about prevalence and the factors related to appetite in this patient group. Observational, cross-sectional study. A total of 186 patients with mild to severe heart failure were consecutively recruited from three heart failure outpatient clinics. Data were obtained from medical records (heart failure diagnosis, comorbidity and medical treatment) and self-rated questionnaires (demographics, appetite, self-perceived health, symptoms of depression and sleep). Blood samples were taken to determine myocardial stress and nutrition status. Heart failure symptoms and cognitive function were assessed by clinical examinations. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire was used to assess self-reported appetite. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with appetite. Seventy-one patients (38%) experienced a loss of appetite with a significant risk of developing weight loss. The final multiple regression model showed that age, symptoms of depression, insomnia, cognitive function and pharmacological treatment were associated with appetite, explaining 27% of the total variance. In this cross-sectional study, a large share of patients with heart failure was affected by decreased appetite, associated with demographic, psychosocial and medical factors. Loss of appetite is a prevalent problem among patients with heart failure that may lead to undernutrition. Health care professionals should routinely assess appetite and discuss patients' experiences of appetite, nutrition intake and body weight and give appropriate nutritional advice with respect to individual needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
We tested the hypothesis that salt appetite increases in summer heat due to increased sodium loss due to increased drinking and perspiration. A test battery in the same sample of healthy young people tested in summer and winter revealed no seasonal differences in salt appetite (or fluid intake) despite a 10 °C rise in mean environmental temperature. Unexpectedly, sweet preference is reduced in summer. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Risk appetite is a very complex system, therefore one of the most important element of a company’s enterprise risk management (ERM) is the risk appetite defining. A proper risk management means making good choices towards the risks a company faces in order to achieve its objectives and measures to mitigate those risks, not to avoid them. Therefore, the moment risk appetite is understood and clearly defined can become a powerful tool both for managing the occurred risks and business performanc...
Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M
The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced
Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Cayla, who is 4 years old, did not finish her lunch. But she is ready to play. Her ... snack for later. That is okay! Your child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in ...
Halford, Jason C. G.; Harrold, Joanne A.
The regulation of appetite relies on the integration of numerous episodic (meal) and tonic (energy storage) generated signals in energy regulatory centres within the central nervous system (CNS). These centers provide the pharmacological potential to modify human appetite (hunger and satiety) to increase or decrease caloric intake, or to normalize…
Molfino, Alessio; Kaysen, George A.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Doyle, Julie; Delgado, Cynthia; Dwyer, Tjien; Laviano, Alessandro; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Johansen, Kirsten L.
Objective To test the performance of appetite assessment tools among patients receiving hemodialysis. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Seven dialysis facilities in Northern California. Subjects 221 patients receiving hemodialysis. Intervention We assessed five appetite assessment tools [self-assessment of appetite, subjective assessment of appetite, visual analogue scale (VAS), Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) score and the Anorexia Questionnaire (AQ)]. Main outcome measures Reported food intake, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and change in body weight were used as criterion measures, and we assessed associations among the appetite tools and biomarkers associated with nutrition and inflammation. Patients were asked to report their appetite and the percentage of food eaten (from 0% to 100%) during the last meal compared to usual intake. Results Fifty-eight (26%) patients reported food intake ≤50% (defined as poor appetite). The prevalence of anorexia was 12% by self-assessment of appetite, 6% by subjective assessment of appetite, 24% by VAS, 17% by FAACT score, and 12% by AQ. All tools were significantly associated with food intake ≤50% (pappetite. The FAACT score and the VAS had the strongest association with food intake ≤50% (c-statistic 0.80 and 0.76). Patients with food intake ≤50% reported weight loss more frequently than patients without low intake (36% vs 22%) and weight gain less frequently (19% vs 35%; p=0.03). nPCR was lower among anorexic patients based on the VAS (1.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.2 ± 0.3, p=0.03). Ln IL-6 correlated inversely with food intake (p=0.03), but neither IL-6 nor CRP correlated with any of the appetite tools. Furthermore, only the self-assessment of appetite was significantly associated with serum albumin (p=0.02), prealbumin (p=0.02) and adiponectin concentrations (p=0.03). Conclusions Alternative appetite assessment tools yielded widely different estimates of the prevalence of anorexia in
Allavena, Paola; Germano, Giovanni; Marchesi, Federica [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan (Italy)
Chemokines are key players of the cancer-related inflammation. Chemokine ligands and receptors are downstream of genetic events that cause neoplastic transformation and are abundantly expressed in chronic inflammatory conditions which predispose to cancer. Components of the chemokine system affect multiple pathways of tumor progression including: leukocyte recruitment, neo-angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and survival, invasion and metastasis. Evidence in pre-clinical and clinical settings suggests that the chemokine system represents a valuable target for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.
Kehlet, Ursula Nana
effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high......-fibre meatballs could provide a dual mechanistic action that would lead to greater satiety. For whole muscles, cooking is known to induce structural, physical and chemical changes of the meat proteins, which in turn may affect protein digestibility and potentially affect satiety. The overall aim of this Ph......D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...
Chang, Suzanne W.; Pan, William S.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel; Oleyda Baldelomar, Lizet; Solano, Marco Antonio; Tuero, Iskra; Friedland, Jon S.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.
Background Cachexia is a hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis and is associated with poor prognosis. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind such weight loss could reveal targets for therapeutic intervention. The role of appetite-regulatory hormones in tuberculosis is unknown. Methods and Findings 41 subjects with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB (cases) were compared to 82 healthy controls. We measured appetite, body mass index (BMI), % body fat (BF), plasma peptide YY (PYY), leptin, ghrelin, and resistin for all subjects. Measurements were taken at baseline for controls and at treatment days 0, 30, and 60 for cases. Baseline appetite, BMI, and BF were lower in cases than in controls and improved during treatment. PYY, ghrelin, and resistin were significantly elevated in cases and fell during treatment. Leptin was lower in cases and rose with treatment. Appetite was inversely related to PYY in cases. High pre-treatment PYY predicted reduced gains in appetite and BF. PYY was the strongest independent predictor of appetite in cases across all time points. Conclusions Appetite-regulatory hormones are altered in TB patients. As hormones normalize during treatment, appetite is restored and nutritional status improves. High baseline PYY is an indicator of poor prognosis for improvement in appetite and nutrition during treatment. Wasting in TB patients may partly be mediated by upregulation of PYY with resulting appetite suppression. PMID:23358528
Hanisah, R; Suzana, S; Lee, F S
Poor appetite is one of the main contributing factors of poor nutritional status among elderly individuals. Recognizing the importance of assessment of appetite, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of appetite screening tools namely, the Council on Nutrition Appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) against the appetite, hunger and sensory perception questionnaire (AHSPQ), measures of nutritional status and food intake among geriatric patients at the main general hospital in Malaysia. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) while food intake was measured using the dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Anthropometric parameters included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A total of 145 subjects aged 60 to 86 years (68.3 ± 5.8 years) with 31.7% men and 68.3% women were recruited from outpatients (35 subjects) and inpatients (110 subjects) of Kuala Lumpur Hospital of Malaysia. As assessed by SGA, most subjects were classified as mild to moderately malnourished (50.4%), followed by normal (38.6%) and severely malnourished (11.0%). A total of 79.3% and 57.2% subjects were classified as having poor appetite according to CNAQ and SNAQ, respectively. CNAQ (80.9%) had a higher sensitivity than SNAQ (69.7%) when validated against nutritional status as assessed using SGA. However, the specificity of SNAQ (62.5%) was higher than CNAQ (23.2%). Positive predictive value for CNAQ and SNAQ were 62.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for CNAQ and SNAQ were 0.546 and 0.578, respectively. History of weight loss over the past one year (Adjusted odds ratio 2.49) (p risk factors for poor appetite among subjects. In conclusion, malnutrition and poor appetite were prevalent among the geriatric outpatients and inpatients. SNAQ was more reliable and valid as an appetite screening tool among this special
Hetherington, M. M.; Cameron, F.; Wallis, D. J.; Pirie, L. M.
To investigate the effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake, 26 males attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion, they were given a standard breakfast. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger, desire to eat and fullness (appetite ratings) were recorded from before breakfast until their return to the laboratory for lunch. Thirty minutes before lunch, subjects either rested (baseline), were given 330 ml of a no-alcohol lager (264 kJ: no-alcohol condition) or 330 m...
Jensen, Tenna; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Grønnow, Liv Cæcilie
Rapporten er resultatet af et samarbejde mellem Københavns Kommune Sundheds og Omsorgsforvaltning og CALM projektet. Rapporten omhandler københavnske hjemmeboende ældres oplevelse af mad og appetit.......Rapporten er resultatet af et samarbejde mellem Københavns Kommune Sundheds og Omsorgsforvaltning og CALM projektet. Rapporten omhandler københavnske hjemmeboende ældres oplevelse af mad og appetit....
Grażyna Ewa Karpińska
Full Text Available The article recounts actions oriented at experiencing and reliving culinary traditions, undertaken by the Local Action Group of the “Mroga” Society for the Local Community Development. The Society operates in five communes: Koluszki, Brzeziny, Dmosin, Jeżów and Rogów, located in the north-eastern part of the current Łódź voivodeship, east of the city of Łódź. In the past, this area, which bordered regions whose characteristic features indicated their distinct regional identities (the Łęczyca Land and the Łowicz Principality from the north, the Rawa Land from the east, the Opoczno and Piotrków Lands from the south, and Łódź from the west, was devoid of definite features typical to folk culture. Currently it is still an area which, due to the absence of a consistent and enduring cultural foundation to refer to, cannot be described in the categories of an ethnographic or geographic region. By following the tourist trail laid by the Society, known as the “Appetite Trail”, I reconstruct the vision of what the community resident in the five communes covered by the activity of the “Mroga” Local Action Group defines as the region’s culinary tradition, and I deconstruct the Group’s actions that reduce the tradition to the level of a tourist attraction.
Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L
Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Simmons, W. Kyle; Burrows, Kaiping; Avery, Jason A.; Kerr, Kara L.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savage, Cary R.; Drevets, Wayne C.
Objective Appetite and weight changes are common but variable diagnostic markers in major depressive disorder: some depressed individuals manifest increased appetite, while others lose their appetite. Many of the brain regions implicated in appetitive responses to food have also been implicated in depression. It is thus remarkable that there exists no published research comparing the neural responses to food stimuli of depressed patients with increased versus decreased appetites. Method Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared brain activity in unmedicated depressed patients with increased or decreased appetite, and healthy control subjects, while viewing photographs of food and non-food objects. We also measured how resting-state functional connectivity related to subjects’ food pleasantness ratings. Results Within putative reward regions, depressed participants with increased appetites exhibited greater hemodynamic activity to food stimuli than both those reporting appetite decreases and healthy control subjects. In contrast, depressed subjects experiencing appetite loss exhibited hypoactivation within a region of the mid-insula implicated in interoception, with no difference observed in this region between healthy subjects and those with depression-related appetite increases. Mid-insula activity was negatively correlated with food pleasantness ratings of depressed participants with increased appetites, and its functional connectivity to reward circuitry was positively correlated with food pleasantness ratings. Conclusions Depression-related increases in appetite are associated with hyperactivation of putative mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry, while depression-related appetite loss is associated with hypoactivation of insular regions that support monitoring the body’s physiological state. Importantly, the interactions among these regions also contribute to individual differences in the depression-related appetite changes. PMID:26806872
Karl, J Philip; Cole, Renee E; Berryman, Claire E; Finlayson, Graham; Radcliffe, Patrick N; Kominsky, Matthew T; Murphy, Nancy E; Carbone, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M
Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of a hypocaloric higher protein diet on perceived appetite and food preferences during HA sojourn and to examine longitudinal changes in perceived appetite, appetite mediating hormones, and food preferences during acclimatization and weight loss at HA. Following a 21-day level (SL) period, 17 unacclimatized males ascended to and resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 days. At HA, participants were randomized to consume measured standard-protein (1.0 g protein/kg/d) or higher protein (2.0 g/kg/d) hypocaloric diets (45% carbohydrate, 30% energy restriction) and engaged in prescribed physical activity to induce an estimated 40% energy deficit. Appetite, food preferences, and appetite-mediating hormones were measured at SL and at the beginning and end of HA. Diet composition had no effect on any outcome. Relative to SL, appetite was lower during acute HA (days 0 and 1), but not different after acclimatization and weight loss (HA day 18), and food preferences indicated an increased preference for sweet- and low-protein foods during acute HA, but for high-fat foods after acclimatization and weight loss. Insulin, leptin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were elevated during acute HA, but not after acclimatization and weight loss, whereas acylated ghrelin concentrations were
Harriët F. A. Zoon
Full Text Available Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury, determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-weight females smelled four odours differing in the energy density and taste they signalled, one non-food odour, and one odourless solution (control, in random order, for three minutes each. Appetite for 15 food products was rated in the following two minutes. Mixed model analyses revealed that exposure to an odour signalling a specific taste (respectively sweet, savoury led to a greater appetite for congruent food products (sweet/savoury compared to incongruent food products (savoury p < 0.001; sweet p < 0.001 or neutral food products (p = 0.02; p = 0.003. A similar pattern was present for the energy-density category (respectively high-energy dense, low-energy dense signalled by the odours (low-energy products p < 0.001; high-energy products p = 0.008. Hunger state did not have a significant impact on sensory-specific appetite. These results suggest that exposure to food odours increases appetite for congruent products, in terms of both taste and energy density, irrespective of hunger state. We speculate that food odours steer towards intake of products with a congruent macronutrient composition.
Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.
Representing the "amount" of risk that a bank is able and willing to accept in pursuit of its objectives, so as to balance the needs of all interested parties the risk appetite (propensity) is expressed in terms of both quantitative and qualitative, and covers all risks and not just financial risk, as understood in recent years. Risk appetite problems include issues such as the context and relationship of the risk appetite to the appetite risk aversion, fair and transparent declaration and co...
Zoon, H.F.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.
Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine
Anderson, Lindsey J; Albrecht, Eliette D; Garcia, Jose M
Cachexia is a metabolic syndrome driven by inflammation and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. In cancer cachexia, the tumor burden and host response induce increased inflammation, decreased anabolic tone, and suppressed appetite leading to the clinical presentation of reduced body weight and quality of life (QOL). There is no approved treatment for cancer cachexia, and commonly used nutritional and anti-inflammatory strategies alone have proven ineffective for management of symptoms. Several other pharmacological agents are currently in development and have shown promise as a clinical strategy in early-phase trials. Recently, it has been proposed that multimodal strategies, with an anabolic focus, initiated early in the disease/treatment progression may provide the most therapeutic potential for symptom management. Here we review the data from recent clinical trials in cancer cachexia including pharmacological, exercise, and nutritional interventions.
Dwarkasing, Jvalini; Dijk, Francina J.; Boekschoten, Mark; Faber, Joyce; Argilès, Josep M.; Lavianio, Alessandro; Muller, Michael; Witkamp, Renger; Norren, van, Klaske
Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients, leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 colon adenocarcinoma have an increased food intake subsequently to the loss of body weight. We hypothesize that in this model, appetite regulating systems in the hypothalamus, which apparently fail in anorexia, are still ab...
Dwarkasing, Jvalini; Dijk, Francina J.; Boekschoten, Mark; Faber, Joyce; Argilès, Josep M.; Lavianio, Alessandro; Muller, Michael; Witkamp, Renger; Norren, van, Klaske
Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients, leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 colon adenocarcinoma have an increased food intake subsequently to the loss of body weight. We hypothesize that in this model, appetite regulating systems in the hypothalamus, which apparently fail in anorexia, are still ab...
Pilgrim, A L; Baylis, D; Jameson, K A; Cooper, C; Sayer, A A; Robinson, S M; Roberts, H C
Poor appetite is commonly reported by older people but is rarely measured. The Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) was validated to predict weight loss in community dwelling older adults but has been little used in hospitals. We evaluated it in older women on admission to hospital and examined associations with healthcare outcomes. Longitudinal observational with follow-up at six months. Female acute Medicine for Older People wards at a University hospital in England. 179 female inpatients. Age, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), grip strength, SNAQ, Barthel Index Score, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form (GDS-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), category of domicile and receipt of care were measured soon after admission and repeated at six month follow-up. The length of hospital stay (LOS), hospital acquired infection, readmissions and deaths by follow-up were recorded. 179 female participants mean age 87 (SD 4.7) years were recruited. 42% of participants had a low SNAQ score (appetite). A low SNAQ score was associated with an increased risk of hospital acquired infection (OR 3.53; 95% CI: 1.48, 8.41; p=0.004) and with risk of death (HR 2.29; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.68; p = 0.023) by follow-up. Poor appetite was common among the older hospitalised women studied, and was associated with higher risk of poor healthcare outcomes.
Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben
Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.
Thackray, Alice E.; Deighton, Kevin; King, James A.; Stensel, David J.
Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base. PMID:27657127
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the up-to-date research on hypoxia/altitude-induced changes in the gut and adipose tissue derived peptides related to appetite regulation. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexigenic peptides leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin have to-date been investigated as potential modulators of hypoxia-driven appetite alterations. Current evidence suggests that hypoxia can, especially acutely, lead to decreased appetite, most probably via reduction of acylated ghrelin concentration. Hypoxia-related short and long-term changes in other hormonal markers are more unclear although hypoxia seems to importantly modulate leptin levels, especially following prolonged hypoxic exposures. Limited evidence also suggests that different activity levels during exposures to hypoxia do not additively affect hormonal appetite markers. Although very few studies have been performed in obese/overweight individuals, the available data indicate that hypoxia/altitude exposures do not seem to differentially affect appetite regulation via hormonal pathways in this cohort. Given the lack of experimental data, future well-controlled acute and prolonged studies are warranted to expand our understanding of hypoxia-induced hormonal appetite modulation and its kinetics in health and disease.
Jager, Gerry; Witkamp, Renger F
Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the functioning of the ECS, the present review specifically addresses its role in the modulation of hedonic eating. Humans possess strong motivational systems triggered by rewarding aspects of food. Food reward is comprised of two components: one appetitive (orienting towards food); the other consummatory (hedonic evaluation), also referred to as 'wanting' and 'liking', respectively. Endocannabinoid tone seems to influence both the motivation to feed and the hedonic value of foods, probably by modifying palatability. Human physiology underlying hedonic eating is still not fully understood. A better understanding of the role of the ECS in the rewarding value of specific foods or diets could offer new possibilities to optimise the balance between energy and nutrient intake for different target groups. These groups include the obese and overweight, and potentially individuals suffering from malnutrition. Examples for the latter group are patients with disease-related anorexia, as well as the growing population of frail elderly suffering from persistent loss of food enjoyment and appetite resulting in malnutrition and involuntary weight loss. It has become clear that the psychobiology of food hedonics is extremely complex and the clinical failure of CB1 inverse agonists including rimonabant (Accomplia®) has shown that 'quick wins' in this field are unlikely.
Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Auerbach, Pernille
Weight loss induced by endurance exercise is often disappointing, possibly due to an increase in energy intake mediated through greater appetite. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting, postprandial, and postexercise appetite regulation after an intervention prescribing two amounts...... of endurance exercise. Sixty-four sedentary, overweight, healthy young men were randomized to control (CON), moderate-dose (MOD: ≈ 30 min/day), or high-dose (HIGH: ≈ 60 min/day) endurance exercise for 12 wk. Along with subjective appetite ratings, plasma ghrelin, glucagon, insulin, peptide YY3-36, glucose...... similar amounts of fat mass (MOD: 4.2 ± 0.5 kg; HIGH: 3.7 ± 0.5 kg). Fasting and postprandial insulin decreased ≈ 20% in both exercise groups (P Appetite measurements were not upregulated in the fasting and postprandial states. On the contrary, fasting and postprandial ratings of fullness...
Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian
We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....
Background: Wholegrain consumption is suggested to improve short-term appetite sensation. This may occur immediately after wholegrain intake but also after a second meal. The latter may potentially be mediated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that are generated during colonic fermentation...... of wholegrain components. Little is, however, known how regular wholegrain intake influences appetite sensation. Hypothetically, an increase in satiety-inducing gut hormones, due to steady colonic fermentation upon regular wholegrain intake, may lead to an improvement of the overall appetite sensation....... In the long run, regular wholegrain intake may also reduce body weight due to reoccurring short- and long-term effects on appetite. Aim: This PhD thesis investigates the effects of selected wholegrain products on appetite after a second meal, as well as the effects of sustained wholegrain intake on overall...
Ji Hee Yu
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been rapidly increasing worldwide over the last several decades and has become a major health problem in developed countries. The brain, especially the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the control of food intake by sensing metabolic signals from peripheral organs and modulating feeding behaviors. To accomplish these important roles, the hypothalamus communicates with other brain areas such as the brainstem and reward-related limbic pathways. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and pancreatic β-cell-derived insulin inform adiposity to the hypothalamus. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and oxyntomodulin transfer satiety signals to the brain and ghrelin relays hunger signals. The endocannabinoid system and nutrients are also involved in the physiological regulation of food intake. In this article, we briefly review physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation.
Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Zucker, Nancy L; Østbye, Truls
In this study, the independent and combined associations between childhood appetitive traits and parental obesity on weight gain from 0 to 24 months and body mass index (BMI) z-score at 24 months in a diverse community-based sample of dual parent families (n = 213) were examined. Participants were mothers who had recently completed a randomized trial of weight loss for overweight/obese postpartum women. As measures of childhood appetitive traits, mothers completed subscales of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, including Desire to Drink (DD), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR), and a 24-h dietary recall for their child. Heights and weights were measured for all children and mothers and self-reported for mothers' partners. The relationship between children's appetitive traits and parental obesity on toddler weight gain and BMI z-score were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models, controlling for a number of potential confounders. Having two obese parents was related to greater weight gain from birth to 24 months independent of childhood appetitive traits, and although significant associations were found between appetitive traits (DD and SR) and child BMI z-score at 24 months, these associations were observed only among children who had two obese parents. When both parents were obese, increasing DD and decreasing SR were associated with a higher BMI z-score. The results highlight the importance of considering familial risk factors when examining the relationship between childhood appetitive traits on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Lin, Hung-An; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Tsai, Keh-Sung
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. It has been associated with malignancies in rare cases. High serum levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 reported in a group of patients with ovarian cancer had normal serum phosphate levels. There had been no ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in a search of the literature. We investigated a 57-year-old woman with progressive low back pain. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological assessments were performed. The patient's serum phosphate and FGF23 levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment for ovarian cancer. The patient presented with progressive low back pain and weight loss during the previous 6 months. Imaging studies revealed low bone mineral density and multiple suspicious spinal metastatic lesions. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, normocalcemia, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level, and an elevated serum FGF23 level. Because TIO was suspected, a tumor survey was performed, and ovarian carcinoma with multiple metastasis was detected. After surgery and chemotherapy treatments for ovarian cancer, the serum phosphate and FGF23 levels returned to normal, and the low back pain improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia reported in the literature. TIO should be considered in patients with ovarian cancer presenting with weakness, bone pain, and fractures. Investigation of TIO is appropriate when these patients present hypophosphatemia.
Lin, Hung-An; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Hsu, Chih-Yao
Context: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. It has been associated with malignancies in rare cases. High serum levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 reported in a group of patients with ovarian cancer had normal serum phosphate levels. There had been no ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in a search of the literature. Objective: We investigated a 57-year-old woman with progressive low back pain. Design and Intervention: Clinical, biochemical, and radiological assessments were performed. The patient's serum phosphate and FGF23 levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment for ovarian cancer. Results: The patient presented with progressive low back pain and weight loss during the previous 6 months. Imaging studies revealed low bone mineral density and multiple suspicious spinal metastatic lesions. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, normocalcemia, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level, and an elevated serum FGF23 level. Because TIO was suspected, a tumor survey was performed, and ovarian carcinoma with multiple metastasis was detected. After surgery and chemotherapy treatments for ovarian cancer, the serum phosphate and FGF23 levels returned to normal, and the low back pain improved. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case of ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia reported in the literature. TIO should be considered in patients with ovarian cancer presenting with weakness, bone pain, and fractures. Investigation of TIO is appropriate when these patients present hypophosphatemia. PMID:25181387
Ebede, Chidinma C; Jang, Yongchang; Escalante, Carmen P
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) significantly interferes with usual functioning because of the distressing sense of physical, emotional, and cognitive exhaustion. Assessment of CRF is important and should be performed during the initial cancer diagnosis, throughout cancer treatment, and after treatment using a fatigue scoring scale (mild-severe). The general approach to CRF management applies to cancer survivors at all fatigue levels and includes education, counseling, and other strategies. Nonpharmacologic interventions include psychosocial interventions, exercise, yoga, physically based therapy, dietary management, and sleep therapy. Pharmacologic interventions include psychostimulants. Antidepressants may also benefit when CRF is accompanied by depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poulton, Alison S.; Hibbert, Emily J.; Champion, Bernard L.; Nanan, Ralph K. H.
The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for th...
Badowski, Melissa E; Yanful, Paa Kwesi
The true incidence of anorexia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer is not well classified owing to the fact that there is a lack of standardized definitions and recent clinical data in these settings. Dronabinol, or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a synthetic molecule that closely mimics the action of Cannabis sativa L., a naturally occurring compound activated in the central nervous system by cannabinoid receptors. Dronabinol exerts its effects by directly acting on the vomiting and appetite control centers in the brain, which in turn increases appetite and prevents vomiting. In the USA, dronabinol is currently available in two dosage formulations - oral capsule and oral solution. While the oral capsule was initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985, the recent approval of the oral solution in 2016 presents an "easy-to-swallow" alternative for patients using or intending to use dronabinol. Dronabinol is indicated in adult patients with HIV/AIDS for the treatment of anorexia and weight loss. However, there is no approved indication in the setting of cancer-related anorexia and weight loss. This review aims at presenting available data on the use of oral dronabinol in the management of anorexia and weight loss in HIV/AIDS and cancer, as well as characterizing and highlighting the pharmacotherapeutic considerations of the newest formulation of dronabinol.
Oliveira, Claudia M C; Kubrusly, Marcos; Lima, André T; Torres, Danielle M; Cavalcante, Natasha M R; Jerônimo, Antônio L C; Oliveira, Thiago C B
Protein-energy malnutrition is among the comorbidities that most strongly affect the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease. Anorexia, defined as a loss of desire to eat, is one cause of such malnutrition. Tools that evaluate appetite and the correlation between appetite and nutritional parameters require further study. To evaluate the appetite status in patients from 2 hemodialysis clinics in Fortaleza, Brazil and the correlations between appetite (evaluated in the past week and in the past 4 weeks) and demographic, laboratory, and nutritional parameters. This was a cross-sectional study of patients aged ≥18 years who had undergone dialysis for >3 months. Appetite was evaluated using the first 3 questions of the Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool (ADAT) questionnaire, which evaluate the appetite status during the past week as well as 1 question from the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life™ Short Form that assesses appetite in the past 4 weeks. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of appetite: group 1: very good and good appetite (ADAT) or not and somewhat (Kidney Disease and Quality of Life™ Short Form); group 2: fair or moderately; and group 3: poor and very poor, or very much and extremely. The nutritional parameters evaluated were body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and lean body mass index (lean mass in kilogram per square meter) as obtained by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with a BMI appetite and nutritional variables were tested using Fisher exact test and by comparing the means of the variables in the 3 groups using the analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 136 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 50.9 years and a median time on dialysis of 45 months; 57% of the patients were male. Regarding the first question on the ADAT questionnaire, 36% of patients exhibited anorexia in the past week. Furthermore, 28
Mathey, M.F.M.; Jong, de N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.
In investigating anorexia of ageing, attention is often given to physical and psychological determinants of appetite in the elderly but little has been done to provide information on self-assessment of appetite and sensory perceptions in the elderly. Objectives: to provide data and detect possible
Huang, Tao; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Hu, Frank B; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Williamson, Donald A; Qi, Lu
A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids. We examined the interaction between FTO genotype and protein intake on the long-term changes in appetite in a randomized controlled trial. We genotyped FTO rs9939609 in 737 overweight adults in the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial and assessed 4 appetite-related traits including cravings, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption. We showed that dietary protein significantly modified genetic effects on changes in food cravings and appetite scores at 6 mo after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, weight change, and baseline value for respective outcomes (P-interaction = 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). The A allele was associated with a greater decrease in food cravings and appetite scores in participants with high-protein-diet intake (P = 0.027 and 0.047, respectively) but not in subjects in the low-protein-diet group (P = 0.384 and 0.078, respectively). The weight regain from 6 to 24 mo attenuated gene-protein interactions. Protein intakes did not modify FTO genotype effects on other appetite measures. Our data suggest that individuals with the FTO rs9939609 A allele might obtain more benefits in a reduction of food cravings and appetite by choosing a hypocaloric and higher-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.
Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L
Background: Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. Objective: We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. Methods: We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. Results: The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. PMID:26561409
van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Boniface, David; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane
Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding. To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood. Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs. Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD. A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins. In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months. A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker
Amy Claire Reichelt
Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.
Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive
Rønnestad, Ivar; Gomes, Ana S.; Murashita, Koji; Angotzi, Rita; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Volkoff, Hélène
Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress. Endocrine signals are based on hormones that can be divided into two groups: those that induce (orexigenic), and those that inhibit (anorexigenic) appetite and food consumption. Peripheral signals originate in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, adipose tissue, and other tissues and reach the hypothalamus through both endocrine and neuroendocrine actions. While many mammalian-like endocrine appetite-controlling networks and mechanisms have been described for some key model teleosts, mainly zebrafish and goldfish, very little knowledge exists on these systems in fishes as a group. Fishes represent over 30,000 species, and there is a large variability in their ecological niches and habitats as well as life history adaptations, transitions between life stages and feeding behaviors. In the context of food intake and appetite control, common adaptations to extended periods of starvation or periods of abundant food availability are of particular interest. This review summarizes the recent findings on endocrine appetite-controlling systems in fish, highlights their impact on growth and survival, and discusses the perspectives in this research field to shed light on the intriguing adaptations that exist in fish and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:28458653
Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E
Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the
Teresa Cardoso Delgado
Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the
Walter Henriques da Costa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cancer related to hereditary syndromes corresponds to approximately 5-10% of all tumors. Among those from the genitourinary system, many tumors had been identified to be related to genetic syndromes in the last years with the advent of new molecular genetic tests. New entities were described or better characterized, especially in kidney cancer such as hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC, succinate dehydrogenase kidney cancer (SDH-RCC, and more recently BAP1 germline mutation related RCC. Among tumors from the bladder or renal pelvis, some studies had reinforced the role of germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR genes, especially in young patients. In prostate adenocarcinoma, besides mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are known to increase the incidence of high-risk cancer in young patients, new studies have shown mutation in other gene such as HOXB13 and also polymorphisms in MYC, MSMB, KLK2 and KLK3 that can be related to hereditary prostate cancer. Finally, tumors from testis that showed an increased in 8 - 10-fold in siblings and 4 - 6-fold in sons of germ cell tumors (TGCT patients, have been related to alteration in X chromosome. Also genome wide association studies GWAS pointed new genes that can also be related to increase of this susceptibility.
Sparre, Anita Belza; Ritz, Christian; Sørensen, Mejse Q
BACKGROUND: Effects of protein intake on appetite-regulating hormones and their dynamics are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the satiating effects of meals with varying protein contents and whether there was an effect of dose on appetite-regulating hormones and appetite ratings.Design: Twenty...
Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina
Obesity is often attributed to a Western lifestyle, a high-fat diet and decreased activity. While these factors certainly contribute to adult obesity, compelling data from our laboratory and others indicate that this explanation is oversimplified. Recent studies strongly argue that maternal/fetal under- or overnutrition predisposes the offspring to become hyperphagic and increases the risk of later obesity. Both infants small for gestational age (SGA) or infants born to obese mothers who consume a high-fat diet are at a markedly increased risk of adult obesity. Specific alterations in the fetal metabolic/energy environment directly influence the development of appetite regulatory pathways. Specifically, SGA infants demonstrate (1) impaired satiety and anorexigenic cell signaling, (2) enhanced cellular orexigenic responses, (3) programmed dysfunction of neuroprogenitor cell proliferation/differentiation, and (4) increased expression of appetite (NPY) versus satiety (POMC) neurons. In both hypothalamic tissue and ex vivo culture, SGA newborns exhibit increased levels of the nutrient sensor SIRT1, signifying reduced energy, whereas maternal high-fat-exposed newborns exhibit reduced levels of pAMPK, signifying energy excess. Via downstream regulation of bHLH neuroproliferation (Hes1) and neurodifferentiation factors (Mash1, Ngn3), neurogenesis is biased toward orexigenic and away from anorexigenic neurons, resulting in excess appetite, reduced satiety and development of obesity. Despite the developmental programming of appetite neurogenesis, the potential for neuronal remodeling raises the opportunity for novel interventions.
Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neoadjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue
Full Text Available This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neoadjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI (n=45 or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI (n=47. Measurements were obtained before (t0 and after the intervention (t1 as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t2 using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p<0.05 but not under YI (t0 to t2. Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 a direct effect (t0 to t1; p<0.001 of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p<0.001 were observed at both t1 and t2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t1 nor for t2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase.
Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.
Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom
Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.
Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O
Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silva, Karina; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Hughes, Sheryl O.
Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children—a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex—mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. PMID:27083128
Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R
A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (SIEx (P SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training.
Alison Sally Poulton
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.
Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F
We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cai Ping; Chen Hong-Min; Xie Jin
Recent advances in the preparation and applications of composite magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed and summarized, with a focus on cancer-related applications. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)
Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E
A reduction in the availability of cholesterol may limit the cellular proliferation required for cancer growth and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that statin use begun before a cancer diagnosis is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality.......A reduction in the availability of cholesterol may limit the cellular proliferation required for cancer growth and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that statin use begun before a cancer diagnosis is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality....
Bower, Julienne E.
Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839
Full Text Available Melissa E Badowski, Paa Kwesi Yanful Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The true incidence of anorexia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and cancer is not well classified owing to the fact that there is a lack of standardized definitions and recent clinical data in these settings. Dronabinol, or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a synthetic molecule that closely mimics the action of Cannabis sativa L., a naturally occurring compound activated in the central nervous system by cannabinoid receptors. Dronabinol exerts its effects by directly acting on the vomiting and appetite control centers in the brain, which in turn increases appetite and prevents vomiting. In the USA, dronabinol is currently available in two dosage formulations – oral capsule and oral solution. While the oral capsule was initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985, the recent approval of the oral solution in 2016 presents an “easy-to-swallow” alternative for patients using or intending to use dronabinol. Dronabinol is indicated in adult patients with HIV/AIDS for the treatment of anorexia and weight loss. However, there is no approved indication in the setting of cancer-related anorexia and weight loss. This review aims at presenting available data on the use of oral dronabinol in the management of anorexia and weight loss in HIV/AIDS and cancer, as well as characterizing and highlighting the pharmacotherapeutic considerations of the newest formulation of dronabinol. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, cancer, anorexia, weight loss, cachexia, dronabinol
Sternson, Scott M; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin
The neural control of appetite is important for understanding motivated behavior as well as the present rising prevalence of obesity. Over the past several years, new tools for cell type-specific neuron activity monitoring and perturbation have enabled increasingly detailed analyses of the mechanisms underlying appetite-control systems. Three major neural circuits strongly and acutely influence appetite but with notably different characteristics. Although these circuits interact, they have distinct properties and thus appear to contribute to separate but interlinked processes influencing appetite, thereby forming three pillars of appetite control. Here, we summarize some of the key characteristics of appetite circuits that are emerging from recent work and synthesize the findings into a provisional framework that can guide future studies.
Full Text Available Background: Weight loss accelerates cognitive decline and increases mortality in patients with dementia. While acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are known to cause appetite loss, we sometimes encounter patients in whom switching from donepezil (AChE inhibitor to rivastigmine (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase [BuChE] inhibitor improves appetite. Since BuChE inactivates ghrelin, a potent orexigenic hormone, we speculated that rivastigmine improves appetite by inhibiting BuChE-mediated ghrelin inactivation. Methods: The subjects were patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease treated with either rivastigmine patch (n = 11 or donepezil (n = 11 for 6 months. Before and after treatment, we evaluated appetite (0, decreased; 1, slightly decreased; 2, normal; 3, slightly increased; 4, increased, cognitive function, and blood biochemical variables, including various hormones. Results: Rivastigmine treatment significantly improved appetite (from 1.6 ± 0.5 to 2.6 ± 0.7, whereas donepezil treatment did not (from 2.0 ± 0.0 to 1.8 ± 0.4. Simultaneously, rivastigmine, but not donepezil, significantly decreased the serum cholinesterase activity (from 304.3 ± 60.5 to 246.8 ± 78.5 IU/L and increased the cortisol level (from 11.86 ± 3.12 to 14.61 ± 3.29 μg/dL and the acyl/des-acyl ghrelin ratio (from 4.03 ± 2.96 to 5.28 ± 2.72. The levels of leptin, insulin, total ghrelin, and cognitive function were not significantly affected by either treatment. Conclusions: Our results suggest that compared with donepezil, rivastigmine has the advantage of improving appetite by increasing the acyl/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and cortisol level, thereby preventing weight loss.
Huang, Tao; Li, Yanping; Hu, Frank B; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Williamson, Donald A; Qi, Lu
Background: A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass– and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids. Objective: We examined the interaction between FTO genotype and protein intake on the long-term changes in appetite in a randomized controlled trial. Design: We genotyped FTO rs9939609 in 737 overweight adults in the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial and assessed 4 appetite-related traits including cravings, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption. Results: We showed that dietary protein significantly modified genetic effects on changes in food cravings and appetite scores at 6 mo after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, weight change, and baseline value for respective outcomes (P-interaction = 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). The A allele was associated with a greater decrease in food cravings and appetite scores in participants with high-protein–diet intake (P = 0.027 and 0.047, respectively) but not in subjects in the low-protein–diet group (P = 0.384 and 0.078, respectively). The weight regain from 6 to 24 mo attenuated gene-protein interactions. Protein intakes did not modify FTO genotype effects on other appetite measures. Conclusion: Our data suggest that individuals with the FTO rs9939609 A allele might obtain more benefits in a reduction of food cravings and appetite by choosing a hypocaloric and higher-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:24622803
Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte
Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...
Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W
Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.
Fatima, Sadia; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Wright, Charlotte; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Arvanitidou, Eirini-Iro; Malkova, Dalia
The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dr. A.F. de Wild; dr. G.J. van der Pijl; V. Versluis
In the experiment risk professionals and laymen did not differ in their application of known criteria for designing risk appetite. The extent to which these criteria were used is very limited. Financial incentives do not consistently influence risk appetite in the direction that was predicted by
Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate
Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted…
Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.
The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…
Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie
To examine associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development. We also investigated whether trends in appetite, snacking, and body type continue through time. Children (n=1313) born between April 2000 and March 2004, in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, were enrolled. Data were collected during health checkups at 18 and 36 months of age. The items used for analysis were the child's appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and gender. The mothers commented on their child's appetite as good, normal, lacking, or irregular. The good and normal responses were grouped under the category good/normal appetite, while lacking and irregular were grouped under the category lacking/irregular appetite. Body types were calculated using an obesity index and classified as underweight, normal, or overweight. Fifteen kinds of snacks at 36 months were classified using cluster analysis. Appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and body type at 18 and 36 months of age were compared using the McNemar test. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the appetite categories. There were 664 boys (50.6%) and 648 girls (49.4%) in the study (missing=1). The response rate was 56.5%. Snacks were classified by content as meal substitutes, snacks and sweet foods, or healthy snacks. There was no change in appetite at 18 and 36 months of age. By 36 months, snack content, snack-eating style had changed (e.g. solitary snacking increased.). The highest risk factor for appetite at 36 months was lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months (OR: 4.70, CI: 3.07-7.19), eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.81, CI: 1.24-2.65), followed by unsupervised snacking (OR: 2.92, CI: 1.45-5.87), and consuming few healthy snacks (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.48-1.00). The risk factors for lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months of age were eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.13-2.49), receiving snacks on-demand (OR: 1
Crista L. Barberini
Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.
Definition. Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a secondary form of lymphoedema and a major complication of post-breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy. It occurs when the network of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes is damaged by disease, surgery or radiotherapy. The lymph, a protein-rich fluid, then ...
Bower, Julienne E
Fatigue is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer that might persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and might be a risk factor of reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in patients with cancer have been well characterized and there is growing understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation seems to have a key role in fatigue before, during, and after cancer-treatment. However, there is a considerable variability in the presentation of cancer-related fatigue, much of which is not explained by disease-related or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors might be important in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have identified genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioural risk factors associated with cancer-related fatigue. Although no current gold-standard treatment for fatigue is available, a variety of intervention approaches have shown beneficial effects in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. This Review describes the mechanisms, risk factors, and possible interventions for cancer-related fatigue, focusing on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients.
Radina, M. Elise
An estimated 20% of breast cancer survivors face the chronic condition of breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study explored the ways in which women with this condition experienced changes in their participation in family leisure as one indicator of family functioning. Participants (N = 27) were interviewed regarding lifestyles before and after…
Hernández-Garduño, Eduardo; Pérez-Guzmán, Carlos
Different risk factors have been identified as associated with tuberculosis (TB), an important and common one is malnutrition, however, the causes of malnutrition have not been studied in detail, the lack of food and poverty are among the most frequent in developing countries but others are yet to be identified. We hypothesized that chronic lack of appetite can be one of the causes of malnutrition associated to TB and therefore be a potential independent risk factor for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or TB disease. If this is true, contact subjects with LTBI who have poor appetite will be at higher risk for getting the disease and people with the disease will be at risk for poor treatment outcomes.
Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Riou, Marie-Ève; Finlayson, Graham S; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric
caloric restriction results in rapid changes in appetite that result in compensatory eating, which may initially dissuade potential success in weight-loss efforts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02653378. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Deighton, Kevin; Batterham, Rachel L; Stensel, David J
Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3-36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with changes in appetite across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.037). An energy deficit of ~1475 kJ stimulated compensatory increases in appetite when induced via calorie restriction but not when achieved by an acute bout of exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3-36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake. Copyright
Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Milam, K M
Two experiments are reported which show that rats are capable of forming an association between the presence of iron in a solution when it is not specifically needed and a subsequent state of iron deficiency. Specifically, rats were trained to lever press for water while thirsty. One group received ferrous ions in addition to the water. When these rats were subsequently rendered iron deficient, they lever pressed more under extinction conditions as a graded function of lower hemoglobin levels. Controls that either did not receive ferrous ions during training or received solutions other than ferrous solutions during training did not respond this way under extinction conditions. This is therefore a type of latent learning previously demonstrated only for sodium appetite.
Mantovani, Giovanni; Madeddu, Clelia; Macciò, Antonio; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Serpe, Roberto
Cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome and oxidative stress play a key role in the progression and outcome of neoplastic disease. On the basis of our previously published studies and clinical experience, we have developed an innovative approach consisting of diet with high polyphenol content (400 mg), p.o. pharmaconutritional support enriched with n - 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) 2 cans (237 mL each) per day, medroxiprogesterone acetate 500 mg/d, antioxidant treatment with alpha-lipoic acid 300 mg/d plus carbocysteine lysine salt 2.7 g/d plus vitamin E 400 mg/d plus vitamin A 30,000 IU/d plus vitamin C 500 mg/d, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Celecoxib 200 mg/d. The treatment is administered for 16 weeks. The following variables are evaluated: (a) clinical variables (stage and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional variables (lean body mass, appetite, and resting energy expenditure); (c) laboratory variables (serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, and leptin and blood levels of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes); and (d) quality of life variables (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, EQ-5Dindex, and EQ-5DVAS). A phase II nonrandomized study has been designed to enroll 40 patients with advanced cancer at different sites with symptoms of cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome and oxidative stress. As of January 2004, 28 patients have been enrolled: 25 patients were evaluable and 14 of them have completed the treatment (20 patients have completed 2 months of treatment). As for clinical response, five patients improved, three patients remained unchanged, and six patients worsened. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (grade) 1 remained unchanged. As for nutritional/functional variables, the lean body mass increased significantly at 2 and 4 months. As for laboratory variables, reactive oxygen species
Kawano, Hiroshi; Mineta, Mayuko; Asaka, Meiko; Miyashita, Masashi; Numao, Shigeharu; Gando, Yuko; Ando, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru
The present study determined the changes in appetite and appetite-regulating gut hormones during and following bouts of both rope skipping exercise (weight-bearing) and bicycle ergometer exercise (non-weight-bearing). After a 12-h fast, 15 young men (mean ± SD, age 24.4 ± 1.7 yrs, maximal oxygen uptake 47.0 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) participated in three 160 min trials: (1) rope skipping exercise (295 ± 40 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (2) bicycle ergometer exercise (288 ± 36 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (3) control (rested for 160 min). Ratings of perceived hunger and acylated ghrelin were suppressed and total peptide YY (PYY) were increased during and immediately after exercise in both exercise trials, but glucagon liked peptide-1 was not changed. Furthermore, suppressed hunger during rope skipping exercise was greater than that during bicycle ergometer exercise, but there were no differences in acylated ghrelin and total PYY. These results indicate that weight-bearing exercise has a greater exercise-induced appetite suppressive effect compared with non-weight-bearing exercise, and both forms of exercise lowered acylated ghrelin and increased total PYY, but the changes did not differ significantly between exercise modes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg
of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...... it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity and also include new findings on the role of linseed dietary fibre...... on appetite regulation....
Ebrahimi, Claudia; Koch, Stefan P; Friedel, Eva; Crespo, Ilsoray; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian
Appetitive Pavlovian conditioning plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of drug addiction and conditioned reward cues can trigger craving and relapse even after long phases of abstinence. Promising preclinical work showed that the NMDA-receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates Pavlovian extinction learning of fear and drug cues. Furthermore, DCS-augmented exposure therapy seems to be beneficial in various anxiety disorders, while the supposed working mechanism of DCS during human appetitive or aversive extinction learning is still not confirmed. To test the hypothesis that DCS administration before extinction training improves extinction learning, healthy adults (n=32) underwent conditioning, extinction, and extinction recall on three successive days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI design. Monetary wins and losses served as unconditioned stimuli during conditioning to probe appetitive and aversive learning. An oral dose of 50mg of DCS or placebo was administered 1h before extinction training and DCS effects during extinction recall were evaluated on a behavioral and neuronal level. We found attenuated amygdala activation in the DCS compared to the placebo group during recall of the extinguished appetitive cue, along with evidence for enhanced functional amygdala-vmPFC coupling in the DCS group. While the absence of additional physiological measures of conditioned responses during recall in this study prevent the evaluation of a behavioral DCS effect, our neuronal findings are in accordance with recent theories linking successful extinction recall in humans to modulatory top-down influences from the vmPFC that inhibit amygdala activation. Our results should encourage further translational studies concerning the usefulness of DCS to target maladaptive Pavlovian reward associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective immediate weight loss method for the morbidly obese, despite widely reported weight regain after a few years. Appetite, satiety and satiation control are essential to maintaining a long-term result post-surgery. Dietary fatty acids composition may be implicated in the satiety. As flaxseed is a food high in linolenic acid, we aimed to verify the influence of flaxseed fat on appetite and satiety of women after bariatric surgery.Material and methods: Six women who underwent bariatric surgery at least 2 years before participated in a single-blind crossover trial that compared the effect of two isocaloric meals on satiety, one containing whole golden flaxseed (high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber (G1 and another withdefatted flaxseed (high in fiber (G2, with one week of washout period. This variable was estimated by visual analogue scales in both meals at baseline (T0, immediately after ingestion (T1 and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the meal (T60, T120 and T180. Fasting anthropometric, body composition, laboratory tests (glucose and lipids and dietary variables, were evaluated while fasting.Results: The volunteers were obese and had excess central adiposity, even after two years of surgery and still showed habitual fibre intake below recommended levels. G1 had reduced hunger after 180 minutes compared to G2 (P=.046. Other parameters related to appetite and satiety did not differ between groups.Conclusions: Less hunger was observed after 180 minutes in whole golden flaxseed meal compared with the defatted flaxseed meal, indicating that the whole golden flaxseed meal, possibly, supports obesity treatment in the long-term after bariatric surgery by controlling appetite and satiety sensations.
Jaivika Govindbhai Patel
Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, selected biologic response modifiers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in patients of the solid tumor after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: After screening for cancer-related fatigue, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusive criteria and were assigned into two groups (n = 17 recruited in the intervention group and n = 17 in control group. The intervention group received aerobic exercise program which included treadmill walking with low to moderate intensity (50%–70% of maximum heart rate, for 20–40 min/day for 5 days/week. Control group were taught stretching exercises of hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus (to be done at home and were encouraged to remain active. Outcome measures such as brief fatigue inventory (BFI, 6-min walk test, and functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G were taken at baseline and after 6-weeks. Results: The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for within group and Mann–Whitney U-test for between group comparisons. The results of this study showed that there was a significant reduction in cancer-related fatigue BFI score (P < 0.0001,, also there was significant improvement in the physical performance as in 6-min walk distance (P < 0.0001 and quality of life, FACT-G score (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 6 weeks has beneficial effects on cancer-related fatigue in patients with solid tumor after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
dr. A.F. de Wild; R. Duits
Risk appetite is de tegenpool van uw doelen. Het geeft aan hoe ver u wilt gaan om doelen te bereiken. En het maakt duidelijk wat de ultieme kostprijs van het nemen van risico volgens uw organisatie mag zijn.
of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...
Straub, Volko A.; Styles, Benjamin J.; Ireland, Julie S.; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.
Learning to associate a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) results in changes in the processing of CS information. Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of Lymnaea feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording techniques to monitor neuronal activity at two stages of the sensory processing pathway. Our data show that appetitive conditioning does not affect signific...
Jensen, Tenna; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Grønnow, Liv Cæcilie
Idékataloget er en selvstændig publikation hørende til projekt Appetit på maden. Idékataloget er udviklet til brug i Københavns Kommune.......Idékataloget er en selvstændig publikation hørende til projekt Appetit på maden. Idékataloget er udviklet til brug i Københavns Kommune....
Zabel, Rachel; Ash, Susan; King, Neil; Juffs, Philip; Bauer, Judith
The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between appetite and kidney-disease specific quality of life in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the kidney disease quality of life survey. Appetite was measured using self-reported categories and a visual analog scale. Other nutritional parameters included Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA), dietary intake, body mass index and biochemical markers C-reactive protein and albumin. Even in this well nourished sample (n=62) of hemodialysis patients, PGSGA score (r=-0.629), subjective hunger sensations (r=0.420) and body mass index (r=-0.409) were all significantly associated with the physical health domain of QoL. As self-reported appetite declined, QoL was significantly lower in nine domains which were mostly in the SF36 component and covered social functioning and physical domains. Appetite and other nutritional parameters were not as strongly associated with the Mental Health domain and Kidney Disease Component Summary Domains. Nutritional parameters, especially PGSGA score and appetite, appear to be important components of the physical health domain of QoL. As even small reductions in nutritional status were associated with significantly lower QoL scores, monitoring appetite and nutritional status is an important component of care for hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert
We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months: ...... and 2-3-week refeeding period, suggest that strategies for physiological appetite control following a LED period are needed, in order to prevent weight regain....
Assessments of investors' risk appetite/aversion stance via indicators often yields results which seem unsatisfactory (see e.g. Illing and Aaron (2005)). Understanding how such indicators work therefore seems essential for further improvements. The present paper seeks to contribute to this evolution, focusing on the Global Risk Appetite Index (GRAI) class of indicators going back to Kumar and Persaud (2002). Looking at international stock indices during the subprime crisis in 2007, the plausi...
I review the main themes of my 50-year research career in ingestive behavior as a graduate student at the University of Chicago and a professor at the City University of New York. A seminar course with my Ph.D. mentor, S. P. Grossman, sparked my interest in the hypothalamic obesity syndrome. I developed a wire knife to dissect the neuropathways and the functional disorder responsible for the syndrome. An elevated appetite setpoint that permitted the overconsumption of palatable foods appeared central to the hypothalamic syndrome. In brain-intact rats, providing an assortment of highly palatable foods (the cafeteria diet) stimulated diet-induced obesity that mimicked elements of hypothalamic obesity. Studies of the determinants of food palatability led to the discovery of a "new" carbohydrate taste (maltodextrin taste) and the confirmation of a fatty taste. In addition to oral taste receptors, gut nutrient sensors stimulated the intake/preference for carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods via an appetition process that stimulates brain reward systems. My research career greatly benefited from many diligent and creative students, collaborators and technicians and research support from my university and the National Institutes of Health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin
Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J
Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 7-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Salehi, P; Hsu, I; Azen, C G; Mittelman, S D; Geffner, M E; Jeandron, D
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is associated with hyperphagia and hyperghrelinemia with major morbidity because of obesity without effective medical treatment targeting hyperphagia. Exenatide (Byetta [synthetic Exendin-4]; AstraZeneca, Wilmington DE) is a GLP-1 receptor agonist which reduces appetite and weight and may be an effective treatment in PWS. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of a 6-month trial of exenatide on appetite, weight and gut hormones in youth with PWS. Ten overweight and obese subjects with PWS (13-25 years) were recruited for a 6-month open-label, non-randomized, longitudinal study conducted at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Exenatide was given using standard diabetes dosing without dietary modifications. Weight, body mass index (BMI), truncal fat, appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin were measured over 6 months. Mixed meal tolerance tests were performed at 0 and 6 months. Appetite scores significantly decreased from baseline (32.2 ± 8.7) after 1, 3 and 6 moths of treatment (27.5 ± 8.8, 25.4 ± 9.3, and 25.4 ± 7.2 respectively; p = 0.004). Hemoglobin A1c decreased significantly after treatment, but weight, BMI z-score and adiposity did not. There was no significant change in ghrelin. This is the first longitudinal investigation of the effects of exenatide in subjects with PWS. It was effective in decreasing appetite, without change in weight or BMI in the short term. Larger, controlled, longer-term trials in patients with PWS are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of exenatide and to evaluate whether its use might induce weight loss when given in conjunction with behavioural modification. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-individual variation of momentary appetite and uses this scale to discuss the relationships between appetite and various psychological factors. Twenty healthy participants (age 23.6 ± 4.2 years old) wore a watch-type computer for a week. Several times a day, including just before and after meals, they recorded their momentary psychological stress, mood states, and ten items related to appetite. In addition, they recorded everything they ate and drank into a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based food diary. Multilevel factor analysis was used to investigate the factor structure of the scale, and the reliability and validity of the scale were also explored. Multilevel factor analyses found two factors at the within-individual level (hunger/fullness and cravings) and one factor at the between-individual level. Medians for the individually calculated Cronbach's alphas were 0.89 for hunger/fullness, 0.71 for cravings, and 0.86 for total appetite (the sum of all items). Hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite all decreased significantly after meals compared with those before meals, and hunger/fullness, cravings, and total appetite before meals were positively associated with energy intake. There were significant negative associations between both hunger/fullness and total appetite and anxiety and depression as well as between cravings, and depression, anxiety and stress. The within-individual reliability of the EMA scale to assess momentary appetite was confirmed in most subjects and it
Hankin, Benjamin L; Wetter, Emily K; Flory, Kate
Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted depressed, n = 34; externalizing disordered without depression, n = 30; and healthy controls, n = 34) participated in a novel reward striving task designed to activate the appetitive/approach motivation system. Objective facial expressions of emotion were videotaped and coded throughout both failure (i.e., nonreward) and control (success and reward) conditions. Observational coding of facial expressions as well as youths' subjective emotion reports showed that the remitted depressed youth specifically exhibited more negative emotional reactivity to failure in the reward striving task, but not the control condition. Neither externalizing disordered (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder) nor control youth displayed greater negative emotional reactivity in either the failure or control condition. Findings suggest that depression among youth is related to dysregulated appetitive motivation and associated negative emotional reactivity after failing to achieve an important, self-relevant goal and not attaining reward. These deficits in reward processing appear to be specific to depression as externalizing disordered youth did not display negative emotional reactivity to failure after their appetitive motivation system was activated.
The risk appetite concept has been given considerable attention recently in enterprise risk management contexts. A number of definitions exist, most with a link to risk acceptability, but also values and goals. The usefulness of the concept is, however, disputed; some authors argue that we can in fact do better without it. In this article, we provide a thorough discussion of what the risk appetite concept is actually trying to express and how it best can be used in the relevant decision making. The main purposes of the article are (i) to argue that the risk appetite concept, suitably interpreted, has a role to play in risk management, (ii) to show that the risk appetite concept is well supported by some types of risk perspectives and not by others, and (iii) to show how the risk appetite concept is linked to other related concepts, such as risk seeking and risk acceptability. The risk perspectives studied range from expected value and probability based definitions of risk to views on risk, that are founded on uncertainties. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate
Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9–15; remitted depressed, n = 34; externalizing disordered without depression, n = 30, and healthy controls, n = 34) participated in a novel reward striving task designed to activate the appetitive/approach motivation system. Objective facial expressions of emotion were videotaped and coded throughout both failure (i.e., nonreward) and control (success and reward) conditions. Observational coding of facial expressions as well as youths’ subjective emotion reports showed that the remitted depressed youth specifically exhibited more negative emotional reactivity to failure in the reward striving task, but not the control condition. Neither externalizing disordered (i.e., ADHD, CD, and/ or ODD) nor control youth displayed greater negative emotional reactivity in either the failure or control condition. Findings suggest that depression among youth is related to dysregulated appetitive motivation and associated negative emotional reactivity after failing to achieve an important, self-relevant goal and not attaining reward. These deficits in reward processing appear to be specific to depression as externalizing disordered youth did not display negative emotional reactivity to failure after their appetitive motivation system was activated. PMID:22901275
Avaliação da taxa de sudorese de atletas de judô e sua associação com escores subjetivos de fome e apetite Evaluation of water Loss in judo training and its relationship with subjective hunger and appetite scores
Jaqueline de Barros
Full Text Available O judô, assim como outros esportes que envolvem categorias de pesos, é uma modalidade em que os atletas apresentam grande risco de hipo-hidratação devido aos processos de desidratação involuntária e/ou voluntária. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de sudorese (ml/min de judocas em um dia de treino e associar o grau de desidratação com alterações subjetivas de fome e apetite. A amostra foi composta por 14 atletas (nove homens e cinco mulheres, com idade média de 19,6 ± 5,9 anos. Para a realização do estudo, foram mensuradas a massa corporal e as taxas subjetivas de fome, apetite e esforço, expressas em uma escala de zero a 10, antes e logo após o treino. A massa corporal foi significantemente menor após o treino (68,8 ± 18,1kg versus 66,9 ± 17,3kg; p Judo, as well as other types of sports involving weight categories, is a modality in which athletes have high risk of hypohydration due to involuntary /voluntary dehydration. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluate the sweating rate (ml/min of judokas in a training day and verify the impact of the dehydration degree upon subjective hunger and appetite rates. The sample was composed of 14 athletes (nine men and five women with mean age of 19.6 ± 5.9 years. Body mass and subjective rates of hunger, appetite and effort were measured in a scale ranging from zero to 10, before and after training. Body mass was significantly lower after training (68.8 ± 18.1kg versus 66.9 ± 17.3kg; p < 0,01, with reduction of 2.6 ± 1.1%. Hunger and effort rates were significantly higher after exercise (2.1 ± 2.2 versus 4.8 ± 3.6, p = 0.02 and 0 versus 7.2 ± 1.3; p < 0,01, likewise craving for fruit rate (4.3 ± 3.8 versus 8.0 ± 2.8; p = 0.01. Positive correlations were obtained between: 1 effort scale and post-training craving for dairy products (r = 0.63; p < 0.05; 2 percentage of body mass reduction and hunger rate the in post-training period (r = 0.55, p < 0
Peng, Lihua; Min, Su; Zejun, Zhou; Wei, Ke; Bennett, Michael I
This is an update of a review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 3, 2013. Cancer-related pain places a heavy burden on public health with related high expenditure. Severe pain is associated with a decreased quality of life in patients with cancer. A significant proportion of patients with cancer-related pain are under-treated. There is a need for more effective control of cancer-related pain. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may have a role in pain management. The effectiveness and safety of SCS for patients with cancer-related pain is currently unknown. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of SCS for cancer-related pain compared with standard care using conventional analgesic medication. We also appraised risk and potential adverse events associated with the use of SCS. This is an update of a review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 3, 2013. The search strategy for the update was the same as in the original review. We searched the following bibliographic databases in order to identify relevant studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; and CBM (Chinese Biomedical Database) in October 2014. We also handsearched relevant journals. There were no language restrictions. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that directly compared SCS with other interventions with regards to the effectiveness of pain management. We also planned to include cross-over trials that compared SCS with another treatment. We planned to identify non-randomised controlled trials but these would only be included if no RCTs could be found. The literature search for the update of this review found 121 potentially eligible articles. The initial search strategy yielded 430 articles. By scrutinising titles and abstracts, we found 412 articles irrelevant to the analytical purpose of this systematic review due to different scopes of diseases or different methods of intervention
Takei, Yoshio; Bartolo, Ray C; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Donald, John A
Like many desert animals, the spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, can maintain water balance without drinking water. The role of the kidney in producing a small volume of highly concentrated urine has been well-documented, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms underpinning the metabolic production of water to offset obligatory water loss. In Notomys, we found that water deprivation (WD) induced a sustained high food intake that exceeded the pre-deprivation level, which was driven by parallel changes in plasma leptin and ghrelin and the expression of orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptide genes in the hypothalamus; these changed in a direction that would stimulate appetite. As the period of WD was prolonged, body fat disappeared but body mass increased gradually, which was attributed to hepatic glycogen storage. Switching metabolic strategy from lipids to carbohydrates would enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule, thus providing a mechanism to minimize respiratory water loss. The changes observed in appetite control and metabolic strategy in Notomys were absent or less prominent in laboratory mice. This study reveals novel mechanisms for appetite regulation and energy metabolism that could be essential for desert rodents to survive in xeric environments.
Sayer, R Drew; Dhillon, Jaapna; Tamer, Gregory G; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Richard D
Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus a baked food on postprandial appetite and neural responses to visual food stimuli. Twenty-two adults (19 women and 3 men) with a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m² completed the current study during a 12-week behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants consumed either 28 g of whole, lightly salted roasted almonds or a serving of a baked food with equivalent energy and macronutrient contents in random order on two testing days prior to and at the end of the intervention. Pre- and postprandial appetite ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed on all four testing days. Postprandial hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and neural responses to visual food stimuli were not different following consumption of almonds and the baked food, nor were they influenced by weight loss. These results support energy and macronutrient contents as principal determinants of postprandial appetite and do not support a unique satiety effect of almonds independent of these variables.
Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M
Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....
Francisco José Roma Paumgartten
Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.
Full Text Available Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades.To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030.Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.
Johnson P. Hampson
Full Text Available There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI. Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82 and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88. These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent
José F Meneses-Echávez
Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer
Full Text Available Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention.
Rimer, Barbara K; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Golin, Carol E; Forlenza, Michael J; Meier, Andrea
Online cancer-related support is an under-studied resource that may serve an important function in the information seeking, care, and support of cancer patients and their families. With over 9.8 million cancer survivors (defined as anyone living with cancer) in the United States alone and the number growing worldwide, it is important to understand how they seek and use online resources to obtain the information they need, when they need it, and in a form and manner appropriate to them. These are stated cancer communication goals of the US National Cancer Institute. Our purposes are to (1) present background information about online mailing lists and electronic support groups, (2) describe the rationale and methodology for the Health eCommunities (HeC) study, and (3) present preliminary baseline data on new subscribers to cancer-related mailing lists. In particular, we describe subscribers' use of mailing lists, their reasons for using them, and their reactions to participating shortly after joining the lists. From April to August 2004, we invited all new subscribers to 10 Association of Cancer Online Resources mailing lists to complete Web-based surveys. We analyzed baseline data from the respondents to examine their perceptions about cancer-related mailing lists and to describe how cancer patients and survivors used these lists in the period shortly after joining them. Cumulative email invitations were sent to 1368 new mailing list subscribers; 293 Web surveys were completed within the allotted time frame (21.4% response rate). Most respondents were over age 50 (n = 203, 72%), white (n = 286, 98%), college graduates (n = 161, 55%), and had health insurance (n = 283, 97%). About 41% (n = 116) of new subscribers reported spending 1 to 3 hours per day reading and responding to list messages. They used the mailing lists for several reasons. Among the most frequently reported, 62% (n = 179) strongly agreed they used mailing lists to obtain information on how to deal
Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon
Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed
Due to developments in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, survival rates are rising. This leads to a population of mainly women, who also experience breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). Long after the cancer has been treated, lymphoedema persists at a time when individuals have returned to work. Large limb volumes can present a problem to these individuals and innovative treatments are needed, in order to retain as much normality as possible and reduce excessive limb volumes that patients can experience with lymphoedema long after treatment. It is also important that these treatments do not disrupt daily living and, for some, work-life balance. With the introduction of wrap around compression systems and collaborative working with the patient, it is possible to achieve an acceptable outcome to those patients with these issues. This approach leads to patient satisfaction and stabilisation of limb volume to within acceptable limits for these patients, in conjunction with the therapist.
Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others
Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.
David E. Kang
Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was first reported in 2006 in a study of human prostate cancer patients with genetic variants of the antiviral enzyme, RNase L. Subsequent investigations in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa have either observed or failed to detect XMRV in patients (prostate cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome-myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS-ME, and immunosuppressed with respiratory tract infections or normal, healthy, control individuals. The principal confounding factors are the near ubiquitous presence of mouse-derived reagents, antibodies and cells, and often XMRV itself, in laboratories. XMRV infects and replicates well in many human cell lines, but especially in certain prostate cancer cell lines. XMRV also traffics to prostate in a nonhuman primate model of infection. Here, we will review the discovery of XMRV and then focus on prostate cancer-related research involving this intriguing virus.
Pearson, Elizabeth J M; Morris, Meg E; McKinstry, Carol E
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a key concern for people living with cancer and can impair physical functioning and activities of daily living. Evidence-based guidelines for CRF are available, yet inconsistently implemented globally. This study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to applying a cancer fatigue guideline and to derive implementation strategies. A mixed-method study explored the feasibility of implementing the CRF guideline developed by the Canadian Association for Psychosocial Oncology (CAPO). Health professionals, managers and consumers from different practice settings participated in a modified Delphi study with two survey rounds. A reference group informed the design of the study including the surveys. The first round focused on guideline characteristics, compatibility with current practice and experience, and behaviour change. The second survey built upon and triangulated the first round. Forty-five health practitioners and managers, and 68 cancer survivors completed the surveys. More than 75% of participants endorsed the CAPO cancer related fatigue guidelines. Some respondents perceived a lack of resources for accessible and expert fatigue management services. Further barriers to guideline implementation included complexity, limited practical details for some elements, and lack of clinical tools such as assessment tools or patient education materials. Recommendations to enhance guideline applicability centred around four main themes: (1) balancing the level of detail in the CAPO guideline with ease of use, (2) defining roles of different professional disciplines in CRF management, (3) how best to integrate CRF management into policy and practice, (4) how best to ensure a consumer-focused approach to CRF management. Translating current knowledge on optimal management of CRF into clinical practice can be enhanced by the adoption of valid guidelines. This study indicates that it is feasible to adopt the CAPO guidelines. Clinical application may
Douglas, Jessica A; King, James A; McFarlane, Ewan; Baker, Luke; Bradley, Chloe; Crouch, Nicole; Hill, David; Stensel, David J
Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. Within a controlled laboratory setting, 15 healthy males completed two, 2-day long (09:00-16:00) experimental trials (exercise and control) in a randomised order. On the exercise trial participants performed 60 min of continuous moderate-high intensity treadmill running (day one: 70.1 ± 2.5% VO2peak, day two: 70.0 ± 3.2% VO2max (mean ± SD)) at the beginning of days one and two. Across each day appetite perceptions were assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite regulatory hormones were measured from venous blood samples. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. Exercise elicited a high level of energy expenditure (total = 7566 ± 635 kJ across the two days) but did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days (control: 29,217 ± 4006 kJ; exercise: 28,532 ± 3899 kJ, P > 0.050). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any main effects for acylated ghrelin or leptin (all P > 0.050). However a significant main effect of trial (P = 0.029) for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise vs. control trial. These findings suggest that across a two day period, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hanly, Paul; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Sharp, Linda
Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were €75 billion. Male costs (€49 billion) were almost twice female costs (€26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (€17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (€7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (€6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was €219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (€312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (€306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (€288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control. © 2014 UICC.
Holt, Guy M; Owen, Lauren J; Till, Sophie; Cheng, Yanying; Grant, Vicky A; Harden, Charlotte J; Corfe, Bernard M
Ratings of appetite are commonly used to assess appetite modification following an intervention. Subjectively rated appetite is a widely employed proxy measure for energy intake (EI), measurement of which requires greater time and resources. However, the validity of appetite as a reliable predictor of EI has not yet been reviewed systematically. This literature search identified studies that quantified both appetite ratings and EI. Outcomes were predefined as: (1) agreement between self-reported appetite scores and EI; (2) no agreement between self-reported appetitescores and EI. The presence of direct statistical comparison between the endpoints, intervention type and study population were also recorded. 462 papers were included in this review. Appetite scores failed to correspond with EI in 51.3% of the total studies. Only 6% of all studies evaluated here reported a direct statistical comparison between appetite scores and EI. χ 2 analysis demonstrated that any relationship between EI and appetite was independent of study type stratification by age, gender or sample size. The very substantive corpus reviewed allows us to conclude that self-reported appetite ratings of appetite do not reliably predict EI. Caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions based from self-reported appetite scores in relation to prospective EI.
Leung, Hiu T.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick
Four experiments used between- and within-subject designs to examine appetitive-aversive interactions in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of an excitatory appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, a CS shocked in a compound with an appetitive excitor (i.e., a stimulus…
McGavigan, A K; O'Hara, H C; Amin, A; Kinsey-Jones, J; Spreckley, E; Alamshah, A; Agahi, A; Banks, K; France, R; Hyberg, G; Wong, C; Bewick, G A; Gardiner, J V; Lehmann, A; Martin, N M; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G
High-protein diets promote weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance, but are difficult to adhere to. The mechanisms by which protein exerts these effects remain unclear. However, the amino acids produced by protein digestion may have a role in driving protein-induced satiety. We tested the effects of a range of amino acids on food intake in rodents and identified l-cysteine as the most anorexigenic. Using rodents we further studied the effect of l-cysteine on food intake, behaviour and energy expenditure. We proceeded to investigate its effect on neuronal activation in the hypothalamus and brainstem before investigating its effect on gastric emptying and gut hormone release. The effect of l-cysteine on appetite scores and gut hormone release was then investigated in humans. l-Cysteine dose-dependently decreased food intake in both rats and mice following oral gavage and intraperitoneal administration. This effect did not appear to be secondary to behavioural or aversive side effects. l-Cysteine increased neuronal activation in the area postrema and delayed gastric emptying. It suppressed plasma acyl ghrelin levels and did not reduce food intake in transgenic ghrelin-overexpressing mice. Repeated l-cysteine administration decreased food intake in rats and obese mice. l-Cysteine reduced hunger and plasma acyl ghrelin levels in humans. Further work is required to determine the chronic effect of l-cysteine in rodents and humans on appetite and body weight, and whether l-cysteine contributes towards protein-induced satiety.
Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi
In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…
Full Text Available Violent behaviour can be intrinsically rewarding; especially combatants fighting in current civil wars present with elevated traits of appetitive aggression. The majority of these fighters were recruited as children or adolescents. In the present study we test whether there is a developmental period where combatants are sensitive for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression.We investigated 95 combatants in their demobilization process that were recruited at different ages in the Kivu regions of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Using random forest with conditional inference trees, we identified recruitment at the ages from 16 and 17 years as being predictive of the level of appetitive aggression; the number of lifetime, perpetrated acts was the most important predictor. We conclude that high levels of appetitive aggression develop in ex-combatants, especially in those recruited during their middle to late teenage, which is a developmental period marked by a natural inclination to exercise physical force. Consequently, ex-combatants may remain vulnerable for aggressive behaviour patterns and re-recruitment unless they are provided alternative strategies for dealing with their aggression.
Full Text Available We have previously shown that priming by a given color facilitates participant's appetite to that color (Liao, et al., 2010. The current study aims to further examine whether the way participant's experiencing the color affects the effect of color on appetite. In two experiments, participants were primed with a particular color by conducting an active cognitive task, or with a color paper upon which the questionnaire was printed. Participants were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the sensations of taste/smell/flavor and their consumptive attitude toward sample candies with different colors. We measured their actual initial choice of the colored candy when they answered the questionnaire and the total amount of candy consumption during the experiment. Results showed that active color priming by the pre-executed cognitive task was correlated with initial choice but not explicit attitude. By contrast, no such direct influence of color on appetite was found when the color was primed passively with the printed paper. We conclude that color priming can affect appetite even without conscious evaluation of the relationship between them and this is more so with active priming than passive priming.
Williams, Elizabeth A
Advice about diet has been an important part of Western medicine from its inception. Although based partly on the presumed qualities and effects of foodstuffs, such advice rested chiefly on the constitution and circumstances of individual patients, including their unique appetites and eating habits. In the eighteenth century the nature of appetite itself came to be a subject of growing interest in the sciences, especially in medicine, natural history, and physiology. Within these sciences attention to the eating proclivities of individuals began to be displaced by interest in uniform processes of ingestion and digestion. In turn dietary advice came increasingly to rely on general standards of health and the digestibility of foodstuffs. Central to the promotion of uniform standards was the increasing credence given to experimental procedures that claimed to offer new certainties about the digestive process. As experimental science took hold, appetite, long regarded as a perplexing blend of psychic and somatic elements, assumed subordinate status as an object of inquiry to phenomena thought readily susceptible to laboratory manipulation. These eighteenth-century developments stand at the origin of the modern nutritional science that denigrates individual appetites in favor of universal rules of 'healthy eating.' Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P=0.04, P=0.048, and P=0.03. Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P=0.0007 but not in women (P=0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04. These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management.
Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet
This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136
The study examines the effects of bank heterogeneity on risk appetite under changing monetary policy stance of the monetary authority. The scope of the study covers the period 2005 to 2015 using data obtained from the published accounts of the affected banks and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin, various ...
Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone
We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158
Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. Th...
Jager, G.; Witkamp, R.F.
Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the
Full Text Available Mei R Fu,1 Deborah Axelrod,2,3 Charles M Cleland,1 Zeyuan Qiu,4 Amber A Guth,2,3 Robin Kleinman,2 Joan Scagliola,2 Judith Haber1 1College of Nursing, New York University, 2Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 3NYU Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97
Andersson, J; Hulander, E; Rothenberg, E; Iversen, P
We examined if individually-adapted nutritional counselling could prevent > 5% weight loss among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. In addition we assessed quality of life (QoL) and appetite. An open, randomized trial. Godthaab Health and Rehabilitation Institution in Bærum, Norway. Patients identified as being undernourished or at risk of disease-related malnutrition using the Nutritional Risk Screening tool NRS-2002. Shortly before discharge, patients in the intervention group received an individually-tailored nutrition plan. During the subsequent 3 months these patients were contacted 3 times via telephone calls and they received one visit at their homes, for nutrition counselling. Focus on this counselling was on optimizing meal environment, improving appetite, increasing food intake, advice on food preparation, and motivation and support. In addition to weight, QoL and appetite were assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire and a modified version of the Disease-Related Appetite Questionnaire, respectively. Among 115 considered eligible for the study, 100 were enrolled (72 women and 28 men), with a mean age of 75 years and a mean body mass index of 20 kg/m2. Two in the intervention group (n = 52) and 5 in the control group (n = 48) lost > 5% of their body weight, giving an odds ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.064 - 1.86; p = 0.22). We did not detect any significant differences in the QoL- or appetite scores between the two study groups after three months. An individually-adapted nutritional counselling did not improve body mass among elderly patients 3 months after discharge from a rehabilitation institution. Neither quality of life nor appetite measures were improved. Possibly, nutritional counselling should be accompanied with nutritional supplementation to be effective in this vulnerable group of elderly. The trial is registered in Clinical Trials (ID: NCT01632072).
Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn
It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475
Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Woolrich, Mark; Passingham, Dick
adult participants decided to chase losses or decided to quit gambling to prevent further losses.ResultsChasing losses was associated with increased activity in cortical areas linked to incentive-motivation and an expectation of reward. By contrast, quitting was associated with decreased activity...... in pathological gambling might involve a failure to appropriately balance activity within neural systems coding conflicting motivational states. Similar mechanisms might underlie the loss-of-control over appetitive behaviors in other impulse control disorders....
Janelsins, Michelle C.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Ahles, Tim A.; Morrow, Gary R.
This review summarizes the current literature on cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) with a focus on prevalence, mechanisms, and possible interventions for CRCI in those who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for non-central nervous system tumors and is primarily focused on breast cancer. CRCI is characterized as deficits in areas of cognition including memory, attention, concentration, and executive function. Development of CRCI can impair quality of life and impact treatment decisions. CRCI is highly prevalent; these problems can be detected in up to 30% of patients prior to chemotherapy; up to 75% of patients report some form of CRCI during treatment, and CRCI is still present in up to 35% of patients many years following completion of treatment. While the trajectory of CRCI is becoming better understood, the mechanisms underlying the development of CRCI are still obscure; however, host characteristics, immune dysfunction, neural toxicity, and genetics may play key roles in the development and trajectory of CRCI. Intervention research is limited, though strategies to maintain function are being studied with promising preliminary findings. This review highlights key research being conducted in these areas, both in patient populations and in animals, which will ultimately result in better understanding and effective treatments for CRCI. PMID:24716504
Yang, Lu; Li, Tian-Tian; Chu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ke; Tian, Shao-Dan; Chen, Xin-Yi; Yang, Guo-Wang
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and one of the most severe symptom in the period of onset, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation process of cancer. But there are no confirmed measures to relieve this problem at present. Traditional Chinese medical comprehensive therapy has its advantages in dealing with this condition. Based on the research status of CRF, the following problems have been analyzed and solved: the term of CRF has been defined and recommended, and the definition has been made clear; the disease mechanism is proposed, i.e. healthy qi has been impaired in the long-term disease duration, in the process of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and biology disturbing; it is clear that the clinical manifestations are related to six Chinese medicine patterns: decreased functioning of the Pi (Spleen) and Wei (Stomach), deficiency of the Pi with dampness retention, deficiency of the Xin (Heart) and Pi, disharmony between the Gan (Liver) and Pi, deficiency of the Pi and Shen (Kidney), and deficiency of the Fei (Lung) and Shen. Based on its severity, the mild patients are advised to have non-drug psychological intervention and sleep treatment in cooperation with appropriate exercise; diet therapy are recommended to moderate patients together with sleep treatment and acupuncture, severe patients are recommended to have herbal treatment based on pattern differentiation together with physiological sleep therapy.
Dougkas, Anestis; Östman, Elin
Dietary protein is considered the most satiating macronutrient, yet there is little evidence on whether the effects observed are attributable to the protein or to the concomitant manipulation of carbohydrates and fat. The aim was to examine the effect of consumption of preloads varying in macronutrient content on appetite, energy intake, and biomarkers of satiety. Using a randomized, within-subjects, 2-level factorial design, 36 adults [mean ± SD age: 27 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.3 ± 1.6) received a breakfast consisting of 1 of 7 isovolumetric (670 mL) and isoenergetic (2100 kJ) liquid preloads matched for energy density and sensory properties but with different macronutrient composition (levels: 9%, 24%, or 40% of energy from protein combined with a carbohydrate-to-fat ratio of 0.4, 2, or 3.6, respectively). Appetite ratings and blood samples were collected and assessed at baseline and every 30 and 60 min, respectively, until a lunch test meal, which participants consumed ad libitum, was served 3.5 h after breakfast. Prospective consumption was 12% lower after intake of the high-protein (40%)/3.6 carbohydrate:fat preload than after intake of the low-protein (9%)/0.4 carbohydrate:fat preload (P = 0.02) solely because of the increased protein, irrespective of the manipulation of the other macronutrients. Most appetite ratings tended to be suppressed (13%) with increasing protein content of the preloads (P appetite than did carbohydrates and fat. Modulating the nutritional profile of a meal by replacing fat with protein can influence appetite in healthy adults. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01849302. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars
IMPORTANCE Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children’s weight gain. OBJECTIVE To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4–8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2%attendance; 82.0%consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained
Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R
Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier
Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BackgroundCancer monitoring and prevention relies on the critical aspect of timely notification of cancer cases. However, the abstraction and classification of cancer from the free-text of pathology reports and other relevant documents, such as death certificates, exist as complex and time-consuming activities.AimsIn this paper, approaches for the automatic detection of notifiable cancer cases as the cause of death from free-text death certificates supplied to Cancer Registries are investigated.Method A number of machine learning classifiers were studied. Features were extracted using natural language techniques and the Medtex toolkit. The numerous features encompassed stemmed words, bi-grams, and concepts from the SNOMED CT medical terminology. The baseline consisted of a keyword spotter using keywords extracted from the long description of ICD-10 cancer related codes.ResultsDeath certificates with notifiable cancer listed as the cause of death can be effectively identified with the methods studied in this paper. A Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier achieved best performance with an overall F-measure of 0.9866 when evaluated on a set of 5,000 free-text death certificates using the token stem feature set. The SNOMED CT concept plus token stem feature set reached the lowest variance (0.0032 and false negative rate (0.0297 while achieving an F-measure of 0.9864. The SVM classifier accounts for the first 18 of the top 40 evaluated runs, and entails the most robust classifier with a variance of 0.001141, half the variance of the other classifiers.ConclusionThe selection of features significantly produced the most influences on the performance of the classifiers, although the type of classifier employed also affects performance. In contrast, the feature weighting schema created a negligible effect on performance. Specifically, it is found that stemmed tokens with or without SNOMED CT concepts create the most effective feature when combined with
Del Fabbro, Egidio; Dev, Rony; Hui, David; Palmer, Lynn; Bruera, Eduardo
Prior studies have suggested that melatonin, a frequently used integrative medicine, can attenuate weight loss, anorexia, and fatigue in patients with cancer. These studies were limited by a lack of blinding and absence of placebo controls. The primary purpose of this study was to compare melatonin with placebo for appetite improvement in patients with cancer cachexia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, 28-day trial of melatonin 20 mg versus placebo in patients with advanced lung or GI cancer, appetite scores ≥ 4 on a 0 to 10 scale (10 = worst appetite), and history of weight loss ≥ 5%. Assessments included weight, symptoms by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, and quality of life by the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire. Differences between groups from baseline to day 28 were analyzed using one-sided, two-sample t tests or Wilcoxon two-sample tests. Interim analysis halfway through the trial had a Lan-DeMets monitoring boundary with an O'Brien-Fleming stopping rule. Decision boundaries were to accept the null hypothesis of futility if the test statistic z 2.54 (P ≤ .0056). After interim analysis of 48 patients, the study was closed for futility. There were no significant differences between groups for appetite (P = .78) or other symptoms, weight (P = .17), FAACT score (P = .95), toxicity, or survival from baseline to day 28. In cachectic patients with advanced cancer, oral melatonin 20 mg at night did not improve appetite, weight, or quality of life compared with placebo.
Cancer-related post-traumatic stress can occur any time from diagnosis to after treatment ends. Shock, fear, helplessness, or horror can be felt by cancer patients and lead to cancer-related post-traumatic stress. Learn about the causes and ways doctors can help manage these symptoms of distress in this expert-reviewed summary.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.
Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture
the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized...... to receive RYGB after 8 (n=14) or 12 weeks (n=14). The protocol included a visit at week 0 and three visits (week 7, 11 and 78) where 24 h EE, appetite and blood parameters were assessed. Participants followed a low-calorie diet from week 0-11, with those operated at week 12 serving as a control group...... response of GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, CCK, FGF-19 and bile acids (all Pappetite. None of HOMA-IR, Matsuda Index, the Insulinogenic Index, the Disposition Index and fasting hepatic insulin clearance were...
Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu
Background An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-indivi...
Mazen R. Harb
Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in
Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.
Rachel C. Brown
Full Text Available An alternative approach in determining cause, treatment, and prevention of obesity is to study those who appear resistant to the obesogenic environment. We examined appetite responses in 33 obesity resistant individuals (ORI versus 28 obesity susceptible individuals (OSI. Fingerprick blood samples to measure ghrelin, total peptide YY (PYY, leptin, glucose, and insulin along with appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min following consumption of a standardized meal. Fasting, area under the curve (AUC, peak/nadir, and time to peak/nadir were compared. Participants completed the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ. No significant differences were observed for ghrelin or PYY. Higher leptin concentrations in the OSI disappeared after controlling for percent body fat (%BF. Significant differences in appetite ratings included a lower hunger nadir among OSI compared with ORI (P=0.017. Dietary restraint (P<0.001 and disinhibition (P<0.001 were lower in ORI compared with OSI, with and without adjustment for %BF. Given the differential body weight of the study groups, similar observed ghrelin concentrations were unexpected, perhaps indicating OSI and ORI respond differently to the same ghrelin concentration. Also ORI response to hunger appears different as they exhibit lower levels of dietary restraint and disinhibition compared with OSI.
Donini, Lorenzo M; Savina, Claudia; Cannella, Carlo
Although a high prevalence of overweight is present in elderly people, the main concern in the elderly is the reported decline in food intake and the loss of the motivation to eat. This suggests the presence of problems associated with the regulation of energy balance and the control of food intake. A reduced energy intake causing body weight loss may be caused by social or physiological factors, or a combination of both. Poverty, loneliness, and social isolation are the predominant social factors that contribute to decreased food intake in the elderly. Depression, often associated with loss or deterioration of social networks, is a common psychological problem in the elderly and a significant cause of loss of appetite. The reduction in food intake may be due to the reduced drive to eat (hunger) resulting from a lower need state, or it arises because of more rapidly acting or more potent inhibitory (satiety) signals. The early satiation appears to be predominantly due to a decrease in adaptive relaxation of the stomach fundus resulting in early antral filling, while increased levels and effectiveness of cholecystokinin play a role in the anorexia of aging. The central feeding drive (both the opioid and the neuropeptide Y effects) appears to decline with age. Physical factors such as poor dentition and ill-fitting dentures or age-associated changes in taste and smell may influence food choice and limit the type and quantity of food eaten in older people. Common medical conditions in the elderly such as gastrointestinal disease, malabsorption syndromes, acute and chronic infections, and hypermetabolism often cause anorexia, micronutrient deficiencies, and increased energy and protein requirements. Furthermore, the elderly are major users of prescription medications, a number of which can cause malabsorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal symptoms, and loss of appetite. There is now good evidence that, although age-related reduction in energy intake is largely a
Larsen, Penelope S; Donges, Cheyne E; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Greg C; Adams, David R; Duffield, Rob
Aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) are reported to induce discrete and specific appetite-related responses; however, the effect of combining AE and SE (i.e., combined exercise; CE) remains relatively unknown. Twelve inactive overweight men (age: 48 ± 5 y; BMI: 29.9 ± 1.9 kg∙m 2 ) completed four conditions in a random order: 1) nonexercise control (CON) (50 min seated rest); 2) AE (50 min cycling; 75% VO 2peak ); 3) SE (10 × 8 leg extensions; 75% 1RM); and 4) CE (50% SE + 50% AE). Perceived appetite, and appetiterelated peptides and metabolites were assessed before and up to 2 h postcondition (0P, 30P, 60P, 90P, 120P). Perceived appetite did not differ between trials (p appetite-related peptides and metabolites. Despite these differential exercise-induced hormone responses, exercise mode appears to have little effect on perceived appetite compared with a resting control in this population.
Manmohan S. Kumar; Avinash Persaud
This paper discusses a "pure" form of financial contagion, unrelated to economic fundamentals - investors' shifting appetite for risk. It provides an analytical framework for identifying changes in investors' risk appetite and discusses whether it is possible to directly measure them in a way that can enable policy makers to differentiate between financial contagion and domestic fundamentals as the immediate source of a crisis. Daily measures of risk appetite are computed and their usefulness...
van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein
Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling adults with different reported appetite levels. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longitudinal prospective study. Health, aging, and body composition study performed in the USA. 2,597 community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. A semi-quantitative, interviewer-administered, 108-item food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary intake. Poor appetite was defined as the report of a moderate, poor, or very poor appetite in the past month and was compared with good or very good appetite. The mean age of the study sample was 74.5 ± 2.8 years; 48.2% were men, 37.7% were black, and 21.8% reported a poor appetite. After adjustment for total energy intake and potential confounders (including biting/chewing problems), participants with a poor appetite had a significantly lower consumption of protein and dietary fiber, solid foods, protein rich foods, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, but a higher consumption of dairy foods, fats, oils, sweets, and sodas compared to participants with very good appetite. In addition, they were less likely to report consumption of significant larger portion sizes. Older adults reporting a poor appetite showed a different dietary intake pattern compared to those with (very) good appetite. Better understanding of the specific dietary intake pattern related to a poor appetite in older adults can be used for nutrition interventions to enhance food intake, diet variety, and diet quality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.
Zubaran, Carlos; Lazzaretti, Rubia
To investigate the prevalence of appetite suppressant use among health sciences students in Southern Brazil. Undergraduate students (n=300) from seven health science undergraduate courses of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul completed a questionnaire about the use of substances to suppress appetite. A significant percentage (15%; n=45) of research participants used appetite suppressants at least once in their lives. The most commonly used substances were sympathomimetic stimulant drugs (5%), including amfepramone (3.3%) and fenproporex (1.7%). The lifetime use of appetite suppressants was more prevalent among Nursing (26.7%) and Nutrition (24.4%%) students. There was no reported use of appetite suppressants among medical students. The use of appetite suppressants was significantly more prevalent among women. The majority of those who used these substances did so under medical recommendation. Most of users took appetite suppressants for more than 3 months. Lifetime use of appetite suppressants was substantial, being sympathomimetic stimulant drugs the most commonly used agents. Students enrolled in Nursing and Nutrition courses presented a significantly higher prevalence of lifetime use of appetite suppressants.
The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.
Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M
Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from
Deux espèces probiotiques, le lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 et le Lactobacillus fermentumRC 14 ont été administé séparément comme supplément dans l\\'eau potable aux rats étudiés pendant 30 jours. La ration et le poids à la naissance des chiots ont été mesuré. Une amélioration significative d\\'appetit des rats dont le ...
Cancer-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) can occur any time from diagnosis until the end of treatment; treatment used in PTSD can be useful in reducing distress. Get comprehensive information on PTS in this summary for clinicians.
Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.
Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897
Ramaekers, M G; Boesveldt, S; Lakemond, C M M; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A
Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1-3 min), but become satiating over time (circa 10-20 min). To investigate the effect of odor exposure on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA) over time. In a cross-over study, 21 unrestrained women (age: 18-45 years; BMI: 18.5-25 kg m(-2)) were exposed for 20 min to eight different odor types: five food odors, two nonfood odors and no-odor. All odors were distributed in a test room at suprathreshold levels. General appetite, SSA and salivation were measured over time. All food odors significantly increased general appetite and SSA, compared with the no-odor condition. The nonfood odors decreased general appetite. All effects did not change over time during odor exposure. Savory odors increased the appetite for savory foods, but decreased appetite for sweet foods, and vice versa after exposure to sweet odors. Neither food odors nor nonfood odors affected salivation. Palatable food odors were appetizing during and after odor exposure and did not become satiating over a 20-min period. Food odors had a large impact on SSA and a small impact on general appetite. Moreover, exposure to food odors increased the appetite for congruent foods, but decreased the appetite for incongruent foods. It may be hypothesized that, once the body is prepared for intake of a certain food with a particular macronutrient composition, it is unfavorable to consume foods that are very different from the cued food.
Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike
Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.
Full Text Available Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions.To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake.Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses.Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight.Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.
Morselli, Lisa; Leproult, Rachel; Balbo, Marcella; Spiegel, Karine
Sleep curtailment has become a common behavior in modern society. This review summarizes the current laboratory evidence indicating that sleep loss may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Experimentally induced sleep loss in healthy volunteers decreases insulin sensitivity without adequate compensation in beta-cell function, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and increased diabetes risk. Lack of sleep also down-regulates the satiety hormone leptin, up-regulates the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, and increases hunger and food intake. Taken together with the epidemiologic evidence for an association between short sleep and the prevalence or incidence of diabetes mellitus and/or obesity, these results support a role for reduced sleep duration in the current epidemic of these metabolic disorders. Screening for habitual sleep patterns in patients with "diabesity" is therefore of great importance. Studies are warranted to investigate the putative therapeutic impact of extending sleep in habitual short sleepers with metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Jessica M; Pei, Hongjuan; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J; Chang, Rui B; Liberles, Stephen D; Olson, David P
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved weight loss drugs. Despite their widespread use, the sites of action through which GLP-1R agonists (GLP1RAs) impact appetite and body weight are still not fully understood. Here, we determined whether GLP-1Rs in either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons are necessary for the acute and chronic effects of the GLP1RA liraglutide on food intake, visceral illness, body weight and neural network activation. We found that mice lacking GLP-1Rs in vGAT -expressing GABAergic neurons responded identically to controls in all parameters measured, whereas deletion of GLP-1Rs in vGlut2 -expressing glutamatergic neurons eliminated liraglutide-induced weight loss and visceral illness and severely attenuated its effects on feeding. Concomitantly, deletion of GLP-1Rs from glutamatergic neurons completely abolished the neural network activation observed after liraglutide administration. We conclude that liraglutide activates a dispersed but discrete neural network to mediate its physiological effects, and that these effects require GLP-1R expression on glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.
van den Akker, Karolien; Jansen, Anita; Frentz, Florentine; Havermans, Remco C
Animals can learn that specific contexts are associated with important biological events such as food intake through classical conditioning. Very few studies suggest this is also possible in humans and contextual appetitive conditioning might even be a main determinant of habitual overeating in vulnerable humans. A Virtual Reality laboratory was used to test whether humans show conditioned responding (increased food desires and expectations, increased salivation and increased food intake) to a specific context after repeated pairings of this context with intake. It was also examined whether the personality trait impulsivity strengthens this contextual appetitive conditioning. Conditioned context-induced reactivity was indeed demonstrated and impulsivity predicted increased intake in only the intake-associated context. It is concluded that humans easily learn desires to eat in intake-related environments. The data also suggest that in particular more impulsive people are vulnerable for conditioned context-induced overeating. This relatively easy learning of associations between specific contexts and intake might stimulate habitual overeating and contribute to increased obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D
For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.
Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A
In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22+/-2 y, BMI 21.9+/-2.2 kg....../m(2)) participated in this cross-over study. Subjects received a fixed amount of a chocolate flavored milk-based liquid or semi-solid product similar in energy density and macronutrient composition. Before intake and 15, 30, 60 and 90 min thereafter, appetite was rated and blood was drawn to determine...... than the liquid. There was a significant product effect for fullness (p 0.03), desire to eat (p 0.04), appetite something sweet (p 0.002) and prospective consumption (p 0.0009). We observed no clear effect of viscosity on gastro-intestinal hormones. Only for desacyl ghrelin there was a significant...
Luís C. Reis
Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas
Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe
In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…
Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K
to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...
Lemieux, Andrine M; Li, Bingshuo; al'Absi, Mustafa
To understand the role of khat (Catha edulis) use on the aberrations in appetite and weight which are common comorbidities for khat and other amphetamine users. We provide a comprehensive overview and conceptual summary of the historical cultural use of khat as a natural stimulant and describe the similarities and differences between cathinone (the main psychoactive constituent of khat) and amphetamine highlighting the limited literature on the neurophysiology of appetite and subsequent weight effects of khat. Animal and some human studies indicate that khat produces appetite suppression, although little is known about mechanisms of this effect. Both direct and indirect effects of khat stem from multiple factors including behavioral, chemical and neurophysiological effects on appetite and metabolism. Classic and newly identified appetite hormones have not been explored sufficiently in the study of appetite and khat use. Unique methodological challenges and opportunities are encountered when examining effects of khat and cathinone including khat-specific medical comorbidities, unique route of administration, differential patterns of behavioral effects relative to amphetamines and the nascent state of our understanding of the neurobiology of this drug. A considerable amount of work remains in the study of the appetite effects of khat chewing and outline a program of research that could inform our understanding of this natural amphetamine׳s appetite effects and help prepare health care workers for the unique health effects of this drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.
Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,
van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling
Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in
Lemieux, Andrine M.; Li, Bingshuo; al’Absi, Mustafa
Ethnopharmacological relevance To understand the role of khat (Catha edulis) use on the aberrations in appetite and weight which are common comorbidities for khat and other amphetamine users. Materials and methods We provide a comprehensive overview and conceptual summary of the historical cultural use of khat as a natural stimulant and describe the similarities and differences between cathinone (the main psychoactive constituent of khat) and amphetamine highlighting the limited literature on the neurophysiology of appetite and subsequent weight effects of khat. Results Animal and some human studies indicate that khat produces appetite suppression, although little is known about mechanisms of this effect. Both direct and indirect effects of khat stem from multiple factors including behavioral, chemical and neurophysiological effects on appetite and metabolism. Classic and newly identified appetite hormones have not been explored sufficiently in the study of appetite and khat use. Unique methodological challenges and opportunities are encountered when examining effects of khat and cathinone including khat-specific medical comorbidities, unique route of administration, differential patterns of behavioral effects relative to amphetamines and the nascent state of our understanding of the neurobiology of this drug. Conclusion A considerable amount of work remains in the study of the appetite effects of khat chewing and outline a program of research that could inform our understanding of this natural amphetamine’s appetite effects and help prepare health care workers for the unique health effects of this drug. PMID:25435289
Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein
BACKGROUND: Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. OBJECTIVE: We investigated if an
Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane
Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498
Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison
There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity. Variation in appetitive traits is observable from infancy, drives early weight gain and is highly heritable in infancy and childhood. Obesity-related common genetic variants identified through genome-wide association studies show associations with appetitive traits, and appetite mediates part of the observed association between genetic risk and adiposity. Obesity results from an interaction between genetic susceptibility to overeating and exposure to an 'obesogenic' food environment.
Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard
consumption (p meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p ... preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p ....9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p
Mars, M; de Graaf, C; de Groot, C P G M; van Rossum, C T M; Kok, F J
Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). Fasting serum leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite levels were measured during a 4-day diet containing 36% of the estimated energy requirements. Appetite levels were assessed with a 10-point Likert scale, reflecting hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective consumption and total appetite. After the 4-day energy deficit, fasting leptin concentrations decreased by 39.4% (95% CI: -43.6; -34.9%). This decline was associated with an increase in fasting hunger (r = -0.42; P < 0.01), desire to eat (r = -0.39; P < 0.05) and total appetite (r = -0.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between fasting leptin concentrations and fasting appetite levels became stronger during the energy restriction period (for total appetite: day 0 r = -0.15, P = 0.32; day 2 r = -0.31, P =< 0.05; day 4 r = -0.41, P < 0.01). The acute proportional reduction in fasting leptin after 4-day energy restriction is associated with an increase in self-perceived appetite. Additionally, the inverse association between proportional fasting leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite response becomes stronger as energy restriction is prolonged. These findings suggest that leptin has an instrumental role in restoring energy balance in humans through the expression of appetite.
Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Rosa, Fausto; Dominici, Loredana; Antocicco, Manuela; Pazzaglia, Costanza; Aprile, Irene; Tazza, Luigi
Appetite in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) may be constantly very good/good or fair/poor or may fluctuate up and down over time. When constantly fair/poor, appetite has been shown to be associated with older age, more comorbidities, and more hospitalizations; however, it is unknown if it predicts survival. The aim of the present study was to assess appetite monthly for 6 months in patients on chronic HD and to determine if the course of appetite over time predicts mortality. Ninety-two HD patients were evaluated at baseline for appetite, nutritional and inflammatory markers, comorbid conditions, and Charlson's comorbidity index. Appetite assessment was repeated monthly for 6 consecutive months. Survival in relation with the course of appetite over time was determined. Appetite was constantly very good/good in 45 patients (Group 1), fair/poor/very poor in 30 (Group 2), and fluctuated in 17 (Group 3). Twenty-seven (29.3 %) patients died after a mean period of 28 ± 13 months. Overall, the mean survival time was 42.1 ± 1.2 months. For Groups 1, 2, and 3, the mean survival time was 46.1 ± 0.92, 37.9 ± 2.5, and 39.1 ± 3.7 months, respectively (p appetite over time was not found to be an independent risk factor for mortality. The course of appetite over time does not seem to predict mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Considering that the study included a relatively small number of patients, larger similar studies are desirable.
Poulain, Philippe; Berleur, Marie-Pierre; Lefki, Shimsi; Lefebvre, Danièle; Chvetzoff, Gisèle; Serra, Eric; Tremellat, Fibra; Derniaux, Alain; Filbet, Marilène
In the European Association for Palliative Care recommendations for cancer pain management, there was no consensus regarding the indications, titration, or monitoring of methadone. This national, randomized, multicenter trial aimed to compare two methadone titration methods (stop-and-go vs. progressive) in patients with cancer-related pain who were inadequately relieved by or intolerant to Level 3 opioids. The primary end point was the rate of success/failure at Day 4, defined as pain relief (reduction of at least two points on the visual scale and a pain score methods were considered equally easy to perform by nearly 60% of the clinicians. Methadone is an effective and sustainable second-line alternative opioid for the treatment of cancer-related pain. The methods of titration are comparable in terms of efficacy, safety, and ease of use. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Mengjiao; E, Qimin; Liu, Jialin; Huang, Tingting; Liang, Chuanyu
By collecting and analyzing the laryngeal cancer related genes and the miRNAs, to build a comprehensive laryngeal cancer-related gene database, which differs from the current biological information database with complex and clumsy structure and focuses on the theme of gene and miRNA, and it could make the research and teaching more convenient and efficient. Based on the B/S architecture, using Apache as a Web server, MySQL as coding language of database design and PHP as coding language of web design, a comprehensive database for laryngeal cancer-related genes was established, providing with the gene tables, protein tables, miRNA tables and clinical information tables of the patients with laryngeal cancer. The established database containsed 207 laryngeal cancer related genes, 243 proteins, 26 miRNAs, and their particular information such as mutations, methylations, diversified expressions, and the empirical references of laryngeal cancer relevant molecules. The database could be accessed and operated via the Internet, by which browsing and retrieval of the information were performed. The database were maintained and updated regularly. The database for laryngeal cancer related genes is resource-integrated and user-friendly, providing a genetic information query tool for the study of laryngeal cancer.
Kummer, Franziska; Catuogno, Silvio; Perseus, Josef M; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T
Fatigue is a serious problem for the majority of patients with cancer. In this context, several studies have shown benefits of physical activity during and following treatment. However, uncertainties remain regarding the optimal type and duration of physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity in the course of inpatient rehabilitation. Fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and physical activity (Freiburg Questionnaire of Physical Activity) were assessed in a consecutive series of 35 patients with cancer attending oncological inpatient rehabilitation during a six-month study period. The three-week rehabilitation program included daily exercise therapy consisting of aerobic endurance training, moderate resistance training, coordination exercises, relaxation training and individual physiotherapy. At discharge, a significant improvement in each dimension of cancer-related fatigue (p=0.001-0.003) and a significant increase of physical activity levels (p=0.001) were observed. A small, but significant negative correlation was found between cancer-related fatigue and the level of physical activity (R=-0.438, p=0.004). The largest effects were associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 3000 kcal through physical activity. The results support a non-linear dose-response relationship between cancer-related fatigue and physical activity. Since this is the first study providing specific exercise recommendations for an effective treatment of cancer-related fatigue in the context of inpatient rehabilitation, further research is required to validate the observed trends.
Jiang, Pinglan; Wang, Shuhong; Jiang, Dongmei; Yu, Lingli
To study the relevance between cancer related fatigue and coping styles in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy. A survey was conducted in 396 patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy on cancer related fatigue scale and Jalowiec coping scale, and the relation was analyzed. The rate of overall fatigue in breast cancer patients was 96.97%, mostly moderate fatigue. The rate of fatigue dimensions from high to low was physical fatigue, feeling fatigue and cognitive fatigue, respectively. The score of coping styles in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy from high to low was optimistic coping, facing bravely, support seeking, self-reliance, emotional catharsis, avoidance, fatalism, and conservation. The most widely used coping style was optimistic coping style, and the least was emotional catharisis. There was a positive correlation between coping style of emotional catharsis and cancer related fatigue of all dimensions (Pself-reliance, or conservation (P<0.05). There was also a negative correlation between physical fatigue and optimistic or support seeking (P<0.05), but there was a positive correlation between avoidance or fatalism and the dimensions of general fatigue, physical fatigue, and cognitive fatigue (P<0.05). There is prevalent cancer related fatigue in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy. We should guide the patients to more active coping styles, to enhance the ability of psychological adaption in patients, reduce cancer related fatigue, and improve the quality of life.
Su, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Li-Qiong; Grant, Suzanne J; Liu, Jian-Ping
To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. We systematically searched seven electronic databases and two trial registries for randomized clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 10 trials involving 751 participants with cancer-related fatigue were identified and the methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Chinese herbal medicine used alone or in combination with chemotherapy or supportive care showed significant relief in cancer-related fatigue compared to placebo, chemotherapy or supportive care based on single trials. Chinese herbal medicine plus chemotherapy or supportive care was superior to chemotherapy or supportive care in improving quality of life. Data from one trial demonstrated Chinese herbal medicine exerted a greater beneficial effect on relieving anxiety but no difference in alleviating depression. Seven trials reported adverse events and no severe adverse effects were found in Chinese herbal medicine groups. The findings from limited number of trials suggest that Chinese herbal medicine seems to be effective and safe in the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. However, the current evidence is insufficient to draw a confirmative conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. Thus, conducting rigorously designed trials on potential Chinese herbal medicine is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...
Full Text Available The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s. However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions1,2. In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART’s role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.
Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James M
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been implicated in excess weight gain through mechanisms seen in some acute feeding studies and by virtue of its abundance in the food supply during years of increasing obesity. Compared with pure glucose, fructose is thought to be associated with insufficient secretion of insulin and leptin and suppression of ghrelin. However, when HFCS is compared with sucrose, the more commonly consumed sweetener, such differences are not apparent, and appetite and energy intake do not differ in the short-term. Longer-term studies on connections between HFCS, potential mechanisms, and body weight have not been conducted. The main objective of this review was to examine collective data on associations between consumption of HFCS and energy balance, with particular focus on energy intake and its regulation.
Barajas Galindo, David E; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Hernández-Moreno, Ana; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Pedraza-Lorenzo, Manuela; Rodríguez-García, María Asunción; Ávila-Turcios, Dalia María; Alejo-Ramos, Miran; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D
Cancer patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to several symptoms such as lack of appetite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different appetite disorders in cancer patients and their influence on dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall, and patients were questioned about the presence of changes in appetite (none, anorexia, early satiety, or both). Quality of life was measured using EORTC-QLQ-C30. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear regression. 128 patients were evaluated. 61.7% experienced changes in appetite: 31% anorexia, 13.3% early satiety, and 17.2% both. Appetite disorders were more common in women and with the presence of cachexia. The combination of anorexia and satiety resulted in a lower weight and BMI. However, there were no significant effects on energy or macronutrient intake among different appetite alterations. Patients with a combination of anorexia and early satiety had worse overall health perception, role function, and fatigue. Appetite disorders are highly prevalent among cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. They have a significant impact on nutritional status and quality of life, especially when anorexia and early satiety are combined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Namdari, Mahshid; Abadi, Alireza; Taheri, S Mahmoud; Rezaei, Mansour; Kalantari, Naser; Omidvar, Nasrin
Reduced appetite and low food intake are often a concern in preschool children, since it can lead to malnutrition, a leading cause of impaired growth and mortality in childhood. It is occasionally considered that folic acid has a positive effect on appetite enhancement and consequently growth in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of folic acid on the appetite of preschool children 3 to 6 y old. The study sample included 127 children ages 3 to 6 who were randomly selected from 20 preschools in the city of Tehran in 2011. Since appetite was measured by linguistic terms, a fuzzy logistic regression was applied for modeling. The obtained results were compared with a statistical ordinal logistic model. After controlling for the potential confounders, in a statistical ordinal logistic model, serum folate showed a significantly positive effect on appetite. A small but positive effect of folate was detected by fuzzy logistic regression. Based on fuzzy regression, the risk for poor appetite in preschool children was related to the employment status of their mothers. In this study, a positive association was detected between the levels of serum folate and improved appetite. For further investigation, a randomized controlled, double-blind clinical trial could be helpful to address causality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.
Zhou, Yuanshuai; Liu, Yongjing; Li, Kening; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Fujun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Yan
Over the last decade, an increasing number of integrative studies on cancer-related genes have been published. Integrative analyses aim to overcome the limitation of a single data type, and provide a more complete view of carcinogenesis. The vast majority of these studies used sample-matched data of gene expression and copy number to investigate the impact of copy number alteration on gene expression, and to predict and prioritize candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, correlations between genes were neglected in these studies. Our work aimed to evaluate the co-alteration of copy number, methylation and expression, allowing us to identify cancer-related genes and essential functional modules in cancer. We built the Integrated Co-alteration network (ICan) based on multi-omics data, and analyzed the network to uncover cancer-related genes. After comparison with random networks, we identified 155 ovarian cancer-related genes, including well-known (TP53, BRCA1, RB1 and PTEN) and also novel cancer-related genes, such as PDPN and EphA2. We compared the results with a conventional method: CNAmet, and obtained a significantly better area under the curve value (ICan: 0.8179, CNAmet: 0.5183). In this paper, we describe a framework to find cancer-related genes based on an Integrated Co-alteration network. Our results proved that ICan could precisely identify candidate cancer genes and provide increased mechanistic understanding of carcinogenesis. This work suggested a new research direction for biological network analyses involving multi-omics data.
Barrios-Correa, Alberto A; Estrada, José A; Martel, Caroline; Olivier, Martin; López-Santiago, Rubén; Contreras, Irazú
Nonnutritive sweetener use is a common practice worldwide. Although considered safe for human consumption, accumulating evidence suggests these compounds may affect metabolic homeostasis; however, there is no consensus on the role of frequent sweetener intake in appetite and weight loss. We sought to determine whether frequent intake of commercial sweeteners induces changes in the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in the brain of mice, as it is involved in the regulation of appetite and body composition. We supplemented adult BALB/c mice with sucrose, steviol glycosides (SG), or sucralose, daily, for 6 weeks. After supplementation, we evaluated body composition and expression of total and phosphorylated JAK2, STAT3, and Akt, as well as SOCS3 and ObRb, in brain tissue. Our results show that frequent intake of commercial SG decreases energy intake, adiposity, and weight gain in male animals, while increasing the expression of pJAK2 and pSTAT3 in the brain, whereas sucralose increases weight gain and pJAK2 expression in females. Our results suggest that chronic intake of commercial sweeteners elicits changes in signaling pathways that have been related to the control of appetite and energy balance in vivo , which may have relevant consequences for the nutritional state and long term health of the organism.
Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.
Kim, Mikyung; Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hye-Yoon; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Kwon, O-Jin; Kim, Eun-Jung; Park, Yeon-Cheol; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Jung Hyo; Kim, Joo-Hee
Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most common symptoms experienced by cancer patients, and it diminishes their quality of life. However, there is currently no confirmed standard treatment for cancer-related fatigue, and thus, many patients who suffer cancer-related fatigue seek complementary and alternative medicines such as moxibustion. Moxibustion is one of the most popular therapies in traditional Korean medicine used to manage fatigue. Recent studies have also demonstrated that moxibustion is effective for treating chronic fatigue. However, there is insufficient evidence supporting the effect of moxibustion against cancer-related fatigue. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of moxibustion treatment for cancer-related fatigue. A multi-center, three-armed parallel, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Ninety-six patients with cancer-related fatigue will be recruited from three clinical research centers. They will be randomly allocated to one of three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio. The moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment at CV8, CV12, LI4 and ST36. The sham moxibustion group will receive sham moxibustion at non-acupoints. Both the moxibustion and sham moxibustion groups will receive 30-min treatments twice a week for 8 weeks. The usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment. All participants will be educated via a brochure on how to manage cancer-related fatigue in daily life. The outcome measurements will be evaluated at baseline, week 5, week 9, and week 13 by assessors who are blinded to the group allocation. The primary outcome measure will be the mean change in the average scores of the Brief Fatigue Inventory before and after treatments between groups. The secondary outcome measures will be the mean difference in changes from baseline of the Brief Fatigue Inventory, functional assessments of cancer therapy-fatigue, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life
Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F
eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...... and smelling both induced a similar appetite suppression with a disappearance of correlations between VAS scores and insulin, GLP-1 and CCK levels. However, while the correlation between VAS score and ghrelin disappeared completely after chocolate eating, it reversed after chocolate smelling, that is......, olfactory stimulation with dark chocolate (85%) resulted in a satiation response that correlated inversely with ghrelin levels....
Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard
People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...
Yeh, Chun; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Chen, Shu-Chun; Chen, Tung-Fang; Ser, Kong-Han; Chen, Chih-Yen
The promising postsurgical weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) from bariatric surgery can be attributed to modified eating physiology after surgical procedures. We sought to investigate the changes in the parameters of consumption behaviors and appetite sensations induced by a mixed meal tolerance test, and to correlate these alterations with age, body mass index, C-peptide levels, and duration of T2D 1 year after bariatric surgery. A total of 16 obese patients with T2D who underwent mini-gastric bypass (GB) and 16 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were enrolled in this study and evaluated using a mixed meal tolerance test one year after surgery. A visual analogue scale was used for scoring appetite sensation at different time points. The area under the curve (AUC) and the incremental or decremental AUC (ΔAUC) were compared between the two groups. One year after surgery, a decreasing trend in the consumption time was observed in the GB group compared to the SG group, while the duration of T2D before surgery was negatively correlated with the post-operative consumed time in those after GB. Patients who underwent GB had significantly higher fasting scores for fullness and desire to eat, higher AUC 0'-180' of scores for desire to eat, as well as more effective post-meal suppression of hunger and desire to eat compared with those undergoing SG one year after surgery. Post-operative C-peptide levels were negatively correlated with ΔAUC 0'-180' for hunger and ΔAUC 0'-180' for desire to eat in the GB group, while negatively correlated with ΔAUC 0'-180' for fullness in the SG group. Patients with T2D after either GB or SG exhibit distinct nutrient-induced consumption behaviors and appetite sensations post-operatively, which may account for the differential effects on weight loss and glycemic control after different surgery.
Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ye; Xu, Ruicai; Li, Ping
To investigate the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue and explore the relationship between resilience, positive affect, and fatigue among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Cancer-related fatigue is the most distressing symptom reported frequently by cancer patients during both treatment and survival phases. Resilience and positive affect as vital protective factors against cancer-related fatigue have been examined, but the underlying psychological mechanisms are not well understood. A cross-sectional study. Two hundred and three gastric cancer patients were enrolled from three hospitals in China. The Cancer Fatigue Scale, the positive affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10) were administered. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was conducted to examine the association between resilience and cancer-related fatigue, and the mediating effect of positive affect. The incidence of clinically relevant fatigue among patients with gastric cancer was 91.6%. Regression analysis showed that resilience was negatively associated with cancer-related fatigue, explaining 15.4% of variance in cancer-related fatigue. Mediation analysis showed that high resilience was associated with increased positive affect, which was associated with decreased cancer-related fatigue. Cancer-related fatigue is prevalent among patients with gastric cancer. Positive affect may mediate the relationship between resilience and cancer-related fatigue. Interventions that attend to resilience training and promotion of positive affect may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Daegu; Hwang, Ji Hye; Chu, Inho; Chang, Hyun Ju; Shim, Young Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ratio of significant weakness in the affected arm of breast cancer-related lymphedema patients to their unaffected side. Another purpose was to identify factors related to arm weakness and physical function in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Consecutive patients (n = 80) attended a single evaluation session following their outpatient lymphedema clinic visit. Possible independent factors (i.e., lymphedema, pain, psychological, educational, and behavioral) were evaluated. Handgrip strength was used to assess upper extremity muscle strength and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to assess upper extremity physical function. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using factors that had significant differences between the handgrip weakness and non-weakness groups. Out of the 80 patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema, 29 patients (36.3 %) had significant weakness in the affected arm. Weakness of the arm with lymphedema was not related to lymphedema itself, but was related to the fear of using the affected limb (odds ratio = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval = 1.30-2.37). Fears of using the affected limb and depression significantly contributed to the variance in DASH scores. Appropriate physical and psychological interventions, including providing accurate information and reassurance of physical activity safety, are necessary to prevent arm weakness and physical dysfunction in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.
Barsevick, Andrea; Frost, Marlene; Zwinderman, Aeilko; Hall, Per; Halyard, Michele; Abertnethy, Amy P.; Baas, Frank; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Chauhan, Cynthia; Cleeland, Charles S.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Klepstad, Pål; Martin, Nicholas G.; Miaskowski, Christine; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Patrick, Donald L.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ropka, Mary E.; Shi, Quiling; Shinozaki, Gen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Veenhoven, Ruut; Yang, Ping
Objective The goal of this paper is to discuss cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and address issues related to the investigation into potential biological and genetic causal mechanisms. The objectives are to: (1) describe CRF as a component of quality of life (QOL); (2) address measurement issues that
Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.
dr. A.F. de Wild
Presentatie over Risk Appetite: een belangrijk onderdeel van het risicomanagementsysteem. Gegeven aan de Erasmus School of Accounting and Assurance op 10 april 2015 door dr. Arie F. de Wild, lector Gedragseconomie bij Kenniscentrum Innovatief Ondernemerschap van Hogeschool Rotterdam.
Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal
This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...
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Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman
Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.
Desautels, Caroline; Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Ruel, Sophie; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Josée
Previous studies have suggested that negative beliefs about cancer may impair patients' psychological well-being, but only a few of these studies focused on specific psychological symptoms, and many were cross-sectional. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the relationship of cancer-related cognitions with the severity, incidence, and persistence of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms during an 18-month period. Patients scheduled to undergo surgery for cancer (N = 962) completed a questionnaire assessing cancer-related cognitions at baseline (T1), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the Insomnia Severity Index at baseline (T1) and 2 (T2), 6 (T3), 10 (T4), 14 (T5), and 18 (T6) months later. Group × time factorial analyses using mixed models revealed that participants endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions consistently reported more severe symptoms throughout the 18-month period. Logistic regression analyses suggested that endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions at T1 significantly increased incidence and persistence rates of clinical levels of psychological symptoms. These findings suggest that the endorsement of negative cancer-related beliefs at the perioperative period influences the longitudinal evolution of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms in the following months. These results highlight the relevance of using cognitive restructuring early during the cancer care trajectory to potentially revise erroneous beliefs about cancer and prevent the incidence and persistence of psychological disturbances over time.
Blundell, J; Finlayson, G; Axelsen, MB; Flint, A; Gibbons, C; Kvist, T; Hjerpsted, J
Aim The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. Materials and methods This randomised, double?blind, placebo?controlled, two?period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12?weeks of treatment with once?weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose?escalated to 1.0?mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well?being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, bod...
Katkov, Anna; Sinuani, Inna; Azar, Ada; Shapiro, Gregory; Efrati, Shai; Beberashvili, Ilia
Increased age is strongly associated with anorexia and protein-energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) population. We hypothesized that the association of obestatin, a recently discovered anorexigenic gut hormone, with appetite and nutritional status differs by age groups. We performed a cross-sectional study on 261MHD patients. Obestatin, acyl-ghrelin, markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α) and nutrition (self-reported appetite, dietary intake, biochemical nutritional parameters, and body composition) were measured. Obestatin was associated with appetite in multivariate analyses even after controlling for such confounders as lean body mass (LBM), IL-6 and acyl-ghrelin in patients younger than 71 years. For each ng/ml increase in obestatin levels, the odds for diminished appetite was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59-0.96). However, these associations were not observed in patients 71 years and older. Multivariable logistic regression models (including appetite) also showed increasing odds for PEW (defined by ESPEN consensus-based criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition) across increasing serum obestatin levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) in patients 71 years and older. However, after lean body mass (LBM) was added to this model, the association between obestatin and malnutrition was abolished (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.83-1.91). The association between serum obestatin, appetite and PEW differs depending on age in MHD patients. A positive link with appetite exists in patients younger than 71 years, whereas this relationship disappears by the age of 71. In older MHD patients, obestatin is associated with PEW through mechanisms related to LBM, but not to appetite.
Baunan, Håvard; Berge, Joel
The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of risk appetite in terms of what it is, what institutional pressures influence it, and how it is institutionalized in an organization. We try to understand what risk appetite is by examining the most influential enterprise risk management frameworks, reports from practitioners, and scholarly research on the topic. Through a case study of a large and complex Norwegian organization, we seek to explain what influences and in...
M.Com. (Business Management) This study concerns itself with the concepts of strategy, risk management and risk appetite. Strategy and risk management playa very important role in any business, but it is very difficult to determine the interrelationship between strategy and risk. There is no scientific/academic proof and there is no model or framework on what the alignment between an organisation's strategy and risk appetite is. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a risk app...
Full Text Available Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain.25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns.The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001. If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001 and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001. In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009.Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder.
Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham; Axelsen, Mads; Flint, Anne; Gibbons, Catherine; Kvist, Trine; Hjerpsted, Julie B
The aim of this trial was to investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well-being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, body weight and body composition were assessed. After a standardised breakfast, semaglutide, compared with placebo, led to a lower ad libitum energy intake during lunch (-1255 kJ; P energy intake across all ad libitum meals throughout the day (-3036 kJ; P baseline in mean body weight of 5.0 kg, predominantly from body fat mass. After 12 weeks of treatment, ad libitum energy intake was substantially lower with semaglutide vs placebo with a corresponding loss of body weight observed with semaglutide. In addition to reduced energy intake, likely mechanisms for semaglutide-induced weight loss included less appetite and food cravings, better control of eating and lower relative preference for fatty, energy-dense foods. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.
Andreae, Christina; Strömberg, Anna; Sawatzky, Richard; Årestedt, Kristofer
Decreased appetite in heart failure (HF) may lead to undernutrition which could negatively influence prognosis. Appetite is a complex clinical issue that is often best measured with the use of self-report instruments. However, there is a lack of self-rated appetite instruments. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) are validated instruments developed primarily for elderly people. Yet, the psychometric properties have not been evaluated in HF populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of CNAQ and SNAQ in patients with HF. A total of 186 outpatients with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classifications II-IV were included (median age 72 y; 70% men). Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire that included the CNAQ and SNAQ. The psychometric evaluation included data quality, factor structure, construct validity, known-group validity, and internal consistency. Unidimensionality was supported by means of parallel analysis and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). The CFA results indicated sufficient model fit. Both construct validity and known-group validity were supported. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, with ordinal coefficient alpha estimates of 0.82 for CNAQ and 0.77 for SNAQ. CNAQ and SNAQ demonstrated sound psychometric properties and can be used to measure appetite in patients with HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia
Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885
Geneviève Painchaud Guérard
Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.
Haque, Z.; Haleem, D. J.
Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)
Horner, Katy; Lee, SoJung
During childhood and adolescence, a number of factors, including age, puberty, sex, race, and body composition, may contribute to differences in satiety, food intake, and appetite-related peptides. These peptides include the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and anorexigenic gut peptides peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). For example, lower fasting ghrelin levels, lower postprandial ghrelin suppression, and blunted PYY and GLP-1 responses to food intake could contribute to a dysregulation of appetite in already obese children and adolescents. Whereas, changes in these peptides observed during puberty could facilitate growth. A greater understanding of the major moderating factors of appetite-related peptides in the pediatric population is essential to improve interpretation of study findings and for effective tailoring of strategies targeting appetite control to individuals. While more studies are needed, there is some evidence to suggest that exercise-based lifestyle interventions could be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve appetite-peptide profiles in overweight and obese children and adolescents. The aim of this review is (i) to discuss the potential moderating factors of ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1, including age and puberty, sex, race and body composition; and (ii) to examine the effects of exercise interventions on these appetite-related gut peptides in children and adolescents.
Special questioning of 819 oncology patients whose treatment included radiotherapy has revealed 147 instances where local tumour radiation - apparently regardless of tumour type, site, or volume radiated - has either triggered (97 cases) or abolished (50 cases) an isolated appetite perversion. Both effects typically occur when a dose of about 500-1500 cGy has been reached and at a stage when little, if any, tumour regression is evident. No correlation can be seen with anorexia or with the usually recognised side effects of radiotherapy. Spontaneous return to normal is quite common in cases triggered by tumour treatment, but rare in cases starting before diagnosis. The latter may cease when the tumour is treated. The explanation for these highly selective and rapidly reversible aversions or cravings is totally obscure, but questioning large numbers of patients has provided certain clues, including frequent descriptions of an underlying change in taste or odour and also close links with two other equally unexplained phenomena - (1) alcohol intolerance in tumour patients and (2) the cravings and aversions of pregnancy. (author)
Moauro, Mariel A.; Balbuena, M. Sol; Farina, Walter M.
Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees. Individuals were captured within the hive, immediately after following waggle runs or a bit further from the dancer. Both behavioral categories present low and similar spontaneous odor responses (SORs). However, followers exhibit differences in responsiveness to sucrose and odor discrimination: followers showed increased gustatory responsiveness and, after olfactory differential conditioning, better memory retention than non-followers. Thus, the abilities of the dance followers related to appetitive behavior would allow them to improve the acquisition of the dance surrounding information. PMID:29755329
Mariel A. Moauro
Full Text Available Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees. Individuals were captured within the hive, immediately after following waggle runs or a bit further from the dancer. Both behavioral categories present low and similar spontaneous odor responses (SORs. However, followers exhibit differences in responsiveness to sucrose and odor discrimination: followers showed increased gustatory responsiveness and, after olfactory differential conditioning, better memory retention than non-followers. Thus, the abilities of the dance followers related to appetitive behavior would allow them to improve the acquisition of the dance surrounding information.
Cole, Sindy; Stone, Andrew D; Petrovich, Gorica D
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is an important sensorimotor region mediating the acquisition of goal-directed instrumental reward learning and behavioral flexibility. However, whether the DMS also regulates Pavlovian cue-food learning is less clear. The current study used excitotoxic lesions to determine whether the DMS is critical in Pavlovian appetitive learning and behavior, using discriminative conditioning and reversal paradigms. The results showed that DMS lesions transiently retarded cue-food learning and subsequent reversal of this learning. Rats with DMS lesions selectively attenuated responding to a food cue but not a control cue, early in training, suggesting the DMS is involved when initial associations are formed. Similarly, initial reversal learning was attenuated in rats with DMS lesions, which suggests impaired flexibility to adjust behavior when the cue meaning is reversed. We also examined the effect of DMS lesions on food intake during tests with access to a highly palatable food along with standard chow diet. Rats with DMS lesions showed an altered pattern of intake, with an initial reduction in high-fat diet followed by an increase in chow consumption. These results demonstrate that the DMS has a role in mediating cue-food learning and its subsequent reversal, as well as changes in food intake when a choice is provided. Together, these results demonstrate the DMS is involved in reward associative learning and reward consumption, when behavioral flexibility is needed to adjust responding or consumption to match the current value. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Baker, Jessica H; Peterson, Claire M; Thornton, Laura M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M; Girdler, Susan S; Marcus, Marsha D; Bromberger, Joyce T
Eating disorders and related symptoms occur during midlife; however, little is known about their aetiology. It has been hypothesised that perimenopause represents a window of vulnerability for the development or exacerbation of eating disorder symptomatology because, like puberty, perimenopause is a period of reproductive hormone change. We compared symptoms of bulimia nervosa (bulimic symptomatology) assessed via mean scores on a self-report questionnaire in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. We also examined the association between hormone concentrations (reproductive/appetite) and bulimic symptomatology. No mean differences in bulimic symptomatology were observed between premenopause and perimenopause. However, there was a significant positive association between leptin and binge eating. Although no significant associations between reproductive hormones and bulimic symptomatology were observed, additional research is needed to provide definitive information. It is essential to learn more about the aetiology of eating disorders and related symptomatology across the lifespan in order to develop age-relevant treatment and prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...
Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Christensen, Søren; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis
Objective: To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. Methods: A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer...... were randomly assigned to three 20-min home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on either emotional disclosure (EWI group) or a non-emotional topic (control group). Cancer-related distress [Impact of Event Scale (IES)], depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—Short Form......), and negative (37-item Profile of Moods State) and positive mood (Passive Positive Mood Scale) were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. Choice of writing topic (cancer versus other), alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and social constraints (Social Constraints Scale) were...
Macioch, Tomasz; Hermanowski, Tomasz
The aim of this study was to evaluate cancer-related absenteeism costs in Poland. Data on sickness absences and disability were retrieved from the Department of Statistics of the Social Insurance Institution. The cost of lost productivity owing to premature death was estimated from data retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry. Absenteeism costs were estimated on the basis of the measure of gross value added per employee. The costs of lost productivity owing to sick leave, disability, and premature death were estimated to be 1.572 billion EUR, 0.504 billion EUR, and 0.535 billion EUR, respectively, in 2009. The indirect costs of lost productivity owing to cancer-related sick leave, disability, and premature death have a substantial effect on the Polish economy. In 2009, they accounted for more than 0.8% of GDP.
Harmer, C J; Phillips, G D
The behavioural response to psychomotor stimulants is augmented with repeated exposure to these drugs. Enhanced stimulated dopamine overflow within the nucleus accumbens and amygdala has been found to accompany this behavioural sensitization. In the present experiment, rats received 2 mg/kg d-amphetamine or 1 ml/kg physiological saline once per day for 5 days. Five days later, a behavioural assay confirmed that prior repeated d-amphetamine treatment markedly enhanced the locomotor activating effects of a d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) challenge. Training on a Pavlovian conditioning task began six days subsequently. In Stage 1, a stimulus (light or tone, S-) was presented negatively correlated with a sucrose reward. In Stage 2, presentation of the alternative counterbalanced stimulus (light or tone, S+) was paired with the availability of a 10% sucrose solution. There were no differences between the two groups in their response to the the S- stimulus. However, sensitized animals showed a selective enhancement in the acquisition of conditioned responding to S+, relative to vehicle-injected controls. No differences in behaviour were recorded during the prestimulus periods, nor during presentations of sucrose. Levels of activity within the operant chamber extraneous to alcove approach were also similar in both groups of animals. The conditioned instrumental efficacy of S+, relative to S- was assessed in Stage 3, in which stimulus availability was made contingent on a novel lever-pressing response. Both groups showed a similar preference for the S+ over the S- stimulus. Hence, rats sensitized by prior repeated d-amphetamine showed enhanced appetitive Pavlovian conditioning, without subsequent effect on conditioned reward efficacy. These data are discussed in light of possible changes in mesoamygdaloid dopamine functioning.
Mete, Evelyn M; Perry, Tracy L; Haszard, Jillian J; Homer, Ashleigh R; Fenemor, Stephen P; Rehrer, Nancy J; Skeaff, C Murray; Peddie, Meredith C
Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index) 23.9 kg/m² (S.D. = 3.9)) completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT), and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB). Standardized meals were provided throughout the intervention, with an ad libitum meal at the end of Day 2. Appetite and satiety were assessed throughout both days of each intervention using five visual analogue scales. The five responses were combined into a single appetite response at each time point. The area under the appetite response curve (AUC) was calculated for each day. Intervention effects for appetite response AUC and ad libitum meal intake were tested using linear mixed models. Appetite AUC did not differ between interventions (standardised effect of RAB compared to SIT: Day 1: 0.11; 95% CI: -0.28, 0.06; p = 0.212; Day 2: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.24; p = 0.648). There was no significant difference in energy consumed at the ad libitum lunch meal on Day 2 between RAB and SIT. Interrupting prolonged sitting with regular activity breaks does not acutely influence appetite or volume of food consumed, despite inferred increases in energy expenditure. Longer-term investigation into the effects of regular activity breaks on energy balance is warranted.
Evelyn M. Mete
Full Text Available Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index 23.9 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.9 completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT, and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB. Standardized meals were provided throughout the intervention, with an ad libitum meal at the end of Day 2. Appetite and satiety were assessed throughout both days of each intervention using five visual analogue scales. The five responses were combined into a single appetite response at each time point. The area under the appetite response curve (AUC was calculated for each day. Intervention effects for appetite response AUC and ad libitum meal intake were tested using linear mixed models. Appetite AUC did not differ between interventions (standardised effect of RAB compared to SIT: Day 1: 0.11; 95% CI: −0.28, 0.06; p = 0.212; Day 2: 0.04; 95% CI: −0.15, 0.24; p = 0.648. There was no significant difference in energy consumed at the ad libitum lunch meal on Day 2 between RAB and SIT. Interrupting prolonged sitting with regular activity breaks does not acutely influence appetite or volume of food consumed, despite inferred increases in energy expenditure. Longer-term investigation into the effects of regular activity breaks on energy balance is warranted.
Ramaekers, Mariëlle G.; Luning, Pieternel A.; Lakemond, Catriona M. M.; van Boekel, Martinus A. J. S.; Gort, Gerrit; Boesveldt, Sanne
Background Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown. Objective Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products. Design Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2) intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour) in a within-subject design with four combinations: no-odour/banana, no-odour/meat, meat/banana and banana/meat. Participants received one combination per test day. In each combination, two cups with different fillings were smelled for five minutes after each other. Treatment order was balanced as much as possible. The effects of previous exposure and current odour on the appetite for (in)congruent sweet and savoury products, and odour pleasantness were analysed. A change from meat to banana odour or banana to meat odour was referred to as switch, whereas a change from no-odour to meat odour or no-odour to banana odour was no-switch. Results The current odour (Pappetite for (in)congruent sweet and savoury products, already one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. The pleasantness of the odour decreased during odour exposure (P = 0.005). Conclusions After a switch, the appetite for specific products quickly adjusted to the new odour and followed the typical pattern as found during odour exposure in previous studies. Interestingly, the appetite for the smelled food remained elevated during odour exposure, known as sensory-specific appetite, whereas the pleasantness of the odour decreased over time, previously termed olfactory sensory-specific satiety. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms underlying the odour-induced anticipation of food intake versus the decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory stimulation. PMID:26751975
Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.
In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869
Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M
In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.
Esser, Peter; Mehnert, Anja; Johansen, Christoffer
OBJECTIVE: Because cancer-related stigmatization is prevalent but difficult to change, research on its impact on psychological burden and respective intervening variables is needed. Therefore, we investigated the effect of stigmatization on depressive symptomatology and whether body image mediates...... this relationship. METHODS: This bicentric study assessed patients of 4 major tumor entities. We measured stigmatization (SIS-D), depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9), and body image (FKB-20). Applying multiple mediator analyses, we calculated the total effect of stigmatization on depressive symptomatology...
Stephens, Cristina; Westmaas, J Lee; Kim, Jihye; Cannady, Rachel; Stein, Kevin
Research suggests that a cancer diagnosis predicts marital dissolution more strongly for women survivors than men, but there is a paucity of research on potential processes underlying this vulnerability. The present cross-sectional study examined whether specific cancer-related problems were associated with the odds of relationship breakup following diagnosis and whether these relationships differed between male and female cancer survivors. A national cross-sectional quality of life study assessed self-reported cancer-related problems and relationship change among survivors who were either 2, 6, or 10 years post-diagnosis (n = 6099). Bivariate analyses indicated that cancer-related problems (e.g., emotional distress) were greater for divorced/separated survivors compared to those with intact relationships and were greater for women versus men. Logistic regressions indicated that for both male and female survivors, lower income, younger age, and longer time since diagnosis were associated with greater odds of divorce or separation after diagnosis (ORs > 2.14, p emotional distress (OR = 1.14, p divorce or separation. For men only, fear of cancer recurrence was associated with greater odds of divorce or separation (OR = 1.32, p emotional or financial/employment problems attributed to the cancer diagnosis were associated with the likelihood of reporting relationship dissolution. Although directions of causality could not be ascertained, results suggest the possibility that helping male and female cancer survivors cope with specific cancer-related problems may benefit the quality and stability of their relationships with significant others following diagnosis.
Eisenberg, Stacy A; Kurita, Keiko; Taylor-Ford, Megan; Agus, David B; Gross, Mitchell E; Meyerowitz, Beth E
Prostate cancer survivors have reported cognitive complaints following treatment, and these difficulties may be associated with survivors' ongoing cancer-related distress. Intolerance of uncertainty may exacerbate this hypothesized relationship by predisposing individuals to approach uncertain situations such as cancer survivorship in an inflexible and negative manner. We investigated whether greater cognitive complaints and higher intolerance of uncertainty would interact in their relation to more cancer-related distress symptoms. This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study included 67 prostate cancer survivors who were 3 to 5 years post treatment. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested the extent to which intolerance of uncertainty, cognitive complaints, and their interaction were associated with cancer-related distress (measured with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised; IES-R) after adjusting for age, education, physical symptoms, and fear of cancer recurrence. Intolerance of uncertainty was positively associated with the IES-R avoidance and hyperarousal subscales. More cognitive complaints were associated with higher scores on the IES-R hyperarousal subscale. The interaction of intolerance of uncertainty and cognitive complaints was significantly associated with IES-R intrusion, such that greater cognitive complaints were associated with greater intrusive thoughts in survivors high in intolerance of uncertainty but not those low in it. Prostate cancer survivors who report cognitive difficulties or who find uncertainty uncomfortable and unacceptable may be at greater risk for cancer-related distress, even 3 to 5 years after completing treatment. It may be beneficial to address both cognitive complaints and intolerance of uncertainty in psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
STANTON, A.W.B.; MELLOR, R.H.; COOK, G.J.; SVENSSON, W.E.; PETERS, A.M.; LEVICK, J.R.; MORTIMER, P.S.
Background: In arm lymphedema secondary to axillary surgery and radiotherapy (breast cancer-related lymphedema), the swelling is largely epifascial and lymph flow per unit epifascial volume is impaired. The subfascial muscle compartment is not measurably swollen despite the iatrogenic damage to its axillary drainage pathway, but this could be due to its low compliance. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that subfascial lymph drainage too is impaired.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Upper limb lymphedema is one of the most frequent chronic complications after breast cancer treatment with a significant impact on the upper extremity function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to estimate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with breast-cancer-related lymphedema and its correlation with upper limb function and the size of edema. Methods. The cross-sectional study included 54 breast-cancer-related lymphedema patients. The quality of life was evaluated by the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36. Upper limb function was assessed by the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (Quick DASH. The size of lymphedema was determined by the arm circumference. Results. The higher HRQoL score was assessed for mental health (47.0 ± 12.2 than for physical one (42.2 ± 7.5. The highest values of SF-36 were found in the domains of Mental Health (67.7 ± 22.9 and Social Function (70.1 ± 23.1. The lowest scores were registered in the domains of Role Physical (46.9 ± 39.1 and General Health (49.3 ± 20.1. Upper extremity function statistically significantly correlated with the domains Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Composite Summary and also, with the domain Role Emotional (p 0.05. Conclusions. Physical disability in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema influences quality of life more than mental health. Upper limb function has a significant impact on quality of life, not only on the physical, but also on the mental component. The presence of breast-cancer-related lymphedema certainly affects upper limb function and quality of life, but in this study no significant correlation between the size of edema and quality of life was found.
Salca Amalia; Checiches Alexandra; Irsay Laszlo
Starting with patient’ diagnose and continuing throughout the treatment and thereafter, cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a distressing and disabling symptom, highly prevalent across the cancer continuum2. This is a review article mainly focusing on the rehabilitation objectives and interventions in CRF, and implementation issues, according to the report of an NCCN member institution4. Implementation is the most problematic, considering the large number of patients to whom it is addressed to...
小濵, 京子; 丸, 光惠; 前田, 留美; 久保田, 俊郎
Purpose: To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. Methods: A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. Results: The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had...
Kavita D. Chandwani
Full Text Available A cancer diagnosis elicits strong psychophysiological reactions that characterize stress. Stress is experienced by all patients but is usually not discussed during patient-healthcare professional interaction; thus underdiagnosed, very few are referred to support services. The prevalence of CAM use in patients with history of cancer is growing. The purpose of the paper is to review the aspects of cancer-related stress and interventions of commonly used complementary and alternative techniques/products for amelioration of cancer-related stress. Feasibility of intervention of several CAM techniques and products commonly used by cancer patients and survivors has been established in some cancer populations. Efficacy of some CAM techniques and products in reducing stress has been documented as well as stress-related symptoms in patients with cancer such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, Tai Chi Chuan, acupuncture, energy-based techniques, and physical activity. Much of the research limitations include small study samples and variety of intervention length and content. Efficacy and safety of many CAM techniques and some herbs and vitamin B and D supplements need to be confirmed in further studies using scientific methodology. Several complementary and alternative medicine therapies could be integrated into standard cancer care to ameliorate cancer-related stress.
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; LaValley, Susan; Mollica, Michelle; Beaupin, Lynda Kwon
Americans are increasingly using social media (such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) for health-related communication. Much of the previous research on social media and health communication has focused on Facebook groups related to a specific disease or Facebook pages related to an advocacy organization. Less is known about how people communicate about cancer on personal Facebook pages. In this study, we expand upon previous research by examining how cancer caregivers use personal Facebook pages for cancer-related communication. We examined themes in cancer-related exchanges through a content analysis of 12 months of data from 18 publically available Facebook pages hosted by parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (15 852 total posts). Six themes emerged: (1) documenting the cancer journey, (2) sharing emotional strain associated with caregiving, (3) promoting awareness and advocacy about pediatric cancer, (4) fundraising, (5) mobilizing support, and (6) expressing gratitude for support. Building upon previous research documenting the increasing use of social media for health-related communication and support, our findings show that personal Facebook pages offer a platform for cancer caregivers to share their cancer-related experiences, promote advocacy and awareness, and mobilize social support. Providers must recognize the importance of social media as a vehicle for support and communication for families of children with cancer. Nurses should educate parents on how to appraise information obtained through Facebook using evidence-based guidelines. Providers can encourage caregivers to use Facebook as a tool for communication, information, and support.
Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E
Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.
Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Kearney, Monica L; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Fairchild, Timothy J; Kanaley, Jill A
The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial satiety regulating hormone responses (pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)) and visual analog scale- (VAS) assessed perceived appetite and satiety between liquid high-protein (HP) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals in obese women during acute (24-h) caloric restriction. Eleven obese premenopausal women completed two conditions in random order in which they consumed 1500 calories as six 250-calorie HP meals or six 250-calorie HC meals over a 12-h period. Blood samples were taken at baseline and every 20 min thereafter and analyzed for PP and PYY concentrations. At these same points, perceived hunger and fullness were assessed with a VAS. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was used to compare postprandial responses. The 12-h PP and PYY iAUC were greater (P≤0.05) during the HP condition (PP: 4727±1306 pg/ml×12 h, PYY: 1373±357 pg/ml×12 h) compared with the HC condition (PP: 2300±528 pg/ml×12 h, PYY: 754±246 pg/ml×12 h). Perceived hunger and fullness were not different between conditions (P>0.05). The greatest changes in PYY and perceived fullness occurred after the morning meals during both conditions. These data suggest that in obese women during acute caloric restriction before weight loss, i) liquid HP meals, compared with HC meals, result in greater postprandial PP and PYY concentrations, an effect not associated with differential appetite or satiety responses, and ii) meal-induced changes in PYY and satiety are greatest during the morning period, regardless of dietary macronutrient composition.
Full Text Available Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary, and three-component (ternary combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although
Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz
Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many
Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia
To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smit, H J; Keenan, E; Kovacs, E M R; Wiseman, S A; Peters, H P F; Mela, D J; Rogers, P J
To investigate the feasibility of Fabuless (previously called Olibra and Reducal) as a food ingredient for food intake and appetite reduction, by assessing the effects of food processing on efficacy. In total, 24 healthy volunteers (16 female, 8 male; age: 18-43 years; body mass index: 18-37 kg/m(2)) took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Yoghurt-based meal replacement drinks (containing processed or unprocessed Fabuless, or a control fat) were followed by an ad libitum lunch and evening meal (dinner). Key outcome measures were energy intake and self-reported appetite ratings. Compared with control, only unprocessed Fabuless reduced subsequent energy intake, although only during dinner (P processed and unprocessed: 4.3, 3.9 and 4.2 MJ, respectively) and not during lunch (3.6, 3.7 and 3.6 MJ). Self-reported appetite scores did not differ between treatments. Although modest effects of unprocessed Fabuless were seen on food intake, but not on appetite, the ingredient was not robust to common food-manufacturing processes (thermal and shear processing). Claims on reduced food intake and appetite relating to this ingredient in food products are, therefore, only valid if functionality has been demonstrated after all relevant processing and storage steps.
Akila De Silva
Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided the opportunity to safely investigate the workings of the human brain. This paper focuses on its use in the field of human appetitive behaviour and its impact in obesity research. In the present absence of any safe or effective centrally acting appetite suppressants, a better understanding of how appetite is controlled is vital for the development of new antiobesity pharmacotherapies. Early functional imaging techniques revealed an attenuation of brain reward area activity in response to visual food stimuli when humans are fed—in other words, the physiological state of hunger somehow increases the appeal value of food. Later studies have investigated the action of appetite modulating hormones on the fMRI signal, showing how the attenuation of brain reward region activity that follows feeding can be recreated in the fasted state by the administration of anorectic gut hormones. Furthermore, differences in brain activity between obese and lean individuals have provided clues about the possible aetiology of overeating. The hypothalamus acts as a central gateway modulating homeostatic and nonhomeostatic drives to eat. As fMRI techniques constantly improve, functional data regarding the role of this small but hugely important structure in appetite control is emerging.
Geer, Eliza B; Lalazar, Yelena; Couto, Lizette M; Cohen, Vanessa; Lipton, Lianna R; Shi, Wei; Bagiella, Emilia; Conwell, Irene; Bederson, Joshua; Kostadinov, Jane; Post, Kalmon D; Freda, Pamela U
Glucocorticoid (GC) exposure increases food intake, but the mechanisms in humans are not known. Investigation of appetite and food craving has not been done in patients with chronic GC exposure due to Cushing's disease (CD), either before or after treatment, and could provide insight into mechanisms of food intake and obesity in these patients. To examine whether surgical remission of CD changes appetite (prospective consumption, hunger, satisfaction, and fullness) and food cravings (sweet, salty, fatty, and savory); and to identify predictors of appetite and craving in CD remission. 30 CD patients, mean age 40.0 years (range 17-70), mean BMI 32.3 ± 6.4, were prospectively studied before and at a mean of 17.4 mo. after remission. At each visit fasting and post-test meal (50% carbohydrate, 35% protein, 15% fat) appetite and craving scores were assessed. Remission decreased prospective consumption, sweet and savory craving (p appetite regulation due to abdominal fat mass and circulating cortisol could play a role in the cardiovascular and metabolic risk that has been reported in CD patients despite remission.
Full Text Available Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.
Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte
Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight subjects (50% females) were given ten 0.5-mL capsules/day of fish oil or soybean oil for 3 weeks separated by 1-week wash-out. In the end of each period, appetite was assessed by 10-cm visual analog scales immediately before and after a standardized breakfast. Results were analyzed in accordance with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21 cm (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09 cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially beneficial for patients with compromised nutritional status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smit, H J; Keenan, E; Kovacs, E M R; Wiseman, S A; Mela, D J; Rogers, P J
Fabuless (Olibra) is a commercially structured lipid emulsion, claimed to be a food ingredient that is effective for food intake and appetite reduction. The present study assessed its efficacy in a yoghurt-based mini-drink undergoing low or minimal food manufacturing (thermal and shear) processes. Study 1: Twenty-four healthy volunteers (16 female, 8 male; age: 18-47 years; body mass index (BMI): 17-28 kg m(-2)) took part in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel crossover trial. Consumption of a minimally processed 'preload' mini-drink (containing two different doses of Fabuless or a control fat) at 2 h after breakfast was followed by appetite and mood ratings, and food intake measured in ad libitum meals at 3 and 7 h post consumption of the preload. Study 2: As Study 1 (16 female, 8 male; age: 20-54 years; BMI: 21-30 kg m(-2)). A chilled, virtually unprocessed, preload breakfast mini-drink (containing minimally processed Fabuless or a control fat) was provided 5 min after a standardised breakfast, followed by appetite and mood ratings, and food intake measured in ad libitum meals at 4 and 8 h post consumption of the preload. The structured lipid emulsion tested had no significant effect on the primary measures of food intake or appetite. Even when exposed to minimal food-manufacturing conditions, Fabuless showed no efficacy on measures of appetite and food intake.
Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita
Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS-) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS- trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS-, and also less than low-impulsive participants. An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
James, Janey; Harris, Yael T; Kronish, Ian M; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Lin, Jenny J
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can be triggered by a diagnosis of a potentially life-threatening illness such as cancer. Little is known about the impact of cancer-related PTSS symptoms on self-management behaviors for comorbid chronic medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM). We recruited patients with DM and a recent diagnosis of early-stage cancer from 2 medical centers in New York City. Cancer-related PTSS were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale (score ≥ 26). DM self-management behaviors (medication adherence, exercise, healthy diet, and glucose testing) were measured 3 months later. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between cancer-related PTSS symptoms and DM self-management behaviors, adjusting for gender, marital status, and anxiety symptoms. Of 56 participants recruited, 33% reported cancer-related PTSS symptoms. Elevated cancer-related PTSS symptoms were associated with lack of healthy diet (odds ratio: 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.62). Early-stage cancer survivors with cancer-related PTSS symptoms were less likely to adhere to some DM self-management behaviors. Providers should recognize the impact of cancer-related PTSS symptoms to better support comorbid disease management in cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike
Background Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. Objectives To examine associations of children’s appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Methods Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009–2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children’s appetitive traits, children’s dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Results Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Conclusions Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children. PMID:23227194
Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas
the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain...... rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake....... In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. Results: The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake...
Wood Richard J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.
Shak, Joshua R; Roper, Jatin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Tseng, Chi-hong; Francois, Fritz; Gamagaris, Zoi; Patterson, Carlie; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Fielding, George A; Ren, Christine; Blaser, Martin J
We hypothesized that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) reduces weight and modulates ghrelin production, but largely spares gastrointestinal endocrine function. To examine this hypothesis, we determined plasma concentrations of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones in relation to LAGB. Twenty-four patients undergoing LAGB were prospectively enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and blood samples obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated and total ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, and pepsinogens I and II were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) over 12 months was 45.7% with median BMI decreasing from 43.2 at baseline to 33.8 at 12 months post-surgery (p 0.05). Pepsinogen II levels were significantly lower 6 months after LAGB but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. LAGB yielded substantial %EWL and a proportional decrease in plasma leptin. Our results support the hypothesis that LAGB works in part by suppressing the rise in ghrelin that normally accompanies weight loss. Unchanged concentrations of insulinotropic and digestive hormones suggest that gastrointestinal endocrine function is largely maintained in the long term.
Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min
Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.
Gray, Richard; French, Stephen; Robinson, Tristan; Yeomans, Martin
Previous research suggests that enhancing the volume of a food preload without altering energy content can result in reduced appetite, although the limited evidence means that the conditions under which this effect will occur are not yet clear. In the present study, we used a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) to record test meal intake constantly, in parallel with appetite ratings, following soup-based preloads that varied both in volume (150 vs. 450 ml) and energy density (1.4 vs. 4.2 kJ/ml). Healthy young men (n=20) received four different preload conditions (repeated measures) followed by unlimited hot pasta test meals (interval 30 min). They completed appetite ratings during and after each laboratory session, and food diaries for the afternoon and evening following each session. Subjective appetite after the preloads was reduced by the high-volume preloads relative to low-volume preloads, with no difference between the two at each volume level. This indicates an effect of volume, but no effect of energy. Test meal intake in the high-volume, high-energy-density condition was reduced relative to the other conditions, which did not differ from one another. This indicates an effect of total energy, but no effect of volume. The dissociation between these different measures of appetite might be explained in terms of largely cognitive influences on subjective appetite between preload and test meal, contrasted with stronger physiological influences on actual intake during the test meal. With regard to previous studies, it is argued that food volume is more influential under circumstances where gastric volume is closer to its normal limits.
Carnell, S; Grillot, C; Ungredda, T; Ellis, S; Mehta, N; Holst, J; Geliebter, A
Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast. For each protocol they first received a standardized liquid meal (9:00am/4:00pm), then a stress test (Socially-Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, 11:10am/6:1pm), then a multi-item ad libitum buffet meal (11:40am/6:40pm), while rating appetite and stress and having blood drawn for hormone measures. Appetite at baseline was greater in the PM than AM condition (higher hunger, lower fullness). Following the liquid meal, AUC values for hunger and ghrelin were greater, and AUC values for PYY lower, in the PM than AM condition. Only those with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition, as well as a pattern of higher initial PM and lower initial AM ghrelin. Following the stress test, cortisol and ghrelin increased in both the AM and PM conditions, but higher ghrelin AUC and lower cortisol AUC were observed in the PM condition. Again, only participants with BED showed lower fullness AUC in the PM condition. Buffet meal intake was similar across groups and conditions, but those with BED reported greater loss of control and binge resemblance than those without. Afternoon/evening may be a high-risk period for overeating, particularly when paired with stress exposure, and for those with binge eating.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 13 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.307.
Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S
Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.
Luckett, T; Phillips, J; Lintzeris, N; Allsop, D; Lee, J; Solowij, N; Martin, J; Lam, L; Aggarwal, R; McCaffrey, N; Currow, D; Chye, R; Lovell, M; McGregor, I; Agar, M
Australian clinical trials are planned to evaluate medicinal cannabis in a range of clinical contexts. To explore the preferences, attitudes and beliefs of patients eligible and willing to consider participation in a clinical trial of medicinal cannabis for poor appetite and appetite-related symptoms from advanced cancer. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered from July to December 2015 online and in eight adult outpatient palliative care and/or cancer services. Respondents were eligible if they were ≥18 years, had advanced cancer and poor appetite/taste problems/weight loss and might consider participating in a medicinal cannabis trial. Survey items focused on medicinal rather than recreational cannabis use and did not specify botanical or pharmaceutical products. Items asked about previous medicinal cannabis use and preferences for delivery route and invited comments and concerns. There were 204 survey respondents, of whom 26 (13%) reported prior medicinal cannabis use. Tablets/capsules were the preferred delivery mode (n = 144, 71%), followed by mouth spray (n = 84, 42%) and vaporiser (n = 83, 41%). Explanations for preferences (n = 134) most commonly cited convenience (n = 66; 49%). A total of 82% (n = 168) of respondents indicated that they had no trial-related concerns, but a small number volunteered concerns about adverse effects (n = 14) or wanted more information/advice (n = 8). Six respondents volunteered a belief that cannabis might cure cancer, while two wanted assurance of efficacy before participating in a trial. Justification of modes other than tablets/capsules and variable understanding about cannabis and trials will need addressing in trial-related information to optimise recruitment and ensure that consent is properly informed. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F
Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...
Kanlı, İbrahim Burak
This paper analyzes the impact of global risk appetite on the risk premium utilizing high-frequency data. Taking the Turkish economy as our laboratory, we find that the risk premium volatility responds only to a worsening in the risk appetite for the Turkish economy, which is a result that we do not observe for the other emerging markets. Then, we investigate the role of current account dynamics on this asymmetric effect, by focusing also on an economy with similar current account performance. The empirical results find supporting evidence for the role of current account dynamics on the estimated asymmetry.
Løkkegaard, Laura Ekstrøm; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare
. They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...
Gregory B Bissonette
Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.
Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is regarded as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The relations between aberrant gene methylation and cancer development have been identified by a number of recent scientific studies. In a previous work, we used co-occurrences to mine those associations and compiled the MeInfoText 1.0 database. To reduce the amount of manual curation and improve the accuracy of relation extraction, we have now developed MeInfoText 2.0, which uses a machine learning-based approach to extract gene methylation-cancer relations. Description Two maximum entropy models are trained to predict if aberrant gene methylation is related to any type of cancer mentioned in the literature. After evaluation based on 10-fold cross-validation, the average precision/recall rates of the two models are 94.7/90.1 and 91.8/90% respectively. MeInfoText 2.0 provides the gene methylation profiles of different types of human cancer. The extracted relations with maximum probability, evidence sentences, and specific gene information are also retrievable. The database is available at http://bws.iis.sinica.edu.tw:8081/MeInfoText2/. Conclusion The previous version, MeInfoText, was developed by using association rules, whereas MeInfoText 2.0 is based on a new framework that combines machine learning, dictionary lookup and pattern matching for epigenetics information extraction. The results of experiments show that MeInfoText 2.0 outperforms existing tools in many respects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a hybrid approach to extract gene methylation-cancer relations. It is also the first attempt to develop a gene methylation and cancer relation corpus.
Orozco Javier I
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Giant fibroadenoma is an uncommon variant of benign breast lesions. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is known to be involved in the silencing of genes (for example, tumor-suppressor genes and appears to be an early event in the etiology of breast carcinogenesis. Only hypermethylation of p16INK4a has been reported in non-giant breast fibroadenoma. In this particular case, there are no previously published data on epigenetic alterations in giant fibroadenomas. Our previous results, based on the analysis of 49 cancer-related CpG islands have confirmed that the aberrant methylation is specific to malignant breast tumors and that it is completely absent in normal breast tissue and breast fibroadenomas. Case presentation A 13-year-old Hispanic girl was referred after she had noted a progressive development of a mass in her left breast. On physical examination, a 10 × 10 cm lump was detected and axillary lymph nodes were not enlarged. After surgical removal the lump was diagnosed as a giant fibroadenoma. Because of the high growth rate of this benign tumor, we decided to analyze the methylation status of 49 CpG islands related to cell growth control. We have identified the methylation of five cancer-related CpG islands in the giant fibroadenoma tissue: ESR1, MGMT, WT-1, BRCA2 and CD44. Conclusion In this case report we show for the first time the methylation analysis of a giant fibroadenoma. The detection of methylation of these five cancer-related regions indicates substantial epigenomic differences with non-giant fibroadenomas. Epigenetic alterations could explain the higher growth rate of this tumor. Our data contribute to the growing knowledge of aberrant methylation in breast diseases. In this particular case, there exist no previous data regarding the role of methylation in giant fibroadenomas, considered by definition as a benign breast lesion.
Full Text Available The Chinese Hui population, as the second largest minority ethnic group in China, may have a different genetic background from Han people because of its unique demographic history. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic differences between Han and Hui Chinese from the Ningxia region of China by comparing eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer-related genes.DNA samples were collected from 99 Hui and 145 Han people from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, and SNPs were detected using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method. Genotyping data from six 1000 Genomes Project population samples (99 Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry (CEU, 107 Toscani in Italy (TSI, 108 Yoruba in Ibadan (YRI, 61 of African ancestry in the southwestern US (ASW, 103 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB, and 104 Japanese in Tokyo (JPT were also included in this study. Differences in the distribution of alleles among the populations were assessed using χ2 tests, and FST was used to measure the degree of population differentiation.We found that the genetic diversity of many SNPs in cancer-related genes in the Hui Chinese in Ningxia was different from that in the Han Chinese in Ningxia. For example, the allele frequencies of four SNPs (rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498, and rs753955 showed different genetic distributions (p0.000 between the Hui and Han populations.These results suggest that some SNPs associated with cancer-related genes vary among different Chinese ethnic groups. We suggest that population differences should be carefully considered in evaluating cancer risk and prognosis as well as the efficacy of cancer therapy.
The HINTS is designed to produce reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. GIS maps using HINTS data have been used to provide a visual representation of possible geographic relationships in HINTS cancer-related variables.
van der Meij, B.S.; Wijnhoven, H.A.H.; Finlayson, G.S.; Oosten, B.S.H.; Visser, M.
A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a
Spathis, Anna; Hatcher, Helen; Booth, Sara; Gibson, Faith; Stone, Paddy; Abbas, Laura; Barclay, Matt; Brimicombe, James; Thiemann, Pia; McCabe, Martin G; Campsey, Rachel; Hooker, Louise; Moss, Wendy; Robson, Jane; Barclay, Stephen
Cancer-related fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by adolescents and young adults (AYAs). An electronic survey was undertaken to ascertain current fatigue management and perceptions of its effectiveness. Eighty-five percent of responders (68/80) experienced fatigue, and it was worse more than 1 year after cancer treatment ended, compared to fatigue management. Although advice to exercise was the most frequent intervention, the greatest impact of fatigue was on the ability to exercise and most did not find exercise advice helpful. Early intervention is warranted, supporting AYAs to persevere with increasing activity.
Hurley, Seth. W.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Depletion of extracellular fluids motivates many animals to seek out and ingest water and sodium. Animals with a history of extracellular dehydration display enhanced sodium appetite and in some cases thirst. The progressive increase in sodium intake induced by repeated sodium depletions is known as sensitization of sodium appetite. Administration of the diuretic and natriuretic drug, furosemide, along with a low dose of captopril (furo/cap), elicits thirst and a rapid onset of sodium appetite. In the present studies the furo/cap model was used to explore the physiological mechanisms of sensitization of sodium appetite. However, when thirst and sodium appetite were measured concurrently in the furo/cap model, individual rats exhibited sensitization of either thirst or sodium appetite. In subsequent studies, thirst and sodium appetite were dissociated by offering either water prior to sodium or sodium before water. When water and sodium intake were dissociated in time, the furo/cap model reliably produced sensitization of sodium appetite. It is likely that neuroplasticity mediates this sensitization. Glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) activation is critical for the development of most forms of neuroplasticity. Therefore, we hypothesized that integrity of NMDA-R function is necessary for the sensitization of sodium appetite. Pharmacological blockade of NMDA-Rs with systemic administration of MK-801 (0.15mg/kg) prevented the sensitization of fluid intake in general when water and sodium were offered concurrently, and prevented sensitization of sodium intake specifically when water and sodium intake were dissociated. The involvement of NMDA-Rs provides support for the possibility that sensitization of sodium appetite is mediated by neuroplasticity. PMID:24341713
Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani
In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...
Essner, Rachel A; Smith, Alison G; Jamnik, Adam A; Ryba, Anna R; Trutner, Zoe D; Carter, Matthew E
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine. Additionally, exogenous compounds, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), a salt that creates gastric discomfort, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial cell wall component that induces inflammation, exert appetite-suppressing effects and activate PBN CGRP neurons. The effects of increasing the homeostatic drive to eat on feeding behavior during appetite suppressing conditions are unknown. Here, we show in mice that food deprivation or optogenetic activation of AgRP neurons induces feeding to overcome the appetite suppressing effects of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. AgRP neuron photostimulation can also increase feeding during chemogenetic-mediated stimulation of PBN CGRP neurons. AgRP neuron stimulation reduces Fos expression in PBN CGRP neurons across all conditions. Finally, stimulation of projections from AgRP neurons to the PBN increases feeding following administration of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. These results demonstrate that AgRP neurons are sufficient to increase feeding during noninflammatory-based appetite suppression and to decrease activity in anorexigenic PBN CGRP neurons, thereby increasing food intake during homeostatic need. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The motivation to eat depends on the relative balance of activity in distinct brain regions that induce or suppress appetite. An abnormal amount of activity in
Clop, Alex; Sharaf, Abdoallah; Castelló, Anna
. In the intestine, they regulate nutrient absorption and gut motility. Upon ligand binding, TASRs activate the appetite-reward circuitry to signal the nervous system and keep body homeostasis. With the aim to identify genetic variation in the swine TASRs and in the genes from the appetite and the reward pathways......, we have sequenced the exons of 201 TASRs and appetite-reward genes from 304 pigs belonging to ten breeds, wild boars and to two phenotypically extreme groups from a F2 resource with data on growth and fat deposition. RESULTS: We identified 2,766 coding variants 395 of which were predicted to have...... in the appetite and the reward mechanisms. Some of these genes have been already associated to taste preferences, appetite or behaviour in humans and mouse. We have also detected indications of a potential relationship of some of these genes with growth and fat deposition, which could have been caused by changes...
... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...
Manne, Sharon; Badr, Hoda; Zaider, Talia; Nelson, Christian; Kissane, David
The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of relationship-enhancing (self-disclosure, mutual constructive communication) and relationship-compromising communication (holding back, mutual avoidance, and demand-withdraw communication) on couples' psychological distress. Seventy-five men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in the past year and their partners completed surveys about communication, intimacy, and distress. Multi-level models with the couple as unit of analyses indicated that the association between mutual constructive communication, mutual avoidance, and patient demand-partner withdraw and distress could be accounted for by their influence on relationship intimacy. Intimacy did not mediate associations between self-disclosure, holding back, and partner demand-patient withdraw communication and distress. These findings indicate that the way in which couples talk about cancer-related concerns as well as the degree to which one or both partners avoid talking about cancer-related concerns can either facilitate or reduce relationship intimacy, and that it is largely by this mechanism that these three communication strategies impact psychological distress. Relationship intimacy and how patients and partners communicate to achieve this intimacy is important for the psychological adjustment of early stage prostate cancer survivors and their partners.
Warrell, R.P. Jr.; Bockman, R.S.; Coonley, C.J.; Isaacs, M.; Staszewski, H.
Approximately two-thirds of patients who receive the anticancer drug gallium nitrate develop mild hypocalcemia. To evaluate the mechanism of drug-induced hypocalcemia, we tested the effects of gallium nitrate upon in vitro release of 45 Ca++ from explanted fetal rat bones. The drug significantly inhibited 45 Ca++ release in response to stimulation with both parathyroid hormone and a lymphokine preparation with osteoclast activating factor activity. The inhibitory effects on bone resorption were both time- and dose-dependent. Later, in a pilot study, we treated 10 patients who had cancer-related hypercalcemia with gallium nitrate administered by continuous infusion. All patients responded by a reduction of total serum calcium to normal or subnormal concentrations (13.8 +/- 1.05 mg/dl, mean +/- SD pretreatment, to 8.03 +/- 1.03 mg/dl, mean posttreatment nadir). Our results indicate that gallium nitrate effectively treats cancer-related hypercalcemia and that it probably acts by inhibiting calcium release from bone
Arends, J; Baracos, V; Bertz, H; Bozzetti, F; Calder, P C; Deutz, N E P; Erickson, N; Laviano, A; Lisanti, M P; Lobo, D N; McMillan, D C; Muscaritoli, M; Ockenga, J; Pirlich, M; Strasser, F; de van der Schueren, M; Van Gossum, A; Vaupel, P; Weimann, A
Patients with cancer are at particularly high risk for malnutrition because both the disease and its treatments threaten their nutritional status. Yet cancer-related nutritional risk is sometimes overlooked or under-treated by clinicians, patients, and their families. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) recently published evidence-based guidelines for nutritional care in patients with cancer. In further support of these guidelines, an ESPEN oncology expert group met for a Cancer and Nutrition Workshop in Berlin on October 24 and 25, 2016. The group examined the causes and consequences of cancer-related malnutrition, reviewed treatment approaches currently available, and built the rationale and impetus for clinicians involved with care of patients with cancer to take actions that facilitate nutrition support in practice. The content of this position paper is based on presentations and discussions at the Berlin meeting. The expert group emphasized 3 key steps to update nutritional care for people with cancer: (1) screen all patients with cancer for nutritional risk early in the course of their care, regardless of body mass index and weight history; (2) expand nutrition-related assessment practices to include measures of anorexia, body composition, inflammatory biomarkers, resting energy expenditure, and physical function; (3) use multimodal nutritional interventions with individualized plans, including care focused on increasing nutritional intake, lessening inflammation and hypermetabolic stress, and increasing physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzsen, Tugba
[Purpose] This study evaluated the functional ability and kinesthetic sense of the hands of women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-seven women experiencing lymphedema after breast surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were included. The patients were divided into two groups: women with hand edema (HE+, n = 29) and without hand edema (HE-, n = 28) after breast cancer treatment. Arm edema severity, hand size, functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hand, and daily living skills were evaluated. [Results] The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years. In both groups, functional mobility, kinesthetic sense, and daily living skills decreased significantly with increasing edema severity. However, there was no significant difference between groups with respect to functional mobility or daily living skills. The kinesthetic sense of the hand was better in the HE- group than the HE+ group. There was a significant negative relationship between the severity of edema and hand function. [Conclusion] Breast cancer-related lymphedema can negatively impact women's functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hands as well as daily living skills.
Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Geoffrey; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Liu, Chen-Yu; Chen, Feng; Kulke, Matthew H; Heist, Rebecca S; Christiani, David C
There is an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among younger people in the western populations. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms and the age of EA onset is unclear. In this study, 1330 functional/tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 354 cancer-related genes were genotyped in 335 white EA patients. Twenty important SNPs that have the highest importance scores and lowest classification error rate were identified by the random forest algorithm to be associated with early onset of EA (age ≤ 55 years). Subsequent logistic regression analysis indicated that 10 SNPs (rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, rs17757541 of BCL2, rs11775256 of TNFRSF10A, rs1035142 of CASP8, rs2236302 of MMP14, rs4740363 of ABL1, rs696217 of GHRL, rs2445762 of CYP19A1, and rs11941492 of VEGFR2/KDR) were significantly associated with early onset of EA (≤55 vs >55 years, all P polymorphisms in cancer-related genes, especially those in the apoptotic pathway, play an important role in the development of younger-aged EA in a dose-response manner.
da Silva Alves, Ricardo; Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Pereira, Isabela Carvalho; Borges, Juliana Bassalobre Carvalho; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Silva, Andreia Maria; Lobato, Daniel Ferreira Moreira; Carvalho, Leonardo Cesar
Exercise is recommended for cancer patients to reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. This study's aim is to evaluate the influence of an exergaming protocol on cancer-related fatigue, muscle fatigue, and muscle strength in cancer patients. We conducted a quasi-experimental control study using exergaming in all groups through an Xbox360 Kinect™ console, two to three times per week, for 20 sessions. Three groups were created: cancer patients in chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy group (CRG; n:15), cancer patients after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (CAG; n:15), and a control group (CG; n:15). They were assessed for cancer-related fatigue using the fatigue subscale of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) questionnaire. To assess dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscle functioning, we used median frequency (MDF) of the surface electromyography and muscle strength using a dynamometer. The assessments were performed preintervention (EV0), after 10 sessions (EV1), and after 20 sessions (EV2). With an exergaming protocol, CRG and CAG showed a reduction in related fatigue compared with CG (P fatigue, including muscle fatigue, and increasing muscle strength in patients' legs.
Full Text Available Background. This paper details the role of different dimensions of health literacy in the relationship between health literacy and cancer-related health behaviours. In particular, Cancer Literacy is studied as an exemplar of a dimension of health literacy beyond basic reading and writing skills. The link between functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy and cancer-related health behaviours is investigated in a sample of Ticino (Switzerland residents (n=639. Design and methods. Detailed data is collected about respondents’ functional health literacy, Cancer Literacy, cancer information seeking behaviour, engagement in cancer preventive behaviours, participation to cancer screenings, and intention to adhere to current screening recommendations. Results. Results confirm the added value of Cancer Literacy – compared to functional health literacy – in explaining people’s cancer information seeking behaviour, their participation to several cancer screenings and their screening intention, underscoring the need to take into account dimensions of health literacy beyond basic functional skills. Conclusions. From a public health perspective, findings provide further evidence on the importance of adapting informational and educational communication intervention designed to improve cancer prevention and screening to different audiences.
Aim: This thesis aimed to further determine how gastric content relates to subjective experiences regarding appetite, how this relation is affected by food properties and whether this is visible in neural activation changes.
Method: This was studied using
Perisse, Emmanuel; Owald, David; Barnstedt, Oliver; Talbot, Clifford B; Huetteroth, Wolf; Waddell, Scott
In Drosophila, negatively reinforcing dopaminergic neurons also provide the inhibitory control of satiety over appetitive memory expression. Here we show that aversive learning causes a persistent depression of the conditioned odor drive to two downstream feed-forward inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the mushroom body, called MVP2, or mushroom body output neuron (MBON)-γ1pedc>α/β. However, MVP2 neuron output is only essential for expression of short-term aversive memory. Stimulating MVP2 neurons preferentially inhibits the odor-evoked activity of avoidance-directing MBONs and odor-driven avoidance behavior, whereas their inhibition enhances odor avoidance. In contrast, odor-evoked activity of MVP2 neurons is elevated in hungry flies, and their feed-forward inhibition is required for expression of appetitive memory at all times. Moreover, imposing MVP2 activity promotes inappropriate appetitive memory expression in food-satiated flies. Aversive learning and appetitive motivation therefore toggle alternate modes of a common feed-forward inhibitory MVP2 pathway to promote conditioned odor avoidance or approach. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asking patients to rate their appetite on a five point scale appears to be an effective way to screen for malnutrition in the haemodialysis population. In centres with limited dietitian support, this may be preferable to screening with albumin due to the reduced number of inappropriate referrals and therefore enabling the priority to lie with the patients with malnutrition.
Dwarkasing, Jvalini; Dijk, Francina J.; Boekschoten, Mark; Faber, Joyce; Argilès, Josep M.; Lavianio, Alessandro; Muller, Michael; Witkamp, Renger; Norren, van Klaske
Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients, leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 colon adenocarcinoma have
Dwarkasing, Jvalini; Dijk, Francina J.; Boekschoten, Mark; Faber, Joyce; Argilès, Josep M.; Lavianio, Alessandro; Muller, Michael; Witkamp, Renger; Norren, van Klaske
Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients, leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 colon adenocarcinoma have
Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio
In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.
Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.
Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor
G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)
textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can
van Bloemendaal, L.; IJzerman, R.G.; ten Kulve, J.S.; Barkhof, F.; Konrad, R.J.; Drent, M.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Diamant, M.
Gut-derived hormones, such as GLP-1, have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to decreases in food intake and body weight. We
Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez
Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake < 85% of the requirement, in accordance with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in over 50% of the sample; weekly consumption of vegetables (57%) and miscellaneous (66%) was inadequate; inadequate intake of formula and whole milk in more than 60%; 9% were exclusively breastfed during the first six months; 64% lacked a regular eating place; in child-caregiver interaction during mealtimes, more than half of the children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.
Gonzalez-Hermosillo Gonzalez, B.M.
This research examines the role of contagion in transmitting shocks across markets. One possible conduit for contagion is shifts in international investors’ risk appetite. The aim of this research is to propose a methodology to address the current gaps in the literature of contagion. The thesis
Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A
Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geer, Eliza B.; Lalazar, Yelena; Couto, Lizette M.; Cohen, Vanessa; Lipton, Lianna R.; Shi, Wei; Bagiella, Emilia; Conwell, Irene; Bederson, Joshua; Kostadinov, Jane; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.
Context Glucocorticoid (GC) exposure increases food intake, but the mechanisms in humans are not known. Investigation of appetite and food craving has not been done in patients with chronic GC exposure due to Cushing’s disease (CD), either before or after treatment, and could provide insight into mechanisms of food intake and obesity in these patients. Purpose To examine whether surgical remission of CD changes appetite (prospective consumption, hunger, satisfaction, and fullness) and food cravings (sweet, salty, fatty, and savory); and to identify predictors of appetite and craving in CD remission. Methods 30 CD patients, mean age 40.0 yr. (range 17–70), mean BMI 32.3 ± 6.4, were prospectively studied before and at a mean of 17.4 mo. after remission. At each visit fasting and post-test meal (50% carbohydrate, 35% protein, 15% fat) appetite and craving scores were assessed. Results Remission decreased prospective consumption, sweet and savory craving (pappetite regulation due to abdominal fat mass and circulating cortisol could play a role in the cardiovascular and metabolic risk that has been reported in CD patients despite remission. PMID:26496766
Mecawi, André S; Araujo, Iracema G; Rocha, Fábio F; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Reis, Luís C
We investigated the influence of captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) treatment during pregnancy and lactation period on hydromineral balance of the male adult offspring, particularly, concerning thirst and sodium appetite. We did not observe significant alterations in basal hydromineral (water intake, 0.3M NaCl intake, volume and sodium urinary concentration) or cardiovascular parameters in adult male rats perinatally treated with captopril compared to controls. However, male offspring rats that perinatally exposed to captopril showed a significant attenuation in water intake induced by osmotic stimulation, extracellular dehydration and beta-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, captopril treatment during perinatal period decreased the salt appetite induced by sodium depletion. This treatment also attenuated thirst and sodium appetite aroused during inhibition of peripheral angiotensin II generation raised by low concentration of captopril in the adult offspring. Interestingly, perinatal exposure to captopril did not alter water or salt intake induced by i.c.v. administration of angiotensin I or angiotensin II. These results showed that chronic inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme during pregnancy and lactation modifies the regulation of induced thirst and sodium appetite in adulthood.
Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student…
Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T
The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brunger, Louise; Smith, Adam; Re, Roberta; Wickham, Martin; Philippides, Andrew; Watten, Phil; Yeomans, Martin R
The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77 kcal) and high energy (HE: 274 kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit
PURPOSE: Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short......-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one...... of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard...
Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; Corrigan, Michelle; O'Shea, Donal
The purpose of this study was to identify the breads most commonly consumed by adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and then examine the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses that these breads elicit. One hundred people with T2DM were surveyed to identify the varieties of bread they most frequently consumed. According to a randomized crossover design, 11 fasting participants with T2DM consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate from 4 breads. Glucose and insulin concentrations and appetite ratings were determined over 270 minutes. Three commonly consumed varieties (white, whole wheat buttermilk, whole grain) identified in the survey-plus a lower-glycemic-index "control" bread (pumpernickel rye)-were tested in the second phase. Despite perceived differences between "brown" and "white" breads, the white, whole wheat buttermilk, and wholegrain breads promoted similar glycemic and insulinemic responses. Pumpernickel bread resulted in a significantly lower peak glucose (P breads and a lower peak insulin (P bread. Similar appetite responses were found with all 4 breads. Adults with T2DM are choosing a variety of breads with perceived differential effects on glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses. Appreciable benefits, however, are not conferred by the commonly consumed breads. If breads known to promote favorable metabolic responses are unavailable, the primary emphasis in education should be placed on portion control. Conveying this information to patients is crucial if nutrition education is to achieve its aim of empowering individuals to manage their diabetes through their food choices.
Fetissov, Sergueï O
The life of all animals is dominated by alternating feelings of hunger and satiety - the main involuntary motivations for feeding-related behaviour. Gut bacteria depend fully on their host for providing the nutrients necessary for their growth. The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. The current model of appetite control is based mainly on gut-brain signalling and the animal's own needs to maintain energy homeostasis; an alternative model might also involve bacteria-host communications. Several bacterial components and metabolites have been shown to stimulate intestinal satiety pathways; at the same time, their production depends on bacterial growth cycles. This short-term bacterial growth-linked modulation of intestinal satiety can be coupled with long-term regulation of appetite, controlled by the neuropeptidergic circuitry in the hypothalamus. Indeed, several bacterial products are detected in the systemic circulation, which might act directly on hypothalamic neurons. This Review analyses the data relevant to possible involvement of the gut bacteria in the regulation of host appetite and proposes an integrative homeostatic model of appetite control that includes energy needs of both the host and its gut bacteria.
Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Battaglia, F.P.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.
To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioral screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD) mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between
Gómez Escribano, Laura; Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Antonio R; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto
Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses. In conclusion, it can be shown that exercise leads to changes in appetite, hunger, and energy intake. In addition, exercise decreases the ghrelin levels and increases concentrations of leptin. Likewise, it is shown how physical exercise alters the responses of certain neuronal regions after visualizing specific food elements decreasing so the appetite or the intake of them. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chiu, Y.C.; Cools, R.; Aron, A.R.
Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies
Schlinkert, Caroline; Koole, Sander L
People can use inhibitory control to temporarily inhibit their personal preferences to achieve their long-term goals. According to the ego fixation model (Koole et al., 2014), ruminators have difficulties relaxing inhibitory control, leading them to continue inhibiting their personal needs, even when this is no longer required by the situation. Inhibitory control may thus disrupt healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. Among 324 Dutch undergraduate students (218 women; M age = 21.5), different inhibitory control states were manipulated by varying whether or not participants exerted inhibitory control (Study 1) or priming high versus low inhibitory control (Study 2). All participants then performed a food-tasting task. Healthy appetite regulation was defined as a positive correlation between level of food deprivation and preference for high-calorie foods. For taste ratings, the interaction between inhibitory control and rumination was significant in each study: Inhibitory control disrupted healthy appetite regulation in taste preferences among ruminators, but not among non-ruminators. For eating behavior, the same interaction effect was significant when the two studies were combined. Inhibitory control disrupts healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. These findings suggest the need for caution in interventions that rely on inhibitory control, especially among samples with compulsive thought tendencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ma, Ili; Mies, Gabry W; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Scheres, Anouk
Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation. This study integrates both. Youths (aged 9 to 17 years) with ADHD (n = 37, 25 boys) and typically-developing controls (n = 38, 20 boys) completed a Stroop task using appetitive words and matched neutral words to assess whether appetitive distractors diminished interference control more in youths with ADHD than controls. In order to test for specificity, aversive words were also included. As expected, appetitive words disrupted interference control but this effect was not stronger for youths with ADHD than the controls. Aversive words, on the other hand, facilitated interference control. Dimensional analyses revealed that this facilitation effect increased substantially as a function of ADHD symptom severity. Possible mechanisms for this effect include up-regulation of interference control as a function of induced negative mood, or as a function of increased effort. In conclusion, appetitive words do not lead to worse interference control in youths with ADHD compared with controls. Interference control was modulated in a valence-specific manner, concurrent with mood-induced effects on cognitive control.
Bilman, Els; Kleef, van Ellen; Trijp, van Hans
Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to
Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Barnett, Kimberly A; Stevens, Kimberly S
Research examining effects of visual food cues on appetite-related brain processes and eating behavior has proliferated. Recently investigators have developed food image databases for use across experimental studies examining appetite and eating behavior. The food-pics image database represents a standardized, freely available image library originally validated in a large sample primarily comprised of adults. The suitability of the images for use with adolescents has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the food-pics image library for appetite and eating research with adolescents. Three hundred and seven adolescents (ages 12-17) provided ratings of recognizability, palatability, and desire to eat, for images from the food-pics database. Moreover, participants rated the caloric content (high vs. low) and healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy) of each image. Adolescents rated approximately 75% of the food images as recognizable. Approximately 65% of recognizable images were correctly categorized as high vs. low calorie and 63% were correctly classified as healthy vs. unhealthy in 80% or more of image ratings. These results suggest that a smaller subset of the food-pics image database is appropriate for use with adolescents. With some modifications to included images, the food-pics image database appears to be appropriate for use in experimental appetite and eating-related research conducted with adolescents. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of acute bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise of differing durations on subjective appetite, food intake and appetite-associated hormones in endurance-trained males. Twelve endurance-trained males (age = 21 ± 2 years; BMI = 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ; VO 2max = 61.6 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min) completed four trials, within a maximum 28 day period, in a counterbalanced order: resting (REST); 15 min exercise bout (15-min); 30 min exercise bout (30-min) and 45 min exercise bout (45-min). All exercise was completed on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of ~76% VO 2max Sixty minutes post exercise, participants consumed an ad libitum meal. Measures of subjective appetite and blood samples were obtained throughout the morning, with plasma analyzed for acylated ghrelin, total polypeptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations. The following results were obtained: Neither subjective appetite nor absolute food intake differed between trials. Relative energy intake (intake - expenditure) was significantly greater after REST (2641 ± 1616 kJ) compared with both 30-min (1039 ± 1520 kJ) and 45-min (260 ± 1731 kJ), and significantly greater after 15-min (2699 ± 1239 kJ) compared with 45-min (condition main effect, P exercise in 30-min and 45-min, respectively (condition × time interaction, P exercise trials (condition × time interaction, P = 0.011); the greatest, most enduring suppression, was observed in 45-min. PYY concentration was unchanged with exercise. In conclusion, high-intensity aerobic cycling lasting up to 45 min did not suppress subjective appetite or affect absolute food intake, but did reduce relative energy intake, in well-trained endurance athletes. Findings question the role of appetite hormones in regulating subjective appetite in the acute post-exercise period. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.
Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail
Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of 'pressure' and 'restriction', reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of 'pressure' and 'restriction', adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. 'Pressure' was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29-2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47-0.75). 'Restriction' was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13-2.04). Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail
Background and objective: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and methods: Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. Results: ‘Pressure’ was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29–2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47–0.75). ‘Restriction’ was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09–1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18–3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13–2.04). Conclusion: Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve
Hankir, Mohammed K; Patt, Marianne; Patt, Jörg T W; Becker, Georg A; Rullmann, Michael; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schischke, Kristin; Seyfried, Florian; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K
Brain μ-opioid receptors (MORs) stimulate high-fat (HF) feeding and have been implicated in the distinct long term outcomes on body weight of bariatric surgery and dieting. Whether alterations in fat appetite specifically following these disparate weight loss interventions relate to changes in brain MOR signaling is unknown. To address this issue, diet-induced obese male rats underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgeries. Postoperatively, animals were placed on a two-choice diet consisting of low-fat (LF) and HF food and sham-operated rats were further split into ad libitum fed (Sham-LF/HF) and body weight-matched (Sham-BWM) to RYGB groups. An additional set of sham-operated rats always only on a LF diet (Sham-LF) served as lean controls, making four experimental groups in total. Corresponding to a stage of weight loss maintenance for RYGB rats, two-bottle fat preference tests in conjunction with small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with the selective MOR radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil were performed. Brains were subsequently collected and MOR protein levels in the hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex were analyzed by Western Blot. We found that only the RYGB group presented with intervention-specific changes: having markedly suppressed intake and preference for high concentration fat emulsions, a widespread reduction in [ 11 C]carfentanil binding potential (reflecting MOR availability) in various brain regions, and a downregulation of striatal and prefrontal MOR protein levels compared to the remaining groups. These findings suggest that the suppressed fat appetite caused by RYGB surgery is due to reduced brain MOR signaling, which may contribute to sustained weight loss unlike the case for dieting.
Full Text Available Velimir Altabas, Vanja Zjačić-Rotkvić Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, “Mladen Sekso”, Clinic for Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center “Sestre milosrdnice”, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: Obesity is a medical condition caused by accumulated excess body fat with negative impact on patients' health, including decreased life expectancy. It has become a major health problem in most developed and developing countries, since the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled during the last 30 years. Consequently, novel treatments focusing on obesity are being investigated. Potential targets include several pathophysiological mechanisms involved in appetite control affecting multiple organ systems, like adipose tissue; some cell types in the stomach and gut; pancreas; thyroid gland; several hypothalamic areas; and centers located in the brainstem. One of the most important orexigenic neuropeptides is ghrelin, which is produced and secreted primarily by ghrelin cells located in the stomach and duodenum. In humans, plasma ghrelin levels rise when the stomach is empty and fall shortly after meal ingestion. In fat tissue, ghrelin increases fat storage. In the brain, it exerts its orexigenic action through activation of NPY/AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus. From the pharmacological point of view, it seems that opposing ghrelin activity could be used as a therapeutic principle in treating obesity. The principal idea of antiobesity drugs is to augment anorexigenic and lipolytic signaling, or to block orexigenic and lipogenic mediators. Recent studies have shown that therapeutic vaccines could be a new approach in the development of antiobesity medications. A vaccine should provoke an immune response to a specific causal factor for a particular disease. Several types of anti-ghrelin vaccines have been developed so far, with significant immune response in terms of rising anti-ghrelin antibodies. However, in the
Full Text Available Introduction: Bread is the staple food of most Muslims and can be considered to be a component with a remarkable effect on satiety and appetite during Ramadan fasting. This study aimed to present the recent advances in investigating the effect of different types of bread and enrichments on satiety and appetite. Methods: In this paper, articles focusing on the effect of various bread types (including enriched bread on satiety and appetite, particularly during fasting were reviewed. Articles were found in databases such as ISI, PubMed and Google Scholar. Results: Different bread types with lower glycemic index are recommended for Ramadan fasting, especially for the Sahur meal, due to better satiety and sglycemic control. In addition, fermentable dietary fibers, such as arabinoxylans, β-glucan, fructans, and resistant starch, can influence appetite through fermentation in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria and gastrointestinal tract releasing hormones changes. Consumption of wholemeal bread results in the moderation of satiety and starvation. Barely, oat and rye breads demonstrate the better improvement of satiety compared to white wheat bread due to their higher fiber content, probiotic ingredients and steadier glycemia. On the other hand, use of protein-rich breads can result in delayed gastric emptying, steadier insulin levels and higher satiety. Beta-glucan enrichment shows similar significant results in terms of reducing hunger and increasing satiety by influencing the appetite and satiety and regulating hormones such as insulin, ghrelin and PYY. Fiber enrichment and probiotics (Fructo-oligosaccharides/Inulin could also be considered in this regard. Conclusion: During Ramadan fasting, barley bread, oat bread and wholegrain wheat bread could be suggested as the preferred bread types to be incorporated into the main meals to improve satiety and decrease hunger feeling.
Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P 0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mizunami, Makoto; Unoki, Sae; Mori, Yasuhiro; Hirashima, Daisuke; Hatano, Ai; Matsumoto, Yukihisa
In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. However, the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in memory recall have remained unclear. We studied the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in olfactory and visual conditioning in crickets. We found that pharmacological blockade of octopamine and dopamine receptors impaired aversive memory recall and appetitive memory recall, respectively, thereby suggesting that activation of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and the resulting release of octopamine and dopamine are needed for appetitive and aversive memory recall, respectively. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are formed by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. The former is called 'stimulus-response connection' and the latter is called 'stimulus-stimulus connection' by theorists studying classical conditioning in higher vertebrates. Our model predicts that pharmacological blockade of octopamine or dopamine receptors during the first stage of second-order conditioning does not impair second-order conditioning, because it impairs the formation of the stimulus-response connection but not the stimulus-stimulus connection. The results of our study with a cross-modal second-order conditioning were in full accordance with this prediction. We suggest that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of two kinds of memory
Beard, Courtney; Sawyer, Alice T; Hofmann, Stefan G
Attention bias modification (ABM) protocols aim to modify attentional biases underlying many forms of pathology. Our objective was to conduct an effect size analysis of ABM across a wide range of samples and psychological problems. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycInfo, and author searches to identify randomized studies that examined the effects of ABM on attention and subjective experiences. We identified 37 studies (41 experiments) totaling 2,135 participants who were randomized to training toward neutral, positive, threat, or appetitive stimuli or to a control condition. The effect size estimate for changes in attentional bias was large for the neutral versus threat comparisons (g=1.06), neutral versus appetitive (g=1.41), and neutral versus control comparisons (g=0.80), and small for positive versus control (g=0.24). The effects of ABM on attention bias were moderated by stimulus type (words vs. pictures) and sample characteristics (healthy vs. high symptomatology). Effect sizes of ABM on subjective experiences ranged from 0.03 to 0.60 for postchallenge outcomes, -0.31 to 0.51 for posttreatment, and were moderated by number of training sessions, stimulus type, and stimulus orientation (top/bottom vs. left/right). Fail-safe N calculations suggested that the effect size estimates were robust for the training effects on attentional biases, but not for the effect on subjective experiences. ABM studies using threat stimuli produced significant effects on attention bias across comparison conditions, whereas appetitive stimuli produced changes in attention only when comparing appetitive versus neutral conditions. ABM has a moderate and robust effect on attention bias when using threat stimuli. Further studies are needed to determine whether these effects are also robust when using appetitive stimuli and for affecting subjective experiences. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A
The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.
Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård
Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.
ALAJMI, NAWAL; DEIGHTON, KEVIN; KING, JAMES A.; REISCHAK-OLIVEIRA, ALVARO; WASSE, LUCY K.; JONES, JENNY; BATTERHAM, RACHEL L.; STENSEL, DAVID J.
ABSTRACT Purpose To explore whether compensatory responses to acute energy deficits induced by exercise or diet differ by sex. Methods In experiment one, 12 healthy women completed three 9-h trials (control, exercise-induced (Ex-Def) and food restriction–induced energy deficit (Food-Def)) with identical energy deficits being imposed in the Ex-Def (90-min run, ∼70% of V˙O2max) and Food-Def trials. In experiment two, 10 men and 10 women completed two 7-h trials (control and exercise). Sixty minutes of running (∼70% of V˙O2max) was performed at the beginning of the exercise trial. The participants rested throughout the remainder of the exercise trial and during the control trial. Appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gut hormones, and ad libitum energy intake were assessed during main trials. Results In experiment one, an energy deficit of approximately 3500 kJ induced via food restriction increased appetite and food intake. These changes corresponded with heightened concentrations of plasma acylated ghrelin and lower peptide YY3–36. None of these compensatory responses were apparent when an equivalent energy deficit was induced by exercise. In experiment two, appetite ratings and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower in exercise than in control, but energy intake did not differ between trials. The appetite, acylated ghrelin, and energy intake response to exercise did not differ between men and women. Conclusions Women exhibit compensatory appetite, gut hormone, and food intake responses to acute energy restriction but not in response to an acute bout of exercise. Additionally, men and women seem to exhibit similar acylated ghrelin and PYY3–36 responses to exercise-induced energy deficits. These findings advance understanding regarding the interaction between exercise and energy homeostasis in women. PMID:26465216
Fu, Yiling; Vallon, Volker
An increase in renal sodium chloride (salt) retention and an increase in sodium appetite is the body's response to salt restriction or depletion in order to restore salt balance. Renal salt retention and increased sodium appetite can also be maladaptive and sustain the pathophysiology in conditions like salt-sensitive hypertension and chronic heart failure. Here we review the central role of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in both the increase in renal salt reabsorption and sodium appetite. We discuss the working hypothesis that aldosterone activates similar signaling and effector mechanisms in the kidney and brain, including the mineralocorticoid receptor, the serum-and-glucocorticoid-induced kinase SGK1, the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, and the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. The latter also mediates the gustatory salt sensing in the tongue, which is required for the manifestation of increased salt intake. Effects of aldosterone on both brain and kidney synergize with the effects of angiotensin II. Thus, mineralocorticoids appear to induce similar molecular pathways in the kidney, brain, and possibly tongue, which could provide opportunities for more effective therapeutic interventions. Inhibition of renal salt reabsorption is compensated by stimulation of salt appetite and vice versa; targeting both mechanisms should be more effective. Inhibiting the arousal to consume salty food may improve a patient's compliance to reducing salt intake. While a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is needed and will provide new options, current pharmacological interventions that target both salt retention and sodium appetite include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and potentially inhibitors of angiotensin II and ENaC. PMID:25376899
Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein
Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Giebel, Gilda; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas
Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness.
Full Text Available Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier's experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the “warrior” was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness.
Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J
In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Yi-Chen; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan
This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of appetite for mortality among representative free-living Taiwanese older adults. A total of 1856 participants aged 65 years or over from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey during 1999-2000 completed an appetite question in a larger questionnaire. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview at baseline, together with a 24-hour dietary recall and simplified food frequency questionnaire which provided a dietary diversity score and food intake frequency. Survivorship was ascertained from the Death Registry until December 31, 2008. Participants with a poor appetite had lower dietary diversity scores (DDS) and intake frequencies of meat, fish and sea food, egg, vegetable and fruit intake, along with lower energy, protein, vitamin B-1, niacin, iron and phosphate intakes. Those who had fair and poor appetites had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to those with good appetite, with hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.28 (1.03-1.58) and 2.27 (1.71-3.02), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, the HRs (95% CI) were 1.05 (0.83-1.33) and 1.50 (1.03-2.18), respectively. With further adjustment for DDS or general health these HRs became non-significant. The joint HR (95% CI) for "DDS ≤ 4 and poor appetite" was 1.77 (1.04-3.00) compared to "DDS > 4 and good appetite" as referent. Poor appetite is associated with lower food and nutrient intakes and an independent risk for mortality in older Taiwanese. In conclusion, appetite is separate, mediated by general health and modulated by dietary quality in its predictive capacity for mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein
A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klasko, Lynne; Davis, Stacy N.; Gwede, Clement K.; Wells, Kristen J.; Kumar, Ambuj; Lopez, Natalia; Meade, Cathy D.
Little is known about how social media are used in cancer care. We conducted a systematic review of the use and taxonomy of social media in cancer-related studies, in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. We located 1350 articles published through October 2013; 69 met study inclusion criteria. Early research (1996–2007) was predominantly descriptive studies of online forums. Later, researchers began analyzing blogs, videos shared on YouTube, and social networking sites. Most studies (n = 62) were descriptive, and only 7 reported intervention studies published since 2010. Future research should include more intervention studies to determine how social media can influence behavior, and more empirical research is needed on how social media may be used to reduce health disparities. PMID:24832403
Abbott, Linda; Hooke, Mary Catherine
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) occurs in most people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Physical activity (PA) is safe and effective in reducing CRF in people with cancer. . This project involved the implementation and evaluation of a three-month PA program to maintain or improve CRF and quality of life. . Activity trackers and resistance bands were provided to participants. Verbal instruction, printed material, activity videos, and text messages were used in this program. Participants completed a fatigue assessment; self-reported PA measure; and measure of attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about sustaining regular PA pre- and postimplementation. . 51 patients enrolled in the study, and 39 completed the program. Participants' fatigue did not worsen significantly during the three months, and self-reported activity levels increased, but not significantly. The activity tracker, text messages, and personal connection with nursing staff were reported to be helpful.
Lazennec, Gwendal; Richmond, Ann
Chemokines are involved in cellular interactions and tropism in situations frequently associated with inflammation. Recently, the importance of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation associated with carcinogenesis has been highlighted. Increasing evidence suggests that chemokines are produced by tumor cells as well as by cells of the tumor microenvironment including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and more recently tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs). In addition to affecting tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis, chemokines also seem to modulate senescence and cell survival. Here, we review recent progress on the roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in cancer-related inflammation, and discuss the mechanisms underlying chemokine action in cancer that might facilitate the development of novel therapies in the future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colotta, Francesco; Allavena, Paola; Sica, Antonio; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto
Inflammatory conditions in selected organs increase the risk of cancer. An inflammatory component is present also in the microenvironment of tumors that are not epidemiologically related to inflammation. Recent studies have begun to unravel molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, smoldering inflammation contributes to proliferation and survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, metastasis, subversion of adaptive immunity, reduced response to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that an additional mechanism involved in cancer-related inflammation (CRI) is induction of genetic instability by inflammatory mediators, leading to accumulation of random genetic alterations in cancer cells. In a seminal contribution, Hanahan and Weinberg [(2000) Cell, 100, 57-70] identified the six hallmarks of cancer. We surmise that CRI represents the seventh hallmark.
Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K
The direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) phenomenon has received attention because of its attempt to reach out to consumers by bypassing important gatekeepers such as physicians. The emergence of new information platforms and the introduction of genetic tests directly to the consumer have heightened the concern with DTCA and its potential consequences. These effects of DTCA are particularly important given the communication inequalities among social groups, with class, race and ethnicity influencing how people access, seek, process and act on information. This Science and Society article reviews the major issues regarding general and cancer-related DTCA and also offers data from a national survey in the United States as an example of the communication inequalities in genetic testing awareness.
Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A
This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Sclafani, A; Koopmans, H S; Vasselli, J R; Reichman, M
Jejunoileal bypass surgery or sham surgery was performed in female rats made obese with ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) knife cuts, and in lean control rats. After bypass surgery, the VMH rats underate and lost weight until they reached the body weight of the control sham rats, and they then maintained their weight at control levels. Bypass surgery in lean rats produced much smaller reductions in food intake and body weight. Both bypass groups initially consumed less of a sucrose solution and milk diet during 1 h/day tests, but their intakes returned to near normal levels during the second postoperative month. Reconnection of the intestinal tract in the VMH-bypass rats led to renewed hyperphagia and return to obese body weights. A second experiment revealed that bypass surgery reduces food intake and body weight in genetically obese (fatty) rats, but this effect is not as pronounced as that displayed by VMH rats. These results confirm recent clinical observations that reduced appetite and caloric intake are the major causes of the weight loss produced by intestinal bypass surgery.
Bellizzi, Keith M; Blank, Thomas O
Despite a shift in the cancer culture and language used to describe individuals diagnosed with this disease, the extent to which individuals with cancer adopt a particular cancer-related identity and the impact of these identities in relation to their well-being is virtually unknown. Using a cross-sectional study design and a metropolitan tumor registry, a mail questionnaire to examine post-treatment quality of life was sent to prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. The sample consisted of 490 PCa survivors, ranging in age from 49-88 (M = 69.7; SD = 7.8), one to eight years after diagnosis. The outcome measure used in these analyses was the PANAS to assess positive and negative affect. The most frequently reported cancer-related identity was "someone who has had PCa" (57%). The least reported self view was "victim" (1%). Twenty-six percent of men self-identified as "survivors" while 6% thought of themselves as "cancer conquerors." Only 9% self-identified as a "patient." Multivariate analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, show respondents who identified themselves as "survivors" or "cancer conquerors" reported significantly higher scores on positive affect than men who self-identified as "patients" (p < .001). Although the majority of respondents identified themselves as "someone who has had cancer," identifying as a "survivor" or "someone who has conquered cancer" appears to have adaptive value for positive mood. Those who perceive themselves as survivors of prostate cancer may derive some benefit in well-being associated with this self assessment.
Full Text Available Breast-cancer-related lymphedema is a significant morbidity mostly observed following primary treatments for breast cancer (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy (1. Multiple complications might accompany lymphedema including cosmetic deformity, psychological disorders, consistent pain, and consequently decreased quality of life. Treatment mostly focuses on reducing edema and its subsequent pain; however, no definite treatment has been hitherto introduced (2. Surgical approaches in the management of lymphedema are efficient including physiologic methods (e.g. flap interposition, lymph transfer, and lymphatic bypass and reductive techniques (e.g. liposuction (3. While the former mostly targets at reducing lymphedema through restoring lymphatic drainage, the latter aims at removing fibrofatty tissues which contribute to lymph stasis. Microsurgical variation of lymphatic bypass has gained popularity, in which the accumulated lymph in the lymphedematous limb is redirected. Non-surgical approaches are also practiced in most cases. Comprehensive decongestive therapy, consisting of skin care, exercise, special bandaging and massage, is the most frequently used non-surgical approach efficacy of which could be enhanced in combination with self-management strategies (4. Recently newer techniques have been introduced to tackle lymphedema and its associated pain. Manual lymph drainage, stellate ganglion block, acupuncture, deep oscillation, and pneumatic compression have been efficiently used in several studies. Moreover, significant short-term progress has been reported following other modalities such as low-level laser therapy (5. The complexity of breast-cancer-related lymphedema and its complications necessitates a multidisciplinary approach with the primary goal of easing the burden of the disease on the breast cancer patients. In addition, developing special guidelines encompassing these multidisciplinary approaches and providing educational and
Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) impacts memory, attention, concentration, language, multi-tasking, and organizational skills and decreases participation and quality of life for cancer survivors. The objectives of this article are: (1) to outline the neuroscience of CRCD, its risk factors, and its effect on participation; and (2) to identify and summarize the literature on rehabilitation interventions and coping techniques for CRCD in cancer survivors. A scoping review of articles cited in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and CINAHL was performed. To be included, articles must have been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal between 1996 and 2014, written in English, and included a quantitative or qualitative non-pharmacological study of interventions and/or coping strategies for adult cancer survivors experiencing CRCD. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria for final review. Six studies tested the efficacy of rehabilitation treatments on CRCD. Three involved cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), while three tested neuropsychological and/or cognitive training interventions. Four qualitative studies investigated coping strategies used by survivors with CRCD. CBT-based treatments and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most commonly-reported coping strategy is utilization of assistive technology and memory aids. Further research is needed about efficacious rehabilitation techniques for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) may impact up to 50% of cancer survivors. CRCD can significantly decrease participation and quality of life during survivorship. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most common coping strategy reported by cancer survivors with CRCD is the use of assistive technology and memory aids.
Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A
Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars
Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children's weight gain. To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4-8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2% attendance; 82.0% consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained weight and fat mass more rapidly during follow-up. Each SD increase in genetic risk score was
Full Text Available Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health.Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003% either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2 or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2. A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre and after the confinement (Post to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests.While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01 following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01. At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01 and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03. Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01 at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01. No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05.These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does not alter hormonal appetite regulation but
Alfheeaid, Hani; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Năstase, Ana-Maria; Elhauge, Mie; Cochrane, Barbara; Malkova, Dalia
Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24.3 ± 5.1 years; BMI: 22.4 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized, crossover design study. Each participant conducted two (PKU and Control) experimental trials which involved consumption of a PKU type meal and protein substitute drink or an isocaloric and weight matched ordinary meal and protein-enriched milk. Appetite, metabolic rate, fat oxidation measurements and blood collections were conducted for the duration of 300 min. On the completion of the measurements ad libitum buffet dinner was served. Responses of appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY (P > 0.05, trial effect, two-way ANOVA) and energy intake during ad libitum buffet dinner (P > 0.05, paired t-test) were not significantly different between the two trials. The TEF (PKU, 10.2 ± 1.5%; Control, 13.2 ± 1.0%) and the total amount of fat oxidized (PKU, 18.90 ± 1.10 g; Control, 22.10 ± 1.10 g) were significantly (P meal period. Consumption of a meal composed of special low protein foods has no detrimental impact on appetite and appetite hormones but produces a lower TEF and postprandial fat oxidation than an ordinary meal. These metabolic alterations may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity reported in patients with PKU on contemporary dietary management. The trial has been registered in ClinicalTrials as NCT02440932. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Debevec, Tadej; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B
Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003%) either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2)) or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2)). A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre) and after the confinement (Post) to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01) following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01). At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01) and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03). Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01) at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01). No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05). These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does not alter hormonal appetite regulation but can
Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig
to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...
Hartmann, A M; Burleson, L E; Holmes, A K; Geist, C R
Kombucha is a lightly fermented tea beverage popularly consumed as a self-prescribed folk-remedy for numerous ailments. Kombucha is claimed to enhance cognition, aid weight loss, and prolong life. This pilot study reports longevity, general health, and open-field exploratory behavioral outcomes from a 3-y longitudinal study of 64 C57-BL/6 mice (males and females), half of which chronically drank kombucha, and all of which experienced natural mortality. Compared by MANOVA to controls, mice that drank kombucha showed greater vertical exploration (P = 0.001) and a sex-interactive effect in novel object manipulation (P = 0.049). MANOVA of kombucha-drinking mice compared to controls detected differences in appetitive behaviors (food consumption, P kombucha lived longer than controls (P kombucha.
Sprod, Lisa K; Fernandez, Isabel D; Janelsins, Michelle C; Peppone, Luke J; Atkins, James N; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M
Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥60years of age), between 2months and 2years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (peffective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Qin; Huang, Guoyuan; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiangdong; Li, Na; Sun, Shunli; Zhou, Tang; Wu, Nana; Wei, Yuqin; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru
Abstract Background: “Living High-Training Low” (LHTL) is effective for the improvement of athletic ability; however, little is known about the effect of LHTL on obese individuals. The present study determined whether LHTL would have favorable influence on body composition, rebalance the appetite hormones, and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: Adolescents with obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to “Living Low-Training Low” (LLTL, n = 19) group that slept in a normobaric normoxia condition and the LHTL (n = 16) group slept in a normobaric hypoxia room (14.7% PO2 ∼2700 m). Both groups underwent the same aerobic exercise training program. Morphological, blood lipids, and appetite hormones were measured and assessed. Results: After the intervention, the body composition improved in both groups, whereas reductions in body weight (BW), BMI, and lean body mass increased significantly in the LHTL group (all, P weight loss safely and efficiently as compared to LLTL and increase the plasma GLP-1 levels that may be mediated by IL-6 to rebalance the appetite. Thus, an efficient method to treat obesity and prevent weight regain by appetite rebalance in hypoxia condition was established. PMID:29465583
Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB α vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.
Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Georg
Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul
and methods. Ten participants were investigated on four occasions. On one alcohol was ingested; on another alcohol was given after pretreatment with sucralfate; on a third water was ingested; and on a fourth sucralfate was ingested followed by water. Serum hormones and ethanol concentrations were determined......Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...
Sarapas, Casey; Katz, Andrea C; Nelson, Brady D; Campbell, Miranda L; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Robison-Andrew, E Jenna; Altman, Sarah E; Gorka, Stephanie M; Shankman, Stewart A
Appetitive and defensive motivation account for a good deal of variance in personality and mental health, but whether individual differences in these systems are correlated or orthogonal has not been conclusively established. Previous investigations have generally relied on self-report and have yielded conflicting results. We therefore assessed the relation between psychophysiological indices of appetitive and defensive motivation during elicitation of these motivational states: specifically, frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry during reward anticipation and startle response during anticipation of predictable or unpredictable threat of shock. Results in a sample of psychopathology-free community members (n=63), an independent sample of undergraduates with a range of internalising symptoms (n=64), and the combination of these samples (n=127) revealed that differences in responding to the two tasks were not significantly correlated. Average coefficients approached zero in all three samples (community: .04, undergraduate: -.01, combined: .06). Implications of these findings for research on normal and abnormal personality are discussed.
Bouton, Mark E
The modern world is saturated with highly palatable and highly available food, providing many opportunities to associate food with environmental cues and actions (through Pavlovian and operant or instrumental learning, respectively). Basic learning processes can often increase the tendency to approach and consume food, whereas extinction, in which Pavlovian and operant behaviors decline when the reinforcer is withheld, weakens but does not erase those tendencies. Contemporary research suggests that extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that appears fragile because it is highly dependent on the context for expression. These ideas are supported by the phenomena of renewal, spontaneous recovery, resurgence, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition in appetitive learning, which together may help explain why overeating may be difficult to suppress permanently, and why appetitive behavior may seem so persistent. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
David, Isabel A; Krutman, Laura; Fernández-Santaella, María Carmen; Andrade, Jéssica R; Andrade, Eduardo B; Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G; Gomes, Fabio S; Gleiser, Sonia; Oliveira, José M; Araújo, Renata L; Volchan, Eliane; Braga, Filipe
The present study aimed to (i) assess the appetitive drives evoked by the visual cues of ultra-processed food and drink products and (ii) investigate whether text warnings reduce appetitive drives and consumers' reported intentions to eat or drink ultra-processed products. In Study I, a well-established psychometric tool was applied to estimate the appetitive drives associated with ultra-processed products using sixty-four image representations. Sixteen product types with four exemplars of a given product were included. Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as controls. The two exemplars of each product type rated as more appetitive were selected for investigation in the second study. Study II assessed the impact of textual warnings on the appetitive drive towards these thirty-two exemplars. Each participant was exposed to two picture exemplars of the same product type preceded by a text warning or a control text. After viewing each displayed picture, the participants reported their emotional reactions and their intention to consume the product. Controlled classroom experiments SUBJECTS: Undergraduate students (Study I: n 215, 135 women; Study II: n 98, 52 women). In Study I, the pictures of ultra-processed products prompted an appetitive motivation associated with the products' nutritional content. In Study II, text warnings were effective in reducing the intention to consume and the appetitive drive evoked by ultra-processed products. This research provides initial evidence favouring the use of text warnings as a public policy tool to curb the powerful influence of highly appetitive ultra-processed food cues.
Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
To investigate the level of anorexia and its correlation with mortality in chronic kidney disease stage 5 patients not yet on dialysis (CKD5-ND) and in those with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis (CKD5-D). In an observational study, self-rated appetite (as part of a subjective global assessment of nutritional status), along with anthropometrics and biochemical markers of nutritional status, was analyzed in relation to survival. In a subgroup of patients, appetite change after start of dialysis was studied prospectively. Two hundred eighty CKD5-ND (40% female; age 54 ± 12 years; glomerular filtration rate 7 ± 2 mL/minute) and 243 CKD5-D patients (116 hemodialysis and 127 peritoneal dialysis [PD]; 44% female; age 54 ± 12 years; dialysis vintage time 12 ± 2 months) who had been on dialysis for about 1 year were studied. CKD5-ND patients with poor appetite (50%) had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, lower body weight and serum creatinine level, and higher C-reactive protein. CKD5-D patients with poor appetite (33%) had impaired subjective global assessment of nutritional status and lower body weight, fat body mass, handgrip strength, hemoglobin, and serum albumin level. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, appetite was not associated with survival difference, whereas in the Cox proportional hazards model with competing risk analysis, poor appetite increased mortality risk in PD patients but not in hemodialysis and CKD5-ND patients. In CKD5-ND patients, self-rated appetite was not an independent predictor of 48-months survival, whereas there was a significant increase in mortality risk in PD patients with poor appetite. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Llewellyn, Clare H; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Plomin, Robert; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane
The behavioral susceptibility model proposes that inherited differences in traits such as appetite confer differential risk of weight gain and contribute to the heritability of weight. Evidence that the FTO gene may influence weight partly through its effects on appetite supports this model, but testing the behavioral pathways for multiple genes with very small effects is not feasible. Twin analyses make it possible to get a broad-based estimate of the extent of shared genetic influence between appetite and weight. The objective was to use multivariate twin analyses to test the hypothesis that associations between appetite and weight are underpinned by shared genetic effects. Data were from Gemini, a population-based birth cohort of twins (n = 4804) born in 2007. Infant weights at 3 mo were taken from the records of health professionals. Appetite was assessed at 3 mo for the milk-feeding period by using the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ), a parent-reported measure of appetite [enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, slowness in eating (SE), satiety responsiveness (SR), and appetite size (AS)]. Multivariate quantitative genetic modeling was used to test for shared genetic influences. Significant correlations were found between all BEBQ traits and weight. Significant shared genetic influence was identified for weight with SE, SR, and AS; genetic correlations were between 0.22 and 0.37. Shared genetic effects explained 41-45% of these phenotypic associations. Differences in weight in infancy may be due partly to genetically determined differences in appetitive traits that confer differential susceptibility to obesogenic environments.
Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....
Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey
This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05).
Lewis, HB; Ahern, AL; Solis-Trapala, I; Walker, CG; Reimann, F; Gribble, FM; Jebb, SA
OBJECTIVE: Larger portion sizes (PS) are associated with greater energy intake (EI), but little evidence exists on the appetitive effects of PS reduction. This study investigated the impact of reducing breakfast PS on subsequent EI, postprandial gastrointestinal hormone responses, and appetite ratings. METHODS: In a randomized crossover design (n = 33 adults; mean BMI 29 kg/m(2) ), a compulsory breakfast was based on 25% of gender-specific estimated daily energy requirements; PS was reduced b...
Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees
Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.
Ichiro N. Maruyama
Full Text Available Because of the relative simplicity of its nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model organism to study learning and memory at cellular and molecular levels. For appetitive conditioning in C. elegans, food has exclusively been used as an unconditioned stimulus (US. It may be difficult to analyze neuronal circuits for associative memory since food is a multimodal combination of olfactory, gustatory, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we report classical appetitive conditioning and associative memory in C. elegans, using 1-nonanol as a conditioned stimulus (CS, and potassium chloride (KCl as a US. Before conditioning, C. elegans innately avoided 1-nonanol, an aversive olfactory stimulus, and was attracted by KCl, an appetitive gustatory stimulus, on assay agar plates. Both massed training without an intertrial interval (ITI and spaced training with a 10-min ITI induced significant levels of memory of association regarding the two chemicals. Memory induced by massed training decayed within 6 h, while that induced by spaced training was retained for more than 6 h. Animals treated with inhibitors of transcription or translation formed the memory induced by spaced training less efficiently than untreated animals, whereas the memory induced by massed training was not significantly affected by such treatments. By definition, therefore, memories induced by massed training and spaced training are classified as short-term memory (STM and long-term memory (LTM, respectively. When animals conditioned by spaced training were exposed to 1-nonanol alone, their learning index was lower than that of untreated animals, suggesting that extinction learning occurs in C. elegans. In support of these results, C. elegans mutants defective in nmr-1, encoding an NMDA receptor subunit, formed both STM and LTM less efficiently than wild-type animals, while mutations in crh-1, encoding a ubiquitous transcription factor CREB required for memory consolidation, affected
Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Yoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 (mean ± SD)] were enrolled. They were asked to watch food or mosaic pictures for 5 min and to close their eyes for 3 min before and after the picture presentation without thinking of anything. Resting brain activities were recorded during two eye-closed sessions. The feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and appetitive motives in the study setting were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. The γ-band power of resting oscillatory brain activities was decreased after the food picture presentation in the right insula [Brodmann's area (BA) 13], the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (BA11), and the left frontal pole (BA10). Significant reductions of the α-band power were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (BA46). Particularly, the feeling of pleasure in eating food was positively correlated with the power decrease in the insula and negatively with that in the DLPFC. The changes in appetitive motives were associated with the power decrease in the frontal pole. These findings suggest automatic brain mechanics whereby changes of the resting brain activity might be associated with positive feeling in dietary life and have an impact on the irresistible appetitive motives through emotional and cognitive brain functions.
Andrade Ana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.
Krop, EM; Hetherington, MM; Nekitsing, C; Miquel, S; Postelnicu, L; Sarkar, A
Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appeti...
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH
Garcia, Frederico D; Coquerel, Quentin; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Cravezic, Aurore; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Kiive, Evelyn; Déchelotte, Pierre; Harro, Jaanus; Fetissov, Sergueï O
Depression and eating disorders are frequently associated, but the molecular pathways responsible for co-occurrence of altered mood, appetite and body weight are not yet fully understood. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has potent antidepressant and orexigenic properties and low central NPY levels have been reported in major depression. In the present study, we hypothesized that in patients with major depression alteration of mood, appetite and body weight may be related to NPY-reactive autoantibodies (autoAbs). To test this hypothesis, we compared plasma levels and affinities of NPY-reactive autoAbs between patients with major depression and healthy controls. Then, to evaluate if changes of NPY autoAb properties can be causally related to altered mood and appetite, we developed central and peripheral passive transfer models of human autoAbs in mice and studied depressive-like behavior in forced-swim test and food intake. We found that plasma levels of NPY IgG autoAbs were lower in patients with moderate but not with mild depression correlating negatively with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores and with immobility time of the forced-swim test in mice after peripheral injection of autoAbs. No significant differences in NPY IgG autoAb affinities between patients with depression and controls were found, but higher affinity of IgG autoAbs for NPY was associated with lower body mass index and prevented NPY-induced orexigenic response in mice after their central injection. These data suggest that changes of plasma levels of anti-NPY autoAbs are relevant to altered mood, while changes of their affinity may participate in altered appetite and body weight in patients with depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W
Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krop, Emma M; Hetherington, Marion M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Miquel, Sophie; Postelnicu, Luminita; Sarkar, Anwesha
Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appetite" and "food intake". A literature search of six databases (Cochrane library, PubMed, Medline, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus), yielded 12161 articles which were reduced to a set of 40 articles using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. A further two articles were excluded from the meta-analysis due to missing relevant data. From the remaining 38 papers, detailing 40 unique studies with 70 subgroups, raw data were extracted for meta-analysis (food intake n = 65, hunger n = 22 and desire to eat ratings n = 15) and analyzed using random effects modelling. Oral processing parameters, such as number of chews, eating rate and texture manipulation, appeared to influence food intake markedly but appetite ratings to a lesser extent. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant effect of the direct and indirect aspects of oral processing that were related to chewing on both self-reported hunger (-0.20 effect size, 95% confidence interval CI: -0.30, -0.11), and food intake (-0.28 effect size, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.19). Although lubrication is an important aspect of oral processing, few studies on its effects on appetite have been conducted. Future experiments using standardized approaches should provide a clearer understanding of the role of oral processing, including both chewing and lubrication, in promoting satiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The present thesis has examined the role of taste, dopamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of the two phases of ingestive behavior: appetitive (approaching and handling of food) and consummatory ingestive behavior (chewing and swallowing). Behavioral studies were performed in male and female rats. THE ROLE OF TASTE: Background. A sweet stimulus loses its pleasantness to humans preloaded with glucose, but not if the subjects are food deprived. Thus, physiologi...
Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.
Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034
A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress.
Mantovani, Giovanni; Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Deiana, Laura
To test the efficacy and safety of an integrated treatment based on a pharmaconutritional support, antioxidants, and drugs, all given orally, in a population of advanced cancer patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. An open early-phase II study was designed according to the Simon two-stage design. The integrated treatment consisted of diet with high polyphenols content (400 mg), antioxidant treatment (300 mg/d alpha-lipoic acid + 2.7 g/d carbocysteine lysine salt + 400 mg/d vitamin E + 30,000 IU/d vitamin A + 500 mg/d vitamin C), and pharmaconutritional support enriched with 2 cans per day (n-3)-PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), 500 mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 200 mg/d selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The treatment duration was 4 months. The following variables were evaluated: (a) clinical (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional [lean body mass (LBM), appetite, and resting energy expenditure]; (c) laboratory [proinflammatory cytokines and leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes]; (d) quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D, and MFSI-SF). From July 2002 to January 2005, 44 patients were enrolled. Of these, 39 completed the treatment and were assessable. Body weight increased significantly from baseline as did LBM and appetite. There was an important decrease of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a negative relationship worthy of note was only found between LBM and IL-6 changes. As for quality of life evaluation, there was a marked improvement in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D(VAS), and multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form scores. At the end of the study, 22 of the 39 patients were "responders" or "high responders." The minimum required was 21; therefore, the
Spasić, Irena; Livsey, Jacqueline; Keane, John A; Nenadić, Goran
This paper reviews the research literature on text mining (TM) with the aim to find out (1) which cancer domains have been the subject of TM efforts, (2) which knowledge resources can support TM of cancer-related information and (3) to what extent systems that rely on knowledge and computational methods can convert text data into useful clinical information. These questions were used to determine the current state of the art in this particular strand of TM and suggest future directions in TM development to support cancer research. A review of the research on TM of cancer-related information was carried out. A literature search was conducted on the Medline database as well as IEEE Xplore and ACM digital libraries to address the interdisciplinary nature of such research. The search results were supplemented with the literature identified through Google Scholar. A range of studies have proven the feasibility of TM for extracting structured information from clinical narratives such as those found in pathology or radiology reports. In this article, we provide a critical overview of the current state of the art for TM related to cancer. The review highlighted a strong bias towards symbolic methods, e.g. named entity recognition (NER) based on dictionary lookup and information extraction (IE) relying on pattern matching. The F-measure of NER ranges between 80% and 90%, while that of IE for simple tasks is in the high 90s. To further improve the performance, TM approaches need to deal effectively with idiosyncrasies of the clinical sublanguage such as non-standard abbreviations as well as a high degree of spelling and grammatical errors. This requires a shift from rule-based methods to machine learning following the success of similar trends in biological applications of TM. Machine learning approaches require large training datasets, but clinical narratives are not readily available for TM research due to privacy and confidentiality concerns. This issue remains the main
Full Text Available Background : Fatigue is the most common and distressing symptom reported by breast cancer survivors and yet the pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue remains largely unknown. Fatigue is associated with lower parasympathetic and higher sympathetic nervous system activity in non-cancer samples, but only one study has demonstrated this same relationship in breast cancer survivors. This study evaluates the relationship between fatigue and basal autonomic nervous system activity as measured by heart rate variability (HRV in a sample of breast cancer survivors. Methods : Women who had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer before the age of 50 were recruited from the UCLA tumor registry and completed psychological questionnaires, including measures of fatigue. A subset of these women (n=30 participated in a follow-up study in which they completed measures of fatigue, energy and mood four times per day for 5 days using electronic diaries, provided 3 days of saliva samples for cortisol assessment and underwent physiological assessment including electrocardiogram (ECG. HRV was assessed via ECG R-R wave spectral and time sequence analysis. Results : Questionnaire measures of fatigue were negatively associated with indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, B= − 3.85, p = 0.04 for RMSSD (root of the mean squared difference of successive normal to normal waves and B= − 76.97, p = 0.04 for LF power % (low-frequency wave power percentage. Daily fatigue was also associated with lower basal HRV, B= − 15.1, p = 0.04 for RMSSD. However, fatigue indices were not associated with sympathetic nervous system activity as measured by low- to high-frequency wave ratio. Of note, fatigue was not associated with average daily cortisol output (AUC. Conclusions : Lower HRV has been associated with increased chronic inflammation, which is elevated in cancer survivors reporting persistent fatigue, thus providing insight into
Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham
A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.
John E. Blundell
Full Text Available A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass (FM], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate, but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.
Suzuki, Keisuke; Simpson, Katherine A; Minnion, James S; Shillito, Joyceline C; Bloom, Stephen R
The World Health Organisation has estimated that by 2015 approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million obese. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, stroke and cancer. The hypothalamus is a crucial region for integrating signals from central and peripheral pathways and plays a major role in appetite regulation. In addition, there are reciprocal connections with the brainstem and higher cortical centres. In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, there are two major neuronal populations which stimulate or inhibit food intake and influence energy homeostasis. Within the brainstem, the dorsal vagal complex plays a role in the interpretation and relaying of peripheral signals. Gut hormones act peripherally to modulate digestion and absorption of nutrients. However, they also act as neurotransmitters within the central nervous system to control food intake. Peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and oxyntomodulin suppress appetite, whilst ghrelin increases appetite through afferent vagal fibres to the caudal brainstem or directly to the hypothalamus. A better understanding of the role of these gut hormones may offer the opportunity to develop successful treatments for obesity. Here we review the current understanding of the role of gut hormones and the hypothalamus on food intake and body weight control.
van den Akker, Karolien; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita
Studies on human appetitive conditioning using food rewards can benefit from including psychophysiological outcome measures. The present study tested whether the skin conductance response can function as a measure of differential responding in an appetitive conditioning paradigm including an acquisition and extinction phase, and examined which time window during a trial is most sensitive to conditioning effects. As a secondary aim, the effects of ambiguous vs. non-ambiguous contingency instructions on conditioned responses (skin conductance responses, US expectancies, chocolate desires, and CS evaluations) were assessed. Results indicated differential skin conductance responses in an anticipatory time window and during unexpected omission of the US in early extinction. Interestingly however, anticipatory responses were only found for participants who received ambiguous contingency instructions - possibly indicating a call for additional processing resources in response to the ambiguous CS+. Further, ambiguous instructions slowed the extinction of US expectancies but did not influence chocolate desires and CS evaluations. It is concluded that skin conductance can function as a sensitive measure of differential responding in appetitive conditioning, though its sensitivity might depend on the specific task context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hill, A J; Blundell, J E
The sensitivity of the appetite system of a group of obese individuals was assessed in response to two challenges known to reduce hunger and enhance satiety in lean people. The challenges were the presentation of a caloric (high protein) load and the activation of serotonin systems. Eight obese female adults (BMI = 38) received 2 X 15 mg d-fenfluramine or placebo daily for 3 days, the study conforming to a 2 X 2 factor (drug X lunch type), double blind, repeated measures design. Three hours after dosing on day 3 they ate either a high carbohydrate (63 percent of total energy) or high protein (54 percent) lunchtime meal (the caloric load). These fixed meal challenges were equal in energy (475 kcal), weight and fat content. Ratings of hunger motivation and food preferences were tracked over the course of lunch and for a further 3 hours, at which point subjects returned for a self-selection test meal. Intakes from this second open meal revealed significant main effects of both caloric load and drug on energy intake, with the high protein d-fenfluramine combination being the most potent anorectic pairing. These findings were supported by the profiles of hunger motivation. This study has confirmed that the appetite system of these subjects was responsive to these biologically relevant challenges. The results suggest that the combination of an appetite modulating drug with specific dietary intervention may represent an effective strategy for the management of hunger arising from caloric restriction.
Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando
the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Tremblay, Angelo; Doyon, Caroline; Sanchez, Marina
Recent data support the idea that regular yogurt consumption promotes body weight stability. The simplest explanation is that regular consumption of healthful foods such as yogurt results in decreased intake of less healthful foods containing high amounts of fat and/or sugar. There is also evidence to suggest that the high calcium and protein contents of yogurt and other dairy foods influence appetite and energy intake. The existence of a calcium-specific appetite control mechanism has been proposed. Milk proteins differ in terms of absorption rate and post-absorptive responses, which can influence their satiating properties. Studies in humans have shown that consumption of milk and yogurt increases the circulating concentration of the anorectic peptides glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY). The food matrix can also affect appetite and satiety. Yogurt is a fermented milk that contains bacteria that enrich the microbiota of the host. It appears that lean vs obese humans differ in the composition of their gut microbiota. The available relevant literature suggests that yogurt is a food that facilitates the regulation of energy balance. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Young, Valerie; Balaam, Sarah; Orazio, Linda; Bates, Annerley; Badve, Sunil V; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L
Sub-optimal nutrition status is common amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to poor clinical outcome. This population experiences multi-factorial challenges to achieving optimal nutritional status, particularly driven by inadequate intake. The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with inadequate protein intake and sub-optimal nutritional status in patients undergoing PD. This was a cross-sectional study of 67 adult patients receiving PD (mean age 59 ± 14 years; 57% male) within a single centre. Participants were consecutively recruited and interviewed by renal dietitians, collecting: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); quality of life (using EQ-5D); dietary intake (via dietary interview); and appetite (using Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool). Participant demographics were obtained via survey or medical charts. Main outcome measures were inadequate dietary protein intake (anorexia) was reported in 62% (18/29) of participants with inadequate protein malnourished patients reported anorexia versus 12 (23%) of the well-nourished patients (p = 0.0001). Anorexia was a key risk factor for inadequate protein intake and malnutrition in patients undergoing PD. These findings highlight a need to closely monitor patients with appetite disturbances. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Golob, Edward J; Taube, Jeffrey S
Tasks using appetitive reinforcers show that following disorientation rats use the shape of an arena to reorient, and cannot distinguish two geometrically similar corners to obtain a reward, despite the presence of a prominent visual cue that provides information to differentiate the two corners. Other studies show that disorientation impairs performance on certain appetitive, but not aversive, tasks. This study evaluated whether rats would make similar geometric errors in a working memory task that used aversive reinforcement. We hypothesized that in a task that used aversive reinforcement rats that were initially disoriented would not reorient by arena shape and thus make similar geometric errors. Tests were performed in a rectangular arena having one polarizing cue. In the appetitive condition water consumption was the reward. The aversive condition was a water maze task with reinforcement provided by escape to a hidden platform. In the aversive condition rats returned to the reinforced corner significantly more often than in the dry condition, and did not favor the diagonally opposite corner. Results show that rats can use cues besides arena shape to reorient in an aversive reinforcement condition. These findings may also reflect different strategies, with an escape/homing strategy in the wet condition and a foraging strategy in the dry condition.
Austin, A J; Duka, T
Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Griggs, Joanne L; Sinnayah, Puspha; Mathai, Michael L
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from a deletion in the expression of the paternally derived alleles in the region of 15q11-q13. PWS has a prevalence rate of 1:10,000-1:30,000 and is characterized by marked endocrine abnormalities including growth hormone deficiency and raised ghrelin levels. The hyperphagic phenotype in PWS is established over a number of phases and is exacerbated by impaired satiety, low energy expenditure and intellectual difficulties including obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or autistic behaviours. Clinical management in PWS typically includes familial/carer restriction and close supervision of food intake. If the supervision of food is left unmanaged, morbid obesity eventuates, central to the risk of cardiorespiratory disorder. None of the current appetite management/intervention strategies for PWS include pharmacological treatment, though recent research shows some promise. We review the established aberrant genetics and the endocrine and neuronal attributes which may determine disturbed regulatory processes in PWS. Focusing on clinical trials for appetite behaviours in PWS, we define the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with a view to initiating and focusing research towards possible targets for modulating appetite in PWS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M
The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.
Gonzalez, Javier T; Veasey, Rachel C; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J
The present study aimed to investigate the reliability of metabolic and subjective appetite responses under fasted conditions and following consumption of a cereal-based breakfast. Twelve healthy, physically active males completed two postabsorption (PA) and two postprandial (PP) trials in a randomised order. In PP trials a cereal based breakfast providing 1859 kJ of energy was consumed. Expired gas samples were used to estimate energy expenditure and fat oxidation and 100mm visual analogue scales were used to determine appetite sensations at baseline and every 30 min for 120 min. Reliability was assessed using limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass coefficient of correlation and 95% confidence limits of typical error. The limits of agreement and typical error were 292.0 and 105.5 kJ for total energy expenditure, 9.3 and 3.4 g for total fat oxidation and 22.9 and 8.3mm for time-averaged AUC for hunger sensations, respectively over the 120 min period in the PP trial. The reliability of energy expenditure and appetite in the 2h response to a cereal-based breakfast would suggest that an intervention requires a 211 kJ and 16.6mm difference in total postprandial energy expenditure and time-averaged hunger AUC to be meaningful, fat oxidation would require a 6.7 g difference which may not be sensitive to most meal manipulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Astrup, Arne
We conducted two single-blinded randomized crossover acute studies with 24 and 20 subjects, respectively, to compare (I) CONTROL vs. Flax drink; and (II) Flax drink vs. Flax tablets. The subjects were exposed to one of the treatments after an overnight fast, and rated appetite sensation for 120 min using visual analog scales (VAS). Hereafter they consumed an ad libitum early lunch to assess energy intake. The treatments were iso-caloric and iso-volumeric: 300 mL drink; Flax drink: CONTROL drink with addition flax fiber extract (2.5 g of soluble fibers); and Flax tablet: CONTROL drink with flax fiber tablets (2.5 g of soluble fibers). Flax drink increased sensation of satiety and fullness compared to CONTROL and a significant decrease in subsequent energy intake was observed after the Flax drink compared to CONTROL (2937 vs. 3214 kJ). Appetite ratings were similar for Flax tablets and Flax drink as they did not differ by more than 1-4%. Subsequent energy intake was similar after the two treatments (3370 vs. 3379 kJ). A small dose of flaxseed fiber significantly suppresses appetite and energy intake. Furthermore, flaxseed fibers administered as drinks or tablets produce similar responses. Copyright Â© 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.
Mattar, L; Zeeni, N; Bassil, M
Very little is known about media violence and its effect on appetite and eating behavior. The present study aims at investigating the immediate acute effect of violence in movies on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a real-life setting. A total of 447 subjects (F = 202; M = 239) completed a validated visual analog scale to record their subjective feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat immediately at their way out of any of the three types of movies (horror, romance/comedy and drama/action). There was a significant difference between the three movie categories for the tensed feeling (P = 0.003), anxiety (P = 0.021), the sleepy feeling (P = 0.000) and a preference to eat something sweet (P = 0.019). Horror/violence movie types affected the subject by making him feel more stressed and anxious; however, romance made him feel sleepier and less tensed. Movie types did not seem to affect hunger or appetite directly, but rather triggered some food preferences.
Steinsbekk, Silje; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars
Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood. Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6 year olds, followed up at 8 and 10 years of age (n = 807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10 years. Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.
Alison M. Zenel
Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.
Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S
Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc. were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders -- namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression -- are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace.
Suzana, S; Boon, P C; Chan, P P; Normah, C D
Malnutrition is a common phenomenon among the elderly and quite often related to psychosocial problems. The objective of this study was to determine malnutrition risk and its association with appetite, functional and psychosocial status among elderly Malays in an agricultural settlement, i.e. FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 subjects (men = 36.2%), with a mean age of 65.0 +/- 3.9 years, who were interviewed to obtain information on malnutrition risk and appetite using Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form and Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire, respectively. Functional status was determined using Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) and handgrip strength. Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale and De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale were used to identify cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and loneliness status of subjects respectively. A total of 42.5% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and 61.2% had poor appetite. The mean scores of IADL and EMS were lower in subjects at risk of malnutrition, compared to those who were not at high risk (p risk was predicted by poor appetite, decreased functional status (IADL) and depression. Malnutrition risk was prevalent and associated with poor appetite, functional status and psychosocial problems among the elderly subjects. The psychosocial aspect should also be incorporated in nutrition intervention programmes in order to improve mental well-being and functional independancy.
Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.
Rita R. Ellithorpe
Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements
Geerling, Jenske I; Mostovaya, Irina; Vissers, Kris C P; de Graeff, Alexander; Reyners, Anna K.L.; Van Der Linden, Yvette M.
BACKGROUND: Despite existing guidelines to assess and manage pain, the management of cancer-related pain is often suboptimal with patients often being undertreated. Inadequate pain management may be due to patient-related barriers. Educating patients may decrease these barriers. However, the effect
Full Text Available To investigate whether posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS are related to attentional bias towards cancer-related stimuli among parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer.Sixty-two parents completed questionnaires measuring PTSS, depression, and anxiety and the emotional Stroop task via the Internet. The emotional Stroop task included cancer-related words, cardiovascular disease-related words, and neutral words.Participants were split in two groups based on the median of PTSS: High-PTSS and Low-PTSS. There was a significant interaction between word-type and group and a planned contrast test of this interaction indicated that the High-PTSS group had longer response latencies on cancer-related words compared to the other word-type and group combinations.Findings suggest that PTSS are related to attentional bias towards cancer-related stimuli among parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. Implications of this finding for the understanding of PTSS in this population, future research, and clinical practice are discussed.
In July 2010, at the Muscle Fatigue Meeting, I presented an overview of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Cancer Related Fatigue, emphasizing a critical interpretation of the potential association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Cancer Related Fatigue and a newly discovered retrovirus: Xenotropic Murine Related Virus. Since this association was hotly debated at that time, I suggested at the Meeting that it was wrong and most likely due to the identification of the wrong virus culprit. Today, 20 months after the Meeting, the first part of our prediction has turned out to be correct, as Xenotropic Murine Related Virus was shown to be a laboratory-created artefact. Still, the potential association of fatigue-syndromes with an infection (most likely viral) is sustained by a plethora of evidence and this overview will initially summarize data suggesting prior viral infection(s). The principal hypothesized mechanisms for both peripheral and central Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Cancer Related Fatigue will be then summarized, also indicating plausible associations and triggering factors. All evidence accrued so far suggests that further research work should be performed in this interesting area and in order to identify an infectious agent for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Cancer Related Fatigue. One candidate RNA virus, Micro-Foci inducing Virus, will be described in this overview. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sumazaki, Makoto; Saito, Fumi; Ogata, Hideaki; Yoshida, Miho; Kubota, Yorichika; Magoshi, Syunsuke; Kaneko, Hironori
Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities. An 83-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer-related lymphedema in her left upper limb was referred to our hospital with high fever and acute pain with erythema in her left arm. She showed septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture showed positive results for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, confirming a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. She survived after successful intensive care. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis-induced streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome in a patient with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common problem, and we must pay attention to invasive streptococcal soft tissue infections, particularly in elderly patients with chronic disease.
Baxter, G. David; Liu, Lizhou; Chapple, Cathy; Petrich, Simone; Anders, Juanita J.; Tumilty, Steve
Breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) is prevalent among breast cancer survivors, and may be painful and disfiguring with associated psychological impact. Previous research shows increasing use of low level laser therapy (LLLT), now commonly referred to as photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy for managing BCRL, in countries including the United States and Australia. However, conclusions were limited by the paucity, heterogeneity, and poor quality of previous studies. LLLT (PBM) has been barely used in clinical practice in New Zealand, and no clinical studies on LLLT (PBM) for BCRL have been conducted in this country. In order to promote this potentially useful treatment modality for BCRL patients, the Laser Lymphedema Trial Team at the University of Otago conducted a program to assess the effectiveness of LLLT (PBM) in management of BCRL. The program comprises three phases including a systematic review (completed), a feasibility study (completed), and a full-scale randomized controlled trial (proposed). This current paper provides an update on the program. Based upon the systematic review, LLLT (PBM) is considered a potentially effective treatment approach for women with BCRL; the review also indicated the need for further research including exploration of the relevance of dosage and other LLLT (PBM) parameters. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is feasible to conduct a fully powered RCT to definitively test the effectiveness of the additional use of LLLT (PBM) in the management of BCRL, and 114 participants will be needed at baseline in the main study. Currently, the full-scale RCT is under preparation.
Kwan, Marilyn L; Yao, Song; Lee, Valerie S; Roh, Janise M; Zhu, Qianqian; Ergas, Isaac J; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yali; Kutner, Susan E; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ambrosone, Christine B; Kushi, Lawrence H
Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a serious chronic condition after breast cancer (BC) surgery and treatment. It is unclear if BCRL risk varies by race/ethnicity. In a multiethnic prospective cohort study of 2953 BC patients, we examined the association of self-reported BCRL status with self-reported race/ethnicity and estimated genetic ancestry. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, with follow-up starting 6 months post-BC diagnosis. Estimates were further stratified by body mass index (BMI). By 48 months of follow-up, 342 (11.6 %) women reported having BCRL. Younger age at BC diagnosis, higher BMI at baseline, and lower physical activity were associated with greater BCRL risk. African American (AA) women had a 2-fold increased risk of BCRL compared with White women (HR = 2.04; 95 % CI 1.35-3.08). African genetic ancestry was also associated with an increased risk (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI 1.43, 4.36). Both risks were attenuated but remained elevated after adjusting for known risk factors and became more pronounced when restricted to the nonobese women (adjusted HR = 2.31 for AA and HR = 3.70 for African ancestry, both p ancestry data, with a potential ancestry-obesity interaction.
Lee, Eun Hyun; Park, Hee Boong; Kim, Myung Wook; Kang, Sung Hee; Chun, Mi Son; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Hee
The purpose of the present study was to analyze and evaluate prior studies published in Korea on the cancer-related quality of life, in order to make recommendations for further research. A total of 31 studies were selected from three different databases. The selected studies were analyzed according to 11 criteria, such as site of cancer, domain, independent variable, research design, self/proxy rating, single/battery instrument, translation/back translation, reliability, validity, scoring, and findings. Of the 31 studies, approximately half of them were conducted using a mixed cancer group of patient. Many of the studies asserted that the concept of quality of life had a multidimensional attribute. Approximately 30% were longitudinal design studies giving information about the changes in quality of life. In all studies, except one, patients directly rated their level of quality of life. With respect to the questionnaires used for measuring the quality of life, most studies did not consider whether or not their reliability and validity had been established. In addition, when using questionnaires developed in other languages, no studies employed a translation/back-translation technique. All studies used sum or total scoring methods when calculating the level of quality of life. The types of variables tested for their influence on quality of life were quite limited. It is recommended that longitudinal design studies be performed, using methods of data collection whose validity and reliability has been confirmed, and that studies be conducted to identify new variables having an influence on the quality of life
Full Text Available Starting with patient’ diagnose and continuing throughout the treatment and thereafter, cancer-related fatigue (CRF is a distressing and disabling symptom, highly prevalent across the cancer continuum2. This is a review article mainly focusing on the rehabilitation objectives and interventions in CRF, and implementation issues, according to the report of an NCCN member institution4. Implementation is the most problematic, considering the large number of patients to whom it is addressed to and the variety of pathologies within this group of patients. The onset of CRF is difficult to establish, because of the limitations of reporting this symptom4, but it is a valuable predictor in prognosis. The main interventions in rehabilitation applicable to these patients are discussed in correlation to the objectives of each phase of therapeutic management in cancer: pre-operatory, before, during or after radio and/or chemotherapy Conclusion: Rehabilitation interventions should be applied to all patients diagnosed with cancer, according to their phase of oncologic treatment and the objectives. This should be practiced as preventive measure, but as a therapeutic one to, considering the high incidence of CFR before diagnose.
Horiuchi, Junichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Takeda, Masamune; Takagi, Minoru.
Secondary and multiple primary cancers relating radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (s.c.c.) of the oral region including lip, oral cavity and oropharynx were analyzed. Out of 1,197 patients with s.c.c. treated with radiation during about 30 years from 1955 to 1983 June, 56 patients (4.7 %) were regarded as double or multiple cancer. The multiple cancer (s.c.c.) was observed frequently in the multicentric zone such as hypopharynx, esophagus and bronchus as well as in other sites of the oral cavity; 67.7 % (42 out of 62 sites). Frequency of synchronous double cancers was increased in recent ten years; 47.1 % (16/34). Careful examination to the above mentioned multicentric zone leads to early detection of secondary cancer and could be expected cure of the disease. Although possibility of radiation-induced cancer could not be ruled out as for 17 patients with late recurrence (more than 8 years), different histologic diagnosis from s.c.c. was obtained in only one (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Therefore, it was difficult to discriminate radiation-induced cancer from late recurrence in the present study. (author)
Dougherty, John P; Wolff, Brian S; Cullen, Mary J; Saligan, Leorey N; Gershengorn, Marvin C
Fatigue affects most cancer patients and has numerous potential causes, including cancer itself and cancer treatment. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is not relieved by rest, can decrease quality of life, and has no FDA-approved therapy. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has been proposed as a potential novel treatment for CRF, but its efficacy against CRF remains largely untested. Thus, we tested the TRH analog, taltirelin (TAL), in mouse models of CRF. To model fatigue, we used a mouse model of chemotherapy, a mouse model of radiation therapy, and mice bearing colon 26 carcinoma tumors. We used the treadmill fatigue test to assess fatigue-like behavior after treatment with TAL. Additionally, we used wild-type and TRH receptor knockout mice to determine which TRH receptor was necessary for the actions of TAL. Tumor-bearing mice displayed muscle wasting and all models caused fatigue-like behavior, with mice running a shorter distance in the treadmill fatigue test than controls. TAL reversed fatigue-like behavior in all three models and the mouse TRH 1 receptor was necessary for the effects of TAL. These data suggest that TAL may be useful in alleviating fatigue in all cancer patients and provide further support for evaluating TAL as a potential therapy for CRF in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.
Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Barello, Serena; Olson, Karin; Bosio, Claudio A
Patients' lived experience of illness and health is receiving increased attention in the medical field. Understanding patients' perspective and experiences is an undoubted asset for efficient health interventions and improved clinical concordance. Patients' experiences of care and cure, however, are influenced by the cultural setting in which these experiences take place. This implies that health interventions should be "ecological" and attuned to the specific sociocultural context of the patients. Our research group is conducting a cross-cultural qualitative study aimed ad exploring how fatigue (a symptom very common in cancer) is perceived and manifested by patients in different countries (Canada, Thailand, England and Italy). In order to achieve this, the study was design according to the method of Ethnoscience, that appeared to us the best suited to explore the meanings that patients attribute to their state and the linguistic patterns they use to describe it. In this paper we will describe in details the process of Ethnoscience and will discuss the heuristic value of this research approach. Ethnoscience was an effective research strategy for exploring how beliefs and values shape symptoms and the behavioural manifestations of cancer related fatigue. This paper discusses the heuristic value of Ethnoscience and its applicability to the study of health relate topics, particularly those where issues of social construction are important. Ethnoscience is a promising and innovative research approach, able to cast light on the way people experience and make sense of their illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Obama, Kyoko; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Kubota, Toshiro
To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had severe fatigue. The participants had higher physical activity levels compared with the findings in previous studies, and reported an average of 40 min/day of moderate to vigorous activity. Moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity were derived from essential social activities rather than leisure time exercise. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the lower and higher CRF groups. Our study results suggested that the higher level of physical activity in daily living itself had no relationship with decreasing CRF among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. It would be better to focus on cognitive and psychological factors before introducing physical activity programs and be careful of the characteristics of the participants' physical activity among this population in daily basis.
Li Xiaoliang; Niu Haowei; Sun Quanfu; Ma Weidong
Objective: To introduce the general international method for estimation of lifetime risk of developed cancer, and to estimate the lifetime risk baseline values of several kinds of cancers related to radiation exposures in China. Methods: The risk estimation was based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (2010) and China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook (2009), and made according to the method previously published by National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. Results: The lifetime risk of all cancer in China in 2007 was estimated to be 27.77%, that of lung cancer 5.96%, that of breast cancer for female 3.34%, that of all leukemia 0.14%, that of thyroid cancer 0.37%. The lifetime risks of all cancer were estimated to be 32.74% for males and 24.73% for females, and that was 36.47% for urban residents and 26.79% for rural people. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of all cancer for males in 2007 was about 1.25 times as much as that for females. The value of all cancer for urban residents was about 1.35 times as much as that for rural residents. The lifetime risk of developed cancers in 2007 in China is lower than that in the developed countries,such as Japan. (authors)
Rivera, Donna R; Gallicchio, Lisa; Brown, Jeremy; Liu, Benmei; Kyriacou, Demetrios N; Shelburne, Nonniekaye
The emergency department (ED) is used to manage cancer-related complications among the 15.5 million people living with cancer in the United States. However, ED utilization patterns by the population of US adults with cancer have not been previously evaluated or described in published literature. To estimate the proportion of US ED visits made by adults with a cancer diagnosis, understand the clinical presentation of adult patients with cancer in the ED, and examine factors related to inpatient admission within this population. Nationally representative data comprised of 7 survey cycles (January 2006-December 2012) from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample were analyzed. Identification of adult (age ≥18 years) cancer-related visits was based on Clinical Classifications Software diagnoses documented during the ED visit. Weighted frequencies and proportions of ED visits among adult patients with cancer by demographic, geographic, and clinical characteristics were calculated. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between inpatient admission and key demographic and clinical variables for adult cancer-related ED visits. Adult cancer-related ED utilization patterns; identification of primary reason for ED visit; patient-related factors associated with inpatient admission from the ED. Among an estimated 696 million weighted adult ED visits from January 2006 to December 2012, 29.5 million (4.2%) were made by a patient with a cancer diagnosis. The most common cancers associated with an ED visit were breast, prostate, and lung cancer, and most common primary reasons for visit were pneumonia (4.5%), nonspecific chest pain (3.7%), and urinary tract infection (3.2%). Adult cancer-related ED visits resulted in inpatient admissions more frequently (59.7%) than non-cancer-related visits (16.3%) (P adults, breast, prostate, and lung cancer were the most common cancer diagnoses presenting to the ED. Pneumonia was the most common
Loudon, Annette; Barnett, Tony; Williams, Andrew
To describe the experiences of women taking part in a yoga intervention trial for breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Around 20% of women will experience lymphoedema as a consequence of treatment for breast cancer. Specialist lymphoedema clearing, along with self-management, remains the mainstay of therapy. Yoga, an increasingly popular complementary therapeutic practice, may provide another tool to augment self-management. A qualitative, descriptive design. Interviews were conducted with 15 women with stage one breast cancer-related lymphoedema who had completed an 8-week yoga intervention trial. The intervention consisted of a weekly teacher-led 1.5-hr yoga class and a daily home practice using a 45-min DVD. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. These data were then analysed using an iterative-thematic approach. Participants reported improved well-being, increased awareness of their physical body as well as improved physical, mental and social functioning. They gained from being part of the yoga group that also provided a forum for them to share their experiences. Nine women felt empowered to describe their yoga participation as a transformative journey through illness. When safe to do so, the holistic practice of yoga may augment and provide additional benefit to current self-management and treatment practices for women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Patients with breast cancer-related lymphoedema may seek advice and guidance from nurses and other healthcare professionals on a range of complementary therapies to help relieve symptoms and promote recovery. Patients who choose to augment their treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema by practicing yoga should be carefully assessed, be taught an appropriate technique by a qualified yoga teacher/therapist and its impact monitored by their yoga teacher/therapist, breast care nurse, lymphoedema therapist or treating clinician. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Djafarian, Kurosh
Specific components of dairy, such as whey proteins may have beneficial effects on body composition by suppressing appetite, although the findings of existing studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite. A systematic search was conducted to identify eligible publications. Means and SDs for hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat and prospective consumption of food, before and after intervention, were extracted and then composite appetite score (CAS) calculated. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Eight publications met inclusion criteria that 5 records were on short term and 3 records on long term appetite. The meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in long term appetite by 4.13 mm in combined appetite score (CAS) (95% Confidence interval (CI): -6.57, -1.96; p = 0.001). No significant reduction in short term appetite was also seen (Mean difference (MD) = -0.39 95% CI = -2.07, 1.30; p = 0.653). Subgroup analyses by time showed that compared with carbohydrate, the reduction in appetite following consumption of whey consumption was not significant (MD = -0.39, 95% CI = -2.07, 1.3, p = 0.65, I 2 = 0.0%.)A significant reduction in prospective food consumption was seen (MD = -2.17, 95% CI = -3.86, -0.48). The results of our meta-analysis showed that whey protein may reduce the long and short term appetite, but our finding did not show any significant difference in appetite reduction between whey protein and carbohydrate in short duration. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A recent report suggested that brain-derived serotonin (5-HT is critical for maintaining weight loss induced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor activation in rats and that 5-HT2A receptors mediate the feeding suppression and weight loss induced by GLP-1 receptor activation. Here, we show that changes in daily food intake and body weight induced by intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, over 4 days did not differ between mice treated with the tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA for 3 days and mice without PCPA treatment. Treatment with PCPA did not affect hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor expression. Despite the anorexic effect of liraglutide disappearing after the first day of treatment, the body weight loss induced by liraglutide persisted for 4 days in mice treated with or without PCPA. Intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide significantly decreased the gene expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptors 1 h after injection. Moreover, the acute anorexic effects of liraglutide were blunted in mice treated with the high-affinity 5-HT2A agonist (4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl methylamine hydrobromide 14 h or 24 h before liraglutide injection. These findings suggest that liraglutide reduces appetite and body weight independently of 5-HT synthesis in mice, whereas GLP-1 receptor activation downregulates the gene expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptors.
Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A
Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with
Beaulieu, Kristine; Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham
The current obesogenic environment promotes physical inactivity and food consumption in excess of energy requirements, two important modifiable risk factors influencing energy balance. Habitual physical activity has been shown to impact not only energy expenditure, but also energy intake through mechanisms of appetite control. This review summarizes recent theory and evidence underpinning the role of physical activity in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic mechanisms controlling appetite. Energy intake along the spectrum of physical activity levels (inactive to highly active) appears to be J-shaped, with low levels of physical activity leading to dysregulated appetite and a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure. At higher levels, habitual physical activity influences homeostatic appetite control in a dual-process action by increasing the drive to eat through greater energy expenditure, but also by enhancing post-meal satiety, allowing energy intake to better match energy expenditure in response to hunger and satiety signals. There is clear presumptive evidence that physical activity energy expenditure can act as a drive (determinant) of energy intake. The influence of physical activity level on non-homeostatic appetite control is less clear, but low levels of physical activity may amplify hedonic states and behavioural traits favouring overconsumption indirectly through increased body fat. More evidence is required to understand the interaction between physical activity, appetite control and diet composition on passive overconsumption and energy balance. Furthermore, potential moderators of appetite control along the spectrum of physical activity, such as body composition, sex, and type, intensity and timing of physical activity, remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Godefroy, V; Trinchera, L; Romo, L; Rigal, N
Appetitive traits and general temperament traits have both been correlated with adiposity and obesity in children. However, very few studies have tested structural models to identify the links between temperament, appetitive traits and adiposity in children. A validated structural model would help suggesting mechanisms to explain the impact of temperament on body mass index (BMI). In this study, we used Rothbart's heuristic definition of temperament as a starting point to define four appetitive traits, including two appetite reactivity dimensions (Appetite Arousal and Appetite Persistence) and two dimensions of self-regulation in eating (Self-regulation In Eating Without Hunger and Self-regulation in Eating Speed). We conducted a cross-sectional study in young adolescents to validate a structural model including these four appetitive traits, Effortful Control (a general temperament trait) and adiposity. A questionnaire assessing the four appetitive trait dimensions and Effortful Control was completed by adolescents from 10 to 14 years old (n=475), and their BMI-for-age was calculated (n=441). In total, 74% of the study participants were normal weight, 26% were overweight and 8% were obese. We then used structural equation modelling to test the structural model. We identified a well-fitting structural model (Comparative Fit Index=0.91; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.04) that supports the hypothesis that Effortful Control impacts both dimensions of self-regulation in eating, which in turn are linked with both appetite reactivity dimensions. Moreover, Appetite Persistence is the only appetitive trait that was significantly related to adiposity (B=0.12; Pappetite reactivity and self-regulation in eating). Results suggest that young adolescents who exhibit high appetite reactivity but a low level of self-regulation in eating are at higher risk for excess adiposity.
Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Baschnagel, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ghilezan, Mihai [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Riutta, Justin; Dekhne, Nayana; Balaraman, Savitha [Beaumont Cancer Institute, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Beaumont Cancer Institute, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, MI (United States)
Purpose: To determine the rates of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) in patients undergoing whole-breast irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and to identify clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with its development. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,861 patients with breast cancer were treated at William Beaumont Hospital with whole-breast irradiation as part of their BCT from January 1980 to February 2006, with 1,497 patients available for analysis. Determination of BCRL was based on clinical assessment. Differences in clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics between patients with BCRL and those without BCRL were evaluated, and the actuarial rates of BCRL by regional irradiation technique were determined. Results: The actuarial rate of any BCRL was 7.4% for the entire cohort and 9.9%, 14.7%, and 8.3% for patients receiving a supraclavicular field, posterior axillary boost, and internal mammary irradiation, respectively. BCRL was more likely to develop in patients with advanced nodal status (11.4% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.001), those who had a greater number of lymph nodes removed (14 nodes) (9.5% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.01), those who had extracapsular extension (13.4% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.009), those with Grade II/III disease (10.8% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001), and those who received adjuvant chemotherapy (10.5% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.02). Regional irradiation showed small increases in the rates of BCRL (p = not significant). Conclusions: These results suggest that clinically detectable BCRL will develop after traditional BCT in up to 10% of patients. High-risk subgroups include patients with advanced nodal status, those with more nodes removed, and those who receive chemotherapy, with patients receiving regional irradiation showing a trend toward increased rates.
Xie Yuhuan; Guo Qi; Liu Fenghua; Zhu Yaqun; Tian Ye
Objective: To systematically evaluate the risk factors for upper extremity lymphedema after breast cancer treatment and the strength of their associations. Methods: PubMed, Ovid, EMbase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify clinical trials published up to December 2012. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale;data analysis was performed by Stata 10.0 and RevMan 5.2; the strength of associations between risk factors and breast cancer-related upper extremity lymphedema was described as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Twenty-two studies involving 10106 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The risk factors for upper extremity lymphedema after breast cancer treatment mainly included axillary lymph node dissection (OR=2.72, 95% CI=1.06-6.99, P=0.038), hypertension (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.38-2.44, P=0.000), body mass index (OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.22-2.32, P=0.001), and radiotherapy (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.20-2.25, P=0.002), while no significant associations were found for such factors as chemotherapy, age, number of positive lymph nodes, and number of dissected lymph nodes. Conclusions: The incidence of upper extremity lymphedema is high among patients with breast cancer after treatment, and axillary lymph node dissection, hypertension,body mass index, and radiotherapy are the main risk factors for lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. (authors)
Owen, Jason E; O'Carroll Bantum, Erin; Pagano, Ian S; Stanton, Annette
Web and mobile technologies appear to hold promise for delivering evidence-informed and evidence-based intervention to cancer survivors and others living with trauma and other psychological concerns. Health-space.net was developed as a comprehensive online social networking and coping skills training program for cancer survivors living with distress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week social networking intervention on distress, depression, anxiety, vigor, and fatigue in cancer survivors reporting high levels of cancer-related distress. We recruited 347 participants from a local cancer registry and internet, and all were randomized to either a 12-week waiting list control group or to immediate access to the intervention. Intervention participants received secure access to the study website, which provided extensive social networking capabilities and coping skills training exercises facilitated by a professional facilitator. Across time, the prevalence of clinically significant depression symptoms declined from 67 to 34 % in both conditions. The health-space.net intervention had greater declines in fatigue than the waitlist control group, but the intervention did not improve outcomes for depression, trauma-related anxiety symptoms, or overall mood disturbance. For those with more severe levels of anxiety at baseline, greater engagement with the intervention was associated with higher levels of symptom reduction over time. The intervention resulted in small but significant effects on fatigue but not other primary or secondary outcomes. Results suggest that this social networking intervention may be most effective for those who have distress that is not associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms or very poor overall psychological functioning. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov database ( ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01976949).
Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)
As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.
Lai, Shih-Chiung; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chen, Chien-Hsin; Wu, Szu-Yuan
We prospectively designed a Taiwan cancer-related fatigue cognition questionnaire, version 1.0 (TCRFCQ-V1.0), for Taiwanese patients with cancer and investigated the reliability and validity of this questionnaire. The completion rate of the TCRFCQ-V1.0 was high (97% of the patients completed all items), and the rate of missing data was low (0.2%-1.1% for each item). Moreover, the Cronbach alpha value was 0.889. We eliminated 5 items because their respective Cronbach alpha values were higher than the total mean value of Cronbach's alpha. Overall, the TCRFCQ-V1.0 had adequate Cronbach alpha coefficients (range, from 0.882 to 0.889). In addition, the results of Bartlett's test were significant (chi-squared, 2390.11; p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistic of 0.868. Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified 6 factors with eigenvalues of > 1, and the scree plot indicated no flattening factors. Overall, 28 items achieved a factor loading of ≥ 0.55. We enrolled patients with cancer who were aged > 18 years, had received a pathological diagnosis of cancer, and had undergone cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or concurrent chemoradiotherapy at a single institute in Taiwan. Of the identified 167 eligible patients, 161 (96.4%) were approached. Of these patients, 6 (7.2%) declined to participate and 155 (92.8%) were interviewed. The initial 43 items in the TCRFCQ-V1.0 were assessed for ceiling and floor effects. The TCRFCQ-V1.0 is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring CRF cognition in Taiwanese patients with cancer.
Blackhall, Leslie; Petroni, Gina; Shu, Jianfen; Baum, Lora; Farace, Elena
Fatigue is a common symptom that lowers the quality of life of patients with cancer, affecting between 60% and 90% of patients. Relatively few options are available for the treatment of this debilitating condition. Modafinal, a psychostimulant developed for the treatment of narcolepsy, has been used to treat fatigue in other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, but little data support its use in cancer patients. The primary objective of this open-label pilot study was to evaluate the safety, and efficacy of modafinil in improving cancer-related fatigue (CRF) as measured by the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). The effect of this agent on depression, quality of life, functional status, and cognitive function was also assessed. Modafinal was self-administered at a dose of 100 mg/d during weeks 1-2, and 200 mg during weeks 3-4. Assessments were performed at baseline, 2, and 4 weeks. BFI score was improved in 46% of patients at 2 weeks and 75% at 4 weeks (p = 0.025). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores declined at 2 and 4 weeks (p < 0.001). Most scales for neurocognitive function were unchanged. Score for all Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-BR) subscales (measuring quality of life), except social/family well-being, were improved (p < 0.05) at 2 and 4 weeks. Significant changes in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status were noted, with 40% of patients improving at least one level. Modafinil was well-tolerated with only one patient discontinuing treatment due to drug-related toxicity. In this pilot study modafinil was well-tolerated and effective for fatigue in patients with cancer. Improvements were also seen in mood, quality of life, and functional status.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fatigue experience is a psychological experience therefore, the relevant caregivers’ acquaintance with this issueis the most important step in offering optimal care for the patients. Accordingly, this study was conductedto determine Cancer-related Fatigue and its Relationship with Demographic and Clinical Characteristics inCancer Patients.A cancer diagnosis is a highly undesirable event for anyone.Methods: characteristics form and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. The data were analyzed with the SPSS-18 software and t-test and ANOVA and tukey post hoc test were used.In this analytical study, 150 cancer patients visiting the oncology unit, the Shafa Radiotherapy Center,and Gorgan’s 5th Azar Teaching Hospital in 2012, who were selected with a purposive sampling method,participated in the study for 4 months. The required information was collected using a demographic and clinicalResults: of treatment, 51.3% used chemotherapy-surgery-radiotherapy regimen, 24.7% surgery-chemotherapy regimen,14% used chemotherapy, 7.3% used radiotherapy, and 2.7% used surgery. The overall mean scoreof fatigue was 54.65±8.78 from 100. The variables of residence (P=0. 018, the duration of marriage(P=0.018, the treatment regimen type (P<0.001, and the family’s economic status (P<0.000 were found toThe patients’ mean age was 48.39±1.5 Of the patients, 55.3% had undergone less than 12 monthshave a significant relationship with fatigue.Conclusion: Psychological interventions, besides physical caring and nursing interventions play a significantrole in the all-inclusive management of cancer patients’ problems, in particular, their fatigue.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: A lack of fatigue-related muscle contractile property changes at time of perceived physical exhaustion and greater central than peripheral fatigue detected by twitch interpolation technique have recently been reported in cancer survivors with fatigue symptoms. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that compared to healthy people, myoelectrical manifestation of fatigue in the performing muscles would be less significant in these individuals while sustaining a prolonged motor task to self-perceived exhaustion (SPE since their central fatigue was more prominent. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis by examining electromyographic (EMG signal changes during fatiguing muscle performance. METHODS: Twelve individuals who had advanced solid cancer and cancer-related fatigue (CRF, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a sustained elbow flexion at 30% maximal voluntary contraction till SPE. Amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF of EMG signals of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii muscles were evaluated when the individuals experienced minimal, moderate, and severe fatigue. RESULTS: CRF patients perceived physical "exhaustion" significantly sooner than the controls. The myoelectrical manifestation of muscular fatigue assessed by EMG amplitude and MPF was less significant in CRF than controls. The lower MPF even at minimal fatigue stage in CRF may indicate pathophysiologic condition of the muscle. CONCLUSIONS: CRF patients experience less myoelectrical manifestation of muscle fatigue than healthy individuals near the time of SPE. The data suggest that central nervous system fatigue plays a more important role in limiting endurance-type of motor performance in patients with CRF.
Canella, Claudia; Mikolasek, Michael; Rostock, Matthias; Beyer, Jörg; Guckenberger, Matthias; Jenewein, Josef; Linka, Esther; Six, Claudia; Stoll, Sarah; Stupp, Roger; Witt, Claudia M
Although cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has gained increased attention in the past decade, it remains difficult to treat. An integrative approach combining conventional and complementary medicine interventions seems highly promising. Treatment programs are more likely to be effective if the needs and interests of the people involved are well represented. This can be achieved through stakeholder engagement. The aim of the study was to develop an integrative CRF treatment program using stakeholder engagement and to compare it to an expert version. In a qualitative study, a total of 22 stakeholders (4 oncologists, 1 radiation-oncologist, 1 psycho-oncologist, 5 nurses/nurse experts, 9 patients, 1 patient family member, 1 representative of a local Swiss Cancer League) were interviewed either face-to-face or in a focus group setting. For data analysis, qualitative content analysis was used. With stakeholder engagement, the integrative CRF treatment program was adapted to usual care using a prioritizing approach and allowing more patient choice. Unlike the expert version, in which all intervention options were on the same level, the stakeholder engagement process resulted in a program with 3 different levels. The first level includes mandatory nonpharmacological interventions, the second includes nonpharmacological choice-based interventions, and the third includes pharmacological interventions for severe CRF. The resulting stakeholder based integrative CRF treatment program was implemented as clinical practice guideline at our clinic (Institute for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University Hospital Zurich). Through the stakeholder engagement approach, we integrated the needs and preferences of people who are directly affected by CRF. This resulted in an integrative CRF treatment program with graded recommendations for interventions and therefore potentially greater sustainability in a usual care setting.
Centeno, Carlos; Portela Tejedor, María Angustias; Carvajal, Ana; San Miguel, Maria Teresa; Urdiroz, Julia; Ramos, Luis; De Santiago, Ana
Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with cancer. No adequate term in Spanish has been defined to describe the English concept of fatigue. To identify the most suitable Spanish words that define the concept of fatigue and to check psychometric characteristics. Consensus with professional experts on Spanish words that best suit the English concept of fatigue. A prospective study on oncologic patients was also undertaken, which included an evaluation of the intensity of fatigue through visual numeric scales (VNS) where the words had been previously selected. The fatigue subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) questionnaire was taken as a reference. The experts highlighted the words cansancio, agotamiento, and debilidad (tiredness, exhaustion, and weakness) as the terms that best defined the concept of fatigue. In the psychometric assessment study, 100 patients were included, of which 61 (61%) presented diagnostic values for cancer-related fatigue in the FACT-F fatigue subscale (score 34/52 or lower). The VNS for the chosen terms obtained a high correlation with the FACT-F fatigue subscale results: cansancio (tiredness) r = -0.71, agotamiento (exhaustion) r = -0.74, debilidad (weakness) r = -0.74, with no statistical differences between them. For the detection of fatigue by means of the VNS, tiredness (cutoff point > or =4/10) gave sensitivity (S) 0.90 and specificity (E) 0.72; exhaustion (cutoff point > or =3/10) S 0.95 and E 0.90 and weakness (cutoff point > or =4/10) S 0.92 and E 0.72. The ROC curve was 0.88 for tiredness, 0.94 for exhaustion, and 0.92 for weakness, with no significant difference between the areas mentioned. The terms cansancio, agotamiento, and debilidad (tiredness, exhaustion, and weakness) are suitable for defining the English concept of fatigue in Spanish, and should be the preferred option for inclusion in evaluation tools.
Boix-Castejón, Marina; Herranz-López, María; Pérez Gago, Alberto; Olivares-Vicente, Mariló; Caturla, Nuria; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente
Plant-derived polyphenols have shown potential to alleviate obesity-related pathologies by a multi-targeted mechanism in animal models and human intervention studies. A dietary supplement based on a combination of Lippia citriodora (LC) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenolic extracts was assayed in a double blind and placebo-controlled intervention study with 54 overweight subjects. Blood pressure, body weight, height, triceps, biceps and abdominal skinfold thickness, and arm and abdominal circumferences were taken at the baseline, 30 and 60 days of the intervention period. The validated Visual Analogue Scale used to record hunger and satiety-related sensations was passed at the beginning and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of the intervention. Subjective health status was assessed through the validated SF-36 questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study. Finally, plasma from fasting blood samples was obtained at the beginning, 30 and 60 days of the study. The results showed an improvement of anthropometric measurements, decreased blood pressure and heart rate and a more positive perception in the overall health status. We also observed that plant polyphenols increased anorexigenic hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1) and decreased orexigenic hormones (ghrelin). Based on previous evidence we postulate that AMP-activated protein kinase may have a role in such effects through its capability to modulate energy homeostasis, total daily energy expenditure and lipid management. Although further research may be required, we propose that this polyphenolic combination may be used for weight management by increasing long-term weight loss maintenance through the modulation of appetite biomarkers. This may help to avoid the undesired weight regain typical of calorie restriction diets.
Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary
Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal
Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks