WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer vaccine strategy

  1. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer: an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Harpreet Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical benefit.

  2. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer:an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Harpreet Singh; James L Gulley

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical beneift.

  3. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  4. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  5. Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2004-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of tumor immunology in the past decade, but optimism about the clinical application of currently available cancer vaccine approaches is based more on surrogate endpoints than on clinical tumor regression. In our cancer vaccine trials of 440 patients, the objective response rate was low (2.6%), and comparable to the results obtained by others. We consider here results in cancer vaccine trials and highlight alternate strategies that mediate cancer regre...

  6. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458

  7. A prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christine J.; Gusterson, Barry A.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are the Holy Grail for patients and clinicians alike. The possibility that we can be vaccinated against common cancers is very appealing and the socioeconomic consequences are significant. A recent paper from Vincent Tuohy's group, published in the journal Nature Medicine, suggests a new approach for the development of a prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer. Their strategy was to induce mammary gland failure in mice by immunisation with an antibody specific to a milk protein...

  8. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  9. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.

  10. HIV Vaccine Development: Strategies for Preclinical and Clinical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Stuart Z.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses HIV vaccine discovery and candidate vaccine testing in the context of current realities of funding and clinical trial practice. Lacking perfect animal models for testing candidate HIV vaccines, clinical investigators have proposed a strategy of iterative exploratory clinical trials in the model of cancer chemotherapy development. Problems with the appropriateness of this model to HIV vaccine development are discussed. Also, the future feasibility of this strategy in the...

  11. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  12. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...

  13. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  14. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  15. Injecting Hope--A Review of Breast Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Peoples, George E

    2016-05-01

    There is significant interest in investigating immunotherapeutic strategies to be used for the treatment of breast cancer patients. One form of immunotherapy under active investigation is the cancer vaccine. Vaccines are a form of active immune therapy designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize tumor cells as foreign. Vaccines include an antigen that serves as the target for the immune response, and an immunoadjuvant, which is a nonspecific stimulator of the immune response that promotes an environment conducive to immune stimulation. Vaccines are an appealing therapeutic strategy because they are specific and are associated with minimal toxicity. In addition, they stimulate the adaptive immune system, thereby producing a memory response allowing for sustained effect without repeated therapy. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved breast cancer vaccines; however, there are multiple vaccines and treatment strategies employing these vaccines that are being actively investigated in clinical trials. PMID:27188680

  16. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of

  18. Vaccine strategies against schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capron

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets, interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

  19. Challenges for cancer vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, Z; Man, S

    2006-10-01

    The first generation of human cancer vaccines has been tested in phase III clinical trials, but only a few of these have demonstrated sufficient efficacy to be licensed for clinical use. This article reviews some of the mechanisms that could contribute to these limited clinical responses, and highlights the challenges faced for development of future vaccines. PMID:16979786

  20. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: From the Bench to the Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Katz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that the development of cancer is associated with acquired immunodeficiency, mostly against cancer cells themselves, and understanding pathways inducing this immunosuppression, has led to a tremendous development of new immunological approaches, both vaccines and drugs, which overcome this inhibition. Both “passive” (e.g. strategies relying on the administration of specific T cells and “active” vaccines (e.g. peptide-directed or whole-cell vaccines have become attractive immunological approaches, inducing cell death by targeting tumor-associated antigens. Whereas peptide-targeted vaccines are usually directed against a single antigen, whole-cell vaccines (e.g. dendritic cell vaccines are aimed to induce robust responsiveness by targeting several tumor-related antigens simultaneously. The combination of vaccines with new immuno-stimulating agents which target “immunosuppressive checkpoints” (anti-CTLA-4, PD-1, etc. is likely to improve and maintain immune response induced by vaccination.

  1. Cancer Genome Sequencing and Its Implications for Personalized Cancer Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New DNA sequencing platforms have revolutionized human genome sequencing. The dramatic advances in genome sequencing technologies predict that the $1,000 genome will become a reality within the next few years. Applied to cancer, the availability of cancer genome sequences permits real-time decision-making with the potential to affect diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, and has opened the door towards personalized medicine. A promising strategy is the identification of mutated tumor antigens, and the design of personalized cancer vaccines. Supporting this notion are preliminary analyses of the epitope landscape in breast cancer suggesting that individual tumors express significant numbers of novel antigens to the immune system that can be specifically targeted through cancer vaccines

  2. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  3. Cancer Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shamayel; Bakshi, Nasir; Chaudri, Naeem; Akhter, Javed; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is a common and potentially deadly disease. Some of the cancers may be difficult to treat by conventional means such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, but may be controlled by the stimulation of the immune response of the body with the help of cancer vaccines. The use of vaccines for preventing infections by oncogenic viruses such as hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus has been extremely successful in reducing the incidence of cancers resulting from these infections. The use of vaccines for treating cancers that are not due to viral infections and that are already established is currently the object of numerous clinical trials. Several types of cancer vaccines are being tried. These include antigen vaccines, tumor cell vaccines, dendritic vaccines, deoxyribonucleic acid vaccines, and viral vector vaccines. The development of these therapeutic vaccines is proving difficult with only 1 recent success. However, there is significant enthusiasm and optimism regarding the development of effective therapeutic vaccines stemming from the fact that our understanding regarding the cancer immunology is considerably enhanced in recent years. This expanded knowledge regarding the mechanisms that cancers use to escape the immune system is likely to open new avenues in modulating the immune response to cancer, thus enhancing the effectiveness of therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:27058246

  4. Immunotherapeutic strategies for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Mathieu F; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Jichlinski, Patrice; Derré, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common urologic malignancy with rising incidence in the elderly population. In most cases, bladder cancer is non-muscle-invasive at diagnosis and shows dramatically high recurrence rates, although current treatments often reduce the risk of disease progression. Immunotherapy using intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective therapy for patients with high risk tumors. However, BCG-therapy has important limitations including substantial adverse events and frequent treatment failure. Thus, it appears crucial to either improve or replace current therapy using new immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we discuss the clinical trials that assessed therapeutic vaccination of bladder cancer patients using tumor associated antigens and we also argue for novel approaches arising from murine models. Vaccination routes to induce appropriate T-cell homing in the tumor site as well as the use of local immunostimulation to enhance recruitment of vaccine-induced T cells are discussed to highlight what we believe is a promising therapeutic vaccination strategy for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID:24384699

  5. [Benefit-risk assessment of vaccination strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslik, Thomas; Boëlle, Pierre Yves

    2007-04-01

    This article summarises the various stages of the risk/benefit assessment of vaccination strategies. Establishing the awaited effectiveness of a vaccination strategy supposes to have an epidemiologic description of the disease to be prevented. The effectiveness of the vaccine strategy will be thus expressed in numbers of cases, hospitalizations or deaths avoided. The effectiveness can be direct, expressed as the reduction of the incidence of the infectious disease in the vaccinated subjects compared to unvaccinated subjects. It can also be indirect, the unvaccinated persons being protected by the suspension in circulation of the pathogenic agent, consecutive to the implementation of the vaccination campaign. The risks of vaccination related to the adverse effects detected during the clinical trials preceding marketing are well quantified, but other risks can occur after marketing: e.g., serious and unexpected adverse effects detected by vaccinovigilance systems, or risk of increase in the age of cases if the vaccination coverage is insufficient. The medico-economic evaluation forms a part of the risks/benefit assessment, by positioning the vaccine strategy comparatively with other interventions for health. Epidemiologic and vaccinovigilance informations must be updated very regularly, which underlines the need for having an operational and reliable real time monitoring system to accompany the vaccination strategies. Lastly, in the context of uncertainty which often accompanies the risks/benefit assessments, it is important that an adapted communication towards the public and the doctors is planned. PMID:17433229

  6. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  7. Cancer treatment: the combination of vaccination with other therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.H.; Sorensen, R.B.; Schrama, D.;

    2008-01-01

    approach to fight cancer, the combination with additional therapy could create a number of synergistic effects. Herein we discuss the possibilities and prospects of vaccination when combined with other treatments. In this regard, cell death upon drug exposure may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic depending...... their escape from cytotoxic therapies represent prime vaccination candidates. The characterization of a high number of tumor antigens allow the concurrent or serial immunological targeting of different proteins associated with such cancer traits. Moreover, while vaccination in itself is a promising new...... tumor cells and endothelial cells. The efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against cancer will over the next few years be studied in settings taking advantage of strategies in which vaccination is combined with other treatment modalities. These combinations should be based on current knowledge not only...

  8. Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18 and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11 are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age of the target vaccination population means that physicians, parents, and patients will all be involved in the decision-making process. Research has shown that parents and patients are more likely to accept a vaccine if it is efficacious, safe, reasonably priced, and recommended by a physician. Widespread education of physicians, patients, and parents about the risks and consequences of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination will be instrumental for fostering vaccine acceptance.

  9. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  10. Adolescent Vaccination Strategies: Interventions to Increase Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Corinne E; Brady, Rebecca C; Battley, Reuben O; Huggins, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While vaccines have decreased the burden of disease, many adolescents still remain under-immunized, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza. We review the most current data regarding adolescent immunizations in the United States and discuss proven strategies that work for increasing vaccination rates. Strategies that have been shown to improve rates include provider feedback, immunization information systems (or registries), and enhanced access outside of provider offices, such as school-based immunization programs. Overall, practices may want to consider multimodal quality improvement approaches to enhance practice vaccination rates. The public health and cost benefits of immunizing adolescents are well known, yet recent measles outbreaks in the United States have highlighted issues with state immunization laws and vaccine refusals. Providers should be clear in their advice regarding vaccines and use effective reminder strategies as parents commonly cite not having enough information or knowledge that a vaccine was needed for their adolescent. Additional research is needed regarding adolescent consent for vaccines, as well as adolescent and parental refusal, in order to design systems that will help inform families and allow for widespread vaccine availability. PMID:27146296

  11. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) and nonstructural-1 proteins (NS1). Of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent DENV vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been licensed in several countries. However, this vaccine renders only partial protection against the DENV2 infection and is associated with an unexplained increased incidence of hospitalization for severe dengue disease among children younger than nine years old. In addition to the virus-based vaccines, several mosquito-based dengue immunization strategies have been developed to interrupt the vector competence and effectively reduce the number of infected mosquito vectors, thus controlling the transmission of DENV in nature. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of dengue vaccines and novel immunization strategies and propose some prospective vaccine strategies for disease prevention in the future. PMID:27436365

  12. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthigeyan, K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

  13. Progress and controversies in developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speiser Daniel E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy has become a standard approach for cancer management, through the use of cytokines (eg: interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer vaccines hold promise as another form of immunotherapy, and there has been substantial progress in identifying shared antigens recognized by T cells, in developing vaccine approaches that induce antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients, and in developing new technology for monitoring immune responses in various human tissue compartments. Dramatic clinical regressions of human solid tumors have occurred with some cancer vaccines, but the rate of those responses remains low. This article is part of a 2-part point:counterpoint series on peptide vaccines and adoptive therapy approaches for cancer. The current status of cancer vaccination, and associated challenges, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to increase our knowledge of cancer immunobiology, as well as to improve monitoring of cellular immune function after vaccination. Progress in both areas will facilitate development of effective cancer vaccines, as well as of adoptive therapy. Effective cancer vaccines promise to be useful for treatment and prevention of cancer at low cost and with low morbidity.

  14. Vaccination with embryonic stem cells protects against lung cancer: is a broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccine against cancer possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Yaddanapudi

    Full Text Available The antigenic similarity between tumors and embryos has been appreciated for many years and reflects the expression of embryonic gene products by cancer cells and/or cancer-initiating stem cells. Taking advantage of this similarity, we have tested a prophylactic lung cancer vaccine composed of allogeneic murine embryonic stem cells (ESC. Naïve C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with ESC along with a source of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in order to provide immunostimulatory adjuvant activity. Vaccinated mice were protected against subsequent challenge with implantable Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC. ESC-induced anti-tumor immunity was not due to a non-specific "allo-response" as vaccination with allogeneic murine embryonic fibroblasts did not protect against tumor outgrowth. Vaccine efficacy was associated with robust tumor-reactive primary and memory CD8(+ T effector responses, Th1 cytokine response, higher intratumoral CD8(+ T effector/CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T regulatory cell ratio, and reduced myeloid derived suppressor cells in the spleen. Prevention of tumorigenesis was found to require a CD8-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response because in vivo depletion of CD8(+ T lymphocytes completely abrogated the protective effect of vaccination. Importantly, this vaccination strategy also suppressed the development of lung cancer induced by the combination of carcinogen administration and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Further refinement of this novel vaccine strategy and identification of shared ESC/tumor antigens may lead to immunotherapeutic options for lung cancer patients and, perhaps more importantly, could represent a first step toward the development of prophylactic cancer vaccines.

  15. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks

  16. Recombinant vaccines and the development of new vaccine strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, I.P.; Leite, L.C.C. [Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-07

    Vaccines were initially developed on an empirical basis, relying mostly on attenuation or inactivation of pathogens. Advances in immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genomics, and proteomics have added new perspectives to the vaccinology field. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens. There are a variety of expression systems with different advantages, allowing the production of large quantities of proteins depending on the required characteristics. Live recombinant bacteria or viral vectors effectively stimulate the immune system as in natural infections and have intrinsic adjuvant properties. DNA vaccines, which consist of non-replicating plasmids, can induce strong long-term cellular immune responses. Prime-boost strategies combine different antigen delivery systems to broaden the immune response. In general, all of these strategies have shown advantages and disadvantages, and their use will depend on the knowledge of the mechanisms of infection of the target pathogen and of the immune response required for protection. In this review, we discuss some of the major breakthroughs that have been achieved using recombinant vaccine technologies, as well as new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, including potential shortcomings and risks.

  17. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-14

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156

  18. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kaarthigeyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine′s efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context.

  19. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  20. Two-Step Ebola Vaccine Strategy Works in Early Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158384.html Two-Step Ebola Vaccine Strategy Works in Early Trial But one ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new two-step Ebola vaccine strategy has shown some promise in early ...

  1. Strategies to eradicate minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, L M; Grant, S C; Miller, V A; Ng, K K; Kris, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the last 25 years, treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Standard chemotherapy regimens can yield 80% to 90% response rates and some cures when combined with thoracic irradiation in limited-stage patients. Nonetheless, small cell lung cancer has a high relapse rate due to drug resistance; this has resulted in poor survival for most patients. Attacking this problem requires a unique approach to eliminate resistant disease remaining after induction therapy. This review will focus on three potential strategies: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination. PMID:10566613

  2. Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard; McDonald, David; Byrne, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Due to changes in glycosyltransferase expression during tumorigenesis, the glycoproteins of cancer cells often carry highly truncated carbohydrate chains compared to those on healthy cells. These glycans are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and are prime targets for use in vaccines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art in targeting the immune system towards tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens via synthetic self adjuvanting vaccines, in which the antigenic and adjuvanting moieties of the vaccines are present in the same molecule. The majority of the self-adjuvanting glycopeptide cancer vaccines reported to date employ antigens from mucin 1, a protein which is highly over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many forms of cancer. The adjuvants used in these vaccines predominantly include lipopeptide- or lipoamino acid-based TLR2 agonists, although studies investigating stimulation of TLR9 and TLR4 are also discussed. Most of these adjuvants are highly lipophilic, and, upon conjugation to antigenic peptides, provide amphiphilic vaccine molecules. The amphiphilic nature of these vaccine constructs can lead to the formation of higher-order structures by vaccines in solution, which are likely to be important for their efficacy in vivo.

  3. Vaccines against Human Carcinomas: Strategies to Improve Antitumor Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Palena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations in preclinical and clinical studies support a role for the immune system in controlling tumor growth and progression. Various components of the innate and adaptive immune response are able to mediate tumor cell destruction; however, certain immune cell populations can also induce a protumor environment that favors tumor growth and the development of metastasis. Moreover, tumor cells themselves are equipped with various mechanisms that allow them to evade surveillance by the immune system. The goal of cancer vaccines is to induce a tumor-specific immune response that ultimately will reduce tumor burden by tipping the balance from a protumor to an antitumor immune environment. This review discusses common mechanisms that govern immune cell activation and tumor immune escape, and some of the current strategies employed in the field of cancer vaccines aimed at enhancing activation of tumor-specific T-cells with concurrent reduction of immunosuppression.

  4. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur's chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals. PMID:27525287

  5. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Niyati; Khanna, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur's chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals. PMID:27525287

  6. New strategies for simplifying influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Murugappan, Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Griep is een virale ziekte die wereldwijd een enorme impact heeft op de gezondheid van de mens. Vaccinatie wordt gezien als de beste maatregel om de verspreiding van het influenzavirus onder controle te houden. De huidige vaccins hebben echter een aantal tekortkomingen. Ze moeten per injectie worden toegediend, de productiecapaciteit is beperkt, de immuunreactie die ze opwekken is niet optimaal en ze zijn niet stabiel tijdens opslag. In dit proefschrift zijn twee strategieën onderzocht om dez...

  7. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

  8. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  9. Optimised electroporation mediated DNA vaccination for treatment of prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS: Plasmid expressing human PSA gene (phPSA) was delivered in vivo by intra-muscular electroporation, to induce effective anti-tumour immune responses against prostate antigen expressing tumours. Groups of male C57 BL\\/6 mice received intra-muscular injections of phPSA plasmid. For phPSA delivery, quadriceps muscle was injected with 50 mug plasmid. After 80 seconds, square-wave pulses were administered in sequence using a custom designed pulse generator and acustom-designed applicator with 2 needles placed through the skin central to the muscle. To determine an optimum treatment regimen, three different vaccination schedules were investigated. In a separate experiment, the immune potential of the phPSA vaccine was further enhanced with co- administration of synthetic CpG rich oligonucleotides. One week after last vaccination, the mice were challenged subcutaneously with TRAMPC1\\/hPSA (prostate cancer cell line stably expressing human PSA) and tumour growth was monitored. Serum from animals was examined by ELISA for anti-hPSA antibodies and for IFNgamma. Histological assessment of the tumours was also carried out. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with splenocytes from treated mice. RESULTS: The phPSA vaccine therapy significantly delayed the appearance of tumours and resulted in prolonged survival of the animals. Four-dose vaccination regimen provided optimal immunological effects. Co - administration of the synthetic CpG with phPSA increased anti-tumour responses

  10. Dendritic-Tumor Fusion Cell-Based Cancer Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeo Koido

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role in the induction of antitumor immunity. Therefore, various strategies have been developed to deliver tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) to DCs as cancer vaccines. The fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells to generate DC-tumor fusion cells (DC-tumor FCs) is an alternative strategy to treat cancer patients. The cell fusion method allows DCs to be exposed to the broad array of TAAs originally expressed by whol...

  11. Effect of vaccination strategies on the dynamic behavior of epidemic spreading and vaccine coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmission of infectious, yet vaccine-preventable, diseases is a typical complex social phenomenon, where the increasing level of vaccine update in the population helps to inhibit the epidemic spreading, which in turn, however, discourages more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, due to the “externality effect” raised by vaccination. We herein study the impact of vaccination strategies, pure, continuous (rather than adopt vaccination definitely, the individuals choose to taking vaccine with some probabilities), or continuous with randomly mutation, on the vaccination dynamics with a spatial susceptible-vaccinated-infected-recovered (SVIR) epidemiological model. By means of extensive Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that there is a crossover behavior of the final vaccine coverage between the pure-strategy case and the continuous-strategy case, and remarkably, both the final vaccination level and epidemic size in the continuous-strategy case are less than them in the pure-strategy case when vaccination is cheap. We explain this phenomenon by analyzing the organization process of the individuals in the continuous-strategy case in the equilibrium. Our results are robust to the SVIR dynamics defined on other spatial networks, like the Erdős–Rényi and Barabási–Albert networks

  12. American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Howard H; Chuang, Linus T; duPont, Nefertiti C; Eng, Cathy; Foxhall, Lewis E; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Blanke, Charles D

    2016-05-20

    American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the leading medical professional oncology society, is committed to lessening the burden of cancer and as such will promote underused interventions that have the potential to save millions of lives through cancer prevention. As the main providers of cancer care worldwide, our patients, their families, and our communities look to us for guidance regarding all things cancer related, including cancer prevention. Through this statement and accompanying recommendations, ASCO hopes to increase awareness of the tremendous global impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) -caused cancers, refocus the discussion of HPV vaccination on its likely ability to prevent millions of cancer deaths, and increase HPV vaccination uptake via greater involvement of oncology professionals in ensuring accurate public discourse about HPV vaccination and calling for the implementation of concrete strategies to address barriers to vaccine access and acceptance. PMID:27069078

  13. Nano cancer therapy strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of deaths. Millions of people are diagnosed with cancer every year. Many cancer cells have a protein all over their surface, while healthy cells typically do not express the protein as strongly. By conjugating, or binding, the gold nanoparticles to an antibody the researchers were able to get the nanoparticles to attach themselves to the cancer cells which may help us unravel the inner workings of a cancer cell and produce better treatments. In terms of drug delivery systems, nano particles enable unique approaches for cancer treatment. A large number of nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed for cancer therapy and currently they are in the preclinical stages of development. More recently developed nanoparticles are demonstrating the potential sophistication of these delivery systems by incorporating multifunctional capabilities and targeting strategies in an effort to increase the efficacy of these systems against the most difficult cancer challenges. This article reviews the available preclinical and clinical nanoparticle technology platforms and their impact on cancer therapy.

  14. Strategies for Early Vaccination During Novel Influenza Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Laskowski, M.; Xiao, Y; Charland, N.; S. M. Moghadas

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research and technology developments hold the promise of rapid production and large-scale deployment of strain-specific or cross-protective vaccines for novel influenza viruses. We sought to investigate the impact of early vaccination on age-specific attack rates and evaluate the outcomes of different vaccination strategies that are influenced by the level of single or two-dose vaccine-induced protections. We developed and parameterized an agent-based model for two population demograp...

  15. Therapeutic cancer vaccines: are we there yet?

    OpenAIRE

    Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Acquavella, Nicholas; Yu, Zhiya; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2011-01-01

    Enthusiasm for therapeutic cancer vaccines has been rejuvenated with the recent completion of several large, randomized phase III clinical trials that in some cases have reported an improvement in progression free or overall survival. However, an honest appraisal of their efficacy reveals modest clinical benefit and a frequent requirement for patients with relatively indolent cancers and minimal or no measurable disease. Experience with adoptive cell transfer-based immunotherapies unequivocal...

  16. Cancer-germline antigen vaccines and epigenetic enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Burns, Jorge; Ditzel, Henrik Jorn

    2010-01-01

    can be achieved using epigenetic modifiers. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: We provide an overview of the potential of CG antigens as targets for cancer immunotherapy, including advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss the current state of development of CG antigen vaccines, and the potential...... synergistic effect of combining CG antigen immunotherapeutic strategies with epigenetic modifiers. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader will gain an overview of the past, present and future role of CG antigens in cancer immunotherapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Chemoimmunotherapy using epigenetic drugs and CG...

  17. Evolution of animal models in cancer vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Zen; Jones, Richard F; Juhasz, Csaba; Gibson, Heather; Veenstra, Jesse

    2015-12-16

    Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity. Although engineered mouse strains have advanced cancer immunotherapy, basic shortcomings remain. For example, multiple mouse strains have to be tested to recapitulate genetic regulation of immune tolerance in humans. Outbred domestic felines more closely parallel humans in the natural development of HER2 positive breast cancer and their varying genetic background. Electrovaccination with heterologous HER2 DNA induces robust adaptive immune responses in cats. Importantly, homologous feline HER2 DNA with a single amino acid substitution elicits unique antibodies to feline mammary tumor cells, unlocking a new vaccine principle. As an alternative approach to targeted vaccination, non-surgical tumor ablation such as cryoablation induces anti-tumor immunity via in situ immunization, particularly when combined with toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As strategies for vaccination advance, non-invasive monitoring of host response becomes imperative. As an example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning following administration of tryptophan metabolism tracer [11C]-alpha-methyl-tryptophan (AMT) provides non-invasive imaging of both tumor growth and metabolic activities. Because AMT is a substrate of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that produces the immune regulatory molecule kynurenine, AMT imaging can provide

  18. Strategy of topical vaccination with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sascha; Patzelt, Alexa; Otberg, Nina; Thiede, Gisela; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2009-03-01

    Liposomes in the nanosize range have been recognized as a versatile drug delivery system of both hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules. In order to develop a liposome-based topical vaccination strategy, five different types of liposomes were tested as a putative vaccine delivery system on pig ear skin. The investigated liposomes mainly varied in size, lipid composition, and surface charge. Using hydrophilic and hydrophobic fluorescent dyes as model drugs, penetration behavior was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy of intact skin and histological sections, respectively. Follicular penetration of the liposomes was measured in comparison to a standard, nonliposomal formulation at different time points. Dependent on time but independent of their different characters, the liposomes showed a significantly higher penetration depth into the hair follicles compared to the standard formulation. The standard formulation reached a relative penetration depth of 30% of the full hair follicle length after seven days, whereas amphoteric and cationic liposomes had reached ~70%. Penetration depth of negatively charged liposomes did not exceed 50% of the total follicle length. The fluorescence dyes were mainly detected in the hair follicle; only a small amount of dye was found in the upper parts of the epidermis.

  19. Optimization model of vaccination strategy for dengue transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayani, H.; Kallista, M.; Nuraini, N.; Sari, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever is emerging tropical and subtropical disease caused by dengue virus infection. The vaccination should be done as a prevention of epidemic in population. The host-vector model are modified with consider a vaccination factor to prevent the occurrence of epidemic dengue in a population. An optimal vaccination strategy using non-linear objective function was proposed. The genetic algorithm programming techniques are combined with fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to construct the optimal vaccination. In this paper, the appropriate vaccination strategy by using the optimal minimum cost function which can reduce the number of epidemic was analyzed. The numerical simulation for some specific cases of vaccination strategy is shown.

  20. Cancer Vaccines in Ovarian Cancer: How Can We Improve?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Martin Lluesma; Anita Wolfer; Alexandre Harari; Lana E. Kandalaft

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one important cause of gynecologic cancer-related death. Currently, the mainstay of ovarian cancer treatment consists of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy (introduced 30 years ago) but, as the disease is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, its prognosis remains very poor. Clearly, there is a critical need for new treatment options, and immunotherapy is one attractive alternative. Prophylactic vaccines for prevention of infectious dise...

  1. Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies. An Update and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berical, Andrew C; Harris, Drew; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Possick, Jennifer D

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important global pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical disease in children and adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia is by far the common presentation of noninvasive and invasive pneumococcal disease and affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised disproportionately. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are also at higher risk for pneumococcal infections. Substantial progress over the century has been made in the understanding of pneumococcal immunobiology and the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease through vaccination. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are available for individuals at risk of pneumococcal disease: the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The goal of pneumococcal vaccination is to stimulate effective antipneumococcal antibody and mucosal immunity response and immunological memory. Vaccination of infants and young children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has led to significant decrease in nasal carriage rates and pneumococcal disease in all age groups. Recent pneumococcal vaccine indication and schedule recommendations on the basis of age and risk factors are outlined in this Focused Review. As new pneumococcal vaccine recommendations are being followed, continued efforts are needed to address the vaccine efficacy in the waning immunity of the ever-aging population, the implementation of vaccines using two different vaccines under very specific schedules and their real world clinical and cost effectiveness, and the development of next generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:27088424

  2. Considerations for developing an immunization strategy with enterovirus 71 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yin, Hongzhang; An, Zhijie; Feng, Zijian

    2015-02-25

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common pathogen for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has significant morbidity and mortality, and for which children aged 6-59 months age are at highest risk. Due to lack of effective treatment options, control of EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on development of EV71 vaccines. Clinical trials have been completed on 3 EV71 vaccines, with trial results demonstrating good vaccine efficacy and safety. When EV71 vaccine is approved by China's national regulatory authority, an evidence-based strategy should be developed to optimize impact and safety. An immunization strategy for EV71 vaccine should consider several factors, including the target population age group, the number of doses for primary immunization, the need for a booster dose, concomitant administration of other vaccines, economic value, program capacity and logistics, and public acceptance. Once EV71 vaccines are in use, vaccine effectiveness and safety must be monitored in large populations, and the epidemiology of HFMD must be evaluated to assure a match between vaccination strategy and epidemiology. Evaluation in China is especially important because there are no other EV71 vaccines globally. PMID:25444807

  3. Strategies for combinational cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The countless pre-clinical studies and many clinical trials that have applied tumor antigen-based therapies for the cancer treatment, and although the necessary tumor-specific immune response may be elicited in tumor-bearing hosts, this was not sufficient for the positive therapeutic outcome since there are multiple mechanisms that tumors develop to escape immune surveillance. The tumor-mediated inhibitory mechanisms involve co-inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions, such as PD-1/ PD-L1, secretion of inhibitory molecules, such as TGFb, and recruitment of suppressive cells, such as regulatory T cells (Treg), myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), etc. Therefore, we hypothesized that successful cancer immunotherapy requires not only induction and enhancement of effector immune response but also simultaneous targeting of suppressor arm of immune system, thus in addition to enhancing antigen-specific immunity using vaccines or radiation therapy, one should also target tumor-mediated immune suppression to improve the overall efficacy of therapy. We developed multiple strategies to target various tumor-mediated immune inhibitory mechanisms that can enhance anti-tumor immunity and restructure tumor microenvironment to allow effector cells generated due to vaccination or radiation therapy to function potently. We evaluated the immune and therapeutic efficacy of multiple combinational therapies, including blocking and agonist antibodies to co-inhibitory/co-stimulatory molecules, such as PD-1, PD-L1, OX40, CTLA-4, GITR, inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies to inhibitory cytokines/molecules, such as IL-10, TGFb, IDO, and small molecules for selective inhibition of Tregs. In addition to evaluation of anti-tumor efficacy we are also investigated cellular and molecular mechanisms of action for these agents when combined with vaccine or radiation therapy and exploring the interactions between compounds within combinational therapies in animal tumor models. We are

  4. Vaccines with dendritic cells in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that autologous D Cs pulsed with peptides specific for prostate specific Ag (PSA) or prostate-specific membrane Ag are capable of stimulating potent CT L in vitro. However there is evidence to believe that multiple tumour derived antigens would be more potent to elicit anti-tumour responses. Based on these observations a Phase I/II clinical trial in has been initiated. Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC s) were transfected with mRNA from three prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP and P C-3) and used for vaccination. Twenty patients have been enrolled and 19 have finished vaccination. Each patient received at least four weekly injections. Of them, 10 patients were vaccinated intranodally under ultrasonic guidance and 9 others received the vaccine intradermally. Safety and feasibility were evaluated. No evidence of toxicity and adverse events was observed. Immune response was measured as DTH and by vitro immunoassays including ELISPOT, T cell proliferation test and cytotoxicity test in pre- and post-vaccination peripheral blood samples. Twelve patients developed a specific immune response to tumour cells. Ten patients showed a significant decrease in log slope PSA. Patients with lower PSA tend to give a better response. The early clinical outcome was significantly related to immune responses (p<0.05). We conclude that the strategy of vaccinating with mRNA transfected D Cs functions to elicit cellular immune responses specific for antigens associated with prostate cancer cells and such responses may result in a clinical benefit for the patients

  5. Dengue vaccine: an update on recombinant subunit strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Hermida, L

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an increasing public health problem worldwide, with the four serotypes of the virus infecting over 390 million people annually. There is no specific treatment or antiviral drug for dengue, and prevention is largely limited to controlling the mosquito vectors or disrupting the human-vector contact. Despite the considerable progress made in recent years, an effective vaccine against the virus is not yet available. The development of a dengue vaccine has been hampered by many unique challenges, including the need to ensure the absence of vaccine-induced enhanced severity of disease. Recombinant protein subunit vaccines offer a safer alternative to other vaccine approaches. Several subunit vaccine candidates are presently under development, based on different structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Novel adjuvants or immunopotentiating strategies are also being tested to improve their immunogenicity. This review summarizes the current status and development trends of subunit dengue vaccines. PMID:26982462

  6. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  7. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  8. A prospective highlight on exosomal nanoshuttles and cancer immunotherapy and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rafi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: As complex systems, these vesicular micro-/nano-machines convey important cellular messages dependent upon the cells/tissue setting(s. In addition to their potential in diagnosis of cancers, they have been exploited for cancer immunotherapy/vaccination. However, such treatment strategies need to be carefully designed to attain desired clinical outcomes.

  9. Dendritic cell vaccines in cancer immunotherapy: from biology to translational medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei Xu; Xuetao Cao

    2011-01-01

    According to the GLOBOCAN reports,there were about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths in 2008,and the cancer burden continues to increase worldwide [1].At present,the common treatments for cancer include surgery,chemotherapy,radiotherapy,and immunotherapy.Immunotherapy aims to enhance or regulate the patient's own immune response to fight against tumors.It represents a novel and effective strategy in cancer treatments,but,generally,its efficacy needs to be improved [2].Cancer vaccination is an important and promising approach in cancer immunotherapy.For many years,prophylactic vaccines have exhibited profound accomplishment in preventing serious infectious diseases in humankind,including polio,small pox,and diphtheria.However,cancer vaccines are vastly different from the prophylactic vaccines in that they are aimed to eliminate preexisting tumors.Furthermore,the immune system is immunosuppressed in most cancer patients,so it is much more difficult to develop effective cancer vaccines.

  10. Tumor vaccine strategies after allogeneic T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrara James L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is currently restricted to hematological malignancies because of a lack of anti-tumor activity against solid cancers. We have tested a novel treatment strategy to stimulate specific anti-tumor activity against a solid tumor after transplantation by vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Using the B16 melanoma model, we found that vaccination elicited potent anti-tumor activity in recipients of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in a time dependent fashion, and that immune reconstitution was critical for the development of anti-tumor activity. Vaccination did not stimulate anti-tumor immunity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of the post-transplantation immunodeficiency associated with graft-versus-host disease. Remarkably, vaccination was effective in stimulating potent and long-lasting anti-tumor activity in recipients of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Thus T cells derived from donor stem cells were able to recognize tumor antigens even though they remained tolerant to host histocompatibility antigens. Donor leukocyte infusion from a donor immunized with the recipient-derived B16 vaccines enhanced clinical activity of tumor vaccines without exacerbating graft-versus-host disease and CD4+ T cells are essential for this enhancement. These results demonstrate that vaccination of both donors and recipients can stimulate potent anti-tumor effects without the induction of graft-versus-host disease, and this strategy has important implications for the treatment of patients with solid malignancies.

  11. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...

  12. [Vaccination safety and media publicity strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J B; Guo, X M; Li, K L; Zhang, X M

    2016-03-10

    Due to the over negative report of adverse event following immunization (AEFI) by media, some people began to question the safety of vaccination. Date published since 2005 were collected by literature retrieval, mainly including relative AEFI date, current status of media report of AEFI, public awareness about AEFI. Public concern about the vaccination safety mainly focused on the serious diseases which might be caused, influence on immune system. Media' s over negative reactions to AEFI and lack of related knowledge in general public have led to the public' s concern about vaccination safety. Vaccination is the most economical and effective measure for the prevention of diseases and AEFI incidence rate is very low. Therefore, it is necessary for media to give more positive report about vaccination safety. PMID:27005553

  13. Cervical cancer: The preventive role of HPV vaccine (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Behtash

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer. A steady 70% annual decline in mortality from cervical cancers has been observed since the mid 20th century after the introduction of widespread papanicolaou cytological screening. But also cervical cancer continues to be an important world health problem for women. Cervical cancer is one of the best- understood neoplasm given its well known viral cause of persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV. To date, two manufacturers have developed HPV vaccines composed of noninfectious, recombinant HPV viral-like particles (VLPs. This article presents current advances and perspectives on HPV vaccines.The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

  14. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  15. Cancer vaccines and immunotherapeutics: challenges for pricing, reimbursement and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Bengt; Wilking, Nils

    2012-09-01

    Public payment is key to market access for new therapeutics including cancer vaccines and cancer immunotherapeutics. However, the methodology for economic evaluation aimed at informing decisions about pricing and reimbursement is different for cancer vaccines, such as HPV for preventing the occurrence or incidence of cancer, and immunotherapeutics for treatment of patients with manifest cancer. Vaccination against HPV is a traditional public health intervention, where the role of economic evaluation is to inform decisions about optimal vaccination strategies. The decision is about funding for a vaccination program, aimed at vaccinating a defined population at risk, either at a national or regional level. The methodology of economic evaluation is based on statistical modeling of number of cases prevented over a long time period, and the costs and health outcome related to this, for different vaccination strategies For immunotherapeutics, the role of economic evaluation is to assist decisions about reimbursement and guidelines for treatment of patients with establish disease, very often at advanced stages with short life expectancy. The focus is on alternative treatment options, and the costs and outcomes associated with these. Alternatives may be best supportive care, immunotherapeutics or other treatments like surgery, radiotherapy and other anti-cancer drugs. From an economic perspective the type of therapy does not matter, only costs and outcome associated with the relevant alternatives. The main controversy about reimbursement of immunotherapeutics, as with other new cancer drugs, has been the cost of treatment, mainly determined by the price of the therapy, in relation to the expected benefits in terms of survival and quality of life. This paper reviews the evidence on cost-effectiveness, the reimbursement decisions made, and the impact on market access for new immunotherapeutics. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge(®)) and abiraterone (Zytiga(®)) for treatment of

  16. Therapeutic vaccines as a promising treatment modality against prostate cancer: rationale and recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, B Harpreet; Gulley, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy was deemed the medical breakthrough of 2013, in part because it can induce a rapid, durable, self-propagating and adaptable immune response. Specifically in prostate cancer, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive treatment strategy. To date, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors are the two classes of immunotherapy that have demonstrated improvements in overall survival in patients with advanced tumors. The 2010 Food and Drug Administr...

  17. Current therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapy strategies for HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Woodham, Andrew W; Einstein, Mark H; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-06-01

    Carcinomas of the anogenital tract, in particular cervical cancer, remains one of the most common cancers in women, and represent the most frequent gynecological malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are immunologically distinct in that they express viral antigens, which are necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. The causal relationship between HPV infection and anogenital cancer has prompted substantial interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines against high-risk HPV types targeting the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for immunotherapies for mucosal HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced diseases. Progress in peptide- and protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibition, immune response modifiers, and adoptive cell therapy for HPV will be discussed. PMID:26835746

  18. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  19. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  20. An overview of human papillomaviruses and current vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanamony M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The viral origin of cervical cancer has been proven beyond any reasonable doubt. Persistent infection with certain subsets of human papillomaviruses is recognized as a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. Persistence of oncogenic HPVs, immunodeficiency, high HPV viral load and cofactors like smoking, multiple sex partners and poor nutrition predispose to cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines using HPV virus-like particles containing capsid protein L1 have shown protection against disease in animals and are currently undergoing clinical trials. Therapeutic vaccines using HPV E6 and E7 proteins are also being investigated for their ability to remove residual infection.

  1. TAA Polyepitope DNA-Based Vaccines: A Potential Tool for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based cancer vaccines represent an attractive strategy for inducing immunity to tumor associated antigens (TAAs in cancer patients. The demonstration that the delivery of a recombinant plasmid encoding epitopes can lead to epitope production, processing, and presentation to CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and the advantage of using a single DNA construct encoding multiple epitopes of one or more TAAs to elicit a broad spectrum of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes has encouraged the development of a variety of strategies aimed at increasing immunogenicity of TAA polyepitope DNA-based vaccines. The polyepitope DNA-based cancer vaccine approach can (a circumvent the variability of peptide presentation by tumor cells, (b allow the introduction in the plasmid construct of multiple immunogenic epitopes including heteroclitic epitope versions, and (c permit to enroll patients with different major histocompatibility complex (MHC haplotypes. This review will discuss the rationale for using the TAA polyepitope DNA-based vaccination strategy and recent results corroborating the usefulness of DNA encoding polyepitope vaccines as a potential tool for cancer therapy.

  2. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  3. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage vaccination of HPV-unexposed adolescents with screening using methods with higher sensitivity than cytology as HPV test may be more cost-effective than the strategies currently used. The cytology-based screening programs of Latin America countries including Colombia are very ineffective. The evidence in favor of the cost-effectiveness of other screening strategies such as HPV tests and visual inspection followed by immediate treatment for women with difficult access to health care services in developing countries warrants the immediate revision of the current strategies.

  4. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Ciliberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  5. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurisicchio, Luigi, E-mail: aurisicchio@takis-it.it [Takis, via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy); BIOGEM scarl, via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV) (Italy); Ciliberto, Gennaro [Takis, via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università degli studi di Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, 88100 Catanzaro (Italy)

    2011-09-22

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  6. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost

  7. On the robust optimization to the uncertain vaccination strategy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prevent an epidemic of infectious diseases, the vaccination coverage needs to be minimized and also the basic reproduction number needs to be maintained below 1. This means that as we get the vaccination coverage as minimum as possible, thus we need to prevent the epidemic to a small number of people who already get infected. In this paper, we discuss the case of vaccination strategy in term of minimizing vaccination coverage, when the basic reproduction number is assumed as an uncertain parameter that lies between 0 and 1. We refer to the linear optimization model for vaccination strategy that propose by Becker and Starrzak (see [2]). Assuming that there is parameter uncertainty involved, we can see Tanner et al (see [9]) who propose the optimal solution of the problem using stochastic programming. In this paper we discuss an alternative way of optimizing the uncertain vaccination strategy using Robust Optimization (see [3]). In this approach we assume that the parameter uncertainty lies within an ellipsoidal uncertainty set such that we can claim that the obtained result will be achieved in a polynomial time algorithm (as it is guaranteed by the RO methodology). The robust counterpart model is presented

  8. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  9. A vaccination strategy to SEIR-CA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzakki, Muhammad Zaki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-04-01

    A combination between Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) model and Cellular Automaton (CA) called SEIR-CA model has been proposed to simulate spreading diseases through populations. We make an improvement to the parameter which describe the impact of neighborhood in CA system. We also propose a vaccination strategy to the model. Three examples are given to illustrate the model. The first one shows that the previously established SEIR-CA model does not work properly in a population with randomly distributed individuals. After an improvement to the neighborhood impact parameter has been made, the model works properly in a population with randomly distributed individuals and it is shown in the second example. The last example shows the spreading mechanisms with a chosen vaccination strategy. We also show that the vaccination strategy can reduce the number of infected individuals and can suppress the spread of the diseases.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to cervical cancer screening in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vokó Zoltán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical cancer screening program implemented in Hungary to date has not been successful. Along with screening, vaccination is an effective intervention to prevent cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to the current cervical cancer screening program in Hungary. Methods We developed a cohort simulation state-transition Markov model to model the life course of 12-year-old girls. Eighty percent participation in the HPV vaccination program at 12 years of age was assumed. Transitional probabilities were estimated using data from the literature. Local data were used regarding screening participation rates, and the costs were estimated in US $. We applied the purchasing power parity exchange rate of 129 HUF/$ to the cost data. Only direct health care costs were considered. We used a 3.7% discount rate for both the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. The time horizon was 88 years. Results Inclusion of HPV vaccination at age 12 in the cervical cancer prevention program was predicted to be cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of adding HPV vaccination to the current national cancer screening program was estimated to be 27 588 $/QALY. The results were sensitive to the price of the vaccine, the discount rate, the screening participation rate and whether herd immunity was taken into account. Conclusions Our modeling analysis showed that the vaccination of 12-year-old adolescent girls against cervical cancer with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine would be a cost-effective strategy to prevent cervical cancer in Hungary.

  11. Immune Modulation by Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy to Enhance Cancer Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Mansour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between the tumor and immune system has led to the development of novel immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines have many advantageous features, but their use has been hampered by poor immunogenicity. Many developments have increased their potency in pre-clinical models, but cancer vaccines continue to have a poor clinical track record. In part, this could be due to an inability to effectively overcome tumor-induced immune suppression. It had been generally assumed that immune-stimulatory cancer vaccines could not be used in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapies, but recent evidence has challenged this dogma. Chemotherapies could be used to condition the immune system and tumor to create an environment where cancer vaccines have a better chance of success. Other types of immunotherapies could also be used to modulate the immune system. This review will discuss how immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be used to bolster the effects of cancer vaccines and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments.

  12. Immune Modulation by Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy to Enhance Cancer Vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Genevieve M. [Suite 411, 1344 Summer St., Immunovaccine Inc., Halifax, NS, B3H 0A8 (Canada); Room 11-L1, Sir Charles Tupper Building, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College St, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Liwski, Robert S. [Room 11-L1, Sir Charles Tupper Building, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College St, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Room 206E, Dr. D. J. Mackenzie Building, Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, 5788 University Avenue, Halifax, NS, B3H 2Y9 (Canada); Mansour, Marc [Suite 411, 1344 Summer St., Immunovaccine Inc., Halifax, NS, B3H 0A8 (Canada)

    2011-08-05

    Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between the tumor and immune system has led to the development of novel immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines have many advantageous features, but their use has been hampered by poor immunogenicity. Many developments have increased their potency in pre-clinical models, but cancer vaccines continue to have a poor clinical track record. In part, this could be due to an inability to effectively overcome tumor-induced immune suppression. It had been generally assumed that immune-stimulatory cancer vaccines could not be used in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapies, but recent evidence has challenged this dogma. Chemotherapies could be used to condition the immune system and tumor to create an environment where cancer vaccines have a better chance of success. Other types of immunotherapies could also be used to modulate the immune system. This review will discuss how immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be used to bolster the effects of cancer vaccines and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments.

  13. Immune Modulation by Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy to Enhance Cancer Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy has been a mainstay in cancer treatment for many years. Despite some success, the cure rate with chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory in some types of cancers, and severe side effects from these treatments are a concern. Recently, understanding of the dynamic interplay between the tumor and immune system has led to the development of novel immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccines have many advantageous features, but their use has been hampered by poor immunogenicity. Many developments have increased their potency in pre-clinical models, but cancer vaccines continue to have a poor clinical track record. In part, this could be due to an inability to effectively overcome tumor-induced immune suppression. It had been generally assumed that immune-stimulatory cancer vaccines could not be used in combination with immunosuppressive chemotherapies, but recent evidence has challenged this dogma. Chemotherapies could be used to condition the immune system and tumor to create an environment where cancer vaccines have a better chance of success. Other types of immunotherapies could also be used to modulate the immune system. This review will discuss how immune modulation by chemotherapy or immunotherapy could be used to bolster the effects of cancer vaccines and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments

  14. Modeling HIV Vaccine Strategy in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Regoes, Roland R.; Longini, Ira M.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Staprans, Silvija I.

    2005-01-01

    Background Trials in macaque models play an essential role in the evaluation of biomedical interventions that aim to prevent HIV infection, such as vaccines, microbicides, and systemic chemoprophylaxis. These trials are usually conducted with very high virus challenge doses that result in infection with certainty. However, these high challenge doses do not realistically reflect the low probability of HIV transmission in humans, and thus may rule out preventive interventions that could protect...

  15. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  16. Approaches to improve development methods for therapeutic cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Chizuru; Aruga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic cancer vaccines are an immunotherapy that amplify or induce an active immune response against tumors. Notably, limitations in the methodology for existing anti-cancer drugs may subsist while applying them to cancer vaccine therapy. A retrospective analysis was performed using information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and published articles. Our research evaluated the optimal methodologies for therapeutic cancer vaccines based on (1) patient populations, (2) immune monitoring, (3) tumor response evaluation, and (4) supplementary therapies. Failure to optimize these methodologies at an early phase may impact development at later stages; thus, we have proposed some points to be considered during the early phase. Moreover, we compared our proposal with the guidance for industry issued by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2011 entitled "Clinical Considerations for Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines". Consequently, while our research was aligned with the guidance, we hope it provides further insights in order to predict the risks and benefits and facilitate decisions for a new technology. We identified the following points for consideration: (1) include in the selection criteria the immunological stage with a prognostic value, which is as important as the tumor stage; (2) select immunological assays such as phenotype analysis of lymphocytes, based on their features and standardize assay methods; (3) utilize optimal response criteria for immunotherapy in therapeutic cancer vaccine trials; and (4) consider supplementary therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, for future therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:25746315

  17. DNA vaccines, electroporation and their applications in cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Si-Hyeong; Danishmalik, Sayyed Nilofar; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2015-01-01

    Numerous animal studies and recent clinical studies have shown that electroporation-delivered DNA vaccines can elicit robust Ag-specific CTL responses and reduce disease severity. However, cancer antigens are generally poorly immunogenic, requiring special conditions for immune response induction. To date, many different approaches have been used to elicit Ag-specific CTL and anti-neoplastic responses to DNA vaccines against cancer. In vivo electroporation is one example, whereas others inclu...

  18. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies. METHODS: The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data. RESULTS: The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns. DISCUSSION: We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine

  19. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  20. Dendritic cell-based vaccination in cancer: therapeutic implications emerging from murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eMac Keon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a pivotal role in the orchestration of immune responses, and are thus key targets in cancer vaccine design. Since the 2010 FDA approval of the first cancer DC-based vaccine (Sipuleucel T there has been a surge of interest in exploiting these cells as a therapeutic option for the treatment of tumors of diverse origin. In spite of the encouraging results obtained in the clinic, many elements of DC-based vaccination strategies need to be optimized. In this context, the use of experimental cancer models can help direct efforts towards an effective vaccine design. This paper reviews recent findings in murine models regarding the antitumoral mechanisms of DC-based vaccination, covering issues related to antigen sources, the use of adjuvants and maturing agents, and the role of DC subsets and their interaction in the initiation of antitumoral immune responses. The summary of such diverse aspects will highlight advantages and drawbacks in the use of murine models, and contribute to the design of successful DC-based translational approaches for cancer treatment.

  1. Challenges to the development of antigen-specific breast cancer vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continued progress in the development of antigen-specific breast cancer vaccines depends on the identification of appropriate target antigens, the establishment of effective immunization strategies, and the ability to circumvent immune escape mechanisms. Methods such as T cell epitope cloning and serological expression cloning (SEREX) have led to the identification of a number target antigens expressed in breast cancer. Improved immunization strategies, such as using dendritic cells to present tumor-associated antigens to T lymphocytes, have been shown to induce antigen-specific T cell responses in vivo and, in some cases, objective clinical responses. An outcome of successful tumor immunity is the evolution of antigen-loss tumor variants. The development of a polyvalent breast cancer vaccine, directed against a panel of tumor-associated antigens, may counteract this form of immune escape

  2. Design of clinical trials for therapeutic cancer vaccines development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-25

    Advances in molecular and cellular biology as well as biotechnology led to definition of a group of drugs referred to as medicinal products of advanced technologies. It includes gene therapy products, somatic cell therapeutics and tissue engineering. Therapeutic cancer vaccines including whole cell tumor cells vaccines or gene modified whole cells belong to somatic therapeutics and/or gene therapy products category. The drug development is a multistep complex process. It comprises of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Guidelines on preclinical testing of cell based immunotherapy medicinal products have been defined by regulatory agencies and are available. However, clinical testing of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still under debate. It presents a serious problem since recently clinical efficacy of the number of cancer vaccines has been demonstrated that focused a lot of public attention. In general clinical testing in the current form is very expensive, time consuming and poorly designed what may lead to overlooking of products clinically beneficial for patients. Accordingly regulatory authorities and researches including Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group proposed three regulatory solutions to facilitate clinical development of cancer vaccines: cost-recovery program, conditional marketing authorization, and a new development paradigm. Paradigm includes a model in which cancer vaccines are investigated in two types of clinical trials: proof-of-principle and efficacy. The proof-of-principle trial objectives are: safety; dose selection and schedule of vaccination; and demonstration of proof-of-principle. Efficacy trials are randomized clinical trials with objectives of demonstrating clinical benefit either directly or through a surrogate. The clinical end points are still under debate. PMID:19835869

  3. Post-polio eradication: vaccination strategies and options for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally. Since then, the initiative has reported dramatic progress in decreasing the incidence of poliomyelitis and limiting the geographical extent of transmission. 2013 is recorded as the second consecutive year not reporting wild poliovirus (WPV from India. If the country can retain this position for one more year India will be declared as polio eradicated. What should be the future vaccination strategies? We searched and reviewed the full text of the available published literature on polio eradication via PubMed and examined Internet sources and websites of major international health agencies. The oral polio vaccine (OPV has been the main tool in the polio eradication program. Once WPV transmission is interrupted, the poliomyelitis will be caused only by OPV. India could expect 1 vaccine-associated paralytic polio per 4.2-4.6 million doses of OPV. Considering the threat of vaccine-derived viruses to polio eradication, WHO urged to develop a strategy to safely discontinue OPV after certification. The ultimate aim is to stop OPV safely and effectively, and eventually substitute with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. The argument against the use of IPV is its cost. From India, field based data were available on the efficacy of IPV, which was better than OPV. IPV given intradermally resulted in seroconversion rates similar to full-dose intramuscular vaccine. The incremental cost of adopting IPV to replace OPV is relatively low, about US $1 per child per year, and most countries should be able to afford this additional cost.

  4. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073

  5. Targeting the Heterogeneity of Cancer with Individualized Neoepitope Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türeci, Özlem; Vormehr, Mathias; Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Huber, Christoph; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-04-15

    Somatic mutations binding to the patient's MHC and recognized by autologous T cells (neoepitopes) are ideal cancer vaccine targets. They combine a favorable safety profile due to a lack of expression in healthy tissues with a high likelihood of immunogenicity, as T cells recognizing neoepitopes are not shaped by central immune tolerance. Proteins mutated in cancer (neoantigens) shared by patients have been explored as vaccine targets for many years. Shared ("public") mutations, however, are rare, as the vast majority of cancer mutations in a given tumor are unique for the individual patient. Recently, the novel concept of truly individualized cancer vaccination emerged, which exploits the vast source of patient-specific "private" mutations. Concurrence of scientific advances and technological breakthroughs enables the rapid, cost-efficient, and comprehensive mapping of the "mutanome," which is the entirety of somatic mutations in an individual tumor, and the rational selection of neoepitopes. How to transform tumor mutanome data to actionable knowledge for tailoring individualized vaccines "on demand" has become a novel research field with paradigm-shifting potential. This review gives an overview with particular focus on the clinical development of such vaccines.Clin Cancer Res; 22(8); 1885-96. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY". PMID:27084742

  6. Glycan changes: cancer metastasis and anti-cancer vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Li; Lujun Song; Xinyu Qin

    2010-12-01

    Complex carbohydrates, which are major components of the cell membrane, perform important functions in cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, as well as in signal transduction. They comprise three kinds of biomolecules: glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosphingolipids. Recent studies have also shown that glycan changes in malignant cells take a variety of forms and mediate key pathophysiological events during the various stages of tumour progression. Glycosylation changes are universal hallmarks of malignant transformation and tumour progression in human cancer, which take place on the whole cells or some specific molecules. Accordingly, those changes make them prominent candidates for cancer biomarkers in the meantime. This review mainly focuses on the correlation between glycosylation and the metastasis potential of tumour cells from comprehensive aspects to further address the vital roles of glycans in oncogenesising. Moreover, utilizing these glycosylation changes to ward off tumour metastasis by means of anti-adhesion approach or devising anti-cancer vaccine is one of promising targets of future study.

  7. Update: immunological strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Charles G; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2010-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in US men. Along with initial therapy using surgery, radiotherapy, or cryotherapy, hormonal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. For men with advanced (metastatic) disease, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and provides a significant survival advantage. This relative paucity of treatment options drives an ongoing quest for additional treatment modalities; among these is immunotherapy. The concept that prostate cancer is a malignancy that can be targeted by the immune system may seem counterintuitive; certainly kidney cancer and melanoma are more traditionally thought of as immune responsive cancers. However, prostate cancer arises in a relatively unique organ and may express a number of proteins (antigens) against which an immune response can be generated. More importantly, several of these agents have now demonstrated a significant survival benefit in randomized controlled clinical trials, and one agent in particular (Sipuleucel-T, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA) could be FDA-approved in 2010. This update summarizes recent clinical developments in the field of prostate cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on dendritic cell vaccines, virus-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and cell-based vaccines. In addition, the notion of agents that target immune checkpoints is introduced. Enthusiasm for prostate cancer immunotherapy is founded upon its potential to mediate targeted, specific, tumor cell destruction without significant systemic toxicity; however, this has yet to be fully realized in the clinical arena. PMID:20425628

  8. Development of a therapeutic vaccination strategy against cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the effi cacy of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and premalignant cervical disease. Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of

  9. Impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on anal cancer incidence in French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Lounes, Rachid; Clémençon, Stéphan

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 are found to be involved in 80% of anal cancers. Two vaccines against HPV infections are currently available, and vaccination policies aim to decrease mainly, incidence of cervical cancers. Moreover, an impact of HPV vaccination on the incidence of anal cancer can also be expected. Our aim was to assess the potential benefits of HPV vaccination on the occurrence of female anal cancer in France. We developed a dynamic model for the heterosexual transmission...

  10. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed. PMID:26366475

  11. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  12. Novel vaccine strategies to T-independent antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, G B; Westerink, M A

    2001-11-01

    T cell independent antigens do not require T cell help to induce an immune response, and are characterized by a lack of immunologic memory. These antigens can be divided into two classes, TI-1 or TI-2. TI-1 antigens, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, are potent B-cell mitogens, capable of non-specific, polyclonal activation of B cells. In contrast, TI-2 antigens can only activate mature B cells and consist of highly repetitive structures, such as capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from bacteria. Many vaccines currently in use consist of purified capsular polysaccharides from pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These vaccines are efficacious in immune-competent adults, however, due to their TI-2 nature, are not effective in children <2 years of age. Converting polysaccharides into T cell dependent (TD) antigens, allows children, <2, to produce an effective immune response. This review focuses on various strategies used to convert the immune response to polysaccharide antigens from TI-2 to a TD response. Conjugate vaccines, anti-idiotypic antibodies, phage display library technology and DNA vaccines are discussed. PMID:11576678

  13. The role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in the prevention of anal cancer in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Luis F.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing in the general population and especially in high-risk groups. A total of 90% of anal cancers are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the anal canal. Similar to cervical cancer, anal cancer progresses through a predictable series of premalignant stages before resulting in invasive cancer; this process begins with persistent HPV infection. The HPV vaccine represents a promising strategy to combat the increasing incidence of anal cancer.

  14. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva; Svane, Inge Marie;

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination with...... of proteins coupled to intrinsic properties of cancer cells. For example, proteins associated with drug resistance can be targeted, and form ideal target structures for use in combination with chemotherapy for killing of surviving drug resistant cancer cells. Proteins associated with the malignant...... phenotype can be targeted to specifically target cancer cells, but proteins targeted by immunotherapy may also simultaneously target cancer cells as well as suppressive cells in the tumor stroma....

  15. Therapeutic cancer vaccines and combination immunotherapies involving vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen T; Urban J.; Kalinski P

    2014-01-01

    Trang Nguyen,1 Julie Urban,1 Pawel Kalinski1–5 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Immunology, 3Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 5University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals of Provenge® (sipuleucel-T) as the first cell-based cancer therapeutic factor and ipilimumab (Yervoy®/anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) as the first &...

  16. 预防肿瘤术后复发和转移的最新疗法 :热休克蛋白 /肽复合物疫苗的研究与应用%A new strategy to prevent cancer recurrence and metastasis after operation:research and application of heat shock protein/peptides complex vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继营; 袁玫; 卢世璧

    2002-01-01

    Deepened understanding of the mechanism involved in the activation of T cells and improved molecular biology techniques have brought a promising strategy to active a patient's immune system to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are chaperones of peptides,It can elicit array of immune responses,such as:present tumor antigens to T cells, stimulate antigen presenting cells to secrete cytokines,mediate maturation of dentritic cells,active NK cells and/T cells.Extract HSP/peptides complex from tumor cells can be used as a polyvalent vaccine for treatment of cancers,The elicited antigen specific immune response is restricted to the tumor from which the HSPs are purified.HSP/peptides complex vaccine has been started in third clinical trials.The rationale,feasibility,advantages and safety of this new approach were discussed.

  17. Vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for Spanish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain. PMID:15962472

  18. HPV vaccination and allocative efficiency: regional analysis of the costs and benefits with the bivalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, from the perspective of public health, for the prevention of cervical cancer and its pre-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: by means of the decisions on whether to introduce the HPV vaccination, Public Health has already established the importance of associating the vaccination strategy to the policy of secondary prevention. The screening + vaccination strategy is more effective than the two methods taken individually. In support of this combined strategy and in order to make available per each region concrete elements for their regional planning, an assessment has been made, which also takes into account the effect of cross-protection regarding high-risk strains not contained in both vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, and more frequently responsible for pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer (CCU. This analysis evaluates the costs and benefits of screening + vaccination strategy in a 12-year-old female cohort. Furthermore, the paper provides results that may be useful to assess the opportunity to extend the vaccination to a second cohort of 24-25-year-old women. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of CCU epidemiology available data, public health policies that give precise guidelines for vaccination strategies and analytical tools suitable to support public policy makers to efficiently allocate resources. Methods: two different models were used for two regional analyses.The vaccines may have different sustained- and cross-protection levels against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV-types. In the first analysis, a prevalence-based model estimated the potential net difference in HPV-related lesions (abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, cervical cancer (CC and genital warts (GW and associated costs generated by the two vaccines. Vaccine efficacy rates were based on published data for each vaccine. Lifetime vaccine efficacy was assumed. Results are reported over one year after reaching a steady state. Incidence and treatment costs were obtained from Italian and European sources. We also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis

  19. A strategy for cancer control in Ireland / National Cancer Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health and Children

    2006-01-01

    To address the rapidly rising burden of cancer, this second National Cancer Strategy A Strategy for Cancer Control in Ireland 2006 advocates a comprehensive cancer control policy programme. Cancer control is a whole population, integrated and cohesive approach to cancer that involves prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and supportive and palliative care. It places a major emphasis on measurement of need and on addressing inequalities and implies that we must focus on ensuring that al...

  20. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Moa; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Kuhlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Wallensten, Anders; Sparen, Par; Netterlid, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born >= 1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-l...

  1. Some vaccination strategies for the SEIR epidemic model. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero.

  2. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Combination with Conventional Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, N.; Ellebaek, E.;

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination with...

  3. Genetically modified dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2001), s. 153-155. ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cells * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  4. Economic Analysis of Vaccination Strategies for PRRS Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 2.1 years. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  5. Enhancing DNA Vaccine Potency by Combining a Strategy to Prolong Dendritic Cell Life and Intracellular Targeting Strategies with a Strategy to Boost CD4+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Daejin; Hoory, Talia; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Intradermal administration of DNA vaccines, using a gene gun, represents an effective means of delivering DNA directly into professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin and thus allows the application of strategies to modify the properties of APCs to enhance DNA vaccine potency. In the current study, we hypothesized that the potency of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 DNA vaccines employing intracellular targeting strategies combined with a strategy to prolong the life of den...

  6. Therapeutic vaccines against human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Arregui, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are linked to infection by a subset of so-called "highrisk" human papillomavirus types, which are estimated to infect nearly four hundred million women worldwide. Two prophylactic vaccines have been commercialized recently targeting HPV16 and 18, the most prevalent viral types found in cervical cancer, which operate through induction of capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, in patients with persistent infection these vaccines have not been found to protect against progression to neoplasia. Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines targeting nonstructural early viral proteins. Among these, E6 and E7 are the preferred targets, since they are essential for induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype and are constitutively expressed by the transformed epithelial cells. Here are reviewed the most relevant potential vaccines based on HPV early antigens that have shown efficacy in preclinical models and that are being tested in clinical studies, which should determine their therapeutic capacity for eradicating HPV-induced premalignant and malignant lesions and cure cervical cancer. PMID:19915722

  7. Cancer therapy using a self-replicating RNA vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Han; Zaks, Tal Z.; Wang, Rong-fu; Irvine, Kari R.; Kammula, Udai S.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    1999-01-01

    ‘Naked’ nucleic acid vaccines are potentially useful candidates for the treatment of patients with cancer1-3, but their clinical efficacy has yet to be demonstrated. We sought to enhance the immunogenicity of a nucleic acid vaccine by making it ‘self-replicating’. We accomplished this by using a gene encoding an RNA replicase polyprotein derived from the Semliki forest virus, in combination with a model antigen. A single intramuscular injection of a self-replicating RNA immunogen elicited ant...

  8. Vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats: a unique cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, E A

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports a relationship between vaccination of cats for rabies and feline leukemia virus with the development of soft tissue sarcomas at the site of administration. These tumors are locally invasive and histologically aggressive. As with high-grade soft tissue sarcoma in humans, combination treatment with radiation therapy and surgery provides for optimum tumor control. Feline vaccine-associated sarcoma has become a difficult issue for the veterinary profession for legal, ethical, and clinical reasons. Although most research efforts have focused on therapeutic intervention, this tumor has great potential to provide an informative model for carcinogenesis and genetic susceptibility applicable to cancer in all species, including humans. PMID:11153990

  9. Brachyury, a vaccine target, is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Duane H; Roselli, Mario; Ferroni, Patrizia; Costarelli, Leopoldo; Cavaliere, Francesco; Taffuri, Mariateresa; Palena, Claudia; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2016-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a high rate of tumor metastasis and a poor prognosis. The treatment option for these patients is currently chemotherapy, which results in very low response rates. Strategies that exploit the immune system for the treatment of cancer have now shown the ability to improve survival in several tumor types. Identifying potential targets for immune therapeutic interventions is an important step in developing novel treatments for TNBC. In this study, in silico analysis of publicly available datasets and immunohistochemical analysis of primary and metastatic tumor biopsies from TNBC patients were conducted to evaluate the expression of the transcription factor brachyury, which is a driver of tumor metastasis and resistance and a target for cancer vaccine approaches. Analysis of breast cancer datasets demonstrated a predominant expression of brachyury mRNA in TNBC and in basal vs luminal or HER2 molecular breast cancer subtypes. At the protein level, variable levels of brachyury expression were detected both in primary and metastatic TNBC lesions. A strong association was observed between nuclear brachyury protein expression and the stage of disease, with nuclear brachyury being more predominant in metastatic vs primary tumors. Survival analysis also demonstrated an association between high levels of brachyury in the primary tumor and poor prognosis. Two brachyury-targeting cancer vaccines are currently undergoing clinical evaluation; the data presented here provide rationale for using brachyury-targeting immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:27580659

  10. Business models and opportunities for cancer vaccine developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Despite of growing oncology pipeline, cancer vaccines contribute only to a minor share of total oncology-attributed revenues. This is mainly because of a limited number of approved products and limited sales from products approved under compassionate or via early access entry in smaller and less developed markets. However revenue contribution from these products is extremely limited and it remains to be established whether developers are breaking even or achieving profitability with existing sales. Cancer vaccine field is well recognized for high development costs and risks, low historical rates of investment return and high probability of failures arising in ventures, partnerships and alliances. The cost of reimbursement for new oncology agents is not universally acceptable to payers limiting the potential for a global expansion, market access and reducing probability of commercial success. In addition, the innovation in cancer immunotherapy is currently focused in small and mid-size biotech companies and academic institutions struggling for investment. Existing R&D innovation models are deemed unsustainable in current "value-for-money" oriented healthcare environment. New business models should be much more open to collaborative, networked and federated styles, which could help to outreach global, markets and increase cost-efficiencies across an entire value chain. Lessons learned from some developing countries and especially from South Korea illustrate that further growth of cancer vaccine industry will depends not only on new business models but also will heavily rely on regional support and initiatives from different bodies, such as governments, payers and regulatory bodies. PMID:22894953

  11. Therapeutic vaccines in non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socola, Francisco; Scherfenberg, Naomi; Raez, Luis E

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) unfortunately carries a very poor prognosis. Patients usually do not become symptomatic, and therefore do not seek treatment, until the cancer is advanced and it is too late to employ curative treatment options. New therapeutic options are urgently needed for NSCLC, because even current targeted therapies cure very few patients. Active immunotherapy is an option that is gaining more attention. A delicate and complex interplay exists between the tumor and the immune system. Solid tumors utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection. However, if the immune system can be stimulated to recognize the tumor as foreign, tumor cells can be specifically eliminated with little systemic toxicity. A number of vaccines designed to boost immunity against NSCLC are currently undergoing investigation in phase III clinical trials. Belagenpumatucel-L, an allogeneic cell vaccine that decreases transforming growth factor (TGF-β) in the tumor microenvironment, releases the immune suppression caused by the tumor and it has shown efficacy in a wide array of patients with advanced NSCLC. Melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), an antigen-based vaccine, has shown promising results in MAGE-A3+ NSCLC patients who have undergone complete surgical resection. L-BLP25 and TG4010 are both antigenic vaccines that target the Mucin-1 protein (MUC-1), a proto-oncogene that is commonly mutated in solid tumors. CIMAVax is a recombinant human epidermal growth factor (EGF) vaccine that induces anti-EGF antibody production and prevents EGF from binding to its receptor. These vaccines may significantly improve survival and quality of life for patients with an otherwise dismal NSCLC prognosis. This review is intended to give an overview of the current data and the most promising studies of active immunotherapy for NSCLC.

  12. OBSERVATION ON VACCINATING Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine with Inhalation and Preventing Recurrence of Nasopharyngeal cancer after Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To understand whether the Newcastle disease virus(NDV) vaccine can successfully vaccinate the rabbits and volunteers of cancer patients by inhalation and to observe the effects of NDV vaccine on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NRC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods: The live NDV vaccine was vaccinated through nasal cavities of rabbits, NPC patients and other cancer patients who were treated by surgery or chemotherapy with larynx spray. The blood specimens of vein from the tested rabbits and volunteers of patients with cancer were collected before and after vaccination. The anti-NDV-antibody in serum was detected by conventional blood coagulation inhibiting method. The white blood cell (WBC) amount in blood samples was counted. In addition, the NPC patients after radiotherapy were divided into both test group and control group with random match. The both were followed-up by multiple kinds of way in order to understand effects of NDV immunotherapy for NPC. Results: The anti-NDV-antibody level of the rabbits and the patients with NPC rose significantly after vaccination. The WBC amount of cancer patients treated by surgery or chemotherapy also rose significantly after vaccination. The recurrence rate (3.23%) of NRC patients in test group who received immunotherapy of NDV vaccine for 4 to 10 treatment courses within 3 years after end of radiotherapy were significantly lower than that (25.81%) of the control group (P<0.025). Conclusion: The NDV vaccine La Sota strain can vaccinate the rabbits and the cancer patients in success by inhalation. And it has remarkable effect to decrease 3 year recurrence rate of NRC patients after radiotherapy.

  13. Effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine and revaccination strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-shu LI; Wei, Zhen-man; Lan-ping CAI; Tang, Li; Hong-ye REN; Wang, Hai-Bin; Li, Ya; Yu-lai ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine,and explore the effective revaccination strategy.Methods Seventy-six adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 70 sex-and age-matched healthy individuals from 4 vaccination centers,who were vaccinated for one standard schedule(month 0,1,6) with gene recombinant yeast hepatitis B vaccine,were enrolled in present study.The serum anti-HBs and geometric mean titer(GMT) thereof were assay...

  14. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  15. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...

  16. Strategies for Designing and Monitoring Malaria Vaccines Targeting Diverse Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Alyssa E; Arnott, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    After more than 50 years of intensive research and development, only one malaria vaccine candidate, “RTS,S,” has progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials. Despite only partial efficacy, this candidate is now forecast to become the first licensed malaria vaccine. Hence, more efficacious second-generation malaria vaccines that can significantly reduce transmission are urgently needed. This review will focus on a major obstacle hindering development of effective malaria vaccines: parasite antigenic...

  17. Robustness of networks against propagating attacks under vaccination strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takehisa

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of vaccination on robustness of networks against propagating attacks that obey the susceptible-infected-removed model. By extending the generating function formalism developed by Newman (2005), we analytically determine the robustness of networks that depends on the vaccination parameters. We consider the random defense where nodes are vaccinated randomly and the degree-based defense where hubs are preferentially vaccinated. We apply the obtained results to the random graph and scale-free networks.

  18. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (Phyopneumoniae-loads (Phyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. PMID:24485705

  19. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26588179

  20. Tocotrienols are good adjuvants for developing cancer vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours. In this study we have used tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), a non-toxic natural compound, as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of DC vaccines in treating mouse mammary cancers. In the mouse model, six-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with DC and supplemented with oral TRF daily (DC+TRF) and DC pulsed with tumour lysate from 4T1 cells (DC+TL). Experimental mice were also injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and supplemented daily with oral TRF (DC+TL+TRF) while two groups of animal which were supplemented daily with carrier oil (control) and with TRF (TRF). After three times vaccination, mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in the mammary breast pad to induce tumour. Our study showed that TRF in combination with DC pulsed with tumour lysate (DC+TL+TRF) injected subcutaneously significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 mammary tumour cells as compared to control group. Analysis of cytokines production from murine splenocytes showed significant increased productions of IFN-γ and IL-12 in experimental mice (DC+TL+TRF) compared to control, mice injected with DC without TRF, mice injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and mice supplemented with TRF alone. Higher numbers of cytotoxic T cells (CD8) and natural killer cells (NK) were observed in the peripheral blood of TRF adjuvanted DC pulsed tumour lysate mice. Our study show that TRF has the potential to be an adjuvant to augment DC based immunotherapy

  1. Tocotrienols are good adjuvants for developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours. Methods In this study we have used tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF, a non-toxic natural compound, as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of DC vaccines in treating mouse mammary cancers. In the mouse model, six-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with DC and supplemented with oral TRF daily (DC+TRF and DC pulsed with tumour lysate from 4T1 cells (DC+TL. Experimental mice were also injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and supplemented daily with oral TRF (DC+TL+TRF while two groups of animal which were supplemented daily with carrier oil (control and with TRF (TRF. After three times vaccination, mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in the mammary breast pad to induce tumour. Results Our study showed that TRF in combination with DC pulsed with tumour lysate (DC+TL+TRF injected subcutaneously significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 mammary tumour cells as compared to control group. Analysis of cytokines production from murine splenocytes showed significant increased productions of IFN-γ and IL-12 in experimental mice (DC+TL+TRF compared to control, mice injected with DC without TRF, mice injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and mice supplemented with TRF alone. Higher numbers of cytotoxic T cells (CD8 and natural killer cells (NK were observed in the peripheral blood of TRF adjuvanted DC pulsed tumour lysate mice. Conclusion Our study show that TRF has the potential to be an adjuvant to augment DC based immunotherapy.

  2. Rabies control in rural Africa: Evaluating strategies for effective domestic dog vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Kaare, M.; Lembo, T.; Hampson, K.; Ernest, E.; Estes, A.; Mentzel, C.; Cleaveland, S.

    2009-01-01

    Effective vaccination campaigns need to reach a sufficient percentage of the population to eliminate disease and prevent future outbreaks, which for rabies is predicted to be 70%, at a cost that is economically and logistically sustainable. Domestic dog rabies has been increasing across most of sub-Saharan Africa indicating that dog vaccination programmes to date have been inadequate. We compare the effectiveness of a variety of dog vaccination strategies in terms of their cost and coverage i...

  3. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted...... population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear...

  4. Rabies DNA vaccine in the horse: strategies to improve serological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Laurent; Minke, Jules; Dufay, Nathalie; Baudu, Philippe; Audonnet, Jean Christophe

    2003-11-01

    In order for DNA vaccines to become a practical alternative to conventional vaccines their ability to induce antibody responses in large mammals needs to be improved. We used DNA vaccination against rabies in the horse as a model to test the potential of two different strategies to enhance antibody responses in a large mammalian species. The administration of the DNA vaccine in the presence of aluminum phosphate improved both the onset and the intensity of serological responses but was not potent enough to achieve seroconversion in all vaccinated ponies. However, when the DNA vaccine was formulated with the cationic lipid DMRIE-DOPE instead of aluminum phosphate, a very strong impact on both onset and intensity of serological responses was observed. This latter strategy ensured excellent seroconversion in all vaccinated ponies after a primary course of two injections, demonstrating a clear improvement of the homogeneity of the induced responses. These data indicate that rabies DNA vaccination is feasible in horses and further suggests that properly formulated DNA vaccines can generate immune responses in large veterinary species at a level comparable to the responses achieved with conventional vaccines. PMID:14575772

  5. Vaccination with Necroptotic Cancer Cells Induces Efficient Anti-tumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Løve Aaes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful immunogenic apoptosis in experimental cancer therapy depends on the induction of strong host anti-tumor responses. Given that tumors are often resistant to apoptosis, it is important to identify alternative molecular mechanisms that elicit immunogenic cell death. We have developed a genetic model in which direct dimerization of FADD combined with inducible expression of RIPK3 promotes necroptosis. We report that necroptotic cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns and promote maturation of dendritic cells, the cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells, and the production of IFN-γ in response to tumor antigen stimulation. Using both FADD-dependent and FADD-independent RIPK3 induction systems, we demonstrate the efficient vaccination potential of immunogenic necroptotic cells. Our study broadens the current concept of immunogenic cell death and opens doors for the development of new strategies in cancer therapy.

  6. The introduction of new vaccines into developing countries. IV: Global Access Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Richard T; Krattiger, Anatole; Clemens, John D; Curtiss, Roy

    2007-05-16

    This paper offers a framework for managing a comprehensive Global Access Strategy for new vaccines in developing countries. It is aimed at strengthening the ability of public-sector entities to reach their goals. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and The Rockefeller Foundation have been leaders in stimulating the creation of new organizations - public/private product development partnerships (PDPs) - that seek to accelerate vaccine development and distribution to meet the health needs of the world's poor. Case studies of two of these PDPs - the Salmonella Anti-pneumococcal Vaccine Program and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative - examine development of such strategies. Relying on the application of innovation theory, the strategy leads to the identification of six Components of Innovation which cover all aspects of the vaccine innovation process. Appropriately modified, the proposed framework can be applied to the development and introduction of other products in developing countries including drugs, and nutritional and agricultural products. PMID:17363119

  7. The importance of generating evidence on typhoid fever for implementing vaccination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Steele

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi, remains a major cause of enteric disease and a significant public health problem, predominantly in children in developing countries. Global estimates of typhoid fever range from 17 to 22 million cases per year with an associated 216,000 to 600,000 deaths annually [1,2]. This lower estimate is based on a conservative case fatality rate of 1%, (CRF range varies from 1% to 4%; yet the number of typhoid-related deaths each year is comparable to that of other diseases that are considered top priorities for disease control in the global health community, including cervical cancer caused by HPV, and is greater than others such as Japanese encephalitis and meningococcal meningitis.The continued high burden of typhoid fever and the alarming spread of antibiotic resistant strains led the World Health Organization (WHO, almost ten years ago, to recommend immunization using the two new-generation vaccines in school-aged children in areas where typhoid fever posed a significant problem and where antibiotic resistant strains were prevalent [3]. Nevertheless, with the exception of certain provinces in China, parts of Vietnam and one state in India, this recommendation has yet to be implemented in typhoid-endemic countries.Several reasons have been given for this lack of uptake of typhoid vaccination in endemic countries, including those gleaned from a survey of policymakers in Asia conducted in 2000-2001 [4]. Most critically, many developing countries were uncertain of their true typhoid disease burden, due to the lack of inexpensive rapid diagnostic tools, infrequency of laboratory testing, poor disease reporting systems, and the fact that the clinical diagnosis of the disease is often confused with other febrile illnesses. In some countries, there has also been political pressure for local government officials not to report typhoid cases, since they are considered an indicator of

  8. Psychosocial coping strategies in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)

  9. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  10. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  11. Recombinant cancer vaccines and new vaccine targets. Interview by Jenaid Rees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlom, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees, Commissioning Editor Jeffrey Schlom obtained his PhD from Rutgers University (NJ, USA). After obtaining his PhD, he worked at Columbia University (NY, USA) before moving in 1973 to the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (MD, USA). Since then he has served as the Chief of several sections, including his present position as the Chief of the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology in the Center for Cancer Research which he has held for the past 30 years. During this period, he has worked as an Adjunct Professor at George Washington University (Washington, DC, USA), served on the Editorial Board of several journals and holds membership in a number of committees. He holds over 30 patents and patent applications in the areas of vaccines, tumor antigens and monoclonal antibodies and has received honors and awards throughout his career. Jeffrey Schlom has been involved in translational research involving the immunotherapy of a range of carcinomas and predominantly works in the areas of tumor immunology, mechanisms of tumor cell-immune cell interactions and immune mechanisms. He has recently been working on the design and characterization of recombinant vaccines for cancer therapy. PMID:24098990

  12. Potential Target Antigens for a Universal Vaccine in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Vermeij

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, the primary cause of death from gynaecological malignancies, has only modestly improved over the last decades. Immunotherapeutic treatment using a cocktail of antigens has been proposed as a “universal” vaccine strategy. We determined the expression of tumor antigens in the context of MHC class I expression in 270 primary tumor samples using tissue microarray. Expression of tumor antigens p53, SP17, survivin, WT1, and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 120 (48.0%, 173 (68.9%, 208 (90.0%, 129 (56.3%, and 27 (11.0% of 270 tumor specimens, respectively. In 93.2% of EOC, at least one of the investigated tumor antigens was (overexpressed. Expression of MHC class I was observed in 78.1% of EOC. In 3 out 4 primary tumors, (overexpression of a tumor antigen combined with MHC class I was observed. These results indicate that a multiepitope vaccine, comprising these antigens, could serve as a universal therapeutic vaccine for the vast majority of ovarian cancer patients.

  13. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  14. Robustness of networks against propagating attacks under vaccination strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of vaccination on the robustness of networks against propagating attacks that obey the susceptible–infected–removed model. By extending the generating function formalism developed by Newman (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 108701), we analytically determine the robustness of networks that depends on the vaccination parameters. We consider the random defense where nodes are vaccinated randomly and the degree-based defense where hubs are preferentially vaccinated. We show that, when vaccines are inefficient, the random graph is more robust against propagating attacks than the scale-free network. When vaccines are relatively efficient, the scale-free network with the degree-based defense is more robust than the random graph with the random defense and the scale-free network with the random defense

  15. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccine in reducing the risk of cervical cancer in Ireland due to HPV types 16 and 18 using a transmission dynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, C.; Tilson, L.; Olsen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combining a cervical cancer screening programme with a national HPV vaccination programme compared to a screening programme alone to prevent cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer related to HPV types 16 and 18 in the Irish healthcare setting. The incremental...... cost effectiveness of vaccination strategies for 12-year-old females (base-case) and 12-26-year-old catch-up vaccination strategies were examined. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was (sic)17,383/LYG. Using a probabilistic sensitivity analysis about the base-case, the 95% CI for cost...... per LYG was ((sic)3400 to E38,400). This suggests that vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18 would be cost-effective from the perspective of the Irish healthcare payer. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  16. Strategies to advance vaccine technologies for resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Debra; Chen, Dexiang

    2013-04-18

    New vaccine platform and delivery technologies that can have significant positive impacts on the effectiveness, acceptability, and safety of immunizations in developing countries are increasingly available. Although donor support for vaccine technology development is strong, the uptake of proven technologies by the vaccine industry and demand for them by purchasers continues to lag. This article explains the challenges and opportunities associated with accelerating the availability of innovative and beneficial vaccine technologies to meet critical needs in resource-poor settings over the next decade. Progress will require increased dialog between the public and private sectors around vaccine product attributes; establishment of specifications for vaccines that mirror programmatic needs; stronger encouragement of vaccine developers to consider novel technologies early in the product development process; broader facilitation of research and access to technologies through the formation of centers of excellence; the basing of vaccine purchase decisions on immunization systems costs rather than price per dose alone; possible subsidization of early technology adoption costs for vaccine producers that take on the risks of new technologies of importance to the public sector; and the provision of data to purchasers, better enabling them to make informed decisions that take into account the value of specific product attributes. PMID:23598477

  17. Adaptive vaccination strategies to mitigate pandemic influenza: Mexico as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    Full Text Available We explore vaccination strategies against pandemic influenza in Mexico using an age-structured transmission model calibrated against local epidemiological data from the Spring 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic.In the context of limited vaccine supplies, we evaluate age-targeted allocation strategies that either prioritize youngest children and persons over 65 years of age, as for seasonal influenza, or adaptively prioritize age groups based on the age patterns of hospitalization and death monitored in real-time during the early stages of the pandemic. Overall the adaptive vaccination strategy outperformed the seasonal influenza vaccination allocation strategy for a wide range of disease and vaccine coverage parameters.This modeling approach could inform policies for Mexico and other countries with similar demographic features and vaccine resources issues, with regard to the mitigation of the S-OIV pandemic. We also discuss logistical issues associated with the implementation of adaptive vaccination strategies in the context of past and future influenza pandemics.

  18. Chitin, Chitosan, and Glycated Chitosan Regulate Immune Responses: The Novel Adjuvants for Cancer Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosong Li; Min Min; Nan Du; Ying Gu; Tomas Hode; Mark Naylor; Dianjun Chen; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of cancer immunotherapy, cancer vaccine has become a novel modality for cancer treatment, and the important role of adjuvant has been realized recently. Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives have shown their advantages as adjuvants for cancer vaccine. In this paper, the adjuvant properties of chitin and chitosan were discussed, and some detailed information about glycated chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles was also presented to illustrate the trend for future development.

  19. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak Min-Son; Park Eun-Cheol; Choi Kui; Juon Hee-Soon; Lee Sunmin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS). The KNCSS is an annua...

  20. Multiserotype protection elicited by a combinatorial prime-boost vaccination strategy against bluetongue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of novel strategies to develop marker and safe vaccines against BTV. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2, VP7 and NS1 proteins from BTV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7-NS1 in an heterologous prime boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of antibodies specific of VP2, VP7, and NS1, including those with neutralizing activity against BTV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific CD8(+ T cell responses against these three BTV proteins. Importantly, the vaccine combination expressing NS1, VP2 and VP7 proteins of BTV-4, elicited sterile protection against a lethal dose of homologous BTV-4 infection. Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV.

  1. The stem cell patent landscape as relevant to cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-10-01

    Cancer vaccine targeting cancer stem cells is proposed to serve as a potent immunotherapy. Thus, it would be useful to examine the main trends in stem cell patenting activity as a guide for those seeking to develop such cancer vaccines. We found that a substantial number of stem cell patents were granted up to the end of 2010, including ~2000 issued in the US. Many of these have been filed since 2001, including 7,551 applications in the US. Stem cell development, as evidenced by the numbers of PubMed articles, has matured steadily in recent years. However, the other metrics, such as the number of patent applications, the technology-science linkage and the number of patent assignees, have been stagnant. Moreover, the ownership of stem cell patents is still quiet fragmented across multiple organizations, and the number of stem cell patent assignees from the business sector has not increased significantly. Academic and nonprofit institutions not only account for a large share of stem cell patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of stem cell resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to the ban on government funding of embryonic stem cell research. Furthermore, the patent prosecution or technical barriers in the field of stem cells would be another main reason that the number of US-issued stem cell patents for each application have been in gradual decline since 2000. Therefore, we consider stem cell technology to still be under development. PMID:21957493

  2. Use of standardized patients to examine physicians' communication strategies when addressing vaccine refusal: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kristina A; Wesley, Gina C; Wood, Jo Ann; Hines, Carol; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-06-01

    Vaccine refusal is increasingly reported but few direct observations of the communication between physicians and parents skeptical about vaccines have been made. In a pilot study, a standardized patient posing as an expectant mother (standardized mother, SM) opposed to immunization met with blinded community physicians under the pretext of prenatal interviews. Persuasive communication strategies were scored using a standardized questionnaire. Recorded transcripts were evaluated for compliance with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for handling vaccine refusal. Nine encounters were conducted, representing 16% of pediatric and 3% of family practices in the area. Physicians scored high on listening, maintaining eye contact, spending time with the SM, using understandable terms, and avoiding a paternalistic posture. Lower scores were obtained on encouraging questions, checking for understanding, validating the importance of the SM's concerns, and assessing knowledge about vaccines. The median recorded encounter lasted 19 min. SMs represent a novel strategy for studying physician/parent communication about vaccines. PMID:19464542

  3. Chikungunya virus vaccines: Current strategies and prospects for developing plant-made vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-González, Jorge A; Angulo, Carlos; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2015-07-17

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging pathogen initially found in East Africa and currently spread into the Indian Ocean Islands, many regions of South East Asia, and in the Americas. No licensed vaccines against this eminent pathogen are available and thus intensive research in this field is a priority. This review presents the current scenario on the developments of Chikungunya virus vaccines and identifies the use of genetic engineered plants to develop attractive vaccines. The possible avenues to develop plant-made vaccines with distinct antigenic designs and expression modalities are identified and discussed considering current trends in the field. PMID:26073010

  4. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  5. Induction of protective and therapeutic anti-pancreatic cancer immunity using a reconstructed MUC1 DNA vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is a common, highly lethal disease with a rising incidence. MUC1 is a tumor-associated antigen that is over-expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Active immunotherapy that targets MUC1 could have great treatment value. Here we investigated the preventive and therapeutic effect of a MUC1 DNA vaccine on the pancreatic cancer. MUC1-various tandem repeat units(VNTR) DNA vaccine was produced by cloning one repeat of VNTR and inserting the cloned gene into the pcDNA3.1. In the preventive group, female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the vaccine, pcDNA3.1 or PBS; and challenged with panc02-MUC1 or panc02 cell. In the therapeutic group the mice were challenged with panc02-MUC1 or panc02 cell, and then immunized with the vaccine, pcDNA3.1 or PBS. The tumor size and the survival time of the animals were compared between these groups. The DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-VNTR could raise cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity specific for MUC1. In the preventive experiment, the mice survival time was significantly longer in the vaccine group than in the control groups (P < 0.05). In the therapeutic experiment, the DNA vaccine prolonged the survival time of the panc02-MUC1-bearing mice (P < 0.05). In both the preventive and therapeutic experiments, the tumor size was significantly less in the vaccine group than in the control groups (P < 0.05). This pcDNA3.1-VNTR vaccine, however, could not prevent the mice attacked by panc02 cells and had no therapeutic effect on the mice attacked by panc02 cells. The MUC1 DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-VNTR could induce a significant MUC1-specific CTL response; and had both prophylactic and therapeutic effect on panc02-MUC1 tumors. This vaccine might be used as a new adjuvant strategy against pancreatic cancer

  6. Combination immunotherapy and active-specific tumor cell vaccination augments anti-cancer immunity in a mouse model of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Engel Natasja K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active-specific immunotherapy used as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy is rather unexplored for cancers with poorly characterized tumor antigens like gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to augment a therapeutic immune response to a low immunogenic tumor cell line derived from a spontaneous gastric tumor of a CEA424-SV40 large T antigen (CEA424-SV40 TAg transgenic mouse. Methods Mice were treated with a lymphodepleting dose of cyclophosphamide prior to reconstitution with syngeneic spleen cells and vaccination with a whole tumor cell vaccine combined with GM-CSF (a treatment strategy abbreviated as LRAST. Anti-tumor activity to subcutaneous tumor challenge was examined in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic setting and compared to corresponding controls. Results LRAST enhances tumor-specific T cell responses and efficiently inhibits growth of subsequent transplanted tumor cells. In addition, LRAST tended to slow down growth of established tumors. The improved anti-tumor immune response was accompanied by a transient decrease in the frequency and absolute number of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells (Tregs. Conclusions Our data support the concept that whole tumor cell vaccination in a lymphodepleted and reconstituted host in combination with GM-CSF induces therapeutic tumor-specific T cells. However, the long-term efficacy of the treatment may be dampened by the recurrence of Tregs. Strategies to counteract suppressive immune mechanisms are required to further evaluate this therapeutic vaccination protocol.

  7. Therapeutic strategies targeting cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaoyan; Shu, Jianchang; Du, Yiqi; Ben, Qiwen; Li, Zhaoshen

    2013-04-01

    Increasing studies have demonstrated a small proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in the cancer cell population. CSCs have powerful self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. Conventional anticancer therapies kill the rapidly proliferating bulk cancer cells but spare the relatively quiescent CSCs, which cause cancer recurrence. So it is necessary to develop therapeutic strategies acting specifically on CSCs. In recent years, studies have shown that therapeutic agents such as metformin, salinomycin, DECA-14, rapamycin, oncostatin M (OSM), some natural compounds, oncolytic viruses, microRNAs, cell signaling pathway inhibitors, TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon (IFN), telomerase inhibitors, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and monoclonal antibodies can suppress the self-renewal of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. A combination of these agents and conventional chemotherapy drugs can significantly inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. These strategies targeting CSCs may bring new hopes to cancer therapy. PMID:23358473

  8. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Combination with Conventional Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Hald Andersen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination with chemotherapy may lead to improved clinical efficacy by clearing suppressor cells, reboot of the immune system, by rendering tumor cells more susceptible to immune mediated killing, or by activation of cells of the immune system. In addition, a range of tumor antigens have been characterized to allow targeting of proteins coupled to intrinsic properties of cancer cells. For example, proteins associated with drug resistance can be targeted, and form ideal target structures for use in combination with chemotherapy for killing of surviving drug resistant cancer cells. Proteins associated with the malignant phenotype can be targeted to specifically target cancer cells, but proteins targeted by immunotherapy may also simultaneously target cancer cells as well as suppressive cells in the tumor stroma.

  9. Clinical application of dendritic cells in cancer vaccination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Soot, Mette Line; Buus, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    for large-scale generation of dendritic cells for clinical applications has made possible phase I/II studies designed to analyze the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In clinical trials, DC-based vaccination of patients with advanced cancer has in many cases led to immunity......During the last decade use of dendritic cells (DC) has moved from murine and in vitro studies to clinical trials as adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. Here they function as delivery vehicles for exogenous tumor antigens, promoting an efficient antigen presentation. The development of protocols...... and in selected patients to tumor regression. However, the majority of clinical trials are still in phase I, and interpretations are hampered by pronounced variation in study design related to technical aspects of DC preparation, treatment and schedule, monitoring of immune response, and clinically relevant...

  10. Farmers' perception of the role of veterinary surgeons in vaccination strategies on British dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, I F; Hobson-West, P; Brennan, M L; Lowton, R; Kaler, J; Wapenaar, W

    2015-11-01

    There is limited research investigating the motivators and barriers to vaccinating dairy cattle. Veterinary surgeons have been identified as important sources of information for farmers making vaccination and disease control decisions, as well as being farmers' preferred vaccine suppliers. Vets' perception of their own role and communication style can be at odds with farmers' reported preferences. The objective of this study was to investigate how dairy farmers perceived the role of vets in implementing vaccination strategies on their farm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 dairy farmers from across Britain. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that farmers perceive vets to have an important role in facilitating decision-making in all aspects of vaccination, including the aspects of vaccine distribution and advice on implementation. This important role is acknowledged by farmers who have regular veterinary contact, but also farmers with solely emergency veterinary contact. Given this finding, future work should investigate the attitudes of vets towards vaccination and how they perceive their role. Combining this knowledge will enable optimisation of vaccination strategies on British dairy farms. PMID:26530434

  11. Farmers’ perception of the role of veterinary surgeons in vaccination strategies on British dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, I. F.; Hobson-West, P.; Brennan, M. L.; Lowton, R.; Kaler, J.; Wapenaar, W.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research investigating the motivators and barriers to vaccinating dairy cattle. Veterinary surgeons have been identified as important sources of information for farmers making vaccination and disease control decisions, as well as being farmers’ preferred vaccine suppliers. Vets’ perception of their own role and communication style can be at odds with farmers’ reported preferences. The objective of this study was to investigate how dairy farmers perceived the role of vets in implementing vaccination strategies on their farm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 dairy farmers from across Britain. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that farmers perceive vets to have an important role in facilitating decision-making in all aspects of vaccination, including the aspects of vaccine distribution and advice on implementation. This important role is acknowledged by farmers who have regular veterinary contact, but also farmers with solely emergency veterinary contact. Given this finding, future work should investigate the attitudes of vets towards vaccination and how they perceive their role. Combining this knowledge will enable optimisation of vaccination strategies on British dairy farms. PMID:26530434

  12. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  13. Poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Utah Latinas overdue for recommended cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Brynn; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Dyer, Jane; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-08-01

    Individuals overdue for recommended cancer screenings may not be receiving adequate cancer prevention education. Since Latinas have the highest incidence of cervical cancer among all racial/ethnic groups, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination education is especially important for this population. The correlates of HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge were assessed among Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings. N = 206 Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings were recruited by health educators from local community groups. Bivariate analyses and multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among participants as well as to assess correlates of HPV vaccine receipt for eligible children of participants. In multivariable regression analyses, years living in the U.S. (p = 0.05) and health insurance status (p = 0.03) were significantly related to HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures. Age (p vaccine-related knowledge measures (p vaccination outcomes for eligible daughters of participants. Cervical cancer screening status (p = 0.02) and HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with HPV vaccination outcomes for eligible sons of participants. Results indicate poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Latinas. Interventions to improve HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in Utah's growing Latino population should target vulnerable individuals (e.g., not employed outside the home, less educated, less acculturated, poor, uninsured, overdue for cervical cancer screening) by using materials that are culturally sensitive, linguistically appropriate, and easily accessible. PMID:26860277

  14. A novel "priming-boosting" strategy for immune interventions in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shujie; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Xiaoji; Wang, Wei; Deng, Dongrui; Wang, Hui; Wang, Changyu; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Zhang, Hanwang; Ma, Ding

    2015-04-01

    Despite the encouraging development of a preventive vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV), it cannot improve ongoing infections. Therefore, a new vaccine is urgently needed that can prevent and treat cervical cancer, and cure pre-cancerous lesions. In this study, we constructed two peptide-based vaccines. The first was a short-term, long-peptide (ST-LP) vaccine that simultaneously targeted three key carcinogenic epitopes (E5-E6-E7) on HPV16. We tested this vaccine in murine TC-1 cells infected with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) fused with HPV16E5 DNA (rTC-1 cells), which served as a cell model; we also tested it in immune-competent mice loaded with rTC-1 cells, which served as an ectopic tumor model. The ST-LP injections resulted in strong, cell-mediated immunity, capable of attacking and eliminating abnormal antigen-bearing cells. Furthermore, to prolong immunogenic capability, we designed a unique rAAV that encoded the three predicted epitopes for a second, long-term, long-peptide (LT-LP) vaccine. Moreover, we used a new immune strategy of continuous re-injections, where three ST-LP injections were performed at one-week intervals (days 0, 7, 14), then one LT-LP injection was performed on day 120. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that this strategy could boost the immune response to produce longer and stronger protection against target cells, and mice were thoroughly protected from tumor growth. Our results showed that priming the immune system with the ST-LP vaccine, followed by boosting the immune system with the LT-LP vaccine could generate a rapid, robust, durable cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to HPV16-positive tumors. PMID:25575128

  15. Strategies for Sustainable Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David J; Jani, Anant; Gray, Sir Muir

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on the relative cost-effectiveness and sustainability of delivering high-quality cancer care, with most emphasis, debatably, given to cost control of innovative treatments. It is difficult to calculate all the direct and indirect contributors to the total cost of cancer treatment, but it is estimated that cancer drugs constitute 10% to 30% of the total cost of cancer care. A 2007 study in France showed the contribution of drug costs was less than 20%, with approximately 70% of the total expenditure on cancer accounted for by health care resource use, such as hospitalization. The U.K. government established the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)-the dominant function of which is technology appraisal-to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of new pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products. This is to ensure that all National Health Service (NHS) patients have equitable access to the most clinically effective and cost-effective treatments that are viable. NICE has developed a transparent, public process to judge incremental cost-effectiveness using the quality-adjusted life year (QALY), which allows comparisons of cost-effectiveness across medical specialties. NICE has been both lauded and criticized-especially when it passes judgment on marginally effective but expensive anticancer drugs-but it provides a route to "rational rationing" and, therefore, may contribute to sustainable cancer care by highlighting the issue of affordable medicine. This implies a challenge to the wider oncology community as to how we might cooperate to introduce the concept of value-driven cancer care. PMID:27249712

  16. Use of human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected men for the prevention of anal dysplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, Wm Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There are two commercially available vaccines licensed worldwide for the prevention of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus-associated cancers such as anal cancer. However, only two countries have implemented healthcare programs that include human papillomavirus vaccination for boys and men. Although most of the human papillomavirus-related cancers in the world are attributable to cervical cancer, in developed countries anal cancer accounts for a larger proportion of human papillomavirus-related cancers. Most cases of anal cancer occur in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. In this review, we discuss the burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers in men, the most plausible immune mechanism associated with the high efficacy of the human papillomavirus vaccine, and address key issues of vaccination for HIV-infected men. Finally, we review cost-effectiveness considerations for the use of the vaccine in boys and recent guidelines for vaccination in boys, with attention to HIV-infected men. PMID:24818632

  17. Is There an Optimal Formulation and Delivery Strategy for Subunit Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbala, Sharan; Hook, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Modern vaccine design has moved away from attenuated or inactivated whole-pathogen vaccines to more pure and defined subunit vaccines. However subunit antigens have poor bioavailability and stability and lack immunogenicity. To overcome these issues subunit vaccines have to be administered in a suitable delivery system in combination with immune stimulants. Many different delivery systems have been developed and investigated each having different modes of action, for example increasing delivery and/or sustaining delivery of antigen to immune cells. In addition a number of different routes of immunization are possible and these can play a crucial role in determining the fate of an immune response. In this review the different strategies for the delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic subunit vaccines along with the impact of these on the immune responses generated are discussed. PMID:27380191

  18. Effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine and revaccination strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-shu LI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine,and explore the effective revaccination strategy.Methods Seventy-six adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 70 sex-and age-matched healthy individuals from 4 vaccination centers,who were vaccinated for one standard schedule(month 0,1,6 with gene recombinant yeast hepatitis B vaccine,were enrolled in present study.The serum anti-HBs and geometric mean titer(GMT thereof were assayed before and month 1,12,24 after completion of one standard schedule of vaccination.The profiles of serum cytokines including interferon-γ(IFN-γ,interleukin(IL-2,-4 and-10 were determined before and after vaccination.To improve the vaccine efficacy of non-or lower-response patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,a dose of 20μg gene recombinant yeast hepatitis B vaccine were used to revaccinate intramuscularly or subcutaneously plus intramuscularly.Results One month after completion of one standard schedule of vaccination,the positive conversion rates of anti-HBs in diabetes mellitus group and healthy group were 98.6 and 92.1%(P < 0.05,the anti-HBs GMT were 106.78 mU/ml and 167.14 mU/ml(P < 0.01,and the non-or lower-response rate were 19.7% and 7.1%,respectively(P < 0.05.The mean levels of serum IFN-γ,IL-2 and IL-4 were lower in diabetes mellitus group(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01,especially in non-or lower-response individuals,than in healthy group before and after a standard schedule of vaccination.Patients with non-or lower-response type 2 diabetes mellitus received revaccination with 20μg hepatitis B vaccine,the positive conversion rates of anti-HBs were 60.0% and 73.3%,respectively(P < 0.05,when injected subcutaneously plus intramuscularly or only intramuscularly.Conclusions Type 2 diabetes mellitus could influence the vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine,probably through a mechanism of down-regulating Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response

  19. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  20. Enhancement of DNA vaccine efficacy by intracellular targeting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Elisabete Borges; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Fevereiro, Miguel; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel; Monteiro, Gabriel Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Immune response against an encoded antigenic protein can be elicited by including targeting sequences to DNA vaccines that promote protein sorting to processing pathways, related with antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Candidate DNA vaccines coding for neuraminidase 3 of the avian influenza virus were designed to encode different sequences that direct the protein to specific cellular compartments such as endoplasmic reticulum (i.e., adenovirus E1A), lysosomes (i.e., LAMP), and the combination of protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome (i.e., E1A-LAMP). The DNA vaccine prototypes were engineered by biomolecular techniques and subsequently produced in E. coli cells. The biological activity of the vaccines was tested firstly in vitro, in Chinese hamster ovary cells, through flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Then, an essential in vivo study was performed in chickens, in order to evaluate the efficacy of DNA prototype vaccines, by measuring the antibody production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:24715281

  1. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China's National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  2. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China’s National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  3. A poxviral-based cancer vaccine the transcription factor twist inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases in a model of metastatic breast cancer and improves survival in a spontaneous prostate cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilas, Anna R; Ardiani, Andressa; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Wottawah, Cornelia; Schlom, Jeffery; Hodge, James W

    2015-09-29

    Several transcription factors play a role in the alteration of gene expression that occurs during cancer metastasis. Twist expression has been shown to be associated with the hallmarks of the metastatic process, as well as poor prognosis and drug resistance in many tumor types. However, primarily due to their location within the cell and the lack of a hydrophobic groove required for drug attachment, transcription factors such as Twist are difficult to target with conventional therapies. An alternative therapeutic strategy is a vaccine comprised of a Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), incorporating the Twist transgene and a TRIad of COstimulatory Molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, LFA-3; TRICOM). Here we characterize an MVA-TWIST/TRICOM vaccine that induced both CD4+ and CD8+ Twist-specific T-cell responses in vivo. In addition, administration of this vaccine reduced both the primary tumor growth and metastasis in the 4T1 model of metastatic breast cancer. In the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer, MVA-TWIST/TRICOM alone significantly improved survival, and when combined with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide, the vaccine further improved survival. These studies thus provide a rationale for the use of active immunotherapy targeting transcription factors involved in the metastatic process and for the combination of cancer vaccines with androgen deprivation. PMID:26317648

  4. A poxviral-based cancer vaccine targeting the transcription factor Twist inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases in a model of metastatic breast cancer and improves survival in a spontaneous prostate cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilas, Anna R.; Ardiani, Andressa; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Wottawah, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Several transcription factors play a role in the alteration of gene expression that occurs during cancer metastasis. Twist expression has been shown to be associated with the hallmarks of the metastatic process, as well as poor prognosis and drug resistance in many tumor types. However, primarily due to their location within the cell and the lack of a hydrophobic groove required for drug attachment, transcription factors such as Twist are difficult to target with conventional therapies. An alternative therapeutic strategy is a vaccine comprised of a Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), incorporating the Twist transgene and a TRIad of COstimulatory Molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, LFA-3; TRICOM). Here we characterize an MVA-TWIST/TRICOM vaccine that induced both CD4+ and CD8+ Twist-specific T-cell responses in vivo. In addition, administration of this vaccine reduced both the primary tumor growth and metastasis in the 4T1 model of metastatic breast cancer. In the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer, MVA-TWIST/TRICOM alone significantly improved survival, and when combined with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide, the vaccine further improved survival. These studies thus provide a rationale for the use of active immunotherapy targeting transcription factors involved in the metastatic process and for the combination of cancer vaccines with androgen deprivation. PMID:26317648

  5. Progress and challenges in the vaccine-based treatment of head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuti Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Head and neck (HN cancer represents one of the most challenging diseases because the mortality remains high despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment. Although vaccine-based approaches for the treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck have achieved limited clinical success, advances in cancer immunology provide a strong foundation and powerful new tools to guide current attempts to develop effective cancer vaccines. This article reviews what has to be rather what has been done in the field for the development of future vaccines in HN tumours.

  6. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak Min-Son

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS. The KNCSS is an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally-representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 1,786 Koreans over 40 years of age participated in this study. Results Of all the participants, 5.9% reported HBV positive (HBsAg+, HBsAb-, 41.8% were HBV negative but protected (HBsAg-, HBsAb+, and 52.3% were unprotected (HBsAg-, HBsAb-. Among unprotected individuals (n = 934, 23.1% reported to have received the vaccination. About half of those who had vaccinations completed the 3-shot vaccine series. In multiple analyses, education, having private cancer insurance, alcohol use, having regular check-up, and doing regular exercise were associated with completed HBV vaccination. Conclusion This study result suggests that we need a liver cancer education program to increase HBV awareness and to increase the liver cancer prevention message among low educated populations.

  7. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

  8. FDA Approves Two HPV Vaccines: Cervarix for Girls, Gardasil for Boys | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has approved a second vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancers, the vaccine’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), announced last week. The approval is based on data from a large clinical trial showing that the vaccine, Cervarix, prevented precancerous lesions in 93 percent of those who received the full vaccine sequence of three injections over 6 months. |

  9. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.L.; Riggs, D.R.; DeHaven, J.I.; Bryner, R.W. (West Virginia Univ. School of Medicine, Morgantown (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone.

  10. Immunotherapy of murine bladder cancer by irradiated tumor vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation explored the efficacy of irradiated autologous mouse bladder tumor (Ir-MBT2) as an active specific immunotherapeutic agent and as adjuvant therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) against a subcutaneously transplanted murine bladder tumor. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in groups receiving BCG (27%, p less than 0.005) or Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.025), compared to control (93%). Survival was significantly improved in groups treated with BCG (100%, p less than 0.005), 10(5) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (53%, p less than 0.01), or 10(7) Ir-MBT2 with BCG (47%, p less than 0.025) compared with control (13%). Surprisingly, Ir-MBT2 consistently reduced the efficacy of BCG alone. Ir-MBT2 alone (10(7)) appeared to enhance tumor growth. Autologous irradiated bladder tumor vaccine, alone or in combination with BCG, displayed no immunotherapeutic advantage. The use of irradiated tumor cell vaccine for bladder cancer therapy may reduce the results achievable with BCG alone

  11. Clinical responses in patients with advanced colorectal cancer to a dendritic cell based vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Fischer, Anders; Myschetzky, Peter S;

    2008-01-01

    Patients with disseminated colorectal cancer have a poor prognosis. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results from vaccines based on dendritic cells. The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the effect of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a cancer vaccine based...... on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogenic tumor cell lysate. Twenty patients with advanced colorectal cancer were consecutively enrolled. Dendritic cells (DC) were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and pulsed with allogenic tumor cell lysate containing high levels of cancer...

  12. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies. PMID:27211079

  13. Identification of a microRNA signature in dendritic cell vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, Kim; Pedersen, Ayako Wakatsuki; Claesson, Mogens Helweg;

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to tumor antigens followed by treatment with T(h)1-polarizing differentiation signals have paved the way for the development of DC-based cancer vaccines. Critical parameters for assessment of the optimal functional state of DCs and prediction of the vaccine potency of...

  14. The potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination on oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Theresa; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections. However, these trials were designed before the etiologic relationship between HPV and OPC was established. There are differences in the epidemiology of oral and genital HPV infection, such as differences in age and sex distributions, which suggest that the vaccine efficacy observed in genital cancers may not be directly translatable to the cancers of the oropharynx. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy is challenging in the oropharynx because no premalignant lesion analogous to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cervical cancer has yet been identified. To truly investigate the efficacy of these vaccines in the oropharynx, additional clinical trials with feasible endpoints are needed. Cancer 2016;122:2313-2323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27152637

  15. Aromatase inhibitor strategies in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L McArthur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather L McArthur, Patrick G MorrisBreast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Despite ongoing therapeutic innovations, metastatic breast cancer (MBC remains a treatable but incurable disease. In the developed world, a diagnosis of MBC without a preceding diagnosis of early stage disease is a rare event. However, approximately one-third of women with early stage breast cancer ultimately experience a distant recurrence. Because the majority of breast cancers express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors and are accordingly considered hormone-sensitive, therapeutic strategies that interfere with hormone-mediated tumorigenesis have been a cornerstone of the breast cancer management paradigm for decades. Historically, the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen has been the most extensively studied and widely used hormone maneuver in breast cancer. However, a recent therapeutic innovation, namely the successful development of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, has had a dramatic impact on the treatment paradigm for women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Because of the demonstrated efficacy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, the generally favorable side-effect profile, and the convenience of oral administration, AIs are now in widespread clinical use. Currently, there are three clinically available third-generation AIs: two reversible, nonsteroidal AIs, letrozole and anastrozole; and one irreversible, steroidal AI, exemestane. All three agents are at least as efficacious as tamoxifen as monotherapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive MBC. Current clinical research aims to improve upon existing strategies by evaluating AIs in combination with systemic chemotherapy regimens and/or novel targeted agents. It is hoped that these therapeutic innovations will lead to ongoing improvements in quality of life parameters and ideally survival for women

  16. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  17. WT1 Peptide Cancer Vaccine for Patients with Hematopoietic Malignancies and Solid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Oka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild-type Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is expressed at a high level in hematopoietic malignancies including acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes, as well as in various kinds of solid cancers. Human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, which could specifically lyse WT1-expressing tumor cells with HLA class I restriction, were generated in vitro. It was also demonstrated that mice immunized with the WT1 peptide rejected challenges by WT1-expressing cancer cells and survived with no signs of autoaggression to normal organs that physiologically expressed WT1. Furthermore, we and others detected IgM and IgG WT1 antibodies in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, indicating that the WT1 protein was highly immunogenic, and that immunoglobulin class-switch-inducing, WT1-specific, cellular immune responses were elicited in these patients. CD8+ WT1-specific CTLs were also detected in peripheral blood or tumor-draining lymph nodes of cancer patients. These results provided us with the rationale for elicitation of CTL responses targeting the WT1 product for cancer immunotherapy. On the basis of these findings, we performed a phase I clinical trial of a WT1 peptide cancer vaccine for the patients with malignant neoplasms. These results strongly suggested that the WT1 peptide cancer vaccine had efficacy in the clinical setting because clinical responses, including reduction of leukemic blast cells or regression of tumor masses, were observed after the WT1 vaccination in patients with hematopoietic malignancies or solid cancers. The power of a tumor-associated-antigen (TAA-derived cancer vaccine may be enhanced in combination with stronger adjuvants, helper peptide, molecular-target-based drugs, or some chemotherapy drugs, such as gemcitabine, which has been revealed to suppress regulartory T-cell function. In contrast, reduction of WT1 peptide dose may be needed for the treatment of patients with hematological stem cell diseases

  18. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  19. Prion疾病疫苗研究策略%Strategies of Vaccines against Prion Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 董小平

    2009-01-01

    朊病毒病是一类侵袭人类及多种动物中枢神经系统的致死性退行性脑病,目前缺乏有效的预防和治疗方法.朊病毒病的重组蛋白亚单位疫苗、DNA疫苗、合成肽疫苗、病毒样颗粒疫苗、树突状细胞疫苗、黏膜免疫疫苗等已取得一定进展,但现有的免疫策略仅能部分克服免疫耐受,诱导较低或中等滴度的抗体,对PrP~(Sc)感染动物模型只能提供部分保护,Prion疫苗研究任重而道远.%Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which can be acquired by human and many kinds of animals.At present,there are no effective preventive and therapeutic methods.Recombinant protein subunit vaccine,DNA vaccine,synthetic peptide vaccine,viral like particles,dendritic cell vaccine and musocal vaccine against Prion diseases have achieved certain progress.However,strategies used now can only partially overcome immune tolerance,induce only low and moderate degree of antibody,and provide inadequate protection in animal models.Therefore,strategy of vaccines against Prion diseases is thorny but imminent.

  20. Low-coverage vaccination strategies for the conservation of endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, D T; Randall, D A; Matthews, L; Knobel, D L; Tallents, L A; Gravenor, M B; Williams, S D; Pollinger, J P; Cleaveland, S; Woolhouse, M E J; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Marino, J; Macdonald, D W; Laurenson, M K

    2006-10-12

    The conventional objective of vaccination programmes is to eliminate infection by reducing the reproduction number of an infectious agent to less than one, which generally requires vaccination of the majority of individuals. In populations of endangered wildlife, the intervention required to deliver such coverage can be undesirable and impractical; however, endangered populations are increasingly threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease for which effective vaccines exist. As an alternative, wildlife epidemiologists could adopt a vaccination strategy that protects a population from the consequences of only the largest outbreaks of disease. Here we provide a successful example of this strategy in the Ethiopian wolf, the world's rarest canid, which persists in small subpopulations threatened by repeated outbreaks of rabies introduced by domestic dogs. On the basis of data from past outbreaks, we propose an approach that controls the spread of disease through habitat corridors between subpopulations and that requires only low vaccination coverage. This approach reduces the extent of rabies outbreaks and should significantly enhance the long-term persistence of the population. Our study shows that vaccination used to enhance metapopulation persistence through elimination of the largest outbreaks of disease requires lower coverage than the conventional objective of reducing the reproduction number of an infectious agent to less than one. PMID:17036003

  1. Towards a Preventive Strategy for Toxoplasmosis: Current Trends, Challenges, and Future Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereig, Ragab M; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    With its facultative ability to induce various types of infection in its hosts, Toxoplasma gondii remains a fascinating and enigmatic pathogen. As a parasite, despite its primitive unicellular structure, it possesses a highly sophisticated arsenal of invasive and defensive tools. Toxoplasmosis has gained widespread significance as a zoonotic disease capable of inducing severe illnesses in humans and drastic economic losses in the veterinary field. Although around a third of the world's population is infected with Toxoplasma gondii, immunocompromised people, pregnant women, and neonates are more vulnerable to the most severe forms of the disease. Hence, development of a preventive strategy is urgently needed to combat T. gondii infection in both humans and animals. Successful triggering of host immune responses and development of specific immune responses against the different strains and antigens of T. gondii has encouraged researchers to focus on vaccination as a feasible preventive control strategy against toxoplasmosis. In the last few years, vaccine development against T. gondii infections has seen great advances and achievements being made at the research level and, to a lesser extent, in veterinary applications. Currently, only one live attenuated vaccine is available for reducing abortions and fetal losses in pregnant ewes. Otherwise, researchers have investigated numerous classes of vaccine, including live attenuated, recombinant subunit, and vectored. In this chapter we discuss the most commonly investigated vaccines against toxoplasmosis, recombinant DNA and protein vaccines, with special focus on their methodologies and mechanisms of action. PMID:27076296

  2. DNA vaccines against infectious agents: recent strategies for enhancing immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been widespread efforts to develop plasmid DNA vaccines against animal and human pathogens, and for use as therapies in the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. The impetus for this research activity was based on early promising results in laboratory animals that sho...

  3. [BENEFITS AND RISKS AT IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPHILACTIC VACCINES FOR CERVICAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkov, V; Kostova, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the benefits and risks of the implementation of prophylactic vaccines for cervical cancer. The classical understanding of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and its role for the cervical oncogenesis, as well as, the place of prophylactic HPV vaccines are discussed. Results concerning the effectiveness of vaccines 10 years after their introduction and data about their safety are presented. Reports of the use in practice of the new 9-valent HPV vaccine and the first results of its implementation are studied. PMID:27514142

  4. Storytelling in the context of vaccine refusal: a strategy to improve communication and immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, Philip B; Oshinsky, David

    2016-03-01

    The December 2014 outbreak of measles in California impacted over 100 children and served as a reminder that this disease still plagues the USA, even 50 years following the first licensed vaccine. Refusal of vaccination is a complicated and multifaceted issue, one that clearly demands a closer look by paediatricians and public health officials alike. While medical doctors and scientists are trained to practice 'evidence-based medicine', and studies of vaccine safety and efficacy speak the language of statistics, there is reason to believe that this is not the most effective strategy for communicating with all groups of parents. Herein, we consider other methods such as narrative practices that employ stories and appeal more directly to parents. We also examine how doctors are trained to disseminate information and whether there are reasonable supplementary methods that could be used to improve vaccine communication and ultimately immunisation rates. PMID:26438615

  5. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  6. Clinical responses in patients with advanced colorectal cancer to a dendritic cell based vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Fischer, Anders; Myschetzky, Peter S; Munksgaard, Signe B; Zocca, Mai-Britt; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Patients with disseminated colorectal cancer have a poor prognosis. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results from vaccines based on dendritic cells. The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the effect of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a cancer vaccine based...... on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogenic tumor cell lysate. Twenty patients with advanced colorectal cancer were consecutively enrolled. Dendritic cells (DC) were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and pulsed with allogenic tumor cell lysate containing high levels of...

  7. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor enhances the efficacy of a breast cancer vaccine: role of IDO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Tinder, Teresa L; Bradley, Judy M; Tu, Tony; Hattrup, Christine L; Pockaj, Barbara A; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2006-08-15

    We report that administration of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in combination with a dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine significantly augments vaccine efficacy in reducing primary tumor burden, preventing metastasis, and increasing survival. This combination treatment was tested in MMTV-PyV MT mice that develop spontaneous mammary gland tumors with metastasis to the lungs and bone marrow. Improved vaccine potency was associated with an increase in tumor-specific CTLs. Enhanced CTL activity was attributed to a significant decrease in levels of tumor-associated IDO, a negative regulator of T cell activity. We present data suggesting that inhibiting COX-2 activity in vivo regulates IDO expression within the tumor microenvironment; this is further corroborated in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Thus, a novel mechanism of COX-2-induced immunosuppression via regulation of IDO has emerged that may have implications in designing future cancer vaccines. PMID:16888001

  9. Communication strategies to promote the uptake of childhood vaccination in Nigeria: a systematic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study aims to: 1) identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2) map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3) create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4) analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. Design We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. Results The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few interventions directed at

  10. Advanced strategies in liposomal cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jensen, Simon Skøde; Jørgensen, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Tumor specific drug delivery has become increasingly interesting in cancer therapy, as the use of chemotherapeutics is often limited due to severe side effects. Conventional drug delivery systems have shown low efficiency and a continuous search for more advanced drug delivery principles is...... therefore of great importance. In the first part of this review, we present current strategies in the drug delivery field, focusing on site-specific triggered drug release from liposomes in cancerous tissue. Currently marketed drug delivery systems lack the ability to actively release the carried drug and......, none of them have yet led to marketed drugs and are still far from achieving this goal. The most advanced and prospective technologies are probably the prodrug strategies where nontoxic drugs are carried and activated specifically in the malignant tissue by overexpressed enzymes. In the second part of...

  11. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Tjalke A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV

  12. A postmarket safety comparison of 2 vaccination strategies for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchio, Silvia; Zanoni, Giovanna; Opri, Roberta; Russo, Francesca; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    It is strategically important to monitor the safety profile of vaccination schedules in order to achieve and maintain high levels of coverage. We analyzed the cohort of individuals actively invited for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccination in the Veneto region (north-east Italy) from 8/1/2013 to 7/31/2014, assessing the onset of adverse events (AE) relating to 2 different vaccination strategies for MMRV (MMR+V vs MMRV). During the vaccination session at 14 months old, parents were given a form for recording local and systemic reactions to vaccinations for 4 weeks afterwards. Overall, 12,288 forms were returned, and 84.6% of them were included in this analysis (5,130 relating to MMR+V and 5,265 to MMRV); 37.3% of the sample reported no AEs, with no difference between the 2 groups. Local reactions were more common in the MMR+V group (9.6% vs 2.9%; RR 3.33; 95% CI 2.79-3.98), while there was no difference in general reactions between the 2 groups (50% MMR+V vs 52% MMRV). The events most often reported were "fever perception of the AEs occurring in response to their child's vaccination. PMID:26528829

  13. Anti-Tumor Effects of Peptide Therapeutic and Peptide Vaccine Antibody Co-targeting HER-1 and HER-2 in Esophageal Cancer (EC) and HER-1 and IGF-1R in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Overholser; Kristen Henkins Ambegaokar; Eze, Siobhan M.; Eduardo Sanabria-Figueroa; Rita Nahta; Tanios Bekaii-Saab; Kaumaya, Pravin T. P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of targeted therapies, there remains an urgent need for effective treatment for esophageal cancer (EC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Current FDA-approved drugs have significant problems of toxicity, safety, selectivity, efficacy and development of resistance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that rationally designed peptide vaccines/mimics are a viable therapeutic strategy for blocking aberrant molecular signaling pathways with high affinity, specificity, pot...

  14. Real-time PCR analysis of genes encoding tumor antigens in esophageal tumors and a cancer vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Milano, Francesca;

    2009-01-01

    Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated...... the production of the vaccine. Quantitative PCR was used to assay 74 tumor antigen genes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. 81% (13/16) of tumors expressed more than five cancer/testis (CT) antigens. A total of 96 genes were assayed in the tumor cell clone (DDM1.7) used to make...

  15. Development of a rubella vaccination strategy: contribution of a rubella susceptibility study of women of childbearing age in Kyrgyzstan, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakmadze, Naile; Zimmerman, Laura A; Uzicanin, Amra; Shteinke, Luidmila; Caceres, Victor M; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Sozina, Irina; Glasser, John W; Joldubaeva, Mira; Aidyralieva, Chinara; Icenogle, Joseph P; Strebel, Peter M; Reef, Susan E

    2004-06-15

    To contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy, we conducted a study to determine age-specific susceptibility among women aged 15-39 years by testing for rubella-specific IgG antibodies. Of 964 women, 13% were found to be susceptible to rubella. Significantly higher susceptibility among women >25 years old was observed. Susceptibility data are important but are not sufficient to develop a vaccination strategy. After considering all available information, we suggested vaccination of women aged <35 years and selective vaccination of older women who were planning pregnancy. PMID:15227627

  16. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  17. [Organ preserving strategies for rectal cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrely, V; Denost, Q; Amestoy, F; Célérier, B; Smith, D; Rullier, A; Rullier, É

    2015-10-01

    For rectal cancers, the current standard of care consists of chemoradiation followed by radical surgery with total mesorectal excision. Oncologic results are good, especially regarding local recurrence rates, but at the cost of high morbidity rates and poor anorectal, urinary and sexual function results. Since chemoradiation yields 15 to 25% pathological complete response, the role of radical surgery is questioned for patients presenting with good response after chemoradiation and two organ preservation strategies have been offered: watch and wait strategy and local excision strategy. The aim of this review is to give the results of organ preservation after chemoradiotherapy series and to highlight different questions regarding initial patient's selection, complete clinical response definition, risk of mesorectal nodal involvement, follow-up modalities as well as oncologic and functional results. PMID:26278990

  18. Efficacy of DNA vaccines forming e7 recombinant retroviral virus-like particles for the treatment of human papillomavirus-induced cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescaille, Geraldine; Pitoiset, Fabien; Macedo, Rodney; Baillou, Claude; Huret, Christophe; Klatzmann, David; Tartour, Eric; Lemoine, François M; Bellier, Bertrand

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in the development of anogenital tumors and also in the development of oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, where HPV-16, expressing the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, is the most frequent serotype. Although vaccines encoding L1 and L2 capsid HPV proteins are efficient for the prevention of HPV infection, they are inadequate for treating established tumors. Hence, development of innovative vaccine therapies targeting E6/E7 is important for controlling HPV-induced cancers. We have engineered a nononcogenic mutated E7-specific plasmo-retroVLP vaccine (pVLP-E7), consisting of plasmid DNA, that is able to form recombinant retrovirus-based virus-like particles (VLPs) that display E7 antigen into murine leukemia virus Gag proteins pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G). pVLP-E7 vaccinations were studied for their ability to generate specific immune responses and for induction of protective immunity against tumor cell challenge in preventive and therapeutic models. The produced VLPs induce the maturation of human dendritic cells in vitro and mount specific E7 T cell responses. Intradermic vaccinations of mice with pVLP-E7 show their efficacy to generate antigen-specific T cell responses, to prevent and protect animals from early TC-1 tumor development compared with standard DNA or VLP immunizations. The vaccine efficacy was also evaluated for advanced tumors in mice vaccinated at various time after the injection of TC-1 cells. Data show that pVLP-E7 vaccination can cure mice with already established tumors only when combined with Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) and TLR9 agonists. Our findings provide evidence that pVLPs, combining the advantages of DNA and VLP vaccines, appear to be a promising strategy for the treatment of HPV-induced cancers. PMID:23521528

  19. Measles vaccine effectiveness in standard and early immunization strategies, Niger, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaninda, A V; D. Legros; Jataou, I M; Malfait, P; Maisonneuve, M; Paquet, C; Moren, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An Expanded Programme on Immunization was started in late 1987 in Niger, including vaccination against measles with one dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine given to infants after 9 months of age. During epidemics an early two-dose strategy was implemented (one dose between 6 and 8 months and one dose after 9 months). From January 1, 1995, until May 7, 1995, 13 892 measles cases were reported in Niamey, Niger. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a crowded area...

  20. BCG Vaccination as a Prevention Strategy, Threats and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Tuberculosis is still one of the deadliest communicable diseases. Objectives Nine million people worldwide developed TB in 2013, and 1.5 million people died from it, 360000 of which were HIV positive. Although the disease is controllable by means of diagnostic and treatment measures, the death toll from the disease is still high, and efforts to combat it must be accelerated. Data Sources Data compiled from 202 countries in the Global Tuberculosis Report 2014 showed that TB is present in all regions of the world. Study Selection Higher numbers of tuberculosis cases were diagnosed in 2013 in comparison with previous reports, indicating that diagnoses and reports of new cases may be improved by stringent data collection. Data Extraction A special note to the 2014 report highlighted the progress of drug resistant TB during the last two decades. Results Worldwide, a proportion of new cases with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB were reported at 3.5% in 2013 without a significant change compared with recent years. Interestingly, higher levels of resistance and poor treatment outcomes are of major concern in some parts of the world. Due to this concern, special attention is focused on prevention rather than treatment. On the other hand, the effectiveness of an existing vaccine (BCG is increasingly questionable. Conclusions It has the potential to cause disseminated infection, and an increasing number of immunocompromised patients prone to disease and the suboptimal preventive potency of this vaccine suggest the need for a global attempt to review its benefits and disadvantages.

  1. NGcGM3 ganglioside: a privileged target for cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Luis E; Gabri, Mariano R; Guthmann, Marcelo D; Gomez, Roberto E; Gold, Silvia; Fainboim, Leonardo; Gomez, Daniel E; Alonso, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Active specific immunotherapy is a promising field in cancer research. N-glycolyl (NGc) gangliosides, and particularly NGcGM3, have received attention as a privileged target for cancer therapy. Many clinical trials have been performed with the anti-NGc-containing gangliosides anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody racotumomab (formerly known as 1E10) and the conjugated NGcGM3/VSSP vaccine for immunotherapy of melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. The present paper examines the role of NGc-gangliosides in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical and clinical data on these vaccine products. A brief discussion on the relevance of prioritization of cancer antigens in vaccine development is also included. PMID:21048926

  2. The granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells vaccine against metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tong Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The MB49 bladder cancer cell vaccine was effective against bladder cancer in the mice model in previous studies. However, part of the tumors regrew as the vaccine could not eliminate the cancer stem cells (CSCs. MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs were isolated by a combination of the limited dilution method and the serum free culture medium method. MCSCs possessed higher expression of CD133, CD44, OCT4, NANOG, and ABCG2, the ability of differentiation, higher proliferative abilities, lower susceptibility to chemotherapy, greater migration in vitro, and stronger tumorigenic abilities in vivo. Then streptavidin–mouse granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor (SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine was prepared. SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine extended the survival of the mice and inhibited the growth of tumor in protective, therapeutic, memorial and specific immune response experiments. The level of immunoglobulin G and the ratio of dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were highest in the experimental group when compared to those in other four control groups, as well as for the cytotoxicity assay. We demonstrated that SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine induces an antitumor immune response to metastatic bladder cancer.

  3. Plant-based vaccines: novel and low-cost possible route for Mediterranean innovative vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E; Vitti, Antonella; Nuzzaci, Maria; El-Attar, Ahmad K; Piazzolla, Giuseppina; Tortorella, Cosimo; Harandi, Ali M; Olson, Olof; Wright, Sandra A; Piazzolla, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and

  4. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  5. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

  6. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlier, C.; O’Dea, S.; Bennett, K.; Dunne, J.; Conlon, N.; Bergin, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46–2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40–2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22–2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15–2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27580688

  7. Comparison of vaccination strategies for the control of dog rabies in Machakos District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitala, P M; McDermott, J J; Coleman, P G; Dye, C

    2002-08-01

    Demographic and epidemiological field data were used in a deterministic model to describe dog rabies transmission in Machakos District, Kenya and to predict the impact of potential vaccination strategies for its control. The basic reproduction number (R0) was estimated to be 2.44 (1.52-3.36, 95% confidence limits). There were three key model predictions. The first was that a threshold dog density (K(T)) of 4.5 dogs km(-2) (3.8-5.2 dogs km(-2), 95% confidence limits) was required to maintain transmission. The second was that the estimated annual vaccination rate of 24% failed to decrease incidence and actually increased the stability of transmission and may be counter-productive. Thirdly, to control rabies, it was predicted that 59% (34%-70%, 95% confidence limits) of dogs should be vaccinated at any one time. This requires approximately 70% coverage for annual but only 60% coverage for semi-annual vaccination campaigns. Community-level vaccination trials are needed to test these predictions. PMID:12211590

  8. Changes in cytokine and biomarker blood levels in patients with colorectal cancer during dendritic cell-based vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan; Claesson, Mogens; Nielsen, Hans; Rosenberg, Jacob

    Introduction. Immunotherapy based on dendritic cell vaccination has exciting perspectives for treatment of cancer. In order to clarify immunological mechanisms during vaccination it is essential with intensive monitoring of the responses. This may lead to optimization of treatment and prediction of......-inflammatory cytokines in serum of patients who achieved stable disease following vaccination suggest the occurrence of vaccine-induced Th1 responses. Since Th1 responses seem to be essential in cancer immunotherapy this may indicate a therapeutic potential of the vaccine....... responding patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine and biomarker responses in patients with colorectal cancer treated with a cancer vaccine based on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate. Material and methods. Plasma and serum samples were collected prior to...

  9. Changes in cytokine and biomarker blood levels in patients with colorectal cancer during dendritic cell-based vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Nielsen, Hans J; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Immunotherapy based on dendritic cell vaccination has exciting perspectives for treatment of cancer. In order to clarify immunological mechanisms during vaccination it is essential with intensive monitoring of the responses. This may lead to optimization of treatment and prediction of......-inflammatory cytokines in serum of patients who achieved stable disease following vaccination suggest the occurrence of vaccine-induced Th1 responses. Since Th1 responses seem to be essential in cancer immunotherapy this may indicate a therapeutic potential of the vaccine....... responding patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine and biomarker responses in patients with colorectal cancer treated with a cancer vaccine based on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate. Material and methods. Plasma and serum samples were collected prior to...

  10. Quantifying the decisional satisfaction to accept or reject the Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine: a preference for cervical cancer prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Only a portion of the US population is willing to consider HPV vaccination to date. The primary aim of this study is to determine the decisional satisfaction associated with HPV vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective survey conducted at an urban college where women 18-26 years old completed a decisional satisfaction survey about their HPV vaccine experience. RESULTS: Regardless of the decision to accept or reject HPV vaccination, the decisional satisfaction was very high (mean 5-item score = 21.2 (SD 3.8. Women without HPV vaccination were decisionally neutral significantly more often than those already vaccinated; 22% were decisionally neutral for the option to accept HPV vaccination at that visit. Cervical cancer prevention was preferred significantly more often than genital wart prevention in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting those who are decisionally neutral about HPV vaccination may result in a higher uptake of HPV vaccination.

  11. Transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 is an effective target for a breast cancer vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunping; Zhou, He; Mizutani, Masato; Mizutani, Noriko; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Xiang, Rong

    2003-07-01

    Protection against breast cancer was achieved with a DNA vaccine against murine transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1, which is overexpressed in aggressively proliferating D2F2 murine breast carcinoma. Growth of primary s.c. tumor and dissemination of pulmonary metastases was markedly suppressed by this oral DNA vaccine, carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium, encoding murine Fos-related antigen 1, fused with mutant polyubiquitin, and cotransformed with secretory murine IL-18. The life span of 60% of vaccinated mice was tripled in the absence of detectable tumor growth after lethal tumor cell challenge. Immunological mechanisms involved activation of T, natural killer, and dendritic cells, as indicated by up-regulation of their activation markers and costimulatory molecules. Markedly increased specific target cell lysis was mediated by both MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells isolated from splenocytes of vaccinated mice, including a significant release of proinflammatory cytokines IFN- and IL-2. Importantly, fluorescence analysis of fibroblast growth factor 2 and tumor cell-induced vessel growth in Matrigel plugs demonstrated marked suppression of angiogenesis only in vaccinated animals. Taken together, this multifunctional DNA vaccine proved effective in protecting against growth and metastases of breast cancer by combining the action of immune effector cells with suppression of tumor angiogenesis. vaccine | tumor | metastases | antiangiogenesis

  12. Clinical evaluation of CpG oligonucleotides as adjuvants for vaccines targeting infectious diseases and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiermann, Julia; Klinman, Dennis M

    2014-11-12

    Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) that express unmethylated "CpG motifs" trigger cells that express Toll-like receptor 9. In humans this includes plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells. CpG ODN induce an innate immune response characterized by the production of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their utility as vaccine adjuvants was evaluated in a number of clinical trials. Results indicate that CpG ODN improve antigen presentation and the generation of vaccine-specific cellular and humoral responses. This work provides an up-to-date overview of the utility of CpG ODN as adjuvants for vaccines targeting infectious agents and cancer. PMID:24975812

  13. CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Shirota

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants improve host responsiveness to co-delivered vaccines through a variety of mechanisms. Agents that trigger cells expressing Toll-like receptors (TLR activate an innate immune response that enhances the induction of vaccine-specific immunity. When administered in combination with vaccines designed to prevent or slow tumor growth, TLR agonists have significantly improved the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Unfortunately, vaccines containing TLR agonists have rarely been able to eliminate large established tumors when administered systemically. To improve efficacy, attention has focused on delivering TLR agonists intra-tumorally with the intent of altering the tumor microenvironment. Agonists targeting TLRs 7/8 or 9 can reduce the frequency of Tregs while causing immunosuppressive MDSC in the tumor bed to differentiate into tumoricidal macrophages thereby enhancing tumor elimination. This work reviews pre-clinical and clinical studies concerning the utility of TLR 7/8/9 agonists as adjuvants for tumor vaccines.

  14. A molecular evaluation of dengue virus pathogenesis and its latest vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Raheel, Ummar; Riaz, Muhammad Nasir; Kanwal, Naghmana; Javed, Farakh; us Sahar Sadaf Zaidi, Najam; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2011-08-01

    More than one third of the world's population living in tropical and subtropical areas of the world is at risk of dengue infections and as many as 100 million people are yearly infected. This disease has reemerged during the past 20 years in the form of an epidemic. Dengue is caused by one of four related serotypes of dengue virus and often leads to severe forms of the disease, resulting commonly from secondary infections. Dengue virus is a mosquito borne virus, belongs to the family Flaviviridae and consists of a single stranded positive sense RNA genome. Like other RNA viruses it escapes defense mechanisms and neutralization attempts by mutations, which make it more resistant and adaptable to its environment. Antiviral strategies and vaccine development is thus impaired and hence to date there is no licensed vaccine available for dengue virus. Here we discuss various efforts made towards the identification of potential vaccine targets for dengue as well as various strategies employed by research groups/pharmaceutical companies towards the development of a successful dengue vaccine. PMID:21107723

  15. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Funmilayo F; Balogun, M R; Balogun, Balogun R; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Adegbola, Adebukola A

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among medical students of the University of Lagos. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 medical students sampled using stratified sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect relevant data. Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV vaccination. Inadequate information and high costs were the obstacles identified to receiving vaccine and recommending it to others. Older age and higher levels of study were significantly associated with good knowledge of HPV. Good knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively were significantly associated with full acceptance of vaccination. There is need for more education on cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination for the medical students via school teaching and other media, and inclusion of the HPV vaccine in the National Program on Immunization to improve access. PMID:26103704

  16. Knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of HPV vaccination among secondary school students in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ni, Kiat Aun

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8% had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5% of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (pstudents was 22.3% and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (pstudents had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students. PMID:22126576

  17. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  18. Colorectal cancer: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical advances that has been achieved during the past two decades have not dramatically improved the 35 % five-year rate observed in patients with colorectal cancer. These tumours remain one of the most challenging problems in public health policies in western countries. Screening applies to some subgroups of high-risk individuals and the general population aged over 50. In order to improve their efficacy, such screening programs imply large-scale information campaigns and a strong cooperation with the general physicians. The diagnosis is strongly suggested by any recent modification of bowel habits ad by rectal bleeding. It has to be confirmed by rectal examination and by colonoscopy which allows sampling to the tumour. Loco-regional and distant metastatic tumour spread must be assessed precisely before any therapeutic strategy is decided. Surgery, which resects the tumour en bloc with the corresponding lymphatic territories, is the only treatment that can achieve long term cure. In localized tumours, surgery alone can provide patients with 5-years survival rates close to 95 %. On the other hand, surgery alone is not sufficient to cure patients with advances cancers. In recent years, several adjuvant therapeutic modalities have been shown to improve the results of surgery in these cases (rectal cancer: pre-operative radiotherapy or post-operative radio-chemotherapy, colon cancer with nodal metastases: post-operative chemotherapy). There is a hope that a better use of our diagnostic and therapeutic armementarium would be able to avoid or to cure up to 75 % of the colorectal cancers we are dealing with. (author)

  19. Financial evaluation of different vaccination strategies for controlling the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annet G J Velthuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus that is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.. In 2006, the introduction of BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8 caused a severe epidemic in Western and Central Europe. The principal effective veterinary measure in response to BT was believed to be vaccination accompanied by other measures such as movement restrictions and surveillance. As the number of vaccine doses available at the start of the vaccination campaign was rather uncertain, the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality and the Dutch agricultural industry wanted to evaluate several different vaccination strategies. This study aimed to rank eight vaccination strategies based on their efficiency (i.e. net costs in relation to prevented losses or benefits for controlling the bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in 2008. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An economic model was developed that included the Dutch professional cattle, sheep and goat sectors together with the hobby farms. Strategies were evaluated based on the least cost - highest benefit frontier, the benefit-cost ratio and the total net returns. Strategy F, where all adult sheep at professional farms in The Netherlands would be vaccinated was very efficient at lowest costs, whereas strategy D, where additional to all adult sheep at professional farms also all adult cattle in the four Northern provinces would be vaccinated, was also very efficient but at a little higher costs. Strategy C, where all adult sheep and cattle at professional farms in the whole of The Netherlands would be vaccinated was also efficient but again at higher costs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that a financial analysis differentiates between vaccination strategies and indicates important decision rules based on efficiency.

  20. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  1. Muc1 based breast cancer vaccines: role of post translational modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccine development is one of the most promising fields in cancer research. After autologous transplantation, due to low tumour burden, patients are more likely to respond immunologically to a cancer vaccine. MUC1 with its adhesive and anti adhesive functions, immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive activities, is therefore a good candidate for breast cancer vaccine. A structure-based insight into the immunogenicity of natural MUC1 glyco forms, of its sub-domains, motifs and post translational modification like glycosylation and myriostoylation may aid the design of tumour vaccines. Primary sequences of human MUC1 were retrieved from the SWISSPROT data bank. Protein pattern search: The primary sequence of Human MUC1 was searched at PROSITE (a dictionary of protein sites and patterns) database. Our study observes that post-translational modifications play an important role in presenting MUC1 as a candidate for breast cancer vaccine. It is found that the phosphorylation and glycosylation of important functional motifs of MUC1 may take part in the production of cytokines that may provide immunization. (author)

  2. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide1826 combined with radioresistant cancer cell vaccine confers significant antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X B; Xing, N; Zhang, Q; Yuan, S J; Chen, W; Qiao, T K

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a hot issue in cancer research over the years and tumor cell vaccine is one of the increasing number of studies. Although the whole tumor cell vaccine can provide the best source of immunizing antigens, there is still a limitation that most tumors are not naturally immunogenic. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), synthetic oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-guanine(CpG) motif, was shown to enhance immune responses to a wide variety of antigens. In this study, we generated the radioresistant Lewis lung cancer cell by repeated X-ray radiation and inactivated it as a whole tumor cell vaccine to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cell vaccine. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with this inactivated vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 and then inoculated with autologous Lewis lung cancer (LLC) to estimate the antitumor efficacy. The results showed that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 could significantly inhibit tumor growth, increased survival of the mice and with 20% of the mice surviving tumor free in vivo compared with the unimmunized mice bearing LLC tumor. A significant increase of apoptosis was also observed in the tumor prophylactically immunized with vaccine of inactivated radioresistant tumor cell plus CpG ODN1826. The potent antitumor effect correlated with higher secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and lower levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) concentration in serum. Furthermore, the results suggested that the antitumor mechanism was probably depended on the decreased level of programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) which plays an important role in the negative regulation of immune response by the inhibition of tumor antigen-specific T cell activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that the radioresistant tumor cell vaccine combined with CpG ODN1826 as an appropriate adjuvant could induce effective antitumor immunity in vivo. PMID:26458317

  3. Vaccine strategy when the smallpox model fails: 1. immune cognition, Malaria and the Fulani

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick; Wallace, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    We begin to examine the implications of IR Cohen's work on immune cognition [1-3] for vaccine strategies when simple elicitation of sterilizing immunity fails, as is the case for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. Cohen's approach takes on a special importance in the context of recent work by Nisbett et al. [4] showing clearly that central nervous system (CNS) cognition is not universal, but rather differs fundamentally for populations having different cultural systems. A growing body o...

  4. A tale of two tumours: comparison of the immune escape strategies of contagious cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2013-09-01

    The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT), found in dogs. Despite sharing an ability to pass as allografts, these cancers have a very different impact on their hosts. While DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils and has had a devastating impact on the devil population, CTVT co-exists with its host in a manner that does not usually cause death of the dog. Although immune evasion strategies for CTVT have been defined, why DFTD is not rejected as an allograft is not understood. We have made progress in revealing mechanisms of immune evasion for DFTD both in vitro and in vivo, and here we compare how DFTD and CTVT interact with their respective hosts and avoid rejection. Our findings highlight factors that may be important for the evolution of contagious cancers and cancer more generally. Perhaps most importantly, this work has opened up important areas for future research, including the effect of epigenetic factors on immune escape mechanisms and the basis of a vaccine strategy that may protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD. PMID:23200636

  5. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves. PMID:26320444

  6. Cost-efficient vaccination of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies and the need for a new baiting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhorst, T; Thulke, H H; Müller, T

    2001-09-20

    In this study, ecological models, optimisation algorithms and threshold analysis were linked to develop oral-vaccination strategies against rabies in fox populations. It is important that such strategies are cost-efficient and resistant to environmental conditions which would lessen their success. The model validation shows that the ecological models used are suited to predict the proportion of tetracycline- (TC) marked foxes in the course of time. This figure indicates the proportion of foxes which had at least one contact to vaccine baits, and is based on the design of the vaccination strategy (i.e. the number and timing of vaccination campaigns and the number of baits used per square kilometre and campaign). The design of a vaccination strategy also determines the costs. It is the combination of ecological models and optimisation algorithms that helped us to design a vaccination strategy which is capable of achieving a continuous rate of >70% of TC-marked foxes within an analytical horizon of 3 years at low costs. Compared to the standard strategy (baseline comparator), the improved strategy incurs just over half of the cost while almost doubling the number of weeks during which the proportion of TC-marked foxes is >70%. In the improved strategy, June is recommended as the time for bait distribution. The standard strategy, however, avoids summer months (because high temperatures reduce the durability of the baits) which again leads to a reduction of the bait intake by the foxes. Using threshold analysis, we examined the effect of a reduced durability of the baits on the design of the improved vaccination strategy. We concluded that distribution of baits in June was optimal given that the durability of baits is above a threshold of 7 days. PMID:11530197

  7. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  8. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathyraj, S; Arunkumar, G; Alidjinou, E K; Hober, D

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). In the recent years, coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A10 have been widely associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, particularly in India, South East Asia and Europe with an increased frequency of neurological complications as well as mortality. Currently, there is no pharmacological intervention or vaccine available for HFMD. A formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine has completed clinical trial in several Asian countries. However, this vaccine cannot protect against other major emerging etiologies of HFMD such as CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. Therefore, the development of a globally representative multivalent HFMD vaccine could be the best strategy. PMID:27406374

  9. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Song-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been shown to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 are highly effective in preventing type-specific HPV infections and related cervical lesions. There is, however, limited data available describing the health and economic impacts of HPV vaccination in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios. Results Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years. Conclusions Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost

  10. Evolving T-cell vaccine strategies for HIV, the virus with a thousand faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    HIV's rapid global spread and the human suffering it has left in its wake have made AIDS a global heath priority for the 25 years since its discovery. Yet its capacity to rapidly evolve has made combating this virus a tremendous challenge. The obstacles to creating an effective HIV vaccine are formidable, but there are advances in the field on many fronts, in terms of novel vectors, adjuvants, and antigen design strategies. SIV live attenuated vaccine models are able to confer protection against heterologous challenge, and this continues to provide opportunities to explore the biological underpinnings of a protective effect (9). More indirect, but equally important, is new understanding regarding the biology of acute infection (43), the role of immune response in long-term non-progression (6,62, 81), and defining characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies (4). In this review we will focus on summarizing strategies directed towards a single issue, that of contending with HIV variation in terms of designing aT-cell vaccine. The strategies that prove most effective in this area can ultimately be combined with the best strategies under development in other areas, with the hope of ultimately converging on a viable vaccine candidate. Only two large HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been completed and both have failed to prevent infection or confer a benefit to infected individual (23,34), but there is ample reason to continue our efforts. A historic breakthrough came in 1996, when it was realized that although the virus could escape from a single antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, it could be thwarted by a combination of medications that simultaneously targeted different parts of the virus (HAART) (38). This revelation came after 15 years of research, thought, and clinical testing; to enable that vital progress the research and clinical communities had to first define and understand, then develop a strategy to counter, the remarkable evolutionary potential of the

  11. Vaccination against prostate cancer using a live tissue factor deficient cell line in Lobund-Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julie E; Pollard, Morris; Wolter, William A; Liang, Zhong; Song, Hui; Rosen, Elliot D; Suckow, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Reducing expression of the tissue factor gene in prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PAIII) results in a cell line that, in vivo, mimics the growth of wildtype (wt) PAIII. However, instead of continuing to grow and metastasize as wt PAIII tumors do, tissue factor deficient PAIII (TFD PAIII) masses spontaneously regress after several weeks. Although whole cell vaccines are typically inactivated prior to administration to prevent proliferation within the host, numerous studies have suggested that exposure to live, attenuated, whole tumor cells, and the extracellular microenvironment they recruit, increases immunotherapeutic potential. Here, we provide support for this notion, and a strategy through which to implement it, by demonstrating that subcutaneous vaccinations with the TFD PAIII protect the Lobund-Wistar rat against subsequent wt PAIII cell challenge. TFD PAIII immunized rats suffered significantly less metastasis of wt PAIII challenge tumors compared to unvaccinated naïve controls rats. These results offer the intriguing possibility that the TFD PAIII vaccine is an effective system for the prevention and, possibly, the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:16953436

  12. Genetically modified vaccines augment the efficacy of cancer surgery and chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2009), s. 199-200. ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : genetically modified vaccines * cancer surgery and chemotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2009

  13. Depletion of Treg cells augments the therapeutic effect of cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2006), s. 202-204. ISSN 0015-5500 Grant ostatní: EU-FP6-Clinigene(XE) 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Treg cells * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2006

  14. 76 FR 68768 - Guidance for Industry: Clinical Considerations for Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... subsequent BLA for marketing approval. In the Federal Register of September 18, 2009 (74 FR 47947), FDA...) for marketing approval. The guidance applies to therapeutic cancer vaccines that are intended for the... (Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) part 312) to support a subsequent BLA for...

  15. Simulation of control strategies for the cattle tick Boophilus microplus employing vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarta, V; Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M; Lleonart, R; Luaces, L L; de la Fuente, J

    1996-05-01

    Current strategies for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus include the use of chemicals as the principal control method. These methods, however, have met with partially successful results. The recent development of immunological methods for the control of the cattle tick has opened new possibilities for the design of control strategies. Employing the results obtained by us in experiments testing the effect of vaccination with the recombinant vaccine, Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.), on tick populations, we have developed a model to evaluate, through a computer program, the efficacy of the vaccine as a control method. The action of the vaccine on the control of tick populations was simulated and the specific serum antibody titers required to decrease the tick population in the field were calculated. The specific serum antibody titer required to decrease the tick population in the field after the first vaccination scheme was found to be > or = 57,200 and the antibody titer required to maintain this effect when the vaccine is already acting and after successive revaccinations was found to be > or = 27,500. Considerations about revaccination schemes and combination between vaccination and acaricide treatments as possible control strategies are discussed. PMID:8792587

  16. Co-culture of apoptotic breast cancer cells with immature dendritic cells: a novel approach for DC-based vaccination in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM)-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC) maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory marker CD86 and HLA-DR were also increased after iDCs were treated with ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the proliferating autologous T-lymphocytes increased from 14.2 to 40.3% after incubated with DCs induced by apoptotic MCF-7 cells. The secretion of interferon-γ by these T-lymphocytes was also increased. In addition, cell-cell interaction between apoptotic MCF-7 cells and iDCs, but not soluble factors released by apoptotic MCF-7 cells, was crucial for the maturation of iDCs. These findings constitute a novel in vitro DC-based vaccine strategy for the treatment of breast cancer by ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells

  17. Co-culture of apoptotic breast cancer cells with immature dendritic cells: a novel approach for DC-based vaccination in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A dendritic cell (DC-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory marker CD86 and HLA-DR were also increased after iDCs were treated with ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the proliferating autologous T-lymphocytes increased from 14.2 to 40.3% after incubated with DCs induced by apoptotic MCF-7 cells. The secretion of interferon-γ by these T-lymphocytes was also increased. In addition, cell-cell interaction between apoptotic MCF-7 cells and iDCs, but not soluble factors released by apoptotic MCF-7 cells, was crucial for the maturation of iDCs. These findings constitute a novel in vitro DC-based vaccine strategy for the treatment of breast cancer by ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells.

  18. Co-culture of apoptotic breast cancer cells with immature dendritic cells: a novel approach for DC-based vaccination in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jin [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Qiang [Department of Hematology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yang, Jiandong [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Ren, Qinyou [Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Cao, Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yang, Jingyue; Yu, Zhaocai [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yu, Fang [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Wu, Yanlan [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Shi, Hengjun [Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Wenchao [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-04-27

    A dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM)-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC) maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory marker CD86 and HLA-DR were also increased after iDCs were treated with ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the proliferating autologous T-lymphocytes increased from 14.2 to 40.3% after incubated with DCs induced by apoptotic MCF-7 cells. The secretion of interferon-γ by these T-lymphocytes was also increased. In addition, cell-cell interaction between apoptotic MCF-7 cells and iDCs, but not soluble factors released by apoptotic MCF-7 cells, was crucial for the maturation of iDCs. These findings constitute a novel in vitro DC-based vaccine strategy for the treatment of breast cancer by ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells.

  19. RhoC a new target for therapeutic vaccination against metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenandy, L.; Sorensen, R.B.; Straten, P.T.;

    2008-01-01

    Most cancer deaths are due to the development of metastases. Increased expression of RhoC is linked to enhanced metastatic potential in multiple cancers. Consequently, the RhoC protein is an attractive target for drug design. The clinical application of immunotherapy against cancer is rapidly...... moving forward in multiple areas, including the adoptive transfer of anti-tumor-reactive T cells and the use of "therapeutic" vaccines. The over-expression of RhoC in cancer and the fact that immune escape by down regulation or loss of expression of this protein would reduce the morbidity and mortality...... of cancer makes RhoC a very attractive target for anti-cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we describe an HLA-A3 restricted epitope from RhoC, which is recognized by cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, RhoC-specific T cells show cytotoxic potential against HLA-matched cancer cells of different origin. Thus, Rho...

  20. Targeting imperfect vaccines against drug-resistance determinants: a strategy for countering the rise of drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Joice

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in major pathogens is outpacing discovery of new antimicrobial classes. Vaccines mitigate the effect of antimicrobial resistance by reducing the need for treatment, but vaccines for many drug-resistant pathogens remain undiscovered or have limited efficacy, in part because some vaccines selectively favor pathogen strains that escape vaccine-induced immunity. A strain with even a modest advantage in vaccinated hosts can have high fitness in a population with high vaccine coverage, which can offset a strong selection pressure such as antimicrobial use that occurs in a small fraction of hosts. We propose a strategy to target vaccines against drug-resistant pathogens, by using resistance-conferring proteins as antigens in multicomponent vaccines. Resistance determinants may be weakly immunogenic, offering only modest specific protection against resistant strains. Therefore, we assess here how varying the specific efficacy of the vaccine against resistant strains would affect the proportion of drug-resistant vs. -sensitive strains population-wide for three pathogens--Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza virus--in which drug resistance is a problem. Notably, if such vaccines confer even slightly higher protection (additional efficacy between 1% and 8% against resistant variants than sensitive ones, they may be an effective tool in controlling the rise of resistant strains, given current levels of use for many antimicrobial agents. We show that the population-wide impact of such vaccines depends on the additional effect on resistant strains and on the overall effect (against all strains. Resistance-conferring accessory gene products or resistant alleles of essential genes could be valuable as components of vaccines even if their specific protective effect is weak.

  1. Evaluation of microparticulate ovarian cancer vaccine via transdermal route of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Suprita A; Chablani, Lipika; Akalkotkar, Archana; D'Souza, Martin J

    2016-08-10

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most commonly occurring malignancy in women, with the highest mortality rate among all the gynecological tumors. Microparticulate vaccine can serve as an immunotherapeutic approach with a promising antigenic delivery system without a need for conventional adjuvants. In this study, a microparticulate vaccine using whole cell lysate of a murine ovarian cancer cell line, ID8 was prepared by spray drying. Further, the effect of interleukins (ILs) such as IL-2 and IL-12 was evaluated in a separate study group by administering them with vaccine particles to enhance the immune response. The vaccine microparticles were administered to C57BL/6 female mice via transdermal alone and in combination with the oral route. The transdermal vaccine was delivered using a metallic microneedle device, AdminPen™. Orally administered microparticles also included an M-cell targeting ligand, Aleuria aurantia lectin, to enhance the targeted uptake from microfold cells (M-cells) in Peyer's patches of small intestine. In case of combination of routes, mice were given 5 transdermal doses and 5 oral doses administered alternatively, beginning with transdermal dose. At the end of vaccination, mice were challenged with live tumor cells. Vaccine alone resulted in around 1.5 times tumor suppression in case of transdermal and combination of routes at the end of 15th week when compared to controls. Inclusion of interleukins resulted in 3 times tumor suppression when administered with transdermal vaccine and around 9 times tumor suppression for the combination route of delivery in comparison to controls. These results were further potentiated by serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a titers. Moreover, CD8+ T-cell, CD4+ T-cell and NK (natural killer) cell populations in splenocytes were elevated in case of vaccinated mice. Thus, vaccine microparticles could trigger humoral as well as cellular immune response when administered transdermally and via combination of route of delivery

  2. A Human Vaccine Strategy Based On Chimpanzee Adenoviral and MVA Vectors That Primes, Boosts and Sustains Functional HCV Specific T-Cell Memory*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Leo; Capone, Stefania; Antrobus, Richard D.; Brown, Anthony; Richardson, Rachel; Newell, Evan W.; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Bowen, Dan; Fergusson, Joannah; Kurioka, Ayako; Ammendola, Virginia; Sorbo, Mariarosaria Del; Grazioli, Fabiana; Esposito, Maria Luisa; Siani, Loredana; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian; Colloca, Stefano; Davis, Mark; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Folgori, Antonella; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    A protective vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet clinical need. HCV infects millions of people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Animal challenge experiments, immunogenetics studies and assessment of host immunity during acute infection highlight the critical role that effective T-cell immunity plays in viral control. In this first-in-man study we have induced antiviral immunity with functional characteristics analogous to those associated with viral control in natural infection, and improved upon a vaccine based on adenoviral vectors alone. We assessed a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy based on a replicative defective simian adenoviral vector (ChAd3) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the NS3, NS4, NS5A and NS5B proteins of HCV genotype-1b. Analysis employed single cell mass cytometry (CyTOF), and HLA class-I peptide tetramer technology in healthy human volunteers. We show that HCV specific T-cells induced by ChAd3 are optimally boosted with MVA, and generate very high levels of both CD8+ and CD4+ HCV specific T-cells targeting multiple HCV antigens. Sustained memory and effector T-cell populations are generated and T-cell memory evolved over time with improvement of quality (proliferation and polyfunctionality) following heterologous MVA boost. We have developed a HCV vaccine strategy, with durable, broad, sustained and balanced T-cell responses, characteristic of those associated with viral control, paving the way for the first efficacy studies of a prophylactic HCV vaccine. PMID:25378645

  3. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  4. Sub-acute toxicity study in female ICR mice following repetitive intramuscular injection of cervical cancer vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Du-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Hye-Yeong; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jaesung; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Min-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Baek; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Bong; Kim, Sujeong; Oh, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sub-acute toxic effects following repetitive intramuscular injection of two cervical cancer vaccines newly developed against human papillomaviruse (HPV)16/58/18 and HPV16 were investigated in female ICR (CrljOri: CD1) mice, and the no-observedadverse- effect-level (NOAEL) of the cervical cancer vaccines was estimated. Methods Female ICR mice (n=15 in each group) were exposed to a 1:1 mixture of two cervical cancer vaccines by repetitive intramuscular injection (once a week, 5 t...

  5. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: mathematical modelling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruanne V Barnabas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have demonstrated almost 90%-100% efficacy in preventing persistent, type-specific HPV infection over 18 mo in clinical trials. If these vaccines go on to demonstrate prevention of precancerous lesions in phase III clinical trials, they will be licensed for public use in the near future. How these vaccines will be used in countries with national cervical cancer screening programmes is an important question. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a transmission model of HPV 16 infection and progression to cervical cancer and calibrated it to Finnish HPV 16 seroprevalence over time. The model was used to estimate the transmission probability of the virus, to look at the effect of changes in patterns of sexual behaviour and smoking on age-specific trends in cancer incidence, and to explore the impact of HPV 16 vaccination. We estimated a high per-partnership transmission probability of HPV 16, of 0.6. The modelling analyses showed that changes in sexual behaviour and smoking accounted, in part, for the increase seen in cervical cancer incidence in 35- to 39-y-old women from 1990 to 1999. At both low (10% in opportunistic immunisation and high (90% in a national immunisation programme coverage of the adolescent population, vaccinating women and men had little benefit over vaccinating women alone. We estimate that vaccinating 90% of young women before sexual debut has the potential to decrease HPV type-specific (e.g., type 16 cervical cancer incidence by 91%. If older women are more likely to have persistent infections and progress to cancer, then vaccination with a duration of protection of less than 15 y could result in an older susceptible cohort and no decrease in cancer incidence. While vaccination has the potential to significantly reduce type-specific cancer incidence, its combination with screening further improves cancer prevention. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination has the potential to

  6. Genetically engineered dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2001), s. 475-478. ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cells * tumour vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.330, year: 2001

  7. Creating Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines: Notes from the Battlefield

    OpenAIRE

    Overwijk, Willem W.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2001-01-01

    With the identification of tumor antigens and a knowledge of how to vaccinate against them, the field of tumor immunology faces new challenges. In this article, the authors argue that successful immunotherapies of the future will activate anti-tumor T cells without inducing their anergy or apoptotic death.

  8. Agility in adversity: Vaccines on Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Moise, Leonard; Olive, David; Einck, Leo; Martin, William

    2016-09-01

    Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality. Building a robust strategy to design effective biodefense vaccines from genome sequences harvested by real-time biosurveillance will benefit from technologies that are being brought to bear on the cancer cure 'moonshot'. When combined with flexible vaccine production platforms, vaccines on demand will relegate expensive and, in some cases, insufficiently effective vaccine stockpiles to the dust heap of history. PMID:27389971

  9. Effect of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status on Serological Response to Influenza Vaccine in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224

  10. Calreticulin as cancer treatment adjuvant: combination with photodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy-generated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen eKorbelik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin is recognized as one of pivotal damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP molecules alerting the host of the presence of distressed cells. In this role, calreticulin becomes exposed on the surface of tumor cells treated by several types of cancer therapy including photodynamic therapy (PDT. The goal of the present study was to examine the potential of externally added calreticulin for augmenting antitumor effect mediated by PDT. Recombinant calreticulin was found to bind to mouse SCCVII tumor cells treated by PDT. Compared to the outcome with PDT alone, cure-rates of SCCVII tumors grown in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice were elevated when calreticulin (0.4 mg/mouse was injected peritumorally immediately after PDT. Such therapeutic gain with PDT plus calreticulin combination was not obtained with SCCVII tumors growing in immunodeficient NOD-scid mice. In PDT vaccine protocol, where PDT-treated SCCVII cells are used for vaccination of SCCVII tumor-bearing mice, adding recombinant calreticulin to cells before their injection produced improved therapeutic effect. The expression of calreticulin gene was reduced in PDT-treated cells, while no changes were observed with the expression of this gene in tumor, liver, and spleen tissues in PDT vaccine-treated mice. These findings reveal that externally added recombinant calreticulin can boost antitumor responses elicited by PDT or PDT-generated vaccines, and can thus serve as an effective adjuvant for cancer treatment with PDT and probably other cancer cell stress-inducing modalities.

  11. Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, João Henrique; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Ribeiro, Kleber; Cronemberger Andrade, André; Batista, Wagner Luiz; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events. Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26380326

  12. Glucosylceramide Administration as a Vaccination Strategy in Mouse Models of Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Visesato; Farnoud, Amir M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Rella, Antonella; Tanno, Hiromasa; Ishii, Keiko; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Toshiya; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the causative agent of the disease cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is initiated as a pulmonary infection and in conditions of immune deficiency disseminates to the blood stream and central nervous system, resulting in life-threatening meningoencephalitis. A number of studies have focused on the development of a vaccine against Cryptococcus, primarily utilizing protein-conjugated components of the Cryptococcus polysaccharide capsule as antigen. However, there is currently no vaccine against Cryptococcus in the clinic. Previous studies have shown that the glycosphingolipid, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), is a virulence factor in C. neoformans and antibodies against this lipid inhibit fungal growth and cell division. In the present study, we have investigated the possibility of using GlcCer as a therapeutic agent against C. neoformans infections in mouse models of cryptococcosis. GlcCer purified from a non-pathogenic fungus, Candida utilis, was administered intraperitoneally, prior to infecting mice with a lethal dose of C. neoformans. GlcCer administration prevented the dissemination of C. neoformans from the lungs to the brain and led to 60% mouse survival. GlcCer administration did not cause hepatic injury and elicited an anti-GlcCer antibody response, which was observed independent of the route of administration and the strains of mouse. Taken together, our results suggest that fungal GlcCer can protect mice against lethal doses of C. neoformans infection and can provide a viable vaccination strategy against Cryptococcus. PMID:27082428

  13. Novel strategies and approaches to develop the next generation of vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y W; Meng, X J

    2010-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important swine pathogen. Since its discovery in the early 1990 s, tremendous progresses have been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of PRRSV. Although modified live-attenuated vaccines (MLVs) and inactivated vaccines against PRRSV have been available for more than a decade, the disease remains difficult to control. The efficacies of these vaccines especially against heterologous strains remain questionable: the MLVs were generally effective against homologous strains but variable in success against heterologous strains, and the outcomes of inactivated vaccines in the field are not very promising. With the development of PRRSV reverse genetics systems and the acquisition of new understanding on anti-PRRSV immunity, rational design of the next generation of PRRSV vaccines can now be explored. In this review, we discussed the recent advances in anti-PRRSV immunity and vaccinology, the recent progresses in PRRSV vaccine development particularly the reverse genetics system-based vaccine development, and provided a perspective on potential novel strategies and approaches that may be applicable to the development of the next generation of PRRSV vaccines. PMID:20655962

  14. Antibody-Mediated Fcγ Receptor-Based Mechanisms of HIV Inhibition: Recent Findings and New Vaccination Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Moog; Vincent Holl; Maryse Peressin

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most devastating pandemics worldwide. Today, the major route of infection by HIV is sexual transmission. One of the most promising strategies for vaccination against HIV sexual infection is the development of a mucosal vaccine, which should be able to induce strong local and systemic protective immunity. It is believed that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for inducing a sterilizing protection against HIV. Recently, passive administrati...

  15. Protective Effect of a Prime-Boost Strategy with the Ts87 Vaccine against Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gu; Bin Zhan; Yaping Yang; Xiaodi Yang; Xi Zhao; Lei Wang; Jing Yang; Kuo Bi; Yunyun Wang; Xinping Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a widespread zoonosis primarily caused by Trichinella spiralis. Mucosal immunity is crucial for preventing Trichinella spiralis infection. In our previous study, a DNA vaccine with the Trichinella antigen Ts87 delivered by an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicited partial protection against Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. In the current study, to elicit a more robust immune response and develop a potent vaccination strategy against trichinellosis, a heterologous ...

  16. Efficacy of HPV-16 E7 Based Vaccine in a TC-1 Tumoric Animal Model of Cervical Cancer - page 483

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fazeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus as an etiological agent of cervical cancer doesnot grow adequately in tissue culture systems. The tumor cell line TC-1 continuously expressesthe E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins of HPV, and is considered a suitable tool inlaboratory investigations and vaccine researches against cervical cancer.Materials and Methods: The TC-1 cell line was grown in RPMI 1650 supplemented with10% FBS, glutamine and antibiotics, and was used for tumor development in mice. Six toseven week-old tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups consisting of 7mice per group. The first group received pcDNA-E7, the second group received pcDNA3,and the third group received phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The treated animals weremonitored for their tumor size progression and survival. At last, the tumoric tissues fromautopsied animals were fixed and examined with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin (H&E.All experiments were done in accordance with guidelines of the Laboratory Animal EthicalCommission of Tarbiat Modares University. Data analysis was performed using the onewayANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both experimental and control groups. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant.Results: There were significant decreases in tumor growth; there were also improvementsin survival among mice in the treated groups (p<0.041. H&E stained sections fromuntreated mice were studied independently in a blinded fashion by two observers andshowed malignant neoplasms composed of severely pleomorphic tumor cells with nuclearenlargement, high nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C ratios, and prominent nucleoli in solid andfascicular patterns of growth. High mitotic activity with extensive necrosis was also notedin both test and control groups.Conclusion: The TC-1 lung metastatic model can be used to test the efficacy of variousE7-based therapeutic cancer vaccine strategies for cervical cancer and the prevention ofHPV-related neoplasia.

  17. Complete response of metastatic renal cancer with dendritic cell vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dall'Oglio Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma that presented involution following therapy with dendritic cells. CASE REPORT: Male, 51-year old patient underwent left radical nephrectomy in September 1999 due to renal cell carcinoma, evolved with recurrence of the neoplasia in January 2002, confirmed by resection of the lesion. A vaccine therapy based on dendritic cells was then performed during 5 months (4 applications. After this period, there was occurrence of new lesions, whose resection revealed areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate. DISCUSSION: The outcome of renal cell carcinoma is influenced by prognostic factors that confer more aggressive tumor characteristics. However, in cases of recurrence, the systemic therapy with dendritic cells-based vaccine can be associated with a better outcome with regression of disease.

  18. Gene therapy of cancer by vaccines carrying inserted immunostimulatory genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2007), s. 71-73. ISSN 0015-5500 Grant ostatní: EU-FP6 NoE Clinigene(XE) 018933; Liga proti rakovině, Praha(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : gene therapy * immunostimulatory genes * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.596, year: 2007

  19. Hepatitis B screening and vaccination strategies for newly arrived adult Canadian immigrants and refugees: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Rossi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immigrants have increased mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma as compared to the host populations, primarily due to undetected chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Despite this, there are no systematic programs in most immigrant-receiving countries to screen for chronic HBV infection and immigrants are not routinely offered HBV vaccination outside of the universal childhood vaccination program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-effective analysis was performed to compare four HBV screening and vaccination strategies with no intervention in a hypothetical cohort of newly-arriving adult Canadian immigrants. The strategies considered were a universal vaccination, b screening for prior immunity and vaccination, c chronic HBV screening and treatment, and d combined screening for chronic HBV and prior immunity, treatment and vaccination. The analysis was performed from a societal perspective, using a Markov model. Seroprevalence estimates, annual transition probabilities, health-care costs (in Canadian dollars, and utilities were obtained from the published literature. Acute HBV infection, mortality from chronic HBV, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and costs were modeled over the lifetime of the cohort of immigrants. Costs and QALYs were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. Screening for chronic HBV infection, and offering treatment if indicated, was found to be the most cost-effective intervention and was estimated to cost $40,880 per additional QALY gained, relative to no intervention. This strategy was most cost-effective for immigrants < 55 years of age and would cost < $50,000 per additional QALY gained for immigrants from areas where HBV seroprevalence is ≥ 3%. Strategies that included HBV vaccination were either prohibitively expensive or dominated by the chronic HBV screening strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for chronic HBV infection from regions where most Canadian immigrants originate, except for Latin America and the

  20. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie;

    2012-01-01

    presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along......Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC and...

  1. Role of HPV Vaccine in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh JA; Yusuph H; Zailani ZB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer which affects relatively young women of child bearing age is considered to be the second most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, a reflection of global health inequity. There are more than 450,000 newly diagnosed cases annually with over a quarter of million deaths recorded out of which over 80 percent are from the developing countries especially Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the Caribbe...

  2. Leptospirosis-persistence of a Dilemma: An Overview with Particular Emphasis on Trends and Recent Advances in Vaccines and Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rahal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, affects both humans and animals and is among the most common but neglected direct zoonotic disease in the world, particularly in untreated or undiagnosed animals as well as humans. Now, it has been considered as a re-emerging disease causing global health problem due to its increasing incidences in developing as well as developed nations. It is a multisystemic disease leading to death. Diagnostic tests of importance are Latex Agglutination Test (LAT, lateral flow and immunoglobulin M (IgM based ELISA, PCR based assays, Multiple-microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT, Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Molecular tools like PCR-RFLP, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, qPCR and immunocapture PCR have all been found useful for rapid and confirmatory detection and differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic leptospires. Inactivated/killed and attenuated vaccines are always attempted, since the beginning of vaccine and vaccination story, against all emerging pathogens with mixed success stories. The advanced tools and techniques like recombinant DNA technology, reverse genetics, DNA vaccination, molecular genetics and proteomics approaches are being explored for search of novel antigens, proteins and genes as potential candidates to discover safer, efficient and better vaccines for leptospirosis. The present review highlights the leptospirosis, susceptible population, disease transmission and epidemiology, treatment, trends and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and vaccination strategies in humans and animals with a view to combat this organism having public health significance.

  3. Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; Tsu, Vivien; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hildesheim, Allan; Muñoz, Nubia; Murillo, Raul; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-08-19

    Despite substantial efforts to control cervical cancer by screening, most Latin American and Caribbean countries continue to experience incidence rates of this disease that are much higher than those of other Western countries. The implementation of universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women is the best prospect for changing this situation. Even though there are financial challenges to overcome to implement such a policy, there is broad political support in the region for adopting universal HPV vaccination. The costs of implementing this policy could be largely alleviated by changing cervical cancer control practices that rely on inefficient use of resources presently allocated to cytology screening. In view of the strong evidence base concerning cervical cancer prevention technologies in the region and the expected impact of vaccination on the performance of cytology, we propose a reformulation of cervical cancer screening policies to be based on HPV testing using validated methods followed by cytologic triage. This approach would serve as the central component of a system that plays the dual role of providing screening and surveillance as integrated and complementary activities sharing centralized resources and coordination. PMID:18945406

  4. Induction of protective and therapeutic anti-pancreatic cancer immunity using a reconstructed MUC1 DNA vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Yefei; Jin Dayong; Wu Wenchuan; Lou Wenhui; Wang Danshong; Kuang Tiantao; Ni Xiaoling; Qin Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is a common, highly lethal disease with a rising incidence. MUC1 is a tumor-associated antigen that is over-expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Active immunotherapy that targets MUC1 could have great treatment value. Here we investigated the preventive and therapeutic effect of a MUC1 DNA vaccine on the pancreatic cancer. Methods MUC1-various tandem repeat units(VNTR) DNA vaccine was produced by cloning one repeat of VNTR and inserting the cloned gene...

  5. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, William D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hall, Wayne H.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of vaccines and other pharmaceuticals to wildlife populations is needed when zoonotic diseases pose a risk to public health and natural resources or have considerable economic consequences. The objective of our study was to develop a bait-distribution strategy for potential delivery of oral bovine tuberculosis (bTB) vaccine to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) where deer are reservoirs for the disease. During 17 February and 2 March 2011, we created a grid of experimental bait stations (n = 64) on Sandhill Wildlife Management Area, Wisconsin, USA, to assess station densities needed to attract and deliver placebo baits to free-ranging white-tailed deer and look for associations among deer density, number of bait stations per deer, and bait consumption. We placed 1 L of commercially available alfalfa cubes at bait stations 652 m apart, and monitored stations with motion-activated cameras for 5 days to document visitation and consumption by deer and nontarget species. Deer discovered 38% of all bait stations within 37 hr, on average (SE = 3.91 hr), and consumed variable amounts of bait at each station. Deer were documented in 94% of all photographs of wildlife at bait stations. We found no correlation between bait consumption and deer density or the number of bait stations per deer. We provide the first information on use of baits by free-ranging deer and nontarget wildlife to eventually vaccinate deer against bTB at a landscape level. The results of this study can further the development of strategies in delivery of pharmaceuticals to free-ranging white-tailed deer.

  6. Rationale for a Multimodality Strategy to Enhance the Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Jashodeep; Berk, Erik; Cintolo, Jessica A; Xu, Shuwen; Roses, Robert E; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC), master antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate interactions between the adaptive and innate immune arms, are increasingly utilized in cancer immunotherapy. Despite remarkable progress in our understanding of DC immunobiology, as well as several encouraging clinical applications - such as DC-based sipuleucel-T for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer - clinically effective DC-based immunotherapy as monotherapy for a majority of tumors remains a distant goal. The complex interplay between diverse molecular and immune processes that govern resistance to DC-based vaccination compels a multimodality approach, encompassing a growing arsenal of antitumor agents which target these distinct processes and synergistically enhance DC function. These include antibody-based targeted molecular therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapies that inhibit immunosuppressive cellular elements, conventional cytotoxic modalities, and immune potentiating adjuvants. It is likely that in the emerging era of "precision" cancer therapeutics, tangible clinical benefits will only be realized with a multifaceted - and personalized - approach combining DC-based vaccination with adjunctive strategies. PMID:26082780

  7. Rationale for a multimodality strategy to enhance the efficacy of dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashodeep eDatta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC, master antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate interactions between the adaptive and innate immune arms, are increasingly utilized in cancer immunotherapy. Despite remarkable progress in our understanding of DC immunobiology, as well as several encouraging clinical applications — such as DC-based sipuleucel-T for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer — clinically effective DC-based immunotherapy as monotherapy for a majority of tumors remains a distant goal. The complex interplay between diverse molecular and immune processes that govern resistance to DC-based vaccination compels a multimodality approach, encompassing a growing arsenal of antitumor agents which target these distinct processes and synergistically enhance DC function. These include antibody-based targeted molecular therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapies that inhibit immunosuppressive cellular elements, conventional cytotoxic modalities, and immune potentiating adjuvants. It is likely that in the emerging era of precision cancer therapeutics, tangible clinical benefits will only be realized with a multifaceted—and personalized—approach combining DC-based vaccination with adjunctive strategies.

  8. AACR 2010: Strategy for Mapping of 20 Cancers - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA held an NCI-sponsored session at the American Association for Cancer Research's (AACR) 101st Annual Meeting 2010 to address the program’s Phase II structure and strategies for sample acquisition, evolving technologies, data management and analysis.

  9. Fueling the engine and releasing the break:combinational therapy of cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Kleponis; Richard Skelton; Lei Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly drawing much attention in the therapeutic development for cancer treatment. However, many cancer patients do not respond to treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors, partly because of the lack of tumor-inifltrating effector T cells. Cancer vaccines may prime patients for treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors by inducing effector T-cell infiltration into the tumors and immune checkpoint signals. The combination of cancer vaccine and an immune checkpoint inhibitor may function synergistically to induce more effective antitumor immune responses, and clinical trials to test the combination are currently ongoing.

  10. Morbidity and mortality of vulvar and vaginal cancers: Impact of 2-, 4-, and 9-valent HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tommy R; Graybill, Whitney S; Pierce, Jennifer Young

    2016-06-01

    Vaginal and vulvar cancers do not account for a large proportion of gynecologic malignancies but their impact is significant. Both vaginal and vulvar lesions have precursors and display levels of dysplasia before progression to invasive disease. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a known causative agent of such dysplasia and can be detected now more readily than ever with adequate recognition techniques and provider awareness. Although HPV vaccination is still lagging compared to other recommended childhood vaccinations, the impact on lower genital tract neoplasia is promising. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been shown to be efficacious and the newest nonavalent vaccine should add even more of impact on coverage of cancer-causing HPV types. Although it is still early to show true clinical and population-based disease reduction due to low disease incidence and relatively short time of vaccine availability, the potential is noteworthy. PMID:26901390

  11. Towards Personalized Cancer Therapy : New Diagnostic Biomarkers and Radiosensitization Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberg, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the evaluation of biomarkers for radio-immunodiagnostics and radio-immunotherapy and on radiosensitization strategies after HSP90 inhibition, as a step towards more personalized cancer medicine. There is a need to develop new tracers that target cancer-specific biomarkers to improve diagnostic imaging, as well as to combine treatment strategies to potentiate synergistic effects. Special focus has been on the cell surface molecule CD44 and its oncogenic variants, which w...

  12. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  13. Design of different strategies of multivalent DNA-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs

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    Touihri Leila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. Almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. Hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. Unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (CPV or distemper virus (CDV after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies against rabies. Therefore, it is necessary to include the CPV and CDV valences in the vaccine against rabies. Multivalent DNA-based vaccination in dogs, including rabies and distemper valences, could help in raising vaccine coverage. Methods We have designed monovalent and multivalent DNA-based vaccine candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays. These plasmids encode to the rabies virus glycoprotein and/or the canine distemper virus hemagglutinin. The first strategy of multivalent DNA-based vaccination is by mixing plasmids encoding to a single antigen each. The second is by simply fusing the genes of the antigens together. The third is by adding the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV 2A oligopeptide gene into the antigen genes. The last strategy is by the design and use of a bicistronic plasmid with an “Internal Ribosome Entry Site” (IRES domain. Results The monovalent construct against canine distemper was efficiently validated by inducing higher humoral immune responses compared to cell-culture-derived vaccine both in mice and dogs. All multivalent plasmids efficiently expressed both valences after in vitro transfection of BHK-21 cells. In BALB/c mice, the bicistronic IRES-dependant construct was the most efficient inducer of virus-neutralizing antibodies against both valences. It was able to induce better humoral immune responses compared to the administration of either cell-culture-derived vaccines or monovalent plasmids. The

  14. Novel imaging strategies for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic imaging is the cornerstone of all cancer treatment. Unfortunately, modern imaging modalities have several unsolved problems and limitations. The differentiation between inflammation and cancer infiltration, false positive and false negative findings as well as lack of...... confirming biopsies in suspected metastases may have serious negative consequences in cancer patients. This review describes some of these problems and challenges the use of conventional imaging by suggesting new combined strategies that include selective use of confirming biopsies and complementary methods...

  15. Vector prime/protein boost vaccine that overcomes defects acquired during aging and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y.; Akbulut, H.; Maynard, J.;

    2006-01-01

    following the Ad-sig-TAA/ecdCD40L vector, the levels of the TAA-specific CD8 T cells and Abs increase dramatically over that seen with vector alone, in young (2-mo-old) as well as old (18-mo-old) mice. The Abs induced against hMUC-1 react with human breast cancer. This vaccine also induces a 4-fold...

  16. Shikonin enhances efficacy of a gene-based cancer vaccine via induction of RANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hui-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shikonin, a phytochemical purified from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to confer diverse pharmacological activities, including accelerating granuloma formation, wound healing, anti-inflammation and others, and is explored for immune-modifier activities for vaccination in this study. Transdermal gene-based vaccine is an attractive approach for delivery of DNA transgenes encoding specific tumor antigens to host skin tissues. Skin dendritic cells (DCs, a potent antigen-presenting cell type, is known to play a critical role in transmitting and orchestrating tumor antigen-specific immunities against cancers. The present study hence employs these various components for experimentation. Method The mRNA and protein expression of RANTES were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The regional expression of RANTES and tissue damage in test skin were evaluated via immunohistochemistry assay. Fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization assay was performed to trace the trafficking of DCs from the skin vaccination site to draining lymph nodes. Adjuvantic effect of shikonin on gene gun-delivered human gp100 (hgp100 DNA cancer vaccine was studied in a human gp100-transfected B16 (B16/hgp100 tumor model. Results Among various phytochemicals tested, shikonin induced the highest level of expression of RANTES in normal skin tissues. In comparison, mouse RANTES cDNA gene transfection induced a higher level of mRANTES expression for a longer period, but caused more extensive skin damage. Topical application of shikonin onto the immunization site before gene gun-mediated vaccination augmented the population of skin DCs migrating into the draining lymph nodes. A hgp100 cDNA gene vaccination regimen with shikonin pretreatment as an adjuvant in a B16/hgp100 tumor model increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities in splenocytes and lymph node cells on target tumor cells. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that shikonin can

  17. Tumor Radiation Therapy Creates Therapeutic Vaccine Responses to the Colorectal Cancer Antigen GUCY2C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witek, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Blomain, Erik S.; Magee, Michael S.; Xiang, Bo; Waldman, Scott A. [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Snook, Adam E., E-mail: adam.snook@jefferson.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is thought to produce clinical responses in cancer patients, not only through direct toxicity to cancer cells and supporting tumor stroma cells, but also through activation of immunologic effectors. More recently, RT has potentiated the local and systemic effects of cancer immunotherapy (IT). However, combination regimens that maximize immunologic and clinical efficacy remain undefined. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the impact of local RT on adenoviral-mediated vaccination against the colorectal cancer antigen GUCY2C (Ad5-GUCY2C) in a murine subcutaneous tumor model using mouse CT26 colon cancer cells (CT26-GUCY2C). Immune responses were assessed by ELISpot, and clinical responses were assessed by tumor size and incidence. Results: The specific sequence of tumor-directed RT preceding Ad5-GUCY2C IT transformed inactive therapeutic Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination into a curative vaccine. GUCY2C-specific T cell responses were amplified (P<.05), tumor eradication was maximized (P<.01), and tumor volumes were minimized (P<.001) in mice whose tumors were irradiated before, compared with after, Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination. The immunologic and antitumor efficacy of Ad5-GUCY2C was amplified comparably by unfractionated (8 Gy × 1), or biologically equivalent doses of fractionated (3.5 Gy × 3), RT. The antitumor effects of sequential RT and IT (RT-IT) depended on expression of GUCY2C by tumor cells and the adenoviral vaccine vector, and tumor volumes were inversely related to the magnitude of GUCY2C-specific T cell responses. Moreover, mice cured of CT26-GUCY2C tumors by RT-IT showed long-lasting antigen-dependent protection, resisting tumors formed by GUCY2C-expressing 4T1 breast cancer cells inoculated 50 days after CT26 cells. Conclusions: Optimal sequencing of RT and IT amplifies antigen-specific local and systemic immune responses, revealing novel acute and long-term therapeutic antitumor protection. These observations underscore the importance

  18. Tumor Radiation Therapy Creates Therapeutic Vaccine Responses to the Colorectal Cancer Antigen GUCY2C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is thought to produce clinical responses in cancer patients, not only through direct toxicity to cancer cells and supporting tumor stroma cells, but also through activation of immunologic effectors. More recently, RT has potentiated the local and systemic effects of cancer immunotherapy (IT). However, combination regimens that maximize immunologic and clinical efficacy remain undefined. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the impact of local RT on adenoviral-mediated vaccination against the colorectal cancer antigen GUCY2C (Ad5-GUCY2C) in a murine subcutaneous tumor model using mouse CT26 colon cancer cells (CT26-GUCY2C). Immune responses were assessed by ELISpot, and clinical responses were assessed by tumor size and incidence. Results: The specific sequence of tumor-directed RT preceding Ad5-GUCY2C IT transformed inactive therapeutic Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination into a curative vaccine. GUCY2C-specific T cell responses were amplified (P<.05), tumor eradication was maximized (P<.01), and tumor volumes were minimized (P<.001) in mice whose tumors were irradiated before, compared with after, Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination. The immunologic and antitumor efficacy of Ad5-GUCY2C was amplified comparably by unfractionated (8 Gy × 1), or biologically equivalent doses of fractionated (3.5 Gy × 3), RT. The antitumor effects of sequential RT and IT (RT-IT) depended on expression of GUCY2C by tumor cells and the adenoviral vaccine vector, and tumor volumes were inversely related to the magnitude of GUCY2C-specific T cell responses. Moreover, mice cured of CT26-GUCY2C tumors by RT-IT showed long-lasting antigen-dependent protection, resisting tumors formed by GUCY2C-expressing 4T1 breast cancer cells inoculated 50 days after CT26 cells. Conclusions: Optimal sequencing of RT and IT amplifies antigen-specific local and systemic immune responses, revealing novel acute and long-term therapeutic antitumor protection. These observations underscore the importance

  19. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  20. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100- Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066

  1. Cervical cancer vaccine: Exploring new opportunities and challenges for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Ray Laskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the burden of the disease is disproportionately high in the developing world (>80%. With the advent of two new vaccines, "Gardasil" developed by Merck & Co. New Jersey, USA and "Cervarix" developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK in Philadelphia, USA, the future holds newer promises for prevention and control of the disease. However, various regulatory and policy changes also may be required to be undertaken and the various new challenges need to be addressed.

  2. Therapeutic regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immune response to cancer vaccine in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Iclozan, Cristina; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Gabrilovich, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one of the major factors limiting the efficacy of immune therapy. In a clinical trial of patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) we tested the possibility that targeting MDSC can improve the induction of immune responses by a cancer vaccine. Forty-one patients with extensive stage SCLC were randomized into three arms: arm A - control, arm B - vaccination with dendritic cells transduced with wild-type p53, and arm C – vaccination ...

  3. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by more deta

  4. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of a

  5. Active surveillance strategy for patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active surveillance - an initial observational strategy - offers a tailored management of patients with localised prostate cancer. The aim of the strategy is to appoint patients with potentially lethal prostate cancer to curatively intended treatment, while patients with slowly evolving...... criteria in the management of prostate cancer patients on active surveillance is emphasised....... measurements, repeated biopsies, and regular digital rectal examinations. The programme recommended change of management from active surveillance to curatively intended treatment based on PSA doubling time, deteriorating histopathology in repeated prostatic biopsies, and increased clinical tumour category...

  6. DNA vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA...

  7. Evaluation of dendritic cells loaded with apoptotic cancer cells or expressing tumour mRNA as potential cancer vaccines against leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukemia is a clonal disorder characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of haematopoietic cells, and represents the most common form of cancer in children. Advances in therapy for childhood leukemia have relied increasingly on the use of high-dose chemotherapy often combined with stem-cell transplantation. Despite a high success rate and intensification of therapy, children still suffer from relapse and progressive disease resistant to further therapy. Thus, novel forms of therapy are required. This study focuses on dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of childhood leukemia and evaluates the in vitro efficacy of different strategies for antigen loading of professional antigen-presenting cells. We have compared DCs either loaded with apoptotic leukemia cells or transfected with mRNA from the same leukemia cell line, Jurkat E6, for their capacity to induce specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Monocyte-derived DCs from healthy donors were loaded with tumor antigen, matured and co-cultured with autologous T cells. After one week, T-cell responses against antigen-loaded DCs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. DCs loaded with apoptotic Jurkat E6 cells or transfected with Jurkat E6-cell mRNA were both able to elicit specific T-cell responses in vitro. IFNγ-secreting T cells were observed in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. The results indicate that loading of DCs with apoptotic leukemia cells or transfection with tumour mRNA represent promising strategies for development of cancer vaccines for treatment of childhood leukemia

  8. New vaccine strategies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: II: Enhanced systemic and secreted antibody responses against the CFA/I fimbriae by priming with DNA and boosting with a live recombinant Salmonella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lásaro

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The induction of systemic (IgG and mucosal (IgA antibody responses against the colonization factor I antigen (CFA/I of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC was evaluated in mice primed with an intramuscularly delivered CFA/I-encoding DNA vaccine followed by two oral immunizations with a live recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing the ETEC antigen. The booster effect induced by the oral immunization was detected two weeks and one year after the administration of the DNA vaccine. The DNA-primed/Salmonella-boosted vaccination regime showed a synergistic effect on the induced CFA/I-specific systemic and secreted antibody levels which could not be attained by either immunization strategy alone. These results suggest that the combined use of DNA vaccines and recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains can be a useful immunization strategy against enteric pathogens.

  9. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology

  10. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  11. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26550522

  12. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of a NeuGcGM3 based cancer vaccine: Results from a controlled study in metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulens, Vladimir; de la Torre, Ana; Marinello, Patricia; Rodríguez, Ronald; Cardoso, Jorge; Díaz, René; O'Farrill, Miguel; Macias, Amparo; Viada, Carmen; Saurez, Giselle; Carr, Adriana; Crombet, Tania; Mazorra, Zaima; Perez, Rolando; Fernandez, Luis Enrique

    2010-09-14

    Increased levels of NeuGc-containing gangliosides have been described in human breast cancer. A controlled Phase II clinical trial was conducted in patients with metastatic breast cancer to evaluate immunogenicity, safety and to identify evidences of biological activity of a cancer vaccine composed by NeuGcGM3 in a proteoliposome of Neisseria meningitidis together with Montanide ISA 51 as adjuvant. After first line chemotherapy, 79 women were randomized 1:1 to receive the vaccine candidate or best supportive care. All patients achieved at least stable disease to the first line therapy for the metastatic condition. Treatment consisted on 5 vaccine doses every 2 weeks and then, monthly re-immunization to complete 15 doses. Vaccination with the NeuGcGM3 based vaccine was safe and the most frequent adverse events consisted on injection site reactions, fever, arthralgia and chills. The vaccine was immunogenic and a sustained increase of both IgG and IgM antibody titters against NGcGM3 was observed after the second vaccination month. Antibodies were able to recognize the NeuGcGM3(+) murine tumor cell line L1210 and the myeloma cell line P3X63. Humoral response was specific since vaccination did not result in Neu-Acetyl GM3 or GM2-antibody response. Hyperimmune sera from vaccinated patients were able to prevent the NeuGcGM3 mediated CD4 down-modulation on T lymphocytes. In the intent to treat analysis, there was a trend toward a survival advantage for the vaccine group and this effect was significant for women bearing non-visceral metastasis. Two phase III clinical studies with this vaccine candidate are ongoing. PMID:20855939

  14. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  15. Clearing Persistent Extracellular Antigen of Hepatitis B Virus: An Immunomodulatory Strategy To Reverse Tolerance for an Effective Therapeutic Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danming; Liu, Longchao; Yang, Dan; Fu, Sherry; Bian, Yingjie; Sun, Zhichen; He, Junming; Su, Lishan; Zhang, Liguo; Peng, Hua; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Development of therapeutic vaccines/strategies to control chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been challenging because of HBV-induced tolerance. In this study, we explored strategies for breaking tolerance and restoring the immune response to the HBV surface Ag in tolerant mice. We demonstrated that immune tolerance status is attributed to the level and duration of circulating HBsAg in HBV carrier models. Removal of circulating HBsAg by a monoclonal anti-HBsAg Ab in tolerant mice could gradually reduce tolerance and reestablish B cell and CD4(+) T cell responses to subsequent Engerix-B vaccination, producing protective IgG. Furthermore, HBsAg-specific CD8(+) T cells induced by the addition of a TLR agonist resulted in clearance of HBV in both serum and liver. Thus, generation of protective immunity can be achieved by clearing extracellular viral Ag with neutralizing Abs followed by vaccination. PMID:26936879

  16. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  17. Anal cancer: current and future treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin JY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Y Chin, Theodore S Hong, Jennifer Y WoDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Anal cancer is a relatively rare malignancy, accounting for approximately 2% of gastrointestinal cancers. Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin remains the standard of care for the treatment of anal cancer. There is currently no proven role for platinum-based induction or adjuvant chemotherapy in anal cancer, even in cases of bulky disease. Multiple trials have shown that radiosensitization with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial over radiation alone, and in particular, efforts to remove or substitute mitomycin from the chemoradiation regimen have been unsuccessful. Because local-regional control remains a challenge in the management of anal cancer, future studies will need to focus on radiation dose-escalation and/or addition of further chemotherapy or targeted agents. Patient selection, eg, with PET-CT or with biomarkers including HPV status, may be necessary to define patients who need more aggressive local treatment, ie, for patients with bulky disease, or to de-escalate treatment in others, ie, patients with early-stage, localized cancer.Keywords: anal cancer, chemoradiation, IMRT

  18. Randomized, single blind, controlled trial to evaluate the prime-boost strategy for pneumococcal vaccination in renal transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Tobudic

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing invasive pneumococcal diseases but may have poor response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV. It may be possible to enhance immunogenicity by priming with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPnC and boosting with PPV 1 year later. In a randomized single-blind, controlled study, adult recipients of renal transplants received either 7nPVC or PPV followed by PPV 1 year later. The vaccine response was defined as 2-fold increase in antibody concentration from baseline and an absolute post-vaccination values ≥1 µg/ml. The primary endpoint was vaccine response of the primed group (7vPnC/PPV compared with single PPV vaccination. Antibody concentrations for 10 serotypes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks after first vaccination, before second vaccination, and 8 weeks after second vaccination. Of 320 screened patients, 80 patients were randomized and 62 completed the study. Revaccination with PPV achieved no significant increase of immune response in the 7vPnC/PPV group compared with the single PPV recipients A response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 77.1% of patients who received 7vPnC and 93.1% of patients who received PPV (P = 0.046. After second vaccination response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 87.5% patients of 7vPnC/PPV group and 87.1% patients of PPV group (non significant p. The median number of serotypes eliciting a response was 3.5 (95% CI 2.5-4.5 in the 7vPnC/PPV group versus 5 (95% CI 3.9-6.1 in the PPV group (non-significant p. Immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccination was not enhanced by the prime-boost strategy compared with vaccination with PPV alone. Administration of a single dose of PPV should continue to be the standard of care for adult recipients of renal transplants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2007-004590-25.

  19. Overlapping Synthetic Peptides Encoding TPD52 as Breast Cancer Vaccine in Mice: Prolonged Survival1

    OpenAIRE

    Mirshahidi, Saied; Kramer, Victor G; James B Whitney; Essono, Sosthène; Lee, Sandra; Dranoff, Glenn; Anderson, Karen S.; Ruth M Ruprecht

    2009-01-01

    Peptide-based vaccines, one of several anti-tumor immunization strategies currently under investigation, can elicit both MHC Class I-restricted (CD8+) and Class II-restricted (CD4+) responses. However, the need to identify specific T-cell epitopes in the context of MHC alleles has hampered the application of this approach. We have tested overlapping synthetic peptides (OSP) representing a tumor antigen as a novel approach that bypasses the need for epitope mapping, since OSP contain all possi...

  20. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characteriz...

  1. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis: background and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Capron

    1995-04-01

    . Immunization with the corresponding synthetic peptides was followed by a decrease of 70% of parasite fecundity and egg viability. As a preliminary step towards phase I human trials, vaccination experiments have been performed in cattle, a natural model for Schistosoma bovis. Vaccination of calves with the S. bovis GST has led to a reduction of ever 80% of egg output and tissue egg count. Significant levels of protection were also observed in goats after immunization with the recombinant S. bovis GST. Increasing evidence of the participation of IgA antibodies in protective immunity has prompted us toward the development of mucosal immunization. Preliminary results indicate that significant levels of protection can be achieved following oral immunization with live attenuated vectors or liposomes. These studies seem to represent a promising approach towards the future development of a vaccine strategy against one of major human parasitic diseases.

  2. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Dorsman, S.; Tutuhatunewa, E.D.; Vrij, E.L. de; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Wilschut, J.C.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides a

  3. Strategy of research for cancer-chemoprevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that environmental chemicals are important factors in terms of both development and prevention of human cancer. For prevention of human cancer, detection of early cancer and clinical trials at the early stage have been focused so far. Now, next main project will be investigation for prevention of cancer development itself. Chemoprevention of carcinogenesis, which means prevention of carcinogenesis by some chemical compounds, have been investigated extensively in a variety of organs, but in only one organ. However, from results of our studies, antioxidants such as BHA, responded differently to organs, and whole body investigation, not only one organ carcinogenesis, should be performed to investigate of chemoprevention. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of chemoprevention and on which step of carcinogenesis does the chemopreventive compound prevent, such as initiation, promotion, progression or whole carcinogenesis steps should be discussed. We have developed a medium term bioassay system and multi-organ carcinogenesis system, which can be used for investigation of cancer chemoprevention. Using these systems, we have investigated dose response inhibitory effects of BHA and α-tocopherol by the medium-term bioassay system, and catechins in the green tea inhibit small intestinal carcinogenesis in the multi-organ carcinogenesis. It is important for prevent human cancer to find other candidates for chemopreventive agents using animal study. (author)

  4. Computer model challenges breast cancer treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, M W; Swartzendruber, D E; Bame, P D; Wardwell, R H

    1994-01-01

    The breast cancer treatment failure rate remains unacceptably high. The current breast cancer treatment paradigm, based primarily on Gompertzian kinetics and animal models, advocates short-course, intensive chemotherapy subsequent to tumor debulking, citing drug resistance and host toxicity as the primary reasons for treatment failure. To better understand treatment failure, we have studied breast cancer from the perspective of computer modeling. Our results demonstrate breast cancers grow in an irregular fashion; this differs from the Gompertzian mode of animal models and thus challenges the validity of the current paradigm. Clinical and laboratory data support the concept of irregular growth rather than the common claim that human tumors grow in a Gompertzian fashion. Treatment failure mechanisms for breast cancer appear to differ from those for animal models, and thus treatments optimize on animal models may not be optimal for breast cancer. A failure mechanism consistent with our results involves temporarily dormant tumor cells in anatomical or pharmacological sanctuary, which eventually result in aggressive metastatic disease. PMID:7994590

  5. Comparing the health and social protection effects of measles vaccination strategies in Ethiopia: An extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Olson, Zachary D; Jamison, Dean T; Verguet, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination coverage rates often mask wide variation in access, uptake, and cost of providing vaccination. Financial incentives have been effective at creating demand for social services in a variety of settings. Using methods of extended cost-effectiveness analysis, we compare the health and economic implications of three different vaccine delivery strategies for measles vaccination in Ethiopia: i) routine immunization, ii) routine immunization with financial incentives, and iii) mass campaigns, known as supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We examine annual birth cohorts of almost 3,000,000 births over a ten year period, exploring variation in these outcomes based on economic status to understand how various options may improve equity. SIAs naturally achieve higher levels of vaccine coverage, but at higher costs. Routine immunization combined with financial incentives bolsters demand among more economically vulnerable households. The relative appeal of routine immunization with financial incentives and SIAs will depend on the policy environment, including short-term financial limitations, time horizons, and the types of outcomes that are desired. While the impact of financial incentives has been more thoroughly studied in other policy arenas, such as education, consideration of this approach alongside standard vaccination models such as SIAs is timely given the dialog around measles eradication. PMID:26189009

  6. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  7. Pilot study of a novel combination of two therapeutic vaccines in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Zaima Mazorra; Ramos, Tania Crombet

    2014-07-01

    Cancer vaccines contain tumor antigens in a pro-inflammatory context with the purpose to generate potent antitumor immune responses. However, tumor cells develop different immunosuppressive mechanisms that limit the effectiveness of an anticancer immune response. Therefore, therapeutic vaccine treatment alone is usually not sufficient to generate tumor regression or survival improvement, especially in the advanced disease scenario in which most clinical studies have been conducted. Combining cancer vaccines with different anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other immunotherapeutic agents has had different levels of success. However, the combination of cancer vaccines with different mechanisms of action has not been explored in clinical trials. To address this issue, the current review summarizes the main clinical and immunological results obtained with two different therapeutic vaccines used in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients, inducing an immune response against epidermal growth factor (CIMAvax-EGF) and NGcGM3 ganglioside (racotumomab). We also discuss preliminary findings obtained in a trial of combination of these two vaccines and future challenges with these therapies. PMID:24777612

  8. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22185292

  9. IS IT NECESSARY TO VACCINATE CHILDREN AGAINST HEPATITIS A ROUTINELY IN PRESENT TIME? THE EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF SUCH STRATEGY OF HEPATITIS A VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shakhgildian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Data about efficacy of conducting of routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A are presented in the article. The results of realization such strategy of vaccine prevention of Hepatitis A in selected regions of Russian Federation are evaluated. The perspectives of using this experience in other regions of the country is discussed.

  10. HPV Prevalence in Colombian Women with Cervical Cancer: Implications for Vaccination in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been considered potentially cost-effective for the reduction of cervical cancer burden in developing countries; their effectiveness in a public health setting continues to be researched. We conducted an HPV prevalence survey among Colombian women with invasive cancer. Paraffin-embedded biopsies were obtained from one high-risk and one low-middle-risk regions. GP5+/GP6+ L1 primers, RLB assays, and E7 type specific PCR were used for HPV-DNA detection. 217 cases were analyzed with 97.7% HPV detection rate. HPV-16/18 prevalence was 63.1%; HPV-18 had lower occurrence in the high-risk population (13.8% versus 9.6% allowing for the participation of less common HPV types; HPV-45 was present mainly in women under 50 and age-specific HPV type prevalence revealed significant differences. Multiple high-risk infections appeared in 16.6% of cases and represent a chance of replacement. Age-specific HPV prevalence and multiple high-risk infections might influence vaccine impact. Both factors highlight the role of HPVs other than 16/18, which should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses for potential vaccine impact.

  11. Cancer Vaccines: State of the Art of the Computational Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pappalardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer vaccines are a real application of the extensive knowledge of immunology to the field of oncology. Tumors are dynamic complex systems in which several entities, events, and conditions interact among them resulting in growth, invasion, and metastases. The immune system includes many cells and molecules that cooperatively act to protect the host organism from foreign agents. Interactions between the immune system and the tumor mass include a huge number of biological factors. Testing of some cancer vaccine features, such as the best conditions for vaccine administration or the identification of candidate antigenic stimuli, can be very difficult or even impossible only through experiments with biological models simply because a high number of variables need to be considered at the same time. This is where computational models, and, to this extent, immunoinformatics, can prove handy as they have shown to be able to reproduce enough biological complexity to be of use in suggesting new experiments. Indeed, computational models can be used in addition to biological models. We now experience that biologists and medical doctors are progressively convinced that modeling can be of great help in understanding experimental results and planning new experiments. This will boost this research in the future.

  12. Optimized oral cholera vaccine distribution strategies to minimize disease incidence: A mixed integer programming model and analysis of a Bangladesh scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Hinman, Alan

    2015-11-17

    In addition to improved sanitation, hygiene, and better access to safe water, oral cholera vaccines can help to control the spread of cholera in the short term. However, there is currently no systematic method for determining the best allocation of oral cholera vaccines to minimize disease incidence in a population where the disease is endemic and resources are limited. We present a mathematical model for optimally allocating vaccines in a region under varying levels of demographic and incidence data availability. The model addresses the questions of where, when, and how many doses of vaccines to send. Considering vaccine efficacies (which may vary based on age and the number of years since vaccination), we analyze distribution strategies which allocate vaccines over multiple years. Results indicate that, given appropriate surveillance data, targeting age groups and regions with the highest disease incidence should be the first priority, followed by other groups primarily in order of disease incidence, as this approach is the most life-saving and cost-effective. A lack of detailed incidence data results in distribution strategies which are not cost-effective and can lead to thousands more deaths from the disease. The mathematical model allows for what-if analysis for various vaccine distribution strategies by providing the ability to easily vary parameters such as numbers and sizes of regions and age groups, risk levels, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, production capacity and budget. PMID:26458806

  13. Thyroid cancer: Natural history, management strategies and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer

  14. Hepatitis B vaccination: the cost effectiveness of alternative strategies in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Mangtani, P; Hall, A J; Normand, C E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the cost effectiveness of adding universal hepatitis B vaccination in infancy or pre-adolescence to a policy of selective vaccination of at risk groups. DESIGN--Costs of a selective policy and additional costs of universal vaccination policies were estimated from costs of vaccine delivery and published data on target populations. Additional years of life gained were calculated for each policy by applying life tables to estimates of mortality attributable to hepatitis B. S...

  15. Novel medical strategies combating nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC continues to rise, partly because of aging, the frequency of early childhood sunburns, and sporadic extreme recreational sun exposure. A nonsurgical approach to selected cutaneous malignancy could possibly reduce the cost as well as morbidity of surgical treatment for NMSC. There has been growing interest in isolating compounds that could suppress or reverse the biochemical changes necessary for cutaneous malignancies to progress by pharmacologic intervention. By targeting diverse pathways recognized as important in the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancers, a combination approach with multiple agents or addition of chemopreventative agents to topical sunscreens may offer the potential for novel and synergistic therapies in treating nonmelanoma skin cancer. This preliminary information will expand to include more therapeutic options for NMSC in the future.

  16. Royal College of Radiologists Annual Undergraduate Essay Prize. Melanoma: the new smallpox? Can vaccines be used to treat melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gareth

    2002-02-01

    This essay assesses the effectiveness of vaccine therapy for melanoma. Risks and benefits of various vaccine strategies are explored, as are the processes by which such therapies are assessed. An overview of cancer immunobiology underlying vaccine therapy is given. PMID:11898780

  17. Intent to Participate in Future Cervical Cancer Screenings Is Lower when Satisfaction with the Decision to Be Vaccinated Is Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Natalie Marya; Harper, Diane Medved; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin; Ahern, Debra Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening. Methods and Findings From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18–26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US...

  18. Antigen dose escalation study of a VEGF-based therapeutic cancer vaccine in non human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Yanelys; Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Ayala, Marta; Pérez, Pedro Puente; Castro, Jorge; Sánchez, Javier; Alba, José Suárez; Ancízar, Julio; Cosme, Karelia; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2012-01-01

    CIGB-247 is a cancer therapeutic, based on recombinant modified human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as antigen, in combination with the oil free adjuvant VSSP (very small sized proteoliposomes of Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane). Our previous experimental studies in mice with CIGB-247 have shown that the vaccine has both anti-tumoral and anti-metastatic activity, and produces both antibodies that block VEGF-VEGF receptor interaction, and a specific T-cell cytotoxic response against tumor cells. CIGB-247, with an antigen dose of 100 μg, has been characterized by an excellent safety profile in mice, rats, rabbits, and non human primates. In this article we extend the immunogenicity and safety studies of CIGB-247 in non human primates, scaling the antigen dose from 100 μg to 200 and 400 μg/vaccination. Our results indicate that such dose escalation did not affect animal behavior, clinical status, and blood parameters and biochemistry. Also, vaccination did not interfere with skin deep skin wound healing. Anti-VEGF IgG antibodies and specific T-cell mediated responses were documented at all three studied doses. Antigen dose apparently did not determine differences in maximum antibody titer during the 8 weekly immunization induction phase, or the subsequent increase in antibodies seen for monthly boosters delivered afterwards. Higher antigen doses had a positive influence in antibody titer maintenance, after cessation of immunizations. Boosters were important to achieve maximum antibody VEGF blocking activity, and specific T-cell responses in all individuals. Purified IgG from CIGB-247 immunized monkey sera was able to impair proliferation and formation of capillary-like structures in Matrigel, for HMEC cells in culture. Altogether, these results support the further clinical development of the CIGB-247 therapeutic cancer vaccine, and inform on the potential mechanisms involved in its effect. PMID:22075086

  19. Exploration of graphene oxide as an intelligent platform for cancer vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hua; Wei, Wei; Gu, Zonglin; Ni, Dezhi; Luo, Nana; Yang, Zaixing; Zhao, Lin; Garate, Jose Antonio; Zhou, Ruhong; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2015-11-01

    We explored an intelligent vaccine system via facile approaches using both experimental and theoretical techniques based on the two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO). Without extra addition of bio/chemical stimulators, the microsized GO imparted various immune activation tactics to improve the antigen immunogenicity. A high antigen adsorption was acquired, and the mechanism was revealed to be a combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and π-π stacking interactions. The ``folding GO'' acted as a cytokine self-producer and antigen reservoir and showed a particular autophagy, which efficiently promoted the activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and subsequent antigen cross-presentation. Such a ``One but All'' modality thus induced a high level of anti-tumor responses in a programmable way and resulted in efficient tumor regression in vivo. This work may shed light on the potential use of a new dimensional nano-platform in the development of high-performance cancer vaccines.We explored an intelligent vaccine system via facile approaches using both experimental and theoretical techniques based on the two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO). Without extra addition of bio/chemical stimulators, the microsized GO imparted various immune activation tactics to improve the antigen immunogenicity. A high antigen adsorption was acquired, and the mechanism was revealed to be a combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and π-π stacking interactions. The ``folding GO'' acted as a cytokine self-producer and antigen reservoir and showed a particular autophagy, which efficiently promoted the activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and subsequent antigen cross-presentation. Such a ``One but All'' modality thus induced a high level of anti-tumor responses in a programmable way and resulted in efficient tumor regression in vivo. This work may shed light on the potential use of a new dimensional nano-platform in the development of high-performance cancer vaccines. Electronic

  20. Modulating autophagy: a strategy for cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Lin Li; Shao-Liang Han; Xia Fan

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process in which long-lived proteins,damaged cell organelles,and other cellular particles are sequestered and degraded.This process is important for maintaining the cellular microenvironment when the cell is under stress.Many studies have shown that autophagy plays a complex role in human diseases,especially in cancer,where it is known to have paradoxical effects.Namely,autophagy provides the energy for metabolism and tumor growth and leads to cell death that promotes tumor suppression.The link between autophagy and cancer is also evident in that some of the genes that regulate carcinogenesis,oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes,participate in or impact the autophagy process.Therefore,modulating autophagy will be a valuable topic for cancer therapy.Many studies have shown that autophagy can inhibit the tumor growth when autophagy modulators are combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.These findings suggest that autophagy may be a potent target for cancer therapy.

  1. New pre-pandemic influenza vaccines: an egg- and adjuvant-independent human adenoviral vector strategy induces long-lasting protective immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, M A; Jayashankar, L; Garg, S; Veguilla, V; Lu, X; Singh, N; Katz, J M; Mittal, S K; Sambhara, S

    2007-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses that are currently circulating in southeast Asia may acquire the potential to cause the next influenza pandemic. A number of alternate approaches are being pursued to generate cross-protective, dose-sparing, safe, and effective vaccines, as traditional vaccine approaches, i.e., embryonated egg-grown, are not immunogenic. We developed a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector-based, adjuvant- and egg-independent pandemic influenza vaccine strategy as a potential alternative to conventional egg-derived vaccines. In this paper, we address suboptimal dose and longevity of vaccine-induced protective immunity and demonstrate that a vaccine dose as little as 1 x 10(6) plaque-forming unit (PFU) is sufficient to induce protective immune responses against a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Furthermore, the vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and protective immunity persisted at least for a year. PMID:17957181

  2. Immune evasion in cancer: mechanistic basis and therapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay, Dass S.; Elizabeth P. Ryan; Pawelec, Graham; Talib, Wamidh H.; Stagg, John; Elkord, Eyad; Lichtor, Terry; Decker, William K.; Whelan, Richard L.; Kumara, H. M. C. Shantha; Signori, Emanuela; Honoki, Kanya; Alexandros G Georgakilas; Amin, Amr; Helferich, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immune evasion is a major stumbling block in designing effective anticancer therapeutic strategies. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding how cancers evade destructive immunity, measures to counteract tumor escape have not kept pace. There are a number of factors that contribute to tumor persistence despite having a normal host immune system. Immune editing is one of the key aspects why tumors evade surveillance causing the tumors to lie dormant in patients for ...

  3. Vaccination strategies against myxomavirus infections: are we really doing the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D

    2010-03-01

    Vaccination is the best way to control myxomatosis in both pet and production rabbits. Two types of myxomatosis vaccines are commercially available, namely, a vaccine prepared from the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and one prepared from an attenuated myxoma virus (MV) strain, e.g., SG33. The first one is weakly immunogenic and provides only short-term protection whereas atypical reactions have been described with the second one. This short review describes the vaccine strains and provides some data on the host-virus relationship, resistance, and immunity in myxomatosis. In the last section, recommended myxomatosis vaccination schemes for production and pet animals are presented. PMID:20334023

  4. Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Goddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of the female genital tract in developing countries, with a global burden of 530,000 new cases annually. This study aims to review the current situation of this important malignancy and to assess the previous use of preventive measures in patients with cervical cancer at the Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all cases of cervical cancer managed at the UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December, 2012. Results: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 3.53% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age of incidence was 50-59 years, accounting for 40% of the study population. Women with high parity contributed to 93.3% of the study population. Early coitarche was observed in 78.7% and a history of multiple sexual partners in 65.3%. Vaginal bleeding was the commonest clinical feature seen in all the women studied, followed by pelvic pain in 84% of cases. Advanced-stage cervical cancer was seen in 93.4%. None of the women studied had been previously vaccinated against human papilloma virus (HPV, and only 1.3% had had any form of screening methods for early detection of cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains an important cancer in our environment, and late presentation with advance disease is still the norm despite advances in screening and preventive modalities. The reason for this is buttressed on the finding that despite the availability of these preventive strategies, women in the South-South of Nigeria did not partake of these measures. There is an urgent need to develop programmes to re-sensitise women on the need for screening and vaccination to reduce cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.

  5. Clinical and Immunological Effects in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung-Cancer after Vaccination with Dendritic Cells Exposed to an Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Kvistborg, Pia; Zocca, Mai-Britt;

    2013-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and......-layed effect of DC vaccination after completion of the treatment. A prospective randomized phase-IIb or -III is needed to further evaluate the use of MelCancerVac® vaccine treatment in patients with progressive NSCLC....

  6. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Gardanova; I. I. Abdullin; D. N. Chernov; Chernov, A. V.; Y. I. Kekteeva

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used...

  7. Staging Lung Cancer: Current Controversies and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Riyad Karmy-Jones; Hyland, Robert H.; Lewis, Joseph W; Paul Kvale

    1997-01-01

    A consistent approach to staging is required for the rational management of lung cancer. This paper was prepared at the request of the Standards Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and reviews and discusses the relative merits of the available methods of staging. Whichever methods are chosen by a particular institution, the following points must be stressed. No patient can be considered automatically "unresectable" when chest radiography and/ or computed tomography demonstrate adenopa...

  8. Evaluation of regulated delayed attenuation strategies for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine vectors in neonatal and infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huoying; Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2013-06-01

    We developed regulated delayed attenuation strategies for Salmonella vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the combination of these strategies in recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine vectors with similar genetic backgrounds in vitro and in vivo. Our goal is to develop a vaccine to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in newborns; thus, all strains delivered a pneumococcal antigen PspA and the impact of maternal antibodies was evaluated. The results showed that all strains with the regulated delayed attenuated phenotype (RDAP) displayed an invasive ability stronger than that of the S. Typhi vaccine strain, Ty21a, but weaker than that of their corresponding wild-type parental strains. The survival curves of different RDAP vaccine vectors in vitro and in vivo exhibited diverse regulated delayed attenuation kinetics, which was different from S. Typhi Ty21a and the wild-type parental strains. Under the influence of maternal antibody, the persistence of the S. Typhimurium RDAP strain displayed a regulated delayed attenuation trend in nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT), lung, and Peyer's patches, while the persistence of S. Typhi RDAP strains followed the curve only in NALT. The bacterial loads of S. Typhi RDAP strains were lower in NALT, lung, and Peyer's patches in mice born to immune mothers than in those born to naive mothers. In accordance with these results, RDAP vaccine strains induced high titers of IgG antibodies against PspA and against Salmonella lipopolysaccharides. Immunization of mothers with S. Typhi RDAP strains enhanced the level of vaginal mucosal IgA, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and resulted in a higher level of protection against S. pneumoniae challenge. PMID:23616408

  9. Strategy against micrometastasis of epithelial cancer: Detection and elimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is generally agreed to be the major cause of cancer death. Over the last few years, studies of new diagnosis techniques and tumor immunotherapy have made great progress. Recent clinical studies on the occult metastases of breast, lung and colorectal cancer all suggested that the detection of micrometastases in bone marrow is prognostically important and provides substantial evidence of tumor dissemination. On the other hand, two kinds of the mAb-based immunotherapy have been approved for the treatment against epithelial cancer. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 17-1A for colorectal carcinomas and mAb herceptin for breast cancer both have produced good curative effects. Potential therapeutics based on some antibodies with prominent antitumor activity also has shown obvious clinical effect. These studies indicate that detection of micrometastasis in circulatory system and immunotherapy by eliminating metastatic malignant cells suggested a new strategy against the metastatic cancer.

  10. Susceptibility to breast cancer Cuban families and intervention strategy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In breast cancer, as in most cancers, mutations usually occur in somatic cells, but sometimes occur in germ cells. The carriers of these mutations germ have up to 80% risk of having the disease course of their lives and pass it on to their offspring, they are called hereditary cancers. In this work studied 50 tested history relatives of this neoplasm from consulting advice genetic hereditary breast cancer. The tree was made pedigree of the family of each test and been classified risk using the criteria of Hampel et al. Other malignancies were identified through the analysis of pedigrees and performed syndromic classification of families. It develops an algorithm for the care of breast cancer families hereditary and plotted strategies identified by risk taking that each category implies a different intervention. It recommended to continue studying the value of marking lesions subclinical and train staff to perform this technique for its widespread use in the country. (Author)

  11. Coping Strategies in Egyptian Ladies with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheshtawy, Eman A.; Abo-Elez, Warda F.; Hala S. Ashour; Omar Farouk; Maha l. Esmael El zaafarany

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A diagnosis of breast cancer regardless of the stage can be stressful, impact multiple spheres of life, and disrupt physical status, emotional and spiritual well-being, and personal relationships for the patient and family. In order to adapt, the patient ought to employ certain coping mechanisms. Individuals with terminal illness who utilize coping strategies have better quality of life compared to those who do not. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study aimed to determine the strategie...

  12. Phase I trial of thymidylate synthase poly-epitope peptide (TSPP) vaccine in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Maria Grazia; Botta, Cirino; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Rossetti, Maria Grazia; Dreassi, Elena; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Fioravanti, Antonella; Martino, Elodia Claudia; Gandolfo, Claudia; Pagliuchi, Marco; Basile, Assunta; Carbone, Salvatore Francesco; Ricci, Veronica; Micheli, Lucia; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Pirtoli, Luigi; Correale, Pierpaolo

    2015-09-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) poly-epitope peptide (TSPP) is a 27-mer peptide vaccine containing the amino acidic sequences of three epitopes with HLA-A2.1-binding motifs of TS, an enzyme overexpressed in cancer cells, which plays a crucial role in DNA repair and replication. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we designed a phase Ib trial (TSPP/VAC1) to investigate, in a dose escalation setting, the safety and the biological activity of TSPP vaccination alone (arm A) or in combination with GM-CSF and IL-2 (arm B) in cancer patients. Twenty-one pretreated metastatic cancer patients, with a good performance status (ECOG ≤ 1) and no severe organ failure or immunological disease, were enrolled in the study (12 in arm A, nine in arm B) between April 2011 and January 2012, with a median follow-up of 28 months. TSPP resulted safe, and its maximal tolerated dose was not achieved. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. The most common adverse events were grade 2 dermatological reactions to the vaccine injection, cough, rhinitis, fever, poly-arthralgia, gastro-enteric symptoms and, to a lesser extent, moderate hypertension and hypothyroidism. We detected a significant rise in auto-antibodies and TS-epitope-specific CTL precursors. Furthermore, TSPP showed antitumor activity in this group of pretreated patients; indeed, we recorded one partial response and seven disease stabilizations (SD) in arm A, and three SD in arm B. Taken together, our findings provide the framework for the evaluation of the TSPP anti-tumor activity in further disease-oriented clinical trials. PMID:26031574

  13. Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 6th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay was held under the auspices of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute on March 10–13, 2004. The Colloquium consisted of a select group of 34 scientists representing academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The main goal of this gathering was to promote in a peaceful and comfortable environment exchanges between basic and clinical science. The secondary benefit was to inspire novel bench to bedside ventures and at the same time provide feed back about promising and/or disappointing clinical results that could help re-frame some scientific question or guide the design of future trials. Several topics were covered that included tumor antigen discovery and validation, platforms for vaccine development, tolerance, immune suppression and tumor escape mechanisms, adoptive T cell therapy and dendritic cell-based therapies, clinical trials and assessment of response. Here we report salient points raised by speakers or by the audience during animated discussion that followed each individual presentation.

  14. [Staging Based Strategies and Practice for Prostate Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Shu-sheng; Bai, Zun-guang; Wang, Zhao-hui; Lv, Li-guo; Gu, Chi-ming; Xiang, Song-tao; Dai, Rui-xin; Zhu, Shou-lun

    2016-06-01

    Authors raised that staging based strategies and practice of integrative medicine (IM) by combining syndrome typing and disease identification, and choosing suitable measures in accordance with different persons and seasonal conditions after more than ten years' clinical practice and researches. Radical operation as prior (as evil eliminating) and strengthening vital qi in perioerative period are best strategy for promoting rapid rehabilitation of early stage prostate cancer patients. Strengthening body resistance to eliminate evil was used in treating advanced prostate cancer patients. For example, a comprehensive treatment program for hormone-dependent patients was combined with endocrinotherapy and Chinese herbs for synergisic efficacy-enhancing actions. In this way, these patients' quality of life (QOL) were improved and time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) was delayed, even some patients were clinically cured. There are lack of effective medicines and methods for CRPC patients. Greatly tonifying original qi is mainly used for improving their clinical symptoms and prolonging survivals. Practice has proved staging based strategies and practice of IM has favorable advantages in treating prostate cancer, especially showing prospect in prolonging survival and postponing progression of advanced prostate cancer patients. Besides, it also could provide beneficial considerations and inspiration for combination of syndrome typing and disease identification. PMID:27491237

  15. Strategies for the modification of risk factors in gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedet, J L; Cabero-Roura, L

    2002-01-01

    Strategies to modify risk for female or gynecological cancers will vary with our knowledge of the epidemiology, etiology, and specific molecular mechanisms for each individual cancer. In general, cancer preventive strategies have been divided into primary and secondary prevention with primary prevention directed toward the causative factors for a disease. Secondary prevention is classically used in cervical cancer cytology screening programs and is essentially an attempt to identify individuals in a population with preclinical phases of the disease where intervention will impact mortality the most. A vast literature has evolved regarding the epidemiology of most of the common cancers in women. While the specific molecular mechanisms are not completely understood at this time knowledge of contributing factors for many of these tumors is well known. The association of cigarette smoking with lung cancer has been well established and the increasing rates of lung cancer, particularly in women, are directly linked to the increasing number of female smokers in the population. Indeed in many western countries lung cancer deaths have overtaken breast cancer as the most common cause of death from malignant disease in women. Excessive sun exposure without adequate skin protection is another lifestyle activity that is related to the high incidence of skin cancer in certain areas. Epidemiologically, cervical cancer has been studied extensively with the current data indicating a causal role of exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly at an early age in this disease. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes are well understood and as more information on human genomics becomes available a clear understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of these diseases will be possible and hopefully will result in effective strategies for their control. Unfortunately, in spite of the vast knowledge that is available regarding risk factors for many of these

  16. Endoscopic surveillance strategy after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Nishida; Masahiko; Tsujii; Motohiko; Kato; Yoshito; Hayashi; Tomofumi; Akasaka; Hideki; Iijima; Tetsuo; Takehara

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of early gastric cancer(EGC)is important to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.Recent advances in endoscopic modalities and treatment devices,such as image-enhanced endoscopy and high-frequency generators,may make endoscopic treatment,such as endoscopic submucosal dissection,a therapeutic option for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia.Consequently,short-term outcomes of endoscopic resection(ER)for EGC have improved.Therefore,surveillance with endoscopy after ER for EGC is becoming more important,but how to perform endoscopic surveillance after ER has not been established,even though the follow-up strategy for more advanced gastric cancer has been outlined.Therefore,a surveillance strategy for patients with EGC after ER is needed.

  17. Anthrax vaccine design: strategies to achieve comprehensive protection against spore, bacillus, and toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Roehrl, Michael H.; Wang, Jun-Xia

    2005-01-01

    The successful use of Bacillus anthracis as a lethal biological weapon has prompted renewed research interest in the development of more effective vaccines against anthrax. The disease consists of three critical components: spore, bacillus, and toxin, elimination of any of which confers at least partial protection against anthrax. Current remedies rely on postexposure antibiotics to eliminate bacilli and pre- and postexposure vaccination to target primarily toxins. Vaccines effective against ...

  18. Strategies to Optimize Molecularly Targeted Anti-Cancer Agent Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Erdogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic agents which are used in cancer chemotherapy reduced several times the number of neoplastic cells but not fully. Therefore, usage of and ldquo;targeted therapeutics" which were developed with much more rational approach is increasing markedly in patients with solid cancer. Targeted therapeutics due to selective targets aims cancer cells with specific molecular defect thereby, kils the cancer cells, which makes it possible to continue normal cells in a healthy environment. The rapid emergence of hundreds of new agents that modulates ever-growing list of the cancer-specific molecular targets promise great hope for cancer patients. Evaluation of the target agent individually, in combination with standard therapy and other target agents bring about important development challenges. As possible combinations of drugs number is unlimited, the identification of the most promising combinations and giving priority to assessing their strategies are very important.In this article important elements of the development strategy of the target agent combinations will be considered. Difficulties in this kind of combinations of rational pre-clinical and clinical evaluation and possible approaches to overcome these challenges will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 432-451

  19. Anti-Tumor Effects of Peptide Therapeutic and Peptide Vaccine Antibody Co-targeting HER-1 and HER-2 in Esophageal Cancer (EC and HER-1 and IGF-1R in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Overholser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promise of targeted therapies, there remains an urgent need for effective treatment for esophageal cancer (EC and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. Current FDA-approved drugs have significant problems of toxicity, safety, selectivity, efficacy and development of resistance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that rationally designed peptide vaccines/mimics are a viable therapeutic strategy for blocking aberrant molecular signaling pathways with high affinity, specificity, potency and safety. Specifically, we postulate that novel combination treatments targeting members of the EGFR family and IGF-1R will yield significant anti-tumor effects in in vitro models of EC and TNBC possibly overcoming mechanisms of resistance. We show that the combination of HER-1 and HER-2 or HER-1 and IGF-1R peptide mimics/vaccine antibodies exhibited enhanced antitumor properties with significant inhibition of tumorigenesis in OE19 EC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines. Our work elucidates the mechanisms of HER-1/IGF-1R and HER-1/HER-2 signaling in these cancer cell lines, and the promising results support the rationale for dual targeting with HER-1 and HER-2 or IGF-1R as an improved treatment regimen for advanced therapy tailored to difference types of cancer.

  20. Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Brigitte; Aquino, Myra; Fatil, Marie; Seay, Julia; Trevil, Dinah; Fièvre, Michèle Jessica; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations. PMID:27050619

  1. Advances in human papilloma virus vaccines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Tomar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women and third leading cause of cancer death. Approximately 500,000 women worldwide develop new cases of cervical cancer annually, with 80% of these new cases occurring in developing countries. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection is the main factor associated with the development of cervical cancer. The currently available HPV vaccines, gardasil and cervarix, can prevent infection by certain HPV types, but not all. At present, research efforts are being devoted to developing broader spectrum preventative vaccines, as well as therapeutic vaccines. To confer additional therapeutic activities, chimeric vaccines have been developed. Multivalent vaccine technologies employ strategies for addressing a broader spectrum of HPV types or for combining HPV with other pathogens. Edible vaccines are also disclosed. For needleless immunization, jet gun, gene gun and microneedles have been developed. Biodegradable and mucoadhesive polymer-based vaccine formulations have been developed to deliver vaccines through the mucosa and enhance immunogenicity. Various viral vectors of recombinant HPV DNA vaccine are disclosed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  2. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Macchia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM- based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma.

  3. Enhancement of DNA vaccine potency through linkage of antigen to filamentous bacteriophage coat protein III domain I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta, Àngel M; Suárez, Eduardo; Larsen, Martin; Jensen, Kim Bak; Sanz, Laura; Compte, Marta; Kristensen, Peter; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Although DNA-based cancer vaccines have been successfully tested in mouse models, a major drawback of cancer vaccination still remains, namely that tumour antigens are weak and fail to generate a vigorous immune response in tumour-bearing patients. Genetic technology offers strategies for promoti...

  4. Cancer Vaccine:promise in the 21st Century%癌症疫苗:21世纪征服癌症的希望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾钢

    2001-01-01

    Cancer vaccine,the idea of utilizing the immune system to prevent and/or treat human cancers has been proposed for nearly a century.Only since the last decasde,the discovery of tumor-associated antigens has helped us to understand the molecular details of tumor-immune system interaction as well as provided new opportunities for cancer vaccine development.Cancer vaccine has seen remarked progress in both basic scientific research and clinical trials based on the discoveries of these studies.Inaddition,more and more efforts from industry are being made to the commercialization of these discoverise.Cancer vaccine,in combination with surgery,chemotherapy and rediation therapy may potentially provide effective treatment to most human cancers in the 21st century.

  5. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  6. A rapid immunization strategy with a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody responses in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping eAmbuel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENVs cause approximately 390 million cases of DENV infections annually and over 3 billion people worldwide are at risk of infection. No dengue vaccine is currently available nor is there an antiviral therapy for DENV infections. We have developed a tetravalent live-attenuated DENV vaccine (TDV that consists of a molecularly characterized attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2 and three chimeric viruses containing the pre-membrane and envelope genes of DENV-1, -3 and -4 expressed in the context of the TDV-2 genome. To impact dengue vaccine delivery in endemic areas and immunize travelers, a simple and rapid immunization strategy (RIS is preferred. We investigated RIS consisting of two full vaccine doses being administered subcutaneously or intradermally on the initial vaccination visit (day 0 at two different anatomical locations with a needle-free disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI delivery devices (PharmaJet in non-human primates (NHP. This vaccination strategy resulted in efficient priming and induction of neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes comparable to those elicited by the traditional prime and boost (two months later vaccination schedule. In addition, the vaccine induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α, and targeting the DENV-2 NS1, NS3 and NS5 proteins. Moreover, vaccine-specific T cells were cross-reactive with the non-structural NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV-4. When animals were challenged with DENV-2 they were protected with no detectable viremia, and exhibited sterilizing immunity (no increase of neutralizing titers post- challenge. RIS could decrease vaccination visits and provide quick immune response to all four DENV serotypes. This strategy could increase vaccination compliance and would be especially advantageous for travelers into endemic areas.

  7. Preventive vaccination against cervical cancer: Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Kwon, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seong, Seok Ju; Song, Yong Jung; Shin, Jin Woo; Lee, Keun Ho; Lim, Myong Cheol; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Ju, Woong; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Jae-Weon; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    After human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine guidelines published by Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO) in 2011, new studies have been published, leading to additional data regarding efficacy, safety, number of vaccination rounds, and ideal age of vaccine administration. We searched and reviewed the literatures focused on the efficacy of 2-dose schedule vaccination, the efficacy of 3-dose schedule vaccination in middle-aged women, the ideal age of 3-dose schedule vaccination, the safet...

  8. A phase II trial of personalized peptide vaccination in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients: prolongation of prostate-specific antigen doubling time

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Masanori; MORIYA, FUKUKO; SUEKANE, SHIGETAKA; Ohnishi, Rei; Matsueda, Satoko; Sasada, Tetsuro; Yamada, Akira; Itoh, Kyogo

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer vaccine is one of the attractive treatment modalities for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, because of delayed immune responses, its clinical benefits, besides for overall survival (OS), are not well captured by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Several surrogate markers for evaluation of cancer vaccine, including prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT), are curren...

  9. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination. PMID:26892239

  10. Treatment strategies for lung cancer brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-one patients suffered initial relapses with brain metastasis after surgery for non-small lung cancer at our hospital between 1978 and 1995. These patients were a total of 8.4% of all cases of surgical removal, and had an average relapse period of 8.6 months ± 8.0 months after surgery on the primary lesions. Of these, surgical removal of metastasized lesions was performed on 18 patients (43%), in which the 5-year post-operative survival rate was 35.7%, and the median survival time was good at 28 months. It was found that the survival period was significantly extended in the group whose relapse period was less than one year after surgery on the primary lesions, and in the group who received cranial irradiation post-operatively on the metastasized brain lesion. Following surgery on the metastasized lesion, second relapses occurred in nine patients, and six patients suffered from second relapses in the brain, of which four did not receive cranial irradiation post-operatively. Cases of radiotherapy in patients of 70 years of age or more frequently manifested post-radiotherapy subacute neuropathy. From the above, it is thought that the following procedures should be adopted: Periodic examination for brain metastasis during the 24 months following surgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma for purposes of early detection; in cases where brain metastasis is detected, if no metastasis is identified in other organs, a policy of surgical removal should be adopted where possible; and, in cases of 70 years of age or less following surgery on the metastasized lesion, cranial irradiation should be considered. (author)

  11. Prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancers: role of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lina Diaz

    2010-01-01

    Maria Lina DiazSection of Ambulatory Gynecology Cleveland Clinic Florida Weston, Florida, USAAbstract: The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignancies of the uterine cervix, vagina, and vulva has been established. The development of a quadrivalent HPV recombinant prophylactic vaccine represents the first time in history that primary prevention of these cancers is offered to girls and women. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV subtypes in cervical cancers has been the most...

  12. Freund's vaccine adjuvant promotes Her2/Neu breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammation has been linked to the etiology of many organ-specific cancers. Indirect evidence suggests a possible role for inflammation in breast cancer. We investigated whether the systemic inflammation induced by Freund's adjuvant (FA) promotes mammary carcinogenesis in a rat model in which cancer is induced by the neu oncogene. The effects of FA on hyperplastic mammary lesions and mammary carcinomas were determined in a neu-induced rat model. The inflammatory response to FA treatment was gauged by measuring acute phase serum haptoglobin. In addition, changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis following FA treatment were assessed. Rats receiving FA developed twice the number of mammary carcinomas as controls. Systemic inflammation following FA treatment is chronic, as shown by a doubling of the levels of the serum biomarker, haptoglobin, 15 days following initial treatment. We also show that this systemic inflammation is associated with the increased growth of hyperplastic mammary lesions. This increased growth results from a higher rate of cellular proliferation in the absence of changes in apoptosis. Our data suggests that systemic inflammation induced by Freund's adjuvant (FA) promotes mammary carcinogenesis. It will be important to determine whether adjuvants currently used in human vaccines also promote breast cancer

  13. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  14. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  15. What's next? Perspectives and future needs of cervical screening in Europe in the era of molecular testing and vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Antilla, Ahti; Arbyn, Marc;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To outline the perspectives for future control of cervical cancer in Europe. METHODS: Review of current status for major cervical cancer control tools. The review was based on PubMed searches for cervical cancer prevention, Human Papillomavirus, HPV-test, HPV-vaccination, and treatment with...... infected with vaccine HPV-types at vaccination are well protected against CIN2+ from these HPV-types, but the vaccine does not protect against CIN2+ from other HPV-types and neither does it protect already HPV infected women. There is an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes following excisional...... treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The future of cervical cancer control may become a diversified strategy, one for non-vaccinated birth cohorts and another for vaccinated cohorts. It will take another 50 years before the non-vaccinated cohorts have passed the screening age. With the current uncertainty concerning the...

  16. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  17. Improving Multi-Epitope Long Peptide Vaccine Potency by Using a Strategy that Enhances CD4+ T Help in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari-Nazari, Haniyeh; Tavakkol-Afshari, Jalil; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Tahaghoghi-Hajghorbani, Sahar; Masoumi, Elham; Jalali, Seyed Amir

    2015-01-01

    Peptide-based vaccines are attractive approaches for cancer immunotherapy; but the success of these vaccines in clinical trials have been limited. Our goal is to improve immune responses and anti-tumor effects against a synthetic, multi-epitope, long peptide from rat Her2/neu (rHer2/neu) using the help of CD4+ T cells and appropriate adjuvant in a mouse tumor model. Female BALB/c mice were vaccinated with P5+435 multi-epitope long peptide that presents epitopes for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in combination with a universal Pan DR epitope (PADRE) or CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) as a Toll-like receptor agonist adjuvant. The results show that vaccination with the multi-epitope long peptide in combination with the PADRE peptide and CpG-ODN induced expansion of subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing IFN-γ, the average tumor size in the vaccinated mice was less than that of the other groups, and tumor growth was inhibited in 40% of the mice in the vaccinated group. The mean survival time was 82.6 ± 1.25 days in mice vaccinated with P5+435 + CpG+ PADRE. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of PADRE and CpG with the peptide vaccine enhanced significant tumor specific-immune responses in vaccinated mice. PMID:26556756

  18. Improving Multi-Epitope Long Peptide Vaccine Potency by Using a Strategy that Enhances CD4+ T Help in BALB/c Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Ghaffari-Nazari

    Full Text Available Peptide-based vaccines are attractive approaches for cancer immunotherapy; but the success of these vaccines in clinical trials have been limited. Our goal is to improve immune responses and anti-tumor effects against a synthetic, multi-epitope, long peptide from rat Her2/neu (rHer2/neu using the help of CD4+ T cells and appropriate adjuvant in a mouse tumor model. Female BALB/c mice were vaccinated with P5+435 multi-epitope long peptide that presents epitopes for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL in combination with a universal Pan DR epitope (PADRE or CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs as a Toll-like receptor agonist adjuvant. The results show that vaccination with the multi-epitope long peptide in combination with the PADRE peptide and CpG-ODN induced expansion of subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing IFN-γ, the average tumor size in the vaccinated mice was less than that of the other groups, and tumor growth was inhibited in 40% of the mice in the vaccinated group. The mean survival time was 82.6 ± 1.25 days in mice vaccinated with P5+435 + CpG+ PADRE. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of PADRE and CpG with the peptide vaccine enhanced significant tumor specific-immune responses in vaccinated mice.

  19. Study on biological characters of SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Zhang; Peng-Fen Gao; Pei-Wu Yu; Yun Rao; Li-Xin Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the biological characters of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines.METHODS: The suspending living SGC7901 gastric cancer cells and dendritic cells were induced to be fusioned by polyethylene glycol. Pure fusion cells were obtained by selective culture with the HAT/HT culture systems.The fusion cells were counted at different time points of culture and their growth curves were drawn to reflect their proliferative activities. The fusion cells were also cultured in culture medium to investigate whether they could grow into cell clones. MTT method was used to test the stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes' proliferations. Moreover, the fusion cells were planted into nude mice to observe whether they could grow into new planted tumors in this kind of immunodeficiency animals.RESULTS: The fusion cells had weaker proliferative activity and clone abilities than their parental cells. When they were cultured, the counts of cells did not increase remarkably, nor could they grow into cell clones in culture medium. The fusion cells could not grow into new planted tumors after planted into nude mice. The stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes' proliferations were remarkably increased than their parental dendritic cells.CONCLUSION: The SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines have much weaker proliferative abilities than their parental cells, but they keep strong abilities to irritate the T lymphocytes and have no abilities to grow into new planted tumors in immunodeficiency animals. These are the biological basis for their antitumor biotherapies.

  20. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  1. A novel strategy for cancer gene therapy: RNAi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Qiuwei; CAI Rong; LIU Xinyuan; QIAN Cheng

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) induces genesilencing at a level of posttranscription mediated bydouble stranded RNA. There are numerous methods for delivery of small double-stranded interference RNA (siRNA) to the target cells, including nonviral and viral vectors. Among these methods, viral vectors are the more efficient vehicles. The expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) by viral vectors in target cells can be cut by Dicer enzyme to become ~21 bp siRNA, which could guide degradation of cognate mRNA. RNAi technology can be directed against cancer using a variety of strategies, including the inhibition of overexpressed oncogenes, promoting apoptosis, regulating cell cycle, antiangiogenesis and enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Since RNAi technology has become an excellent strategy for cancer gene therapy, this review outlines the latest developments and applications of such a novel technology.

  2. Intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings is lower when satisfaction with the decision to be vaccinated is neutral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Marya Alexander

    Full Text Available HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening.From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18-26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US Midwest were asked to complete a descriptive and medical history survey including a six element decisional satisfaction survey scored on 5-point Likert scales, where the intent to participate in future cervical cancer screening was measured. Of the 568 women who completed the decisional satisfaction survey, 17% of those <21 years and 7% ≥ 21 years indicated no intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings. Among women of current screening age, the univariate risk factors of race/ethnicity, contraceptive use, number of lifetime sexual partners, and receipt of HPV vaccine were not predictors of intent for future cervical cancer screening. Instead, only a history of a prior Pap test was a significant positive predictor and only a decisional satisfaction of 'neutral' (Likert score = 3 for any of the four decisional satisfaction elements was a significant negative predictor. For the decisional satisfaction element "best for me personally", there was a 78% decreased likelihood of intending to participate in future screening if the satisfaction was neutral rather than firm (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.91 and a 26 fold increased likelihood if she had had a prior Pap test (aOR = 26, 95% CI: 5-133.HPV vaccination implementation programs must help women be the owner of their decision around HPV vaccination and understand the importance of future participation in cervical cancer screening.

  3. Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination. PMID:23330632

  4. Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal cells. Some types of leukocytes patrol the circulatory system , seeking foreign invaders and diseased, damaged, or dead ... and that are relatively easy for the immune system to recognize as ... viruses ( hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus ), stimulate the ...

  5. The Optimality of Different Strategies for Supplemental Staging of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Fischer, Barbara Malene B; Mortensen, Jann; Rasmussen, Torben R.; Lassen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    To assess the expected costs and outcomes of alternative strategies for staging of lung cancer to inform a Danish National Health Service perspective about the most cost-effective strategy.......To assess the expected costs and outcomes of alternative strategies for staging of lung cancer to inform a Danish National Health Service perspective about the most cost-effective strategy....

  6. A CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/Lox system-based express vaccine development strategy against re-emerging Pseudorabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xun; Sun, Leqiang; Yu, Teng; Pan, Yongfei; Wang, Dongdong; Hu, Xueying; Fu, Zhenfang; He, Qigai; Cao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Virus evolves rapidly to escape vaccine-induced immunity, posing a desperate demand for efficient vaccine development biotechnologies. Here we present an express vaccine development strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/Lox system against re-emerging Pseudorabies virus, which caused the recent devastating swine pseudorabies outbreak in China. By CRISPR/Cas9 system, the virulent genes of the newly isolated strain were simultaneously substituted by marker genes, which were subsequently excised using Cre/Lox system for vaccine safety concern. Notably, single cell FACS technology was applied to further promote virus purification efficiency. The combination of these state-of-art technologies greatly accelerated vaccine development. Finally, vaccination and challenge experiments proved this vaccine candidate's protective efficacy in pigs and the promise to control current pseudorabies outbreak. This is, to our knowledge, the first successful vaccine development based on gene edit technologies, demonstrating these technologies leap from laboratory to industry. It may pave the way for future express antiviral vaccine development. PMID:26777545

  7. A CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/Lox system-based express vaccine development strategy against re-emerging Pseudorabies virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xun; Sun, Leqiang; Yu, Teng; Pan, Yongfei; Wang, Dongdong; Hu, Xueying; Fu, Zhenfang; He, Qigai; Cao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Virus evolves rapidly to escape vaccine-induced immunity, posing a desperate demand for efficient vaccine development biotechnologies. Here we present an express vaccine development strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/Lox system against re-emerging Pseudorabies virus, which caused the recent devastating swine pseudorabies outbreak in China. By CRISPR/Cas9 system, the virulent genes of the newly isolated strain were simultaneously substituted by marker genes, which were subsequently excised using Cre/Lox system for vaccine safety concern. Notably, single cell FACS technology was applied to further promote virus purification efficiency. The combination of these state-of-art technologies greatly accelerated vaccine development. Finally, vaccination and challenge experiments proved this vaccine candidate’s protective efficacy in pigs and the promise to control current pseudorabies outbreak. This is, to our knowledge, the first successful vaccine development based on gene edit technologies, demonstrating these technologies leap from laboratory to industry. It may pave the way for future express antiviral vaccine development. PMID:26777545

  8. The Italian alliance for vaccination strategies: Facebook as a learning tool for preventive medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Miccoli, Silvia; Ricciardi, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Italian Alliance of vaccination strategies project was born with the aim of informing healthcare workers and the general population about vaccination through Facebook. The evaluation of the account has been carried out using 3 indicators: friend membership, numbers of "I like," and amount of "share" of contents for type of news and for day of the week. The survey was performed on 743 users. Institutional events were the most popular type of news; the day of the week in which users were most likely to be attracted by links was Friday. Press releases were the communication form most shared by users. Social media marketing carries the advantages of low cost, rapid transmission and user interaction. PMID:25483459

  9. 宫颈癌治疗性疫苗临床研究进展%Clinical research advance in therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云霞

    2012-01-01

    Persistent infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found associated with most cervical cancers.With the further study on HPV and its pathogenic mechanism,several therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer have been developed,and even in clinical trial phrase.In this paper,the progress in clinical trials and design strategies of therapeutic HPV vaccines are reviewed.%宫颈癌的发生与高危型人乳头瘤病毒( human papillomavirus,HPV)的持续感染有关.随着对HPV及其致病机制的深入研究,已经开发了多种用于宫颈癌生物免疫治疗的疫苗,有些已进入临床试验.此文对已进入临床试验阶段的宫颈癌疫苗的设计策略和临床试验进展做一综述.

  10. Bath immersion, booster vaccination strategy holds potential for protecting juvenile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, olive flounder, yellowtail, barramundi and other species of cultured and wild fish worldwide. In tilapia production, vaccination of fry ...

  11. Novel therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oishi, Xin Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis was first proposed over 40 years ago. Advances in CSC isolation were first achieved in hematological malignancies, with the first CSC demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia. However, using similar strategies and technologies, and taking advantage of available surface markers, CSCs have been more recently demonstrated in a growing range of epithelial and other solid organ malignancies, suggesting that the majority of malignancies are dependent on such a compartment.Primary liver cancer consists predominantly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. It is believed that hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs could be the origin of some HCCs and ICCs. Furthermore, stem cell activators such as Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways also expedite tumorigenesis, and these pathways could serve as molecular targets to assist in designing cancer prevention strategies. Recent studies indicate that additional factors such as EpCAM, Lin28 or miR-181 may also contribute to HCC progression by targeting HCC CSCs. Various therapeutic drugs that directly modulate CSCs have been examined in vivo and in vitro. However, CSCs clearly have a complex pathogenesis, with a considerable crosstalk and redundancy in signaling pathways, and hence targeting single molecules or pathways may have a limited benefit for treatment. Many of the key signaling molecules are shared by both CSCs and normal stem cells, which add further challenges for designing molecularly targeted strategies specific to CSCs but sparing normal stem cells to avoid side effects. In addition to the direct control of CSCs, many other factors that are needed for the maintenance of CSCs, such as angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, invasion and migration, hypoxia, immune evasion, multiple drug resistance, and radioresistance, should be taken into consideration when designing therapeutic strategies for HCC.Here we provide a brief

  12. Gradual reduction of testosterone using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination delays castration resistance in a prostate cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Jesús A. Junco; Millar, Robert P.; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Calzada, Lesvia; Morán, Rolando; Rodríguez, Ayni; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Castro, Maria D.; Bringas, Ricardo; Arteaga, Niurka; Toudurí, Henio; Rabassa, Mauricio; Fernández, Yairis; Serradelo, Andrés; Hernández, Eduardo; Guillén, Gerardo E.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study aimed to design a novel prostate cancer vaccine, the authors of the present study demonstrated the advantage of combining the adjuvants Montanide ISA 51 with very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) to promote a significant humoral immune response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy animals. The present study compared the efficacy of this vaccine formulation versus the standard treatment currently available in terms of preventing the development of tumors in DD/S mice injected with Shionogi carcinoma (SC) 115 cells. The results demonstrated that 5 non-vaccinated control mice exhibited a fast tumor growth, and succumbed to the disease within 19–31 days. Mice immunized with the GnRH/Montanide ISA 51/VSSP vaccine exhibited a moderate decline in testosterone levels that was associated with a decrease in anti-GnRH antibody titers, which lead to a sustained tumor growth inhibition. In total, 2 mice in the immunized group exhibited complete remission of the tumor for the duration of the present study. In addition, castrated mice, which were used as a control for standard hormonal therapy, exhibited an accelerated decrease in tumor size. However, tumor relapse was observed between days 50 and 54, and between days 65 and 85, following the injection of SC 155 cells. Therefore, these mice were sacrificed at day 90. The present study concludes that the slow and moderate reduction of testosterone levels observed using the GnRH-based vaccine may delay the appearance of castration resistance in a Shionogi prostate cancer model. These findings suggest that this vaccine may be used to delay castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer.

  13. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  14. Vaccination success and body condition in the European wild rabbit: Applications for conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas, Sonia; Calvete, C.; Moreno, Sacramento

    2006-01-01

    The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is the main prey for several endangered species and an important game species in the Iberian Peninsula. However, over the last several decades 2 diseases, myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), have contributed to a decline in rabbit populations. In Spain, vaccination campaigns against both diseases and the translocation of vaccinated rabbits are frequently used in projects aimed at stimulating the recovery of wild populations. We es...

  15. Strategies for vaccination of family poultry against Newcastle disease in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criteria for the selection of vaccines against Newcastle disease (ND) appropriate for use in village chickens are discussed. Emphasis is given to the need to ensure that the selected vaccine is used successfully in the field. Those implementing ND control activities are encouraged to collaborate with all stakeholders and to develop comprehensive training and extension programs for field workers and farmers. Issues of cost-recovery and cost-minimisation are also discussed. (author)

  16. Reverse genetics of rabies virus: new strategies to attenuate virus virulence for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shimao; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunhua; Luo, Farui; Guo, Caiping

    2015-08-01

    Rabies is an ancient neurological disease that is almost invariably fatal once the clinical symptoms develop. Currently, prompt wound cleansing after exposing to a potentially rabid animal and vaccination using rabies vaccine combined with administration of rabies immune globulin are the only effective methods for post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies. Reverse genetic technique is a novel approach to investigate the function of a specific gene by analyzing the phenotypic effects through directly manipulating the gene sequences. It has revolutionized and provided a powerful tool to study the molecular biology of RNA viruses and has been widely used in rabies virus research. The attenuation of rabies virus virulence is the prerequisite for rabies vaccine development. Given the current challenge that sufficient and affordable high-quality vaccines are limited and lacking for global rabies prevention and control, highly cell-adapted, stable, and attenuated rabies viruses with broad cross-reactivity against different viral variants are ideal candidates for consideration to meet the need for human rabies control in the future. A number of approaches have been pursued to reduce the virulence of the virus and improve the safety of rabies vaccines. The application of reverse genetic technique has greatly advanced the engineering of rabies virus and paves the avenue for utilizing rabies virus for vaccine against rabies, viral vectors for exogenous antigen expression, and gene therapy in the future. PMID:25994916

  17. Adverse events associated with vaccine prepared Ngcgm3 / Vssp / montanide Isa 51 In patients with breast cancer Metastatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the best-studied antigenic systems, which have their expression increased in the membrane of tumor cells, are the gangliosides. Several clinical trials with therapeutic vaccines containing N-glycolylated gangliosides have been made in Cuba by the Center Molecular Immunology. One of these studies, it is the trial: 'Specific active immunotherapy with the vaccine preparation NGcGM3 / VSSP / Montanide ISA 51 in the treatment of patients with breast cancer metastatic. Phase II'. In order to assess the major events events related to this product, were reviewed the medical records of total patients in the clinical trial performed in the service Oncology Hospital Universitario 'Celestino Hernandez Robau' Villa Clara. (Author)

  18. Prioritization strategies for pandemic influenza vaccine in 27 countries of the European Union and the Global Health Security Action Group: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is rapid progress in vaccine research regarding influenza pandemic vaccines it is expected that pandemic influenza vaccine production can only start once the pandemic virus has been recognized. Therefore, pandemic vaccine capacity will be limited at least during the first phase of an influenza pandemic, requiring vaccine prioritization strategies. WHO recommends developing preliminary priorities for pandemic vaccine use. The goal of this review is to provide a thorough overview of pandemic vaccine prioritization concepts in the 27 European Union (EU member states and the four non-EU countries of the Global Health Security Action Group. Methods Between September and December 2006 data was collected for each country through two data sources: (i the national influenza pandemic plan; (ii contacting key persons involved in pandemic planning by email and/or phone and/or fax Results Twenty-six (84% countries had established at least one vaccine priority group. Most common reported vaccine priority groups were health care workers (HCW (100%, essential service providers (ESP (92% and high risk individuals (HRI (92%. Ranking of at least one vaccine priority group was done by 17 (65% of 26 countries. Fifteen (88% of these 17 countries including a ranking strategy, decided that HCW with close contact to influenza patients should be vaccinated first; in most countries followed and/or ranked equally by ESP and subsequently HRI. Rationales for prioritization were provided by 22 (85% of 26 countries that established vaccine priority groups. There was large variation in the phrasing and level of detailed specification of rationales. Seven (32% of 22 countries providing rationales clearly associated each vaccine priority group with the specific rationale. Ten (32% of the 31 countries studied countries have consulted and involved ethical experts to guide decisions related to vaccine prioritization. Conclusion In the majority of

  19. Exploring Different Strategies for Efficient Delivery of Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Currently available chemotherapy of CRC usually delivers the drug to both normal as well as cancerous tissues, thus leading to numerous undesirable effects. Much emphasis is being laid on the development of effective drug delivery systems for achieving selective delivery of the active moiety at the anticipated site of action with minimized unwanted side effects. Researchers have employed various techniques (dependent on pH, time, pressure and/or bacteria for targeting drugs directly to the colonic region. On the other hand, systemic drug delivery strategies to specific molecular targets (such as FGFR, EGFR, CD44, EpCAM, CA IX, PPARγ and COX-2 overexpressed by cancerous cells have also been shown to be effective. This review aims to put forth an overview of drug delivery technologies that have been, and may be developed, for the treatment of CRC.

  20. Preclinical Safety Pharmacology Study of a Novel Protein-Based Cancer Vaccine CHP-NY-ESO-1

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Naozumi; Hoshiai, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiyasu; Sakaguchi, Yasue; Kuno, Takayoshi; Hishida, Tadashi; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    CHP-NY-ESO-1 is a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinantprotein of cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 and a polysaccharide-based delivery system,cholesteryl pullulan. A pilot clinical study of CHP-NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients waspreviously conducted, and the adverse events related to this drug were observed to belimited to skin reactions at injection sites. To further establish the safety ofCHP-NY-ESO-1, we studied the effects of its subcutaneous injection on vital functionssuch as ...

  1. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  2. Silencing B7-H1 enhances the anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer antigen-loaded dendritic cell vaccine in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shuo Wang,1 Yonghua Wang,1 Jing Liu,2 Shixiu Shao,1 Xianjun Li,1 Jiannan Gao,1 Haitao Niu,1 Xinsheng Wang1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether short hairpin RNA (shRNA expressing lentiviral particles targeting B7-H1 infection could result in B7-H1 knockdown on dendritic cells (DCs and to investigate whether B7-H1 silencing could augment the immune function of DCs and further elicit a more potent anti-tumor immune effect against bladder cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Monocyte-derived DCs, which were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were infected by a recombinant lentivirus containing shRNA sequence aimed at B7-H1. After that, the infected DCs were pulsed by tumor antigens and used to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes-based anti-tumor effect in vitro. Results: The lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery method efficiently and effectively silenced B7-H1 in DCs. Furthermore, the B7-H1 silencing enhanced the stimulatory capacity and the secretion of interleukin-12, but down-regulated interleukin-10 secretion. And more importantly, the anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer antigen-loaded DC vaccine in vitro was also potentially augmented. Conclusion: This study suggests that a combination of B7-H1 knockdown and target antigen delivery could augment anti-tumor effects in vitro, which potentially provides a novel strategy in the immunotherapy of bladder cancer. Keywords: B7-H1, bladder cancer, dendritic cell, vaccine, immunotherapy

  3. Strategies for managing breast cancer risk after the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ruth; Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Postmenopausal women in Western societies are conscious of breast cancer as a potential cause of death and ill health, which they wish to avoid with the advice of their doctors. Yet many factors that predispose women to the development of cancer will have been laid down before the menopause, in their genetic makeup or during their adolescent years. Even in middle age it is important to take account of the intrinsic level of risk, and to give women advice tailored to their own individual risk level. This results from their family history, previous diseases such as benign breast disease, and previous treatment for breast cancer or Hodgkin's disease. For those at the highest level of risk, strategies will include regular screening, prophylactic mastectomy, and the use of chemoprevention agents, such as tamoxifen. These women should avoid hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and control their menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis through the use of other agents now available - venlafaxine for menopausal symptoms and bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Raloxifene is an agent under trial that may be valuable for breast cancer control as well as for osteoporosis. Women at standard population risk will require less robust preventive strategies, which will include screening and lifestyle modification. Their decisions regarding HRT should now be modified by recent evidence of associated risks. Recent studies show that tibolone causes less mammographic density and has a lower relative risk of breast cancer than combined estrogen/progestogen preparations. There is limited evidence that controlling obesity, participating in exercise and adopting a diet low in fats and high in fruit and vegetables will alter risk at this age. These precautions will, however, reduce the risk of other diseases common in this age group, such as hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alcohol, even in small amounts, is a risk factor for breast cancer. Given the cardioprotective

  4. Estimated health and economic impact of quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18 vaccination in Brazil using a transmission dynamic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Kosuke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Brazil. We examined the health and economic impacts of quadrivalent HPV vaccination in Brazil. Methods We adapted a previously developed transmission dynamic model to estimate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination on cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2/3, CIN1, and genital warts. We evaluated following vaccination strategies: routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls and routine vaccination in combination with a catch-up vaccination of 12 to 26-year-old women. Results The model projected that the vaccination would reduce the incidence rates of HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical cancer, CIN2/3, CIN1, and female genital warts by 94% to 98% at year 100. Routine vaccination in combination with a catch-up vaccination could prevent approximately 163,000 cases of cervical cancer, 48,000 deaths from cervical cancer, 2.3 million cases of CIN2/3, and 11.4 million genital warts in the next 50 years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for female vaccination strategies ranged from R$350 to R$720 (US$219 to US$450 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that quadrivalent HPV female vaccination can be a cost-effective public health intervention that can substantially reduce the burden of cervical diseases and genital warts in Brazil.

  5. 医务人员乙型肝炎病毒感染及疫苗免疫%Hepatitis B virus infection in health care workers and vaccination strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊凤; 李杰; 庄辉

    2013-01-01

    Health care workers are among the high-risk populations for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as they have more opportunities exposing to blood or other body fluids from HBV infected patients.The main routes of HBV infection are needle sticks or sharp injuries for health care workers.Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection in this population.The prevalence of HBsAg varies because of different immunization strategies and vaccination coverage rates of health care workers in different regions.In Europe such as France,all of the health care workers except housekeeping and supporting staff must be vaccinated compulsorily and the vaccination coverage rate reached up to 97.0%,which resulted in a quick decrease in HBV infection.In America such as United States,each medical facility is required to provide hepatitis B vaccine free for its health care workers.In 2006,the vaccination coverage rate in USA was 90.0%,and HBV infection rate (1.0× 10-4) was lower than that in general population (5.0 × 10-4).In East Mediterranean countries such as Pakistan,the vaccination coverage rate in health care workers was 73.4% but no immunization strategy for them was found.The relatively high vaccination coverage rate decreased the rate of HBsAg carrier to 0.6%-2.2%,lower than that in the regular population (6.0%).In Africa such as Uganda,only 6.2% of health care workers had history of HBV vaccination,and HBsAg carrier rate was as high as 9.0%.Uganda is currently drafting hepatitis B vaccination strategies for health care workers.In Western Pacific area such as Hong Kong and Taiwan of China,the vaccination coverage rates in health care workers were 85.0% and 73.7 % respectively,but the vaccination strategies were unclear.In 2009,we investigated the HBV infection status in 3 126 health care workers in Jilin province of China,and the positive rates of HBsAg and antiHBc were 1.4% and 33.4%,respectively,which were lower than that in common

  6. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Babu; Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  7. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  8. A novel strategy for cancer treatment:Targeting cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia; MA LeiNa; WANG YiGang; LIU XinYuan; QIAN QiJun

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cell/tumor-initiating cell (CSC/TIC) is a subclass of cancer cells possessing parts of properties of normal stem cell. It has a high capacity of proliferation and plays a pivotal role in tumor recurrence and tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At present, small molecule in-hibitors and fusion proteins are widely used in the CSC-targeting strategy. Gene-virotherapy, which uses oncolytic adenovirus as a vector to mediate the expression of therapeutic gene, shows a signifi-cant superiority to other regimens of cancer treatment and has a good efficacy in the treatment of solid tumors. Thus, it is a promising choice to apply gene-virotherapy into the CSC-targeting treatment. Based on the molecular mechanism underlying CSC self-renewal, a series of effective strategies for targeting CSC have been established. This review will summarize the recent research progresses on CSC-targeting treatment.

  9. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  10. Investigation of treatment strategy for advanced cancer according to treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Kecheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of pancreatic cancer diagnoses are made at the advanced stage and when metastasis has already occurred, and the 1- and 5-year survival rates are extremely low. Cemcitabine remains the most frequently applied treatment option, yet the most effective chemotherapeutic agents and combinations with multiple agents and/or radiotherapy only marginally improve patient survival and may even establish an environment conducive to cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics. An alternative treatment modality, cryoablation, is available and has been applied at our institute to patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer since 2001. In this article, we present our collective experience with patient outcome using cryoablation, alone or combined with other treatment modalities such as brachytherapy (125iodine seed implantation. The overall outcomes have been encouraging, suggesting that comprehensive therapy including cryoablation may prolong the survival of patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, and we are achieving particular success with a novel combination of percutaneous cryoablation, cancer microvascular intervention with 125iodine seed implantation, and combined immunotherapy (3C applied using an individualized patient strategy (P. The 1- through 10-year survival rates of 145 patients treated with the so-called “3C+P model” are presented in support of this new strategy as a promising new treatment for advanced and metastatic cancer

  11. A new strategy based on SmRho protein loaded chitosan nanoparticles as a candidate oral vaccine against schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and an effective control is unlikely in the absence of improved sanitation and vaccination. A new approach of oral vaccination with alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides of chitosan and alginate immunostimulatory properties. Here we propose a candidate vaccine based on the combination of chitosan-based nanoparticles containing the antigen SmRho and coated with sodium alginate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our results showed an efficient performance of protein loading of nanoparticles before and after coating with alginate. Characterization of the resulting nanoparticles reported a size around 430 nm and a negative zeta potential. In vitro release studies of protein showed great stability of coated nanoparticles in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF. Further in vivo studies was performed with different formulations of chitosan nanoparticles and it showed that oral immunization was not able to induce high levels of antibodies, otherwise intramuscular immunization induced high levels of both subtypes IgG1 and IgG2a SmRho specific antibodies. Mice immunized with nanoparticles associated to CpG showed significant modulation of granuloma reaction. Mice from all groups immunized orally with nanoparticles presented significant levels of protection against infection challenge with S. mansoni worms, suggesting an important role of chitosan in inducing a protective immune response. Finally, mice immunized with nanoparticles associated with the antigen SmRho plus CpG had 38% of the granuloma area reduced and also presented 48% of protection against of S. mansoni infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this results support this new strategy as an efficient delivery system and a potential vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  12. Nonlinear Optical Microscopy Signal Processing Strategies in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Javier; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L; Casco, Víctor H

    2014-01-01

    This work reviews the most relevant present-day processing methods used to improve the accuracy of multimodal nonlinear images in the detection of epithelial cancer and the supporting stroma. Special emphasis has been placed on methods of non linear optical (NLO) microscopy image processing such as: second harmonic to autofluorescence ageing index of dermis (SAAID), tumor-associated collagen signatures (TACS), fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)-based methods. These strategies are presented as a set of potential valuable diagnostic tools for early cancer detection. It may be proposed that the combination of NLO microscopy and informatics based image analysis approaches described in this review (all carried out on free software) may represent a powerful tool to investigate collagen organization and remodeling of extracellular matrix in carcinogenesis processes. PMID:24737930

  13. Tailored radiotherapeutic strategies for disseminated uterine cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in and to suggest radiotherapeutic strategies for patients presenting with disseminated cervical cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients diagnosed as the disseminated cervical cancer with distant lymph nodal or visceral organ metastasis between September 1980 and August 2012. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to visceral organ metastasis: 35 patients diagnosed with distant lymph node metastasis only (group A) and 15 patients with visceral organ metastasis (group B). All patients received external beam RT to the pelvis (median dose 45 Gy) and high-dose rate intracavitary RT (median dose 30 Gy). Thirty-nine patients (78%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 74 months. The 5-year pelvic control rate (PCR) was 85.8%, and the progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 28.7%, and 36.2%, respectively. The major treatment failure was systemic progression (32 patients, 64%). The 5-year PCRs in groups A and B were 87.4% and 74.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, PFS and OS rates for group A were significantly better than those for group B (35.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.010; and 46.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.009, respectively). Our data revealed considerable prognostic heterogeneity in disseminated cervical cancer. Even though a high PCR was achieved in patients treated with definitive RT, survival outcomes were dependent on progression of visceral organ metastasis. Therefore, personalized RT and chemotherapy treatment strategies according to the presence of visceral organ metastasis in disseminated cervical cancer patients may help improve clinical outcomes

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the direct and indirect impact of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccination strategies in children: alternative country profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurélio; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza poses a significant burden on healthcare systems and society, with under-recognition in the paediatric population. Existing vaccination policies (largely) target the elderly and other risk groups where complications may arise. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of annual paediatric vaccination (in 2–17-year-olds) with live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV), as well as the protective effect on the wider population in England and Wales (base). The study aimed to demonstrate broad applications of the model in countries where epidemiological and transmission data is limited and that have sophisticated vaccination policies (Brazil, Spain, and Taiwan). Methods The direct and indirect impact of LAIV in the paediatric cohort was simulated using an age-stratified dynamic transmission model over a 5-year time horizon of daily cycles and applying discounting of 3.5% in the base case. Pre-existing immunity structure was based on a 1-year model run. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results In the base case for England and Wales, the annual paediatric strategy with LAIV was associated with improvements in influenza-related events and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost, yielding an incremental cost per QALY of £6,208. The model was robust to change in the key input parameters. The probabilistic analysis demonstrated LAIV to be cost effective in more than 99% of iterations, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000. Incremental costs per QALY for Brazil were £2,817, and for the cases of Spain and Taiwan the proposed strategy was dominant over the current practice. Conclusion In addition to existing policies, annual paediatric vaccination using LAIV provides a cost-effective strategy that offers direct and indirect protection in the wider community. Paediatric vaccination strategies using LAIV demonstrated clinical and economic benefits over alternative (current vaccination) strategies in

  15. Adjuvant Strategies for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Have We Made Progress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Russo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy remains regarding the optimal adjuvant treatment for patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Despite improvements in radiation techniques, systemic therapies, and incorporation of targeted agents, the 5-year survival rates for early stage patients remains less than 25% and the optimal adjuvant treatment approach remains unclear. Here we summarize the data presented at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium regarding controversial issues surrounding the role, timing, and selection of patients for adjuvant chemoradiation strategies following curative resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (Abstracts #301, #333, and #206.

  16. Therapeutic strategy of pancreatic cancer based on its recurrent form and developmental process to the strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are authors' present therapeutic strategy of pancreatic cancer based on its recurrent form, developmental process leading to the strategy and its future view. Surgical resection is the only curative mean for the cancer but most patients are diagnosed at the stage impossible for life saving by surgery alone. For the improved outcome of the surgery, concomitant therapy for controlling the local recurrence and hepatic metastasis which have been the major death cause, should have been developed, and for which authors have conducted the extensive clearance, preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and liver perfusion 2-channel chemotherapy for metastatic prophylaxis. That is, authors had shown that even in patients with T3 cancer, the postoperarive 5y-cumulative metastatic rate to liver can be lowered to 15% with liver perfusion chemotherapy of 5-FU through 2-channel of portal vein and hepatic artery in contrast to the previous rate of 55% through the vein alone. For the local control in resectable T3 cancer, established was the regimen of preoperative 3D conformal radiotherapy with 50-60 Gy then chemotherapy with gemcitabine and the postoperative 2-channel chemotherapy. As a result of the combination, the 5 y-survival had attained >50% after surgery of cases even with extra-pancreatic metastasis. In future, for more satisfactory surgery, routinization is wished for the intra-operative rapid cyto-diagnosis and contact endoscopy to detect minute cancer invasion to portal vein and hopefully, artery/neuroplexas, and for individualized therapy using molecular imaging. (T.T.)

  17. Utilizing the antigen capsid-incorporation strategy for the development of adenovirus serotype 5-vectored vaccine approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Farrow, Anitra L; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Matthews, Qiana L

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been extensively modified with traditional transgene methods for the vaccine development. The reduced efficacies of these traditionally modified Ad5 vectors in clinical trials could be primarily correlated with Ad5 pre-existing immunity (PEI) among the majority of the population. To promote Ad5-vectored vaccine development by solving the concern of Ad5 PEI, the innovative Antigen Capsid-Incorporation strategy has been employed. By merit of this strategy, Ad5-vectored we first constructed the hexon shuttle plasmid HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6/pH5S by subcloning the hypervariable region (HVR) 1 of hexon into a previously constructed shuttle plasmid HVR5-His6/pH5S, which had His6 tag incorporated into the HVR5. This HVR1 DNA fragment containing a HIV epitope ELDKWAS was synthesized. HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6/pH5S was then linearized and co-transformed with linearized backbone plasmid pAd5/∆H5 (GL) , for homologous recombination. This recombined plasmid pAd5/H5-HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6 was transfected into cells to generate the viral vector Ad5/H5-HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6. This vector was validated to have qualitative fitness indicated by viral physical titer (VP/ml), infectious titer (IP/ml) and corresponding VP/IP ratio. Both the HIV epitope and His6 tag were surface-exposed on the Ad5 capsid, and retained epitope-specific antigenicity of their own. A neutralization assay indicated the ability of this divalent vector to circumvent neutralization by Ad5-positive sera in vitro. Mice immunization demonstrated the generation of robust humoral immunity specific to the HIV epitope and His6. This proof-of-principle study suggested that the protocol associated with the Antigen Capsid-Incorporation strategy could be feasibly utilized for the generation of Ad5-vectored vaccines by modifying different capsid proteins. This protocol could even be further modified for the generation of rare-serotype adenovirus-vectored vaccines. PMID:25993057

  18. Strategies for optimizing the clinical impact of immunotherapeutic agents such as sipuleucel-T in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ravi A; Schwaab, Thomas; Gulley, James L

    2012-12-01

    Sipuleucel-T is a therapeutic cancer vaccine that has shown improved survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. As a first-in-class agent, it has been met with both fan-fare and controversy. A broad review of immune-based therapies may reveal the delayed clinical impact of sipuleucel-T to be a class effect. As new strategies of immune-based therapy are developed, their effects can be optimized through better understanding of how they affect disease differently from more standard therapeutics. Furthermore, combination therapy with agents that can either work synergistically with immune-activating therapies or deplete immune-regulating cells may result in more vigorous immune responses and improved clinical outcomes. In addition, therapeutic vaccines may be ideal candidates to safely combine with standard-of-care therapies because of their nonoverlapping toxicity profile. The ultimate role of immunotherapy may not be to supplant standard therapies, but rather to work in concert with them to maximize clinical benefit for patients. PMID:23221788

  19. Chikungunya vaccines in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  20. Greek health professionals’ perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information

    OpenAIRE

    Karamanidou, Christina; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Background Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals’ role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care pro...

  1. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. PMID:27523740

  2. Immune evasion in cancer: Mechanistic basis and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Dass S; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Pawelec, Graham; Talib, Wamidh H; Stagg, John; Elkord, Eyad; Lichtor, Terry; Decker, William K; Whelan, Richard L; Kumara, H M C Shantha; Signori, Emanuela; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amin, Amr; Helferich, William G; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Keith, W Nicol; Bilsland, Alan; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Choi, Beom K; Kwon, Byoung S

    2015-12-01

    Cancer immune evasion is a major stumbling block in designing effective anticancer therapeutic strategies. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding how cancers evade destructive immunity, measures to counteract tumor escape have not kept pace. There are a number of factors that contribute to tumor persistence despite having a normal host immune system. Immune editing is one of the key aspects why tumors evade surveillance causing the tumors to lie dormant in patients for years through "equilibrium" and "senescence" before re-emerging. In addition, tumors exploit several immunological processes such as targeting the regulatory T cell function or their secretions, antigen presentation, modifying the production of immune suppressive mediators, tolerance and immune deviation. Besides these, tumor heterogeneity and metastasis also play a critical role in tumor growth. A number of potential targets like promoting Th1, NK cell, γδ T cell responses, inhibiting Treg functionality, induction of IL-12, use of drugs including phytochemicals have been designed to counter tumor progression with much success. Some natural agents and phytochemicals merit further study. For example, use of certain key polysaccharide components from mushrooms and plants have shown to possess therapeutic impact on tumor-imposed genetic instability, anti-growth signaling, replicative immortality, dysregulated metabolism etc. In this review, we will discuss the advances made toward understanding the basis of cancer immune evasion and summarize the efficacy of various therapeutic measures and targets that have been developed or are being investigated to enhance tumor rejection. PMID:25818339

  3. Vaccines and immunization against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Neil D; Budgeon, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic immunization strategies are an effective method to control human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated diseases and cancers. Current protective virus-like particle and capsid-based vaccines are highly protective against vaccine-matched HPV types, and continued improvements in second-generation vaccines will lead to broader protection and cross-protection against the cancer-associated types. Increasing the effectiveness of broadly cross-protective L2-based immunogens will require adjuvants that activate innate immunity to thus enhance adaptive immunity. Therapeutic immunization strategies are needed to control and cure clinical disease and HPV-associated cancers. Significant advances in strategies to improve induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV early (and capsid) proteins have been pretested in preclinical animal papillomavirus models. Several of these effective protocols have translated into successful therapeutic immune-mediated clearance of clinical lesions. Nevertheless, there are significant challenges in activating immunity to cancer-associated lesions due to various immune downregulatory events that are triggered by persistent HPV infections. A better understanding of immune responses to HPV lesions in situ is needed to optimize immune effector T cells that efficiently locate to sites of infection and which should lead to an effective immunotherapeutic management of this important human viral pathogen. The most effective immunization strategy may well require combination antiviral and immunotherapeutic treatments to achieve complete clearance of HPV infections and associated cancers. PMID:24643192

  4. [Strategies, actors, promises and fears in the smallpox vaccinations campaigns in Mexico: from the Porfiriato to the Post-revolution (1880-1940)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    The article examines some of the strategies employed by the Mexican health authorities that led to the organization of massive and obligatory smallpox vaccination campaigns from the late 1880s to the 1940s, a period of Mexican history that corresponds to the Porfirio Díaz regime (1877-1911), to the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), and to the first two decades of the Post-revolutionary governments (1920-1940). Attention will be placed of the vaccination programs in the main urban settings, notably in Mexico City, as well as the gradual but decisive organization and regulation of vaccination campaigns in the heterogeneous rural milieu. Furthermore, the importance that hygienic education acquired will be explored, as well as the divergent and contested responses that emerged due to the obligatory vaccination campaigns, responses that included resistance, fear, uncertainty and widespread acceptance. PMID:21340321

  5. On pulse vaccine strategy in a periodic stochastic SIR epidemic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A periodic stochastic SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination is studied. The system has global positive solutions and under some conditions it admits a unique positive periodic disease-free solution, which is globally exponentially stable in mean square. The mathematical expectation and variance of the positive periodic solution are obtained. Two threshold parameters R1 and R2 (R1>R2) are identified; if R1<1, the susceptible will be persistent in the mean and the disease will go to extinction; if R2>1, the susceptible and the disease will be weakly persistent in the mean. We show that by repeatedly vaccinating the susceptible population in series of pulses, it is possible to eradicate the infective from the entire model population in the random environment

  6. Development of a vaccine strategy against human and bovine schistosomiasis: background and update

    OpenAIRE

    André Capron; Gilles Riveau; Jean-Marie Grzych; Denis Boulanger; Monique Capron; Raymond Pierce

    1995-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people throughout the world and causes about 500,000 deaths annually. Two specific characteristics of schistosome infection are of primordial importance to the development of a vaccine: schistosomes do not multiply within the tissues of their definitive hosts (unlike protozoan parasites) and a partial non-sterilizing immunity can have a marked effect on the incidence of pathology and on disease trans...

  7. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Shcherbik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV and a seasonal wild-type (wt virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2 (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012 or influenza A (H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013 wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2. Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  8. A retrospective analysis of the Alzheimer's disease vaccine progress - The critical need for new development strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2016-06-01

    The promising results obtained with aducanumab and solanezumab against Alzheimer's disease (AD) strengthen the vaccine approach to prevent AD, despite of the many clinical setbacks. It has been problematic to use conjugated peptides with Th1/Th2 adjuvants to induce immune responses against conformational epitopes formed by Aβ oligomers, which is critical to induce protective antibodies. Hence, vaccination should mimic natural immunity by using whole or if possible conjugated antigens, but biasing the response to Th2 with anti-inflammatory adjuvants. Also, selection of the carrier and cross-linking agents is important to prevent suppression of the immune response against the antigen. That certain compounds having phosphorylcholine or fucose induce a sole Th2 immunity would allow antigens with T-cell epitopes without inflammatory autoimmune reactions to be used. Another immunization method is DNA vaccines combined with antigenic ones, which favors the clonal selection and expansion of high affinity antibodies needed for immune protection, but this also requires Th2 immunity. Since AD transgenic mouse models have limited value for immunogen selection as shown by the clinical studies, screening may require the use of validated antibodies and biophysical methods to identify the antigens that would be most likely recognized by the human immune system and thus capable to stimulate a protective antibody response. To induce an anti-Alzheimer's disease protective immunity and prevent possible damage triggered by antigens having B-cell epitopes-only, whole antigens might be used; while inducing Th2 immunity with sole anti-inflammatory fucose-based adjuvants. This approach would avert a damaging systemic inflammatory immunity and the suppression of immunoresponse against the antigen because of carrier and cross-linkers; immune requirements that extend to DNA vaccines. PMID:26990863

  9. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified. PMID:23891496

  10. Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farah; Islam, Asimul; Kazim, Syed Naqui; Naqvi, Irshad Hussain; Broor, Shobha; Ahmed, Anwar; Parveen, Shama

    2016-04-01

    The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea and joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation and molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells and organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load and cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine candidates have been tested on humans and animal models during clinical and preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology and recent advances in the development of drugs and vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection. PMID:26657109

  11. Progress and novel strategies in vaccine development and treatment of anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitlaru, Theodor; Altboum, Zeev; Reuveny, Shaul; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    The lethal anthrax disease is caused by spores of the gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, a member of the cereus group of bacilli. Although the disease is very rare in the Western world, development of anthrax countermeasures gains increasing attention due to the potential use of B. anthracis spores as a bio-terror weapon. Protective antigen (PA), the non-toxic subunit of the bacterial secreted exotoxin, fulfills the role of recognizing a specific receptor and mediating the entry of the toxin into the host target cells. PA elicits a protective immune response and represents the basis for all current anthrax vaccines. Anti-PA neutralizing antibodies are useful correlates for protection and for vaccine efficacy evaluation. Post exposure anti-toxemic and anti-bacteremic prophylactic treatment of anthrax requires prolonged antibiotic administration. Shorter efficient postexposure treatments may require active or passive immunization, in addition to antibiotics. Although anthrax is acknowledged as a toxinogenic disease, additional factors, other than the bacterial toxin, may be involved in the virulence of B. anthracis and may be needed for the long-lasting protection conferred by PA immunization. The search for such novel factors is the focus of several high throughput genomic and proteomic studies that are already leading to identification of novel targets for therapeutics, for vaccine candidates, as well as biomarkers for detection and diagnosis. PMID:21198675

  12. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a expressing human papillomavirus type 16 L1 as a potential live vaccine against cervical cancer and typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraillery, Dominique; Baud, David; Pang, Susana Yuk-Ying; Schiller, John; Bobst, Martine; Zosso, Nathalie; Ponci, Françoise; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2007-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) can prevent HPV-induced genital neoplasias, the precursors of cervical cancer. However, most cervical cancers occur in developing countries, where the implementation of expensive vaccines requiring multiple injections will be difficult. A live Salmonella-based vaccine could be a lower-cost alternative. We previously demonstrated that high HPV type 16 (HPV16)-neutralizing titers are induced after a single oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains expressing a codon-optimized version of HPV16 L1 (L1S). To allow the testing of this type of vaccine in women, we constructed a new L1-expressing plasmid, kanL1S, and tested kanL1S recombinants of three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains shown to be safe in humans, i.e., Ty21a, the actual licensed typhoid vaccine, and two highly immunogenic typhoid vaccine candidates, Ty800 and CVD908-htrA. In an intranasal mouse model of Salmonella serovar Typhi infection, Ty21a kanL1S was unique in inducing HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and genital secretions, while anti-Salmonella responses were similar to those against the parental Ty21a vaccine. Electron microscopy examination of Ty21a kanL1S lysates showed that L1 assembled in capsomers and capsomer aggregates but not well-ordered VLPs. Comparison to the neutralizing antibody response induced by purified HPV16 L1 VLP immunizations in mice suggests that Ty21a kanL1S may be an effective prophylactic HPV vaccine. Ty21a has been widely used against typhoid fever in humans with a remarkable safety record. These finds encourage clinical testing of Ty21a kanL1S as a combined typhoid fever/cervical cancer vaccine with the potential for worldwide application. PMID:17687110

  13. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA prime-protein boost strategy to enhance efficacy of a recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-tian LI; Yong-zhang ZHU; Jia-you CHU; Ke DONG; Ping HE; Chun-yan FENG; Bao-yu HU; Shu-min ZHANG; Xiao-kui GUO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of a recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine. The strategy is co-injection with cytokine plasmids as prime, and boosted with purified homologous proteins. Method: A recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine containing the pertussis toxin subunit 1 (PTS1), fragments of the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) gene and pertactin (PRN) gene encoding filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin were constructed. Balb/c mice were immunized with several DNA vaccines and antigen-specific antibodies anti-PTSl, anti-PRN, anti-FHA, cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-oc, and spleno-cyte-proliferation assay were used to describe immune responses. Results: The recombinant DNA vaccine could elicit similar immune responses in mice as that of separate plasmids encoding the 3 fragments, respectively. Mice immunized with DNA and boosted with the corresponding protein elicited more antibodies than those that received DNA as boost. In particular, when the mice were co-immunized with murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plasmids and boosted with proteins, all 4 cytokines and the 3 antigen-specific antibodies were significantly increased compared to the pVAXl group. Anti-PTSl, anti-FHA, IL-4 and TNF-α elicited in the colony stimulating factor (CSF) prime-protein boost group showed significant increase compared to all the other groups. Conclusion: This prime and boost strategy has proven to be very useful in improving the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines against pertussis.

  14. Modern trends in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Pre targeting strategies for the treatment of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcquarrie, S.A.; Xiao, Z.; Mercer, J. R.; Suresh, M. R. [Edmonton Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AL (Canada). Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Miller, G. G. [University of Alberta, Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research, Edmonton, AL (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    A review of published data on some of the problems associated in treating cancer using radioimmunotherapy is presented. Potential improvements for this type of therapy using pretargeting strategies are discussed and preliminary results on a novel multistep regimen to treat human ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using a biotinylated, anti-CA 125 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to attract biotinylated long-circulating liposomes to the surface of CA 125-expressing ovarian cancer cells, was employed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent labels were used to establish the biodistribution patterns in NIH:OVCAR-3 (CA-125 positive) and SK-OV-3 (CA-125 negative) human ovarian cancer cells. Shedding kinetics of the pretargeted stage were measured using {sup 125}I labeled MAbs. No significant internalization of the MAb used in the pretargeting step was observed by 4 hrs. The antibody was gradually internalized starting at 6 hrs, and most of the labelled MAb was detected in cytoplasm by 24 hrs. Shedding and exocytosis of the antigen-MAb complex was not significant for up to 6-hours following administration of the iodinated MAb. Biotinylated liposomes were shown to specifically target the biotinylated MAb/streptavidin complex on the cell surface. It has been demonstrated that by a three-step pretargeting approach, biotinylated liposomes can be specifically delivered to cells pretargeted with biotinylated MAb/SAv complex. The slow internalization and shedding properties of the two MAbs are ideal for multistep pretargeting methods. A successful multistep linkage was established with the biotinylated MAb B27.1, streptavidin and biotinylated liposomes to OVCAR-3 cells, but not to SK-OV-3 cells.

  15. Modern trends in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Pre targeting strategies for the treatment of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of published data on some of the problems associated in treating cancer using radioimmunotherapy is presented. Potential improvements for this type of therapy using pretargeting strategies are discussed and preliminary results on a novel multistep regimen to treat human ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using a biotinylated, anti-CA 125 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to attract biotinylated long-circulating liposomes to the surface of CA 125-expressing ovarian cancer cells, was employed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent labels were used to establish the biodistribution patterns in NIH:OVCAR-3 (CA-125 positive) and SK-OV-3 (CA-125 negative) human ovarian cancer cells. Shedding kinetics of the pretargeted stage were measured using 125I labeled MAbs. No significant internalization of the MAb used in the pretargeting step was observed by 4 hrs. The antibody was gradually internalized starting at 6 hrs, and most of the labelled MAb was detected in cytoplasm by 24 hrs. Shedding and exocytosis of the antigen-MAb complex was not significant for up to 6-hours following administration of the iodinated MAb. Biotinylated liposomes were shown to specifically target the biotinylated MAb/streptavidin complex on the cell surface. It has been demonstrated that by a three-step pretargeting approach, biotinylated liposomes can be specifically delivered to cells pretargeted with biotinylated MAb/SAv complex. The slow internalization and shedding properties of the two MAbs are ideal for multistep pretargeting methods. A successful multistep linkage was established with the biotinylated MAb B27.1, streptavidin and biotinylated liposomes to OVCAR-3 cells, but not to SK-OV-3 cells

  16. DNA damage responses in cancer stem cells: Implications for cancer therapeutic strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-En; Wang

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells(CSCs) that are responsible for tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance might lead to a new thinking on cancer treatments. Similar to stem cells,CSCs also display high resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy with genotoxic agents. Thus, conventional therapy may shrink the tumor volume but cannot eliminate cancer. Eradiation of CSCs represents a novel therapeutic strategy. CSCs possess a highly efficient DNA damage response(DDR) system, which is considered as a contributor to the resistance of these cells from exposures to DNA damaging agents. Targeting of enhanced DDR in CSCs is thus proposed to facilitate the eradication of CSCs by conventional therapeutics. To achieve this aim, a better understanding of the cellular responses to DNA damage in CSCs is needed. In addition to the protein kinases and enzymes that are involved in DDR, other processes that affect the DDR including chromatin remodeling should also be explored.

  17. One-prime multi-boost strategy immunization with recombinant DNA, adenovirus, and MVA vector vaccines expressing HPV16 L1 induces potent, sustained, and specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Li; Wang, He-Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Yi; Luo, Jing; Xiao, Xiang-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Jin-Tao; Zhou, Yu-Bai; Zeng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with various human diseases, including cancer, and developing vaccines is a cost-efficient strategy to prevent HPV-related disease. The major capsid protein L1, which an increasing number of studies have confirmed is typically expressed early in infection, is a promising antigen for such a vaccine, although the E6 and E7 proteins have been characterized more extensively. Thus, the L1 gene from HPV16 was inserted into a recombinant vector, AdHu5, and MVA viral vectors, and administered by prime-boost immunization. Virus-like particles were used as control antigens. Our results indicate that prime-boost immunization with heterologous vaccines induced robust and sustained cellular and humoral response specific to HPV16 L1. In particular, sera obtained from mice immunized with DNA + DNA + Ad + MVA had excellent antitumor activity in vivo. However, the data also confirm that virus-like particles can only elicit low levels cellular immunity and not be long-lasting, and are therefore unsuitable for treatment of existing HPV infections. PMID:26821205

  18. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Prostate Cancer: The Quest for Intermediate Markers of Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, no prospectively validated intermediate biomarkers exist to predict response. These biomarkers are highly desirable given modern immunotherapy’s paradoxical pattern of clinical benefit; that is, improvement in overall survival without short-term change in progression. Immunotherapy clinical trials have evaluated biomarkers that may correlate with clinical outcomes. Many of them are performed on peripheral blood to evaluate the systemic response, such as tumor-targeted humoral and cellular immunity, and cytokine responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that immune infiltrates in tumors may suggest evidence for the therapy’s mechanism of action, and have greater potential for providing prognostic and predictive information. In addition, a non-immunologic biomarker, such as tumor growth kinetics, may explain this paradoxical pattern of clinical benefit, and predict survival in patients treated with an immunotherapy. Prospective assessment and validation of these and other intermediate markers would be required to better understand their potential clinical role

  19. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  20. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  1. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years

  2. Cost-effectiveness of the prophylactic HPV vaccine : An application to the Netherlands taking non-cervical cancers and cross-protection into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjeboer, J.; Westra, T.A.; Wilschut, J.C.; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an effective screening programme, 600-700 women are still diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Netherlands each year. In 2009 a prophylactic vaccine against HPV-type 16 and 18 was implemented in the national immunisation programme to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. There is evide

  3. A phase I trial of DNA vaccination with a plasmid expressing prostate-specific antigen in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, M; Roos, A-K; Lundqvist, A; Palmborg, A; Miller, A M; Ozenci, V; Bergman, B; Egevad, L; Hellström, M; Kiessling, R; Masucci, G; Wersäll, P; Nilsson, S; Pisa, P

    2004-08-16

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease secreted at low levels by normal luminal epithelial cells of the prostate and in significantly higher levels by prostate cancer cells. Therefore, PSA is a potential target for various immunotherapeutical approaches against prostate cancer. DNA vaccination has been investigated as immunotherapy for infectious diseases in patients and for specific treatment of cancer in certain animal models. In animal studies, we have demonstrated that vaccination with plasmid vector pVAX/PSA results in PSA-specific cellular response and protection against tumour challenge. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and biological efficacy of pVAX/PSA vaccine in the clinic. A phase I trial of pVAX/PSA, together with cytokine granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (Molgramostim) and IL-2 (Aldesleukin) as vaccine adjuvants, was carried out in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. To evaluate the biologically active dose, the vaccine was administered during five cycles in doses of 100, 300 and 900 microg, with three patients in each cohort. Eight patients were evaluable. A PSA-specific cellular immune response, measured by IFN-gamma production against recombinant PSA protein, and a rise in anti-PSA IgG were detected in two of three patients after vaccination in the highest dose cohort. A decrease in the slope of PSA was observed in the two patients exhibiting IFN-gamma production to PSA. No adverse effects (WHO grade >2) were observed in any dose cohort. We demonstrate that DNA vaccination with a PSA-coding plasmid vector, given with GM-CSF and IL-2 to patients with prostate cancer, is safe and in doses of 900 microg the vaccine can induce cellular and humoral immune responses against PSA protein. PMID:15280930

  4. Comparison of vaccines for induction of heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus: cold-adapted vaccine versus DNA prime-adenovirus boost strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chia-Yun; Wu, Zhengqi; Misplon, Julia A; Price, Graeme E; Pappas, Claudia; Kong, Wing-Pui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2008-04-16

    Influenza epidemics or pandemics can arise for which strain- or subtype-matched vaccines are unavailable. Heterosubtypic immunity (Het-I) targeting conserved influenza A antigens could reduce morbidity and mortality during preparation of matched vaccines. Various vaccines inducing Het-I in animals have been studied separately using different viruses and conditions, but effectiveness for inducing Het-I has not been directly compared. The present studies compared immunization with cold-adapted (ca) viruses to DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus (rAd) boost vaccination to conserved antigens nucleoprotein (NP), matrix-2 (M2), or A/NP+M2. Both ca and DNA-rAd vaccinations induced antibody and T cell responses, and protected against lethal H1N1 challenge. Only A/NP+M2 DNA-rAd protected against challenge with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1); ca vaccine did not. Existing ca vaccines may provide some Het-I, but experimental vaccination focusing on conserved antigens was more effective in this model for protection against a divergent, highly pathogenic virus. PMID:18378366

  5. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    factors such as IGF-I increase cox-2 expression by several complementary mechanisms; hence, decreased cox-2 activity may play a role in the remarkably low mortality from "Western" cancers enjoyed by Third World cultures in which systemic growth factor activity was minimized by quasi-vegan diets complemented by leanness and excellent muscle insulin sensitivity. Practical strategies for achieving a modest degree of calorie restriction may also have potential for down-regulating cox-2 expression while decreasing cancer risk. Soy isoflavones, linked to reduced cancer risk in Asian epidemiology, may suppress cox-2 induction by activating ERbeta. In aggregate, these considerations suggest that a comprehensive lifestyle strategy targeting cox-2 expression and bioactivity may have tremendous potential for cancer prevention. PMID:22001128

  6. Current state in the development of candidate therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Cheng, Kevin; Cheng, Ting; Yang, Benjamin; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2016-08-01

    The identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity to control these cancers through vaccination. Currently, available preventive HPV vaccines have not yet demonstrated strong evidences for therapeutic effects against established HPV infections and lesions. Furthermore, HPV infections remain extremely common. Thus, there is urgent need for therapeutic vaccines to treat existing HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases. Therapeutic vaccines differ from preventive vaccines in that they are aimed at generating cell-mediated immunity rather than neutralizing antibodies. The HPV-encoded early proteins, especially oncoproteins E6 and E7, form ideal targets for therapeutic HPV vaccines since they are consistently expressed in HPV-associated malignancies and precancerous lesions, playing crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of HPV-associated disease. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we review strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy and the latest clinical trials on therapeutic HPV vaccines. PMID:26901118

  7. The most promising strategy targeted against cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhi-xiong; YANG Li-juan; ZHEN Shi-ming

    2011-01-01

    To the Editor:We read with great enthusiasm an interesting and exciting review article Targeting glioma stem cells:enough to terminate gliomagenesis? by Dong and Huang,1 who believed that single targeting therapy against glioma stem cells is unsuccessful and ameliorating the local tumor inducing/promoting microenvironment should be a reasonable strategy.Our group is enduringly engaged in the study of glioma,and we also put much concern upon the research of tumor microecosystem (TMES).In fact,the targeting therapy against cancer stem cells (CSCs) involves two aspects.One is the marked molecular target against CSCs.The other is how to deal with CSCs,by cytotoxic against CSCs,or inducing tumor stem cells to differentiate,or others?

  8. Poliovirus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Isik Yalcin

    2008-01-01

    The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

  9. STRATEGY OF TWO-STEP RESECTION FOR MASSIVE LIVER CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Zuo-shen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Tang Zhao-you, Yu Ye-qin, Zhou Xin-da, et al. Cytoreduction and sequential resection for surgically verified unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation with analysis of 72 patients [J]. World J Surg 1995; 19:784.[2]Zheng Zuo-shen. Research progress for cyto-reduction and sequential resection for unrectable hepatocellular carcinoma [J]. China Oncology 1999; 9:51.[3]World Health Organization. Practical manual of cancerous radiotherapy [M]. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House, 1999; 122.[4]Ingold JA. Radiation hepatitis [J]. Am J Roent 1965; 93:200.[5]Sogni P. Non-Surgical treatments of hepato-cellular carcinoma [J]. Ann Chir 1995; 49:160.[6]Gao Lin-rui, Yu Er-xing. Radiotherapy of primary carcinoma of the liver (Report of 350 cases) [J]. Tumor 1981; 1:19.[7]Ohto M, Ebara M, Yoshikawa M, et al. Radiation therapy and percutaneus ethanol injection for tile treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Okuda K, Ishak KG, eds. Neoplasm of the Liver [M]. Tokyo Springer-verlag, 1987; 335.[8]Zheng Zuo-shen, Chen Yao-hui, Lai Qi-tai, et al. Strategy of Two-step Resection for Massive Liver Cancer. In: Wang Lei, eds. Papers on Medical Sciences of China (II) [M]. Beijing: Scientific Technological Publishing House, 1997; 6011.[9]Xia Yun-fei. Qian Jian-yang, Zheng Zuo-shen. Radiation biology and dosimetry of moving strip technique [J]. Chin J Cancer 2000; 19:82.

  10. Neoadjuvant Treatment Strategies for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollins, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D

    2016-02-01

    Improved surgical technique plus selective preoperative radiotherapy have decreased rectal cancer pelvic local recurrence from, historically, 25% down to about 5-10%. However, this improvement has not reduced distant metastatic relapse, which is the main cause of death and a key issue in rectal cancer management. The current standard is local pelvic treatment (surgery ± preoperative radiotherapy) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, depending on resection histology. For circumferential resection margin (CRM)-threatened cancer on baseline magnetic resonance imaging, downstaging long-course preoperative chemoradiation (LCPCRT) is generally used. However, for non-CRM-threatened disease, varying approaches are currently adopted in the UK, including straight to surgery, short-course preoperative radiotherapy and LCPCRT. Clinical trials are investigating intensification of concurrent chemoradiation. There is also increasing interest in investigating preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as a way of exposing micro-metastatic disease to full-dose systemic chemotherapy as early as possible and potentially reducing metastatic relapse. Phase II trials suggest that this strategy is feasible, with promising histological response and low rates of tumour progression during NAC. Phase III trials are needed to determine the benefit of NAC when added to standard therapy and also to determine if it can be used instead of neoadjuvant radiotherapy-based schedules. Although several measures of neoadjuvant treatment response assessment based on imaging or pathology are promising predictive biomarkers for long-term survival, none has been validated in prospective phase III studies. The phase III setting will enable this, also providing translational opportunities to examine molecular predictors of response and survival. PMID:26645661

  11. CAN RAP: A Program to Help Patients Choose a Screening Strategy for Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Detmer, William M.; Gilbertson, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The CANcer Risk Assessment and Preference (CAN RAP) system is a prototype computer program that helps patients to select a screening strategy for colon cancer. CAN RAP uses demographic and risk-factor information to calculate the benefit and cost of various screening strategies. The system communicates to patients these benefits and costs, and elicits patient preferences using audio, text, and graphics.

  12. Goal adjustment strategies operationalised and empirically examined in adolescents with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Moniek; Sulkers, Esther; Tissing, Wim Je; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents facing cancer may need to adjust their personal life goals. Theories identified several goal adjustment strategies, but their use has not been tested. Therefore, this study operationalises goal adjustment strategies and examines their use. Adolescent cancer patients listed their goals 3

  13. Newsprint media representations of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme for cervical cancer prevention in the UK (2005-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Langan, Mairi; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-03-01

    In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows. There are two conclusions from this study. Firstly, the positive media coverage surrounding the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme is to be welcomed as it is likely to contribute towards influencing public perceptions about the acceptability and need for HPV vaccination. Secondly, the focus on prevalence rates of HPV infection among women and on women's sexual behaviours, in relation to HPV vaccination 'encouraging' promiscuity, is an unhelpful aspect of media coverage. PMID:20064682

  14. Development of InCVAX as a novel in situ autologous vaccine for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, Tomas; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Raker, Joseph; Lam, Samuel Siu Kit; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method, an in situ autologous whole-cell cancer vaccine (inCVAX), is being developed by Immunophotonics, Inc., for the treatment of metastatic cancers. inCVAX combines phototherapy and immunotherapy to potentially induce a systemic anti-tumor immune response in the hosts. Immunophotonics and its academic partners have spent years conducting nonclinical research, developing CMC techniques and conducting clinical research. In 2015 the company initiated a late-stage (II/III) clinical trial in South America for advanced breast cancer patients. The process of developing the inCVAX approach from a laboratory setting into clinical trials requires significant efforts from a group of dedicated engineers, scientists, and physicians. The growth of the company and its business advances demonstrated the determination of a group of visionary investors, entrepreneurs, and business leaders. This talk will chronicle the milestones of the scientific achievement, medical progress, and business development of Immunophotonics.

  15. Clinical and Immunological Effects in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung-Cancer after Vaccination with Dendritic Cells Exposed to an Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate

    OpenAIRE

    Mogens H. Claesson; Ayako W. Pedersen; Pia Kvistborg; Mai-Britt Zocca; Lotte Engell-Noerregaard; Anders Mellemgaard

    2013-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac&174, Dandrit Biotech,Copenhagen,Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and celecoxib were used as adjuvants to the vaccines. The objective of the study was to evaluate specific T cell response in vitro by IFNg EliSpot. Secondary objectives were overall survival, response and qua...

  16. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan; Morgan, Winthrop; Ally, Mariam; John, Theopista; Broutet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehe...

  17. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national...

  18. Personalizing Lung Cancer Prevention Through a Reverse Migration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Kathryn A.; Kim, Edward S.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Hong, Waun K.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States and worldwide. Tobacco use is the one of the primary causes of lung cancer and smoking cessation is an important step towards prevention, but patients who have quit smoking remain at risk for lung cancer. Finding pharmacologic agents to prevent lung cancer could potentially save many lives. Unfortunately, despite extensive research, there are no known effective chemoprevention agents for lung cancer. Clinical trials in the past, using a...

  19. A Longitudinal Examination of Couples’ Coping Strategies as Predictors of Adjustment to Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Lia M.; Stanton, Annette L.; Meyerowitz, Beth E.; Rowland, Julia H.; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This study’s goals were to examine coping strategies of women and their male partners as predictors of change in women’s adjustment over the year following breast cancer treatment and to test whether partners’ coping processes interact to predict adjustment. In a sample of women who had recently completed breast cancer treatment and were taking part in a psychoeducational intervention trial and their partners, patients’ and partners’ cancer-specific coping strategies were assessed at study en...

  20. Diversity-Oriented Synthetic Strategies Applied to Cancer Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Collins; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    How can diversity-oriented strategies for chemical synthesis provide chemical tools to help shape our understanding of complex cancer pathways and progress anti-cancer drug discovery efforts? This review (surveying the literature from 2003 to the present) considers the applications of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS), biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS) and associated strategies to cancer biology and drug discovery, summarising the syntheses of novel and often highly complex scaffolds from p...

  1. Evaluation of strategies to improve village chicken production: controlled field trials to assess effects of Newcastle disease vaccination and altered chick rearing in Myanmar [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2009-07-01

    Previous research identified Newcastle disease and poor management of chicks (birds younger than 6 weeks of age) as major constraints to village chicken production in Myanmar. Based on these findings, controlled trials were conducted in 124 randomly selected households in nine villages in Myanmar over a period of 12 months to evaluate strategies to enhance survival of village chickens. Two intervention strategies were assessed: Newcastle disease vaccination using the thermostable I-2 vaccine and changes to the management of chick rearing (confinement and supplementary feeding). These interventions were applied in two trials: (1) a randomised controlled trial to compare I-2 vaccination, altered chick management and no intervention (apart from placebo treatment) at household level and (2) nested within this trial, a double-blinded controlled trial at bird-level to compare serological titres between I-2 vaccinated and placebo-treated birds both between and within households. Outcomes measured in the first trial were crude incidence rate of mortality, proportional mortality rate for deaths due to disease stratified by age group of birds and mortality attributed to Newcastle disease, number of sales, income from sale of birds, consumption of birds and hatching of birds. Odds of having protective titres two weeks after vaccination were up to 125 times higher in I-2 vaccinated birds and up to 47 times higher in control birds in contact with I-2 vaccinates compared to birds without I-2 contact. Vaccination against Newcastle disease reduced the proportions of mortalities assumed to be caused by disease in growers and chicks. Crude mortality incidence was lower in households that applied management changes to chick rearing. In household-months when birds were sold, numbers sold were higher and income from sale of birds were about 2.50 US dollars per month higher in households allocated to altered chick management. Altered chick management resulted in more households having

  2. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  3. 宫颈癌治疗性疫苗研究进展%Advances in the research of therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲; 刘金辉; 施桥发

    2010-01-01

    宫颈癌为妇女最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,其与人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)感染密切相关.随着对HPV及其致病机理研究的深入和免疫学的发展,利用免疫学方法治疗HPV引发的疾病显示良好的前景.目前,有关HPV治疗性疫苗的研究已取得较大进展,这些疫苗包括病毒/细菌载体疫苗、肽疫苗、蛋白疫苗、DNA疫苗、细胞疫苗等.此文就HPV治疗性疫苗的研究进展做一综述.%Cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in women, is closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.Along with development of immunology as well as study on HPV and its pathogenic mechanism, the treatment of HPV-related diseases by immunological methods has showed excellent prospect.Great advances in therapeutic vaccines-including viral and bacterial vector vaccines, peptide and protein vaccines, nucleic acid or DNA vaccines, and cell-based vaccines- against cervical cancer have been achieved in recent years.The progress in study on therapeutic vaccines against HPV is reviewed in this paper.

  4. Vaccine Therapy With or Without Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Male Breast Cancer; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Paget Disease of the Breast With Intraductal Carcinoma; Paget Disease of the Breast With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  5. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Jorge L; Batista, Noyde; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Lima, Mayté; González, Joaquín; García, Robin; Zarza, Yohanka; López, María V; Rodríguez, Myriam; Loys, Jorge L; Montejo, Narciso; Aguirre, Frank; Macías, Amparo; Vázquez, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily), in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum), followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD) was 18,43 months (12,20-24,10 months), being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration. PMID:22295231

  6. Targeting breast cancer stem cells by dendritic cell vaccination in humanized mice with breast tumor: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuc Van; Le, Hanh Thi; Vu, Binh Thanh; Pham, Viet Quoc; Le, Phong Minh; Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Trinh, Ngu Van; Nguyen, Huyen Thi-Lam; Nguyen, Sinh Truong; Nguyen, Toan Linh; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cancers in women. Recent progress has enabled BC to be cured with high efficiency. However, late detection or metastatic disease often renders the disease untreatable. Additionally, relapse is the main cause of death in BC patients. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered to cause the development of BC and are thought to be responsible for metastasis and relapse. This study aimed to target BCSCs using dendritic cells (DCs) to treat tumor-bearing humanized mice models. Materials and methods NOD/SCID mice were used to produce the humanized mice by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Human BCSCs were injected into the mammary fat pad to produce BC humanized mice. Both hematopoietic stem cells and DCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord blood, and immature DCs were produced from cultured mononuclear cells. DCs were matured by BCSC-derived antigen incubation for 48 hours. Mature DCs were vaccinated to BC humanized mice with a dose of 106 cells/mice, and the survival percentage was monitored in both treated and untreated groups. Results The results showed that DC vaccination could target BCSCs and reduce the tumor size and prolong survival. Conclusion These results suggested that targeting BCSCs with DCs is a promising therapy for BC. PMID:27499638

  7. Different Levels of Immunogenicity of Two Strains of Fowlpox Virus as Recombinant Vaccine Vectors Eliciting T-Cell Responses in Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cottingham, Matthew G; van Maurik, Andre; Zago, Manola; Newton, Angela T.; Anderson, Richard J.; Howard, M. Keith; Schneider, Jörg; Skinner, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The FP9 strain of Fowlpox virus has been described as a more immunogenic recombinant vaccine vector than the Webster FPV-M (FPW) strain (R. J. Anderson et al., J. Immunol. 172:3094-3100, 2004). This study expands the comparison to include two separate recombinant antigens and multiple, rather than single, independent viral clones derived from the two strains. Dual-poxvirus heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens using individual clones of recombinant FP9 or FPW in combination with recom...

  8. Optimal Treatment Strategy in Rectal Cancer Surgery: Should We Be Cowboys or Chickens?

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, Heleen S.; van Leersum, Nicoline J.; Henneman, Daan; de Vries, Alexander C.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Wouters, Michel W. J. M.; Dekker, Jan Willem T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Surgeons and hospitals are increasingly accountable for their postoperative complication rates, which may lead to risk adverse treatment strategies in rectal cancer surgery. It is not known whether a risk adverse strategy leads to providing better care. In this study, the association between the strategy of hospitals regarding defunctioning stoma construction and postoperative outcomes in rectal cancer treatment was evaluated. Methods Population-based data of the Dutch ...

  9. Targeted Vaccination against Human α-Lactalbumin for Immunotherapy and Primary Immunoprevention of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohy, Vincent K; Ritika Jaini; Johnson, Justin M.; Matthew G. Loya; Dennis Wilk; Erinn Downs-Kelly; Suparna Mazumder

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed that safe and effective protection against the development of adult onset cancers may be achieved by vaccination against tissue-specific self-proteins that are “retired” from expression at immunogenic levels in normal tissues as we age, but are overexpressed in emerging tumors. α-Lactalbumin is an example of a “retired” self-protein because its expression in normal tissues is confined exclusively to the breast during late pregnancy and lactation, but is also expressed in the ...

  10. Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy: HER2/neu peptides as tumour vaccines for T cell recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade there has been renewed interest in the use of vaccine immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. This review focuses on HER2/neu, a tumour-associated antigen that is overexpressed in 10–40% of breast cancers and other carcinomata. Several immunogenic HER2/neu peptides recognized by T lymphocytes have been identified to be included in cancer vaccines. Some of these peptides have been assessed in clinical trials of patients with breast and ovarian cancer. Although it has been possible to detect immunological responses against the peptides in the immunized patients, no clinical responses have so far been described. Immunological tolerance to self-antigens like HER2/neu may limit the functional immune responses against them. It will be of interest to determine whether immune responses against HER2/neu epitopes can be of relevance to cancer treatment

  11. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized

  12. Developing imaging strategies for castration resistant prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the understanding of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have lead to a growing number of experimental therapies, many of which are directed against the androgen-receptor (AR) signaling axis. These advances generate the need for reliable molecular imaging biomarkers to non-invasively determine efficacy, and to better guide treatment selection of these promising AR-targeted drugs. Methods. We draw on our own experience, supplemented by review of the current literature, to discuss the systematic development of imaging biomarkers for use in the context of CRPC, with a focus on bone scintigraphy, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and PET imaging of the AR signaling axis. Results. The roadmap to biomarker development mandates rigorous standardization and analytic validation of an assay before it can be qualified successfully for use in an appropriate clinical context. The Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) criteria for 'radiographic' progression by bone scintigraphy serve as a paradigm of this process. Implemented by the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC), these consensus criteria may ultimately enable the co-development of more potent and versatile molecular imaging biomarkers. Purported to be superior to single-photon bone scanning, the added value of Na18F-PET for imaging of bone metastases is still uncertain. FDG-PET already plays an integral role in the management of many diseases, but requires further evaluation before being qualified in the context of CRPC. PET tracers that probe the AR signaling axis, such as 18F-FDHT and 89Zr-591, are now under development as pharmacodynamic markers, and as markers of efficacy, in tandem with FDG-PET. Semi-automated analysis programs for facilitating PET interpretation may serve as a valuable tool to help navigate the biomarker roadmap. Conclusions. Molecular imaging strategies, particularly those that probe the AR signaling axis, have the potential to

  13. Characterization of regional influenza seasonality patterns in China and implications for vaccination strategies: spatio-temporal modeling of surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of influenza seasonal patterns in the inter-tropical zone impedes the establishment of effective routine immunization programs. China is a climatologically and economically diverse country, which has yet to establish a national influenza vaccination program. Here we characterize the diversity of influenza seasonality in China and make recommendations to guide future vaccination programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled weekly reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections from sentinel hospitals in cities representing 30 Chinese provinces, 2005-2011, and data on population demographics, mobility patterns, socio-economic, and climate factors. We applied linear regression models with harmonic terms to estimate influenza seasonal characteristics, including the amplitude of annual and semi-annual periodicities, their ratio, and peak timing. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and hierarchical clustering were used to identify predictors of influenza seasonal characteristics and define epidemiologically-relevant regions. The annual periodicity of influenza A epidemics increased with latitude (mean amplitude of annual cycle standardized by mean incidence, 140% [95% CI 128%-151%] in the north versus 37% [95% CI 27%-47%] in the south, p0.6 in provinces located within 27.4°N-31.3°N, slope of latitudinal gradient with latitude -0.016 [95% CI -0.025 to -0.008], p<0.001. In contrast, influenza B activity predominated in colder months throughout most of China. Climate factors were the strongest predictors of influenza seasonality, including minimum temperature, hours of sunshine, and maximum rainfall. Our main study limitations include a short surveillance period and sparse influenza sampling in some of the southern provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Regional-specific influenza vaccination strategies would be optimal in China; in particular, annual campaigns should be initiated 4-6 months apart in Northern and Southern China

  14. Awareness and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine among medical students in a premier medical school in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.

  15. CIS视角下预防接种品牌的塑造策略%Strategy for shaping vaccination brand on the vision of CIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭时辉; 廖征; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 甘仰本; 赵华斌

    2013-01-01

    The vaccination brand is the summation of social impression toward name, sign, behaviour and idea of vaccination institutions , which is established by long-term development and improvement. The vaccination brand can make public continuously and strongly feel the existence of vaccination brand and special service spirit, so as to improve the trust degree, satisfaction and immunization coverage rate, enhance the full implementation of national immune planning policy, ensure every child enjoy the protection of the vaccine, reduce the risk of infectious disease, decrease social and family burden, which has obvious social benefit and economic benefit. Corporate identity system (CIS) can be introduced into the vaccination institution management, to establish identity system of vaccination institution, shape a new image of vaccination institution, create vaccination brand, integrate and maintain the brands, which is the basic way for implementing the vaccination brand construction strategy.%预防接种品牌是预防接种单位经过长期发展和完善而形成的社会对预防接种单位名称、标志、行为、理念等印象的总和.预防接种品牌具有重要功能,使社会能持续强烈地感受到预防接种品牌的存在和独特的预防接种服务精神,从而提高信任度、满意度和接种率,确保国家的免疫规划政策能得到全面贯彻实施,每个儿童都能享受到疫苗的保护,减少传染病的发生风险,降低社会和家庭负担,有着明显的社会效益和经济效益.将企业识别系统(CIS)导入预防接种单位管理,建立预防接种单位识别系统,塑造预防接种单位新形象,打造预防接种品牌,树立品牌形象,对品牌进行整合传播和维护等是实施预防接种品牌建设策略的基本途径.

  16. An effective vaccine against colon cancer in mice: Use of recombinant adenovirus interleukin-12 transduced dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Zhou He; Liang Wang; Yan-Yun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a vaccine with recombinant adenovirus interleukin-12 (AdVIL-12) transduced dendritic cells (DCs) against colon cancer in mice.METHODS: DCs and AdVIL-12 were incubated together at different time intervals and at different doses. Supernatant was collected and tested for IL-12 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to determine whether tumor cell lysate-pulsed (TP) AdVIL-12/DCs enhance therapeutic potential in the established tumor model, CT26 colon tumor cells were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) in the midflank of naive BALB/c mice. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with a vaccination of CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs on d 3 and 10. As a protective colon tumor model, na(i)ve BALB/c mice were immunized s.c. in their abdomens with CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs twice at seven day intervals. After the immunization on d 7, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose of CT26 tumor cells and survival times were evaluated. Subsequently, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and interferon gamma (IFNγ) secretion was evaluated in the immunized mice, and assayed CTL ex vivo.RESULTS: Murine DCs were retrovirally transduced with AdVIL-12 efficiency, and the AdVIL-12 transduced DCs secreted a high level of IL-12 (AdVIL-12/DCs, 615.27 ± 42.3 pg/mL vs DCs, 46.32 ± 7.29 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Vaccination with CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs could enhance anti-tumor immunity against CT26 colon tumor in murine therapeutic models (tumor volume on d 19: CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs 107 ± 42 mm3 vsCT26 TP DCs 383 ± 65 mm3, P < 0.05) and protective models. Moreover, the CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DC vaccination enhances tumor-specific CTL activity, producing high levels of IFNy in immunized mice. Ex vivo primed T cells with AdVIL-12/DCs were able to induce more effective CTL activity than in primed T cells with CT26 TP/DCs (E:T = 100:1, 69.49% ± 6.11% specific lysis vs 37.44% ± 4.32% specific lysis, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Vaccination with recombinant AdVIL-12 transduced DC pulsed tumor

  17. In situ vaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, P. H.; Wen, A. M.; Sheen, M. R.; Fields, J.; Rojanasopondist, P.; Steinmetz, N. F.; Fiering, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential to contribute to cancer immunotherapy. The ‘in situ vaccination’ immunotherapy strategy directly manipulates identified tumours to overcome local tumour-mediated immunosuppression and subsequently stimulates systemic antitumour immunity to treat metastases. We show that inhalation of self-assembling virus-like nanoparticles from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) reduces established B16F10 lung melanoma and simultaneously generates potent systemic antitumour immunity against poorly immunogenic B16F10 in the skin. Full efficacy required Il-12, Ifn-γ, adaptive immunity and neutrophils. Inhaled CPMV nanoparticles were rapidly taken up by and activated neutrophils in the tumour microenvironment as an important part of the antitumour immune response. CPMV also exhibited clear treatment efficacy and systemic antitumour immunity in ovarian, colon, and breast tumour models in multiple anatomic locations. CPMV nanoparticles are stable, nontoxic, modifiable with drugs and antigens, and their nanomanufacture is highly scalable. These properties, combined with their inherent immunogenicity and demonstrated efficacy against a poorly immunogenic tumour, make CPMV an attractive and novel immunotherapy against metastatic cancer.

  18. Value for money from HPV vaccination and cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs raises some important questions about the future organization of cervical screening programs. Two studies - from NZ and Canada - have addressed the question of what combination of vaccination and screening strategies might be most cost......-effective in preventing cervical cancer. Both studies indicate that some modifications to existing screening programs may be desirable as immunized females enter these programs. Variables in HPV vaccination that are likely to be particularly important for determining the future cost-effectiveness of cervical screening...... programs include: vaccine uptake rate, compliance with full doses, timely completion of doses, duration of protection, male vaccination and HPV infection rate. If value for money is to be achieved, it is important that the appropriate data are collected so that policy makers can consider the combined...

  19. Hybrid Curcumin Compounds: A New Strategy for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Teiten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that requires treatments able to target multiple intracellular components and signaling pathways. The natural compound, curcumin, was already described as a promising anticancer agent due to its multipotent properties and huge amount of molecular targets in vitro. Its translation to the clinic is, however, limited by its reduced solubility and bioavailability in patients. In order to overcome these pharmacokinetic deficits of curcumin, several strategies, such as the design of synthetic analogs, the combination with specific adjuvants or nano-formulations, have been developed. By taking into account the risk-benefit profile of drug combinations, as well as the knowledge about curcumin’s structure-activity relationship, a new concept for the combination of curcumin with scaffolds from different natural products or components has emerged. The concept of a hybrid curcumin molecule is based on the incorporation or combination of curcumin with specific antibodies, adjuvants or other natural products already used or not in conventional chemotherapy, in one single molecule. The high diversity of such conjugations enhances the selectivity and inherent biological activities and properties, as well as the efficacy of the parental compound, with particular emphasis on improving the efficacy of curcumin for future clinical treatments.

  20. Mast Cell-Targeted Strategies in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Luposella, Maria; Patruno, Rosa; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Sarro, Giovambattista De; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mast cells (MCs) are cells that originate in the bone marrow from pluripotent CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Precursors of MCs migrate through the circulation to their target tissues, completing their maturation process into granulated cells under the influence of several microenvironment growth factors. The most important of these factors is the ligand for the c-Kit receptor (c-Kit-R) namely stem cell factor (SCF), secreted mainly by fibroblasts and endothelial cells (ECs). SCF also regulates development, survival and de novo proliferation of MCs. It has already been demonstrated that gain-of-function mutations of gene c-Kit encoding c-Kit-R result in the development of some tumors. Furthermore, MCs are able also to modulate both innate and adaptive immune response and to express the high-affinity IgE receptor following IgE activation. Among the other IgE-independent MC activation mechanisms, a wide variety of other surface receptors for cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and complement are also described. Interestingly, MCs can stimulate angiogenesis by releasing of several pro-angiogenic cytokines stored in their cytoplasm. Studies published in the last year suggest that angiogenesis stimulated by MCs may play an important role in tumor growth and progression. Here, we aim to focus several biological features of MCs and to summarize new anti-cancer MC-targeted strategies with potential translation in human clinical trials.

  1. Mast Cell-Targeted Strategies in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Luposella, Maria; Patruno, Rosa; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Sarro, Giovambattista De; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-03-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are cells that originate in the bone marrow from pluripotent CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Precursors of MCs migrate through the circulation to their target tissues, completing their maturation process into granulated cells under the influence of several microenvironment growth factors. The most important of these factors is the ligand for the c-Kit receptor (c-Kit-R) namely stem cell factor (SCF), secreted mainly by fibroblasts and endothelial cells (ECs). SCF also regulates development, survival and de novo proliferation of MCs. It has already been demonstrated that gain-of-function mutations of gene c-Kit encoding c-Kit-R result in the development of some tumors. Furthermore, MCs are able also to modulate both innate and adaptive immune response and to express the high-affinity IgE receptor following IgE activation. Among the other IgE-independent MC activation mechanisms, a wide variety of other surface receptors for cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, and complement are also described. Interestingly, MCs can stimulate angiogenesis by releasing of several pro-angiogenic cytokines stored in their cytoplasm. Studies published in the last year suggest that angiogenesis stimulated by MCs may play an important role in tumor growth and progression. Here, we aim to focus several biological features of MCs and to summarize new anti-cancer MC-targeted strategies with potential translation in human clinical trials. PMID:27330532

  2. Optimization Strategies for a Portable Thermoelectric Vaccine Refrigeration System in Developing Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, B.; Sitar, R.; Soares, J.; Novisoff, P.; Nunez-Perez, A.; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    The traditional approach to determine an optimum current for thermoelectric cooling assumes that a refrigeration chamber is insulated and has no thermal resistance to a thermoelectric module. As a result, minimum temperature occurs when Peltier cooling matches with parasitic heat transfer and Joule heating. In practical application, minimum temperature happens when heat addition from the environment is matched with heat extracted by a thermoelectric module, and the optimum current differs from that anticipated by the traditional approach. Hence, consideration for insulation and thermal resistances via thermoelectric module should be made to achieve desirable cooling performance/refrigeration temperature. This paper presents a modeling approach to determine the optimum current as well as the optimum geometry to power a small thermoelectric vaccine delivery system for developing communities under the World Health Organization requirements. The model is derived from three energy conservation equations for temperatures at both ends of the thermoelectric materials within a module, as well as the refrigeration chamber temperature. A prototype was built and demonstrated a minimum temperature of 3.4°C. With optimized module geometry, the system is estimated to reduce power consumption by over 50% while achieving twice the temperature difference.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines from a societal perspective in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aponte-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC and genital warts: (i Screening for CC; (ii Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. METHODS: A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS. RESULTS: At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be 'cost-effective' vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.

  4. Effect of Egyptian Propolis Extract as an Adjuvant with Irradiated Cancer Vaccine against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer and antioxidant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Egyptian propolis extract (Prop) as an adjuvant co-injected with irradiated tumour cell lysate vaccine (Irr-V) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Animals were divided into five equal groups (n=10). Control group. EAC group; injected with viable EAC (2x105/mouse) in the right thigh. EAC-Prop group; injected subcutaneously (Sc) with Prop (0.4 mg/ mouse) weekly for three times, then after 2 weeks mice were received EAC viable cells (the day of challenge). Irr-V group; vaccinated with irradiated EAC cell lysate weekly for three times at a dose of 0.2µl in the right thigh. Prop-Irr-V group; vaccinated as Irr-V group, and treated with Prop as EAC-Prop group. Two weeks post the last treatment; animals of groups 4 and 5 were challenged with normal viable EAC (2x105/mouse) in the opposite thigh. Results: The results revealed a decrease in red blood cells (RBC) count, haematocrite value (Hct) and haemoglobin content (Hb) and an increase in total leucocytes, absolute lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in EAC-bearing mice. Furthermore, oxidative stress identified by a decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity associated with an increase in the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were recorded in the liver and blood tissues of EAC-bearing mice. Propolis, Irr-V as well as Irr-V-Prop treatment improved haematological toxicities and oxidative stress in EAC-bearing mice. However, improvement was more pronounced in Irr-V-Prop group and the cell viability assay, the tetrazolium dye;3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-iphenyltetrazolium (MTT) showed a significant decrease in viable cells compared to each treatment alone. It could be concluded that Prop extract might be used as an adjuvant for irradiated cancer

  5. Awareness and knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines in young women after first delivery in São Paulo, Brazil - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Aline L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of HPV vaccination programs will require awareness regarding HPV associated diseases and the benefits of HPV vaccination for the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, cervical cancer prevention, vaccines, and factors associated with HPV awareness among young women after birth of the first child. Methods This analysis is part of a cross-sectional study carried out at Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, a large public maternity hospital in Sao Paulo. Primiparous women (15-24 years who gave birth in that maternity hospital were included. A questionnaire that included questions concerning knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines was applied. To estimate the association of HPV awareness with selected factors, prevalence ratios (PR were estimated using a generalized linear model (GLM. Results Three hundred and one primiparous women were included; 37% of them reported that they "had ever heard about HPV", but only 19% and 7%, respectively, knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI and that it can cause cervical cancer. Seventy-four percent of interviewees mentioned the preventive character of vaccines and all participants affirmed that they would accept HPV vaccination after delivery. In the multivariate analysis, only increasing age (P for trend = 0.021 and previous STI (P Conclusions This survey indicated that knowledge about the association between HPV and cervical cancer among primiparous young women is low. Therefore, these young low-income primiparous women could benefit greatly from educational interventions to encourage primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention programs.

  6. Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine M.; Martin, Laurie T.; Lurie, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Sanofi Pasteur asked RAND Health, a division of the RAND Corporation, to study the current climate for adolescent immunization in the United States, to recommend broad strategies for immunizing low-income adolescents (through age 18), and to identify promising "on the ground" practices consistent with the proposed strategic framework. To…

  7. Perspectivas para el desarrollo de vacunas e inmunoterapia contra cáncer cervicouterino Perspectives for vaccines and immunotherapy against cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA GUZMÁN-ROJAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino representa un grave problema de salud pública, debido a la asociación de la neoplasia con el virus del papiloma humano; actualmente se realizan estudios usando estrategias dirigidas a combatir este patógeno, mediante vacunas, que podrían ser de gran utilidad para el control de la progresión de la enfermedad. El estudio tanto de la inmunología humoral como celular ha servido para el desarrollo de vacunas. Así, la utilización de partículas virales sintéticas para el estudio de anticuerpos neutralizantes y el uso de proteínas tempranas virales, entre otras, para la inducción de inmunidad mediada por células, han sido la pauta para realizar estudios que dirijan la respuesta inmune para prevenir la infección celular tanto hacia células infectadas no transformadas como hacia células transformadas viralmente con resultados favorables.Cervical cancer represents a severe public health problem and has been associated to the presence of human papillomavirus. Strategies are presently being tested which target the virus to attempt to control disease progress. Studies on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of the papillomavirus infection have been useful in the development of a vaccine. Synthetic virus-like particles have been validated as vaccine against several animal papillomaviruses and used to map the seroepidemiology of the human papillomavirus infection, and define neutralizing antibodies. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV early proteins is bound to become a therapeutic approach to HPV infections. Recent advances have centered on directing the immune response to prevent infection, to virus-infected cells and to virally transformed cells, with favourable results.

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:26902666

  9. First-in-man application of a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine formulation with the capacity to induce multi-functional T cell responses in ovarian, breast and prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinstein Neil L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DepoVaxTM is a novel non-emulsion depot-forming vaccine platform with the capacity to significantly enhance the immunogenicity of peptide cancer antigens. Naturally processed HLA-A2 restricted peptides presented by breast, ovarian and prostate cancer cells were used as antigens to create a therapeutic cancer vaccine, DPX-0907. Methods A phase I clinical study was designed to examine the safety and immune activating potential of DPX-0907 in advanced stage breast, ovarian and prostate cancer patients. A total of 23 late stage cancer patients were recruited and were divided into two dose/volume cohorts in a three immunization protocol. Results DPX-0907 was shown to be safe with injection site reactions being the most commonly reported adverse event. All breast cancer patients (3/3, most of ovarian (5/6 and one third of prostate (3/9 cancer patients exhibited detectable immune responses, resulting in a 61% immunological response rate. Immune responses were generally observed in patients with better disease control after their last prior treatment. Antigen-specific responses were detected in 73% of immune responders (44% of evaluable patients after the first vaccination. In 83% of immune responders (50% of evaluable patients, peptide-specific T cell responses were detected at ≥2 time points post vaccination with 64% of the responders (39% of evaluable patients showing evidence of immune persistence. Immune monitoring also demonstrated the generation of antigen-specific T cell memory with the ability to secrete multiple Type 1 cytokines. Conclusions The novel DepoVax formulation promotes multifunctional effector memory responses to peptide-based tumor associated antigens. The data supports the capacity of DPX-0907 to elicit Type-1 biased immune responses, warranting further clinical development of the vaccine. This study underscores the importance of applying vaccines in clinical settings in which patients are more likely to be

  10. Design of different strategies of multivalent DNA-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Touihri Leila; Ahmed Sami Belhaj; Chtourou Yacine; Daoud Rahma; Bahloul Chokri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background During the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. Almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. Hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. Unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (CPV) or distemper virus (CDV) after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are relucta...

  11. A New Strategy Based on Smrho Protein Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Candidate Oral Vaccine against Schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carolina R.; Rezende, Cíntia M. F.; Silva, Marina R.; Ana Paula Pêgo; Olga Borges; Alfredo M. Goes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and an effective control is unlikely in the absence of improved sanitation and vaccination. A new approach of oral vaccination with alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides of chitosan and alginate immunostimulatory properties. Here we propose a candidate vaccine based on the combination of chitosan-based nanoparticl...

  12. Recombinant BCG: Innovations on an Old Vaccine. Scope of BCG Strains and Strategies to Improve Long-Lasting Memory

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis, is the current vaccine of choice against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against active TB in children, BCG has failed to protect adults against TB infection and active disease development, especially in developing countries where the disease is endemic. Currently, there is a significant effort toward the development of a new TB vaccine. This review article aims to address publications on recombin...

  13. Combinational strategies of metformin and chemotherapy in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Hui; Guo, Xiu-Li

    2016-07-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens are the most common treatment to inhibit tumor growth, but there is great variability in clinical responses of cancer patients; cancer cells often develop resistance to chemotherapeutics which results in tumor recurrence and further progression. Metformin, an extensively prescribed and well-tolerated first-line therapeutic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, has recently been identified as a potential and attractive anticancer adjuvant drug combined with chemotherapeutic drugs to improve treatment efficacy and lower doses. In this review, we summarized the molecular mechanisms underlying anticancer effects of metformin, which included insulin- and AMPK-dependent effects, selectively targeting cancer stem cells, reversing multidrug resistance, inhibition of the tumor metastasis and described the antineoplastic effects of metformin combined with chemotherapeutic agents in digestive system cancers (colorectal, gastric, hepatic and pancreatic cancer), reproductive system cancers (ovarian and endometrial cancer), prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, etc. Moreover, the clinical trials regarding metformin in combination of chemotherapeutic drugs were presented and the clinical obstacle or limitation related to the potential role of metformin in cancer treatment was also discussed in this review. PMID:27118574

  14. Identification of new tumor associated antigens and their usage for new therapeutic strategies based on the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy for colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main general objective of this project was to characterize a new colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and validate a new therapeutic strategy combining chemotherapy and tumor vaccination for the treatment of cancer patients. To this purpose a strategic interaction between Drs. Proietti/Maccali at the ISS and the group of Drs. Rosenberg/Robbins at the NIH was established. A stage of Dr. Maccalli at the NIH allowed to carry out the first steps for the identification and the initial characterization of the CRC TAA named COA-1. A laboratory meeting with Dr. Robbins has been planned on May 24-25 2006 at the ISS, during the International Meeting on Immunotherapy of Cancer: Challenges and Needs, for discussing results and perspectives of this research project

  15. Alternative methods and strategies to reduce, refine, and replace animal use for veterinary vaccine post-licensing safety testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    KULPA-EDDY Jodie; Srinivas, Geetha; HALDER Maria; Brown, Karen; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett; Stokes, William

    2011-01-01

    NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace animal use. Six topics were addressed in detail by speakers and workshop participants and are reported in a series of six reports. This workshop report, the last in the series, addresses methods and strategies for veterinary vacci...

  16. A murine model for study of anticryptococcal activity mediated by cytotoxic immune cells: Role in immunization and human vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available NK and T cells play a pivotal role in host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans fungus which affects especially hosts with impaired cell mediated immunity. The vaccine against cryptococcosus is not developed yet, thus we established an animal BALB/c mice model to analyze anticryprococcal activity of immune cells. We detected that non-stimulated spleen mononuclear cells (MNC from non-immunized mice have the capacity to exhibit anticriptococcal activity on the incapsulated C. neoformans strain (ATCC 34873 and this activity can be enhanced by non-adherent cells (NAC. In order to obtained antigen-specific anticryprococcal activity, MNC and NAC were stimulated in vitro with corpuscular (Ag1 or soluble (Ag2 C. neoformans antigen prepared from the acapsular strain Cap67 (ATCC 52817. In vitro stimulation of immune cells with both C. neoformans antigens enhanced the anticryptococcal activity of MNC and NAC. NAC fraction expressed the highest anticryptococcal activity, also in the presence and in the absence of accessory cells (AC. The highest anticryptococcal activity of effector cells was detected after immunization of mice with the same C. neoformans antigens and after additional stimulation of immune cells in vitro with the some antigens. These data demonstrated that growth inhibition of C. neoformans mediated by mice effector cells can be enhanced with corpuscular, as well as soluble antigens. Thus designin an animal model which is simple and reproducible and can be used for further studies and development of immunization strategies against human cryptococcosis.

  17. In situ vaccination with CD204 gene-silenced dendritic cell, not unmodified dendritic cell, enhances radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Chunqing; Yi, Huanfa; YU, XIAOFEI; Zuo, Daming; Qian, Jie; Yang, Gary; Barbara A Foster; Subjeck, John R.; Sun, Xiaolei; Mikkelsen, Ross B.; Fisher, Paul B.; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity of prostate cancer progression and metastasis, multimodalities that target different aspects of tumor biology, e.g., radiotherapy (RT) in conjunction with immunotherapy, may provide the best opportunities for promoting clinical benefits in patients with high risk localized prostate cancer. Here we show that intratumoral administration of unmodified dendritic cells (DCs) failed to synergize with fractionated RT. However, ionizing radiation combined with in situ vaccination...

  18. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  19. Restoration of body image and self-esteem for women after cancer treatment: a rehabilitative strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M S; Johnson, J

    1994-01-01

    Cancer treatment has the potential for limited or permanent impact on body image and self-esteem. Physical changes that impose cosmetic and appearance challenges can be psychologically immobilizing for women with cancer. Their ability to function within social roles may also be affected. This paper describes a restorative strategy as part of a comprehensive cancer rehabilitation program. Women who have had cancer are invited to an informal event that combines fashion modeling with practical suggestions for adaptive and cosmetic needs. Fashion and beauty products are displayed and informational materials provided. It incorporates components of Look Good ... Feel Better, a joint program of the American Cancer Society, the National Cosmetology Association and the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association Foundation. Evaluations show this program to be helpful and enjoyable for attendees. Health professionals can utilize this strategy in a variety of settings as a component of a cancer rehabilitation program. PMID:7697072

  20. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, des...