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Sample records for cancer updating validation

  1. Model validation: Correlation for updating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, a review is presented of the various methods which are available for the purpose of performing a systematic comparison and correlation between two sets of vibration data. In the present case, the application of interest is in conducting this correlation process as a prelude to model correlation or updating activity.

  2. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  3. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  4. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  5. [Breast cancer update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuss, A

    2014-06-01

    Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626

  6. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Estrogen-alone hormone therapy does not increase the risk ...

  7. Risk stratification strategies for cancer-associated thrombosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Alok A; McCrae, Keith R

    2014-05-01

    Rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary substantially between cancer patients. Multiple clinical risk factors including primary site of cancer and systemic therapy, and biomarkers including leukocyte and platelet counts and tissue factor are associated with increased risk of VTE. However, risk cannot be reliably predicted based on single risk factors or biomarkers. New American Society of Clinical Guidelines recommend that patients with cancer be assessed for VTE risk at the time of chemotherapy initiation and periodically thereafter. This narrative review provides an update on risk stratification approaches including a validated Risk Score. Potential applications of risk assessment including targeted thromboprophylaxis are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:24862143

  8. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Gallo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers.However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors,and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers.

  9. Update on inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lerebours, Florence; Bieche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is both the least frequent and the most severe form of epithelial breast cancer. The diagnosis is based on clinical inflammatory signs and is reinforced by pathological findings. Significant progress has been made in the management of IBC in the past 20 years. Yet survival among IBC patients is still only one-half that among patients with non-IBC. Identification of the molecular determinants of IBC would probably lead to more specific treatments and to improve...

  10. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg; Barak, Vivian; Molina, Rafael; Hayes, Daniel F; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Bossuyt, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps in...... advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance of...... the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be...

  11. Update on Validity of Required Competencies for Worksite Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig; Rager, Robin C.; Wright, Fred Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Background: To improve global health, the workforce capacity of health promotion professionals must be strengthened through the provision of competencies necessary to deliver effective programs. Purpose: This study provides an updated analysis of the validity of the worksite health promotion (WHP) professional competencies developed in 2000 by the…

  12. ANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION: AN UPDATED REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lavanya, M. Sunil, M.M. Eswarudu*, M. C. Eswaraiah, K. Harisudha and B. Naga Spandana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of sound Analytical method(s is of supreme importance during the process of drug discovery, release to market and development, culminating in a marketing approval. The objective of this paper is to review the method development, optimize and validation of the method for the drug product from the developmental stage of the formulation to commercial batch of the product. Method development for the interested component in finished product or in process tests and the sample preparation of drug product and to provide practical approaches for determining selectivity, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, range accuracy, precision, recovery solution stability, ruggedness, and robustness of liquid chromatographic methods to support the Routine, in process and stability analysis.

  13. Update: immunological strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Charles G; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2010-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in US men. Along with initial therapy using surgery, radiotherapy, or cryotherapy, hormonal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. For men with advanced (metastatic) disease, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and provides a significant survival advantage. This relative paucity of treatment options drives an ongoing quest for additional treatment modalities; among these is immunotherapy. The concept that prostate cancer is a malignancy that can be targeted by the immune system may seem counterintuitive; certainly kidney cancer and melanoma are more traditionally thought of as immune responsive cancers. However, prostate cancer arises in a relatively unique organ and may express a number of proteins (antigens) against which an immune response can be generated. More importantly, several of these agents have now demonstrated a significant survival benefit in randomized controlled clinical trials, and one agent in particular (Sipuleucel-T, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA) could be FDA-approved in 2010. This update summarizes recent clinical developments in the field of prostate cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on dendritic cell vaccines, virus-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and cell-based vaccines. In addition, the notion of agents that target immune checkpoints is introduced. Enthusiasm for prostate cancer immunotherapy is founded upon its potential to mediate targeted, specific, tumor cell destruction without significant systemic toxicity; however, this has yet to be fully realized in the clinical arena. PMID:20425628

  14. Novel therapies in genitourinary cancer: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenhong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, new treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC has been a spotlight in the field of cancer therapeutics. With several emerging agents branded as 'targeted therapy' now available, both medical oncologists and urologists are progressively more hopeful for better outcomes. The new remedies may provide patients with improved survival and at the same time less toxicity when compared to traditional cytotoxic agents. This article will center on current and emerging treatment strategies for advanced RCC and other GU malignancies with updates from 2008 annual ASCO meeting.

  15. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  16. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Md Akram Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and ...

  17. HER2 testing in gastric cancer: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahao-Machado, Lucas Faria; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is increasingly recognized as a frequent molecular abnormality in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer. With the recent introduction of HER2 molecular targeted therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer, determination of HER2 status is crucial in order to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. This paper provides an update on our knowledge of HER2 in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer, including the prognostic...

  18. Lung cancer staging: a physiological update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael; McShane, James; Shaw, Mathew; Woolley, Steven; Shackcloth, Michael; Page, Richard; Mediratta, Neeraj

    2012-06-01

    The tumour-node metastasis (TNM) classification system is anatomically based. We investigated whether the addition of simple physiological variables, age and body mass index (BMI), would affect survival curves, i.e. a composite anatomical and physiological staging system. We retrospectively analysed a prospectively validated thoracic surgery database (n = 1981). Cox multivariate analysis was performed to determine possible significant factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed with combined anatomical and physiological factors. Cox multivariate analysis revealed age (P survival. Receiver operating curve analysis determined cut-off levels for age of 67 and BMI of 27.6. A composite anatomical and physiological survival curve based on TNM for BMI > 27.6 and age survival curves, for stage I (P Neural network analysis confirmed the importance of BMI and age above cancer stage with regard to long-term survival. Combining age 27.6 and TNM anatomical classification results in very different estimated survival curves from the usual TNM system. Patients from stages I, II and III may have survival equivalent to a stage higher or lower depending on their age and BMI. PMID:22419795

  19. Diet & Cancer: An Update for Biology Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Clifford J.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on dietary substances which act against cancer-causing agents. Indicates that adapting a lifestyle which combines reduced fat intake with increased fiber-containing foods will reduce the risk of some common cancers. Provides teaching strategies and activities to help students analyze their lifestyles for a reduction in cancer risk. (RT)

  20. HER2 testing in gastric cancer: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahao-Machado, Lucas Faria; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam

    2016-05-21

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is increasingly recognized as a frequent molecular abnormality in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer. With the recent introduction of HER2 molecular targeted therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer, determination of HER2 status is crucial in order to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. This paper provides an update on our knowledge of HER2 in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer, including the prognostic relevance of HER2, the key differences between HER2 protein expression interpretation in breast and gastric cancer, the detection methods and the immunohistochemistry scoring system. PMID:27217694

  1. Updates in Tumor Profiling in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kimberly; Safran, Howard P

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade there has been a focus on biomarkers that play a critical role in understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms which drive tumor initiation, maintenance and progression of cancers. Characterization of genomes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) has permitted significant advances in gastrointestinal cancer care. These discoveries have fueled the development of novel therapeutics and have laid the groundwork for the development of new treatment strategies. Work in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been in the forefront of these advances. With the continued development of NGS technology and the positive clinical experience in CRC, genome work has begun in esophagogastric, pancreatic, and hepatocellular carcinomas as well. PMID:26422541

  2. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  3. Statin Use in Prostate Cancer: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcook, Melissa A.; Joshi, Aditya; Montellano, Jeniece A.; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known as statins, are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. A systematic review was conducted using the keywords “statin and prostate cancer” within the title search engines including PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for relevant research work published between 2004 and December 2015. Although still premature, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that statin use may be beneficial in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer. These human studies consist of meta-analyses of secondary endpoints obtained from randomized, controlled cardiovascular disease clinical trials of statins, patient database, observational studies, and a few, small case–control studies, directly addressing statin use on prostate cancer pathology and recurrence. This review summarizes and discusses the recent clinical literature on statins and prostate cancer with a recommendation to move forward with randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, investigating the use of statins. Additional preclinical testing of statins on prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo models is needed to elucidate pathways and determine its efficacy for prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer, more specifically, the difference in the effectiveness of lipophilic versus hydrophilic statins in prostate cancer. PMID:27441003

  4. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  5. Update in the management of penile cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Caso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of penile cancer has evolved as less invasive techniques are applied in the treatment of the primary tumor and inguinal lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Herein we review the literature focusing on advances in the preservation of the phallus as well as less morbid procedures to evaluate and treat the groins. Results: Promising imaging modalities for staging are discussed. New techniques are described and tables provided for penile preservation. We also review the contemporary morbidity of modified surgical forms for evaluation of the inguinal nodes. Conclusions: Advances in surgical technique have made phallic preservation possible in a greater number of primary penile cancers. The groins can be evaluated for metastasis with greater accuracy through new radiologic means as well as with less morbid modified surgical techniques.

  6. Breast and gastrointestinal cancer updates from ASCO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheenah Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the updates presented at the ASCO 2015 symposium in breast and gastrointestinal malignancies. Some were practice changing while others gave us an exciting glimpse into what′s to come in the very near future. Immunotherapy was the buzz word this year with data presented on every tumor site. Data on the efficacy of anti PD-1 agents in colorectal, hepatocellular and gastric cancer were presented. In breast cancer we saw data on a new and exciting therapeutic target in the form of androgen receptor among triple receptor negative breast tumors presented. Positive results of the PALOMA 3 trial were presented that has given women with hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer another therapeutic option. Furthermore data on strategies to further improve anti her2 therapy, optimizing of chemotherapy in the early and advanced stage and various strategies to improve endocrine therapy among patients with breast cancer were presented.

  7. On the Abductive or Deductive Nature of Database Schema Validation and Update Processing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Teniente, Ernest; Urpi, Toni

    2003-01-01

    We show that database schema validation and update processing problems such as view updating, materialized view maintenance, integrity constraint checking, integrity constraint maintenance or condition monitoring can be classified as problems of either abductive or deductive nature, according to the reasoning paradigm that inherently suites them. This is done by performing abductive and deductive reasoning on the event rules [Oli91], a set of rules that define the difference between consecuti...

  8. Updated Delft Mass Transport model DMT-2: computation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Farahani, Hassan; Ditmar, Pavel; Inacio, Pedro; Klees, Roland; Guo, Jing; Guo, Xiang; Liu, Xianglin; Zhao, Qile; Didova, Olga; Ran, Jiangjun; Sun, Yu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Gunter, Brian; Riva, Ricardo; Steele-Dunne, Susan

    2014-05-01

    A number of research centers compute models of mass transport in the Earth's system using primarily K-Band Ranging (KBR) data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. These models typically consist of a time series of monthly solutions, each of which is defined in terms of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 60-120. One of such models, the Delft Mass Transport, release 2 (DMT-2), is computed at the Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands) in collaboration with Wuhan University. An updated variant of this model has been produced recently. A unique feature of the computational scheme designed to compute DMT-2 is the preparation of an accurate stochastic description of data noise in the frequency domain using an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) model, which is derived for each particular month. The benefits of such an approach are a proper frequency-dependent data weighting in the data inversion and an accurate variance-covariance matrix of noise in the estimated spherical harmonic coefficients. Furthermore, the data prior to the inversion are subject to an advanced high-pass filtering, which makes use of a spatially-dependent weighting scheme, so that noise is primarily estimated on the basis of data collected over areas with minor mass transport signals (e.g., oceans). On the one hand, this procedure efficiently suppresses noise, which are caused by inaccuracies in satellite orbits and, on the other hand, preserves mass transport signals in the data. Finally, the unconstrained monthly solutions are filtered using a Wiener filter, which is based on estimates of the signal and noise variance-covariance matrices. In combination with a proper data weighting, this noticeably improves the spatial resolution of the monthly gravity models and the associated mass transport models.. For instance, the computed solutions allow long-term negative trends to be clearly seen in sufficiently small regions notorious

  9. High-speed AMB machining spindle model updating and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Adam C.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Pesch, Alexander H.

    2011-04-01

    High-Speed Machining (HSM) spindles equipped with Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs) have been envisioned to be capable of automated self-identification and self-optimization in efforts to accurately calculate parameters for stable high-speed machining operation. With this in mind, this work presents rotor model development accompanied by automated model-updating methodology followed by updated model validation. The model updating methodology is developed to address the dynamic inaccuracies of the nominal open-loop plant model when compared with experimental open-loop transfer function data obtained by the built in AMB sensors. The nominal open-loop model is altered by utilizing an unconstrained optimization algorithm to adjust only parameters that are a result of engineering assumptions and simplifications, in this case Young's modulus of selected finite elements. Minimizing the error of both resonance and anti-resonance frequencies simultaneously (between model and experimental data) takes into account rotor natural frequencies and mode shape information. To verify the predictive ability of the updated rotor model, its performance is assessed at the tool location which is independent of the experimental transfer function data used in model updating procedures. Verification of the updated model is carried out with complementary temporal and spatial response comparisons substantiating that the updating methodology is effective for derivation of open-loop models for predictive use.

  10. Discovery and validation of breast cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukholm Ida RK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrated breast cancer tumor tissue samples could be classified into different subtypes based upon DNA microarray profiles. The most recent study presented evidence for the existence of five different subtypes: normal breast-like, basal, luminal A, luminal B, and ERBB2+. Results Based upon the analysis of 599 microarrays (five separate cDNA microarray datasets using a novel approach, we present evidence in support of the most consistently identifiable subtypes of breast cancer tumor tissue microarrays being: ESR1+/ERBB2-, ESR1-/ERBB2-, and ERBB2+ (collectively called the ESR1/ERBB2 subtypes. We validate all three subtypes statistically and show the subtype to which a sample belongs is a significant predictor of overall survival and distant-metastasis free probability. Conclusion As a consequence of the statistical validation procedure we have a set of centroids which can be applied to any microarray (indexed by UniGene Cluster ID to classify it to one of the ESR1/ERBB2 subtypes. Moreover, the method used to define the ESR1/ERBB2 subtypes is not specific to the disease. The method can be used to identify subtypes in any disease for which there are at least two independent microarray datasets of disease samples.

  11. Automated Change Detection for Validation and Update of Geodata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Pilemann; Knudsen, Thomas

    newer (raster based) remote sensing images in order to detect changes in objects. In this paper an automatic change detection method considering changes in the building theme and based on colourinfrared (CIR) aerial photographs in combination with height information (LIDAR, digital photogrammetry......)is presented. Height information is used to determine the location of object which stands above terrain, and the CIR-Imagery is used to exclude vegetation, leading to a potential buildings mask. Comparing the existing objects in the map database with these extracted objects leads to a validation of the map...... database and hence change detection. The success of the method is strongly dependent on the representation of buildings in the DSM and hence the possibility to detect their locations. Therefore the method used for estimation of the digital terrain model from the LIDAR based digital surface model has show...

  12. Automated Change Detection for Validation and Update of Geodata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Pilemann; Knudsen, Thomas

    newer (raster based) remote sensing images in order to detect changes in objects. In this paper an automatic change detection method considering changes in the building theme and based on colourinfrared (CIR) aerial photographs in combination with height information (LIDAR, digital photogrammetry) is...... presented. Height information is used to determine the location of object which stands above terrain, and the CIR-Imagery is used to exclude vegetation, leading to a potential buildings mask. Comparing the existing objects in the map database with these extracted objects leads to a validation of the map...... database and hence change detection. The success of the method is strongly dependent on the representation of buildings in the DSM and hence the possibility to detect their locations. Therefore the method used for estimation of the digital terrain model from the LIDAR based digital surface model has show...

  13. Spinal analgesia for advanced cancer patients: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Porzio, Giampiero; Gebbia, Vittorio

    2012-05-01

    In the nineties, spinal analgesia has been described as an useful means to control pain in advanced cancer patients. The aim of this review was to update this information with a systematic analysis of studies performed in the last 10 years. 27 papers pertinent with the topic selected for review were collected according to selection criteria. Few studies added further information on spinal analgesia in last decade. Despite a lack of a clinical evidence, spinal analgesia with a combination of opioids, principally morphine, and local anesthetics may allow to achieve analgesia in patients who had been intensively treated unsuccessfully with different trials of opioids. Some adjuvant drugs such as clonidine, ketamine, betamethasone, meperidine, and ziconotide may be promising agents, but several problems have to be solved before they can be used in the daily practice. In complex pain situations, spinal analgesia should not be negated to cancer patients, and oncologists should address this group of patients to other specialists. PMID:21684173

  14. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  15. Experimental validation of multistep quantitative crack damage assessment for truss structures by finite element model updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a multistep damage quantification method has been experimentally validated by quantifying crack damage of load-carrying members of truss structures based on experimental vibration records. Damage quantifications are still challenging tasks for difficulties in interpreting response signals measured from engineering structures. Open crack depth is parameterized as a damage variable. The open crack in Euler–Bernoulli beam element is modeled by introducing local flexibility coefficients to the uncracked beam element with joint rotational flexibility. Mode shapes and natural frequencies measured from experimental modal testing of a damaged laboratory-size truss bridge are used in the finite element model updating for damage quantification. Predetermined curves derived for hollow circular sections with open crack are used to estimate crack depths from updated local flexibility coefficients. According to experimental validation test, the proposed approach is proven to be viable in quantifying crack damage. (paper)

  16. An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC takes advantage of the specific binding between antigen and antibody to measure the presence and abundance of antigen while simultaneously providing morphologic context on a tissue section. Since the revolutionary application of heat-induced epitope retrieval methods on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, which started in early 1990s, IHC has been routinely used in diagnostic pathology. This approach has also enabled mining of the rich archives of pathologic specimens for exploration in translational cancer research. Newer IHC biomarkers are being continuously found as aids in differential diagnosis, prediction of outcome or response to molecular-targeted therapies. These are prime examples for translational cancer research. The last decade has witnessed some significant improvements in the use of this technology. This review provides an overview on the current status of IHC as applied in translational cancer research, commenting on the underlying principles in specimen preparation, reagent choice, staining procedure, and results evaluation so that both beginners and seasoned users could appreciate the key factors and benefit from this update.

  17. An Update on the Diversity - Validity Dilemma in Personnel Selection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Druart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As globalization increases and labor markets become substantially more diverse, increasing diversity during personnel selection has become a dominant theme in personnel selection in human resource management. However, while trying to pursue this goal, researchers and practitioners find themselves confronted with the diversity-validity dilemma, as some of the most valid selection instruments display considerable ethnic subgroup differences in test performance. The goal of the current paper is twofold. First, we update and review the literature on the diversity-validity dilemma and discuss several strategies that aim to increase diversity without jeopardizing criterion-related validity. Second, we provide researchers and practitioners with evidence-based guidelines for dealing with the dilemma. Additionally, we identify several new avenues for future research.

  18. Phytocannabinoids for Cancer Therapeutics: Recent Updates and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, K R; Goyal, S N; Sharma, C; Patil, C R; Ojha, S

    2015-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids (pCBs) are lipid-soluble phytochemicals present in the plant, Cannabis sativa L. and non-cannabis plants which have a long history in recreation and traditional medicine. The plant and the constituents isolated were central in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the most new target for drug discovery. The ECS includes two G-protein-coupled receptors; the cannabinoid receptors-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive principle Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), their endogenous small lipid ligands; namely anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), also known as endocannabinoids and the enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The ECS has been suggested as a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signaling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific way during pathological conditions including cancer. Targeting the CB1 receptors becomes a concern because of adverse psychotropic reactions. Hence, targeting the CB2 receptors or the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes by pCBs obtained from plants lacking psychotropic adverse reactions has garnered interest in drug discovery. These pCBs derived from plants appear safe and effective with a wider access and availability. In the recent years, several pCBs derived other than non-cannabinoid plants have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with cannabinoid receptors and appear promising candidate for drug development including cancer therapeutics. Several of them also targets the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this article, we summarize and critically discuss the updates and future prospects of the pCBs as novel and promising candidates for cancer therapeutics. PMID:26179998

  19. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of prostate cancer: update 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Andrew M D; Wender, Richard C; Etzioni, Ruth B; Thompson, Ian M; D'Amico, Anthony V; Volk, Robert J; Brooks, Durado D; Dash, Chiranjeev; Guessous, Idris; Andrews, Kimberly; DeSantis, Carol; Smith, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the American Cancer Society (ACS) Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee began the process of a complete update of recommendations for early prostate cancer detection. A series of systematic evidence reviews was conducted focusing on evidence related to the early detection of prostate cancer, test performance, harms of therapy for localized prostate cancer, and shared and informed decision making in prostate cancer screening. The results of the systematic reviews were evaluated by the ACS Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee, and deliberations about the evidence occurred at committee meetings and during conference calls. On the basis of the evidence and a consensus process, the Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee developed the guideline, and a writing committee drafted a guideline document that was circulated to the entire committee for review and revision. The document was then circulated to peer reviewers for feedback, and finally to the ACS Mission Outcomes Committee and the ACS Board of Directors for approval. The ACS recommends that asymptomatic men who have at least a 10-year life expectancy have an opportunity to make an informed decision with their health care provider about screening for prostate cancer after they receive information about the uncertainties, risks, and potential benefits associated with prostate cancer screening. Prostate cancer screening should not occur without an informed decision-making process. Men at average risk should receive this information beginning at age 50 years. Men in higher risk groups should receive this information before age 50 years. Men should either receive this information directly from their health care providers or be referred to reliable and culturally appropriate sources. Patient decision aids are helpful in preparing men to make a decision whether to be tested. PMID:20200110

  20. The validity of the distress thermometer in prostate cancer populations

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Youlden, Danny R; Holland, Jimmie C.; Dunn, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Background The Distress Thermometer (DT) is widely recommended for screening for distress after cancer. However, the validity of the DT in men with prostate cancer and over differing time points from diagnosis has not been well examined. Method Receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the DT compared with three commonly used standardised scales in two prospective and one cross-sectional survey of men with prostate cancer (n = 740, 189 and 46...

  1. Clinical trials update of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present clinical trial update consists of a review of two of eight current studies (the 10981-22023 AMAROS trial and the 10994 p53 trial) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group, as well as a preview of the MIND-ACT trial. The AMAROS trial is designed to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. The p53 trial started to assess the potential predictive value of p53 using a functional assay in yeast in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory or large operable breast cancer prospectively randomised to a taxane regimen versus a nontaxane regimen

  2. Discovery and validation of breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bukholm Ida RK; Noh Dong-Young; Han Wonshik; Børresen-Dale Anne-Lise; Langerød Anita; Jeffrey Stefanie S; Kapp Amy V; Nicolau Monica; Brown Patrick O; Tibshirani Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated breast cancer tumor tissue samples could be classified into different subtypes based upon DNA microarray profiles. The most recent study presented evidence for the existence of five different subtypes: normal breast-like, basal, luminal A, luminal B, and ERBB2+. Results Based upon the analysis of 599 microarrays (five separate cDNA microarray datasets) using a ...

  3. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), ...

  4. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Christensen, Ib J;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality...... improvement. DESIGN: Comparative registry-based study supplemented with data from medical records. SETTING: Six hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Women registered with epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Data completeness and strength of...... validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology....

  5. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, A.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Christensen, I.J.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality...... improvement. DESIGN: Comparative registry-based study supplemented with data from medical records. SETTING: Six hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Women registered with epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Data completeness and strength of...... validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  6. Interventions to decrease skin cancer risk in outdoor workers: update to a 2007 systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Horsham, Caitlin; Auster, Josephine; Sendall, Marguerite C; Stoneham, Melissa; Youl, Philippa; Crane, Phil; Tenkate, Thomas; Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Outdoor workers are at high risk of harmful ultraviolet radiation exposure and are identified as an at risk group for the development of skin cancer. This systematic evidence based review provides an update to a previous review published in 2007 about interventions for the prevention of skin cancer in outdoor workers. Results This review includes interventions published between 2007-2012 and presents findings about sun protection behaviours and/or objective measures of skin cancer ...

  7. The Updated Umkehr Ozone Retrieval Algorithm and its Validation against Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovskikh, I.; Bhartia, P. K.; Labow, G.; Wellemeyer, C.

    2003-01-01

    Improvements to the Umkehr ozone profile retrieval algorithm have been developed and are now being evaluated. The updated algorithm is able to simulate observations more accurately and provides data output that is easier to analyze. Among the new diagnostic capabilities that the updated algorithm provides is the averaging kernel (AK) method. The AK approach allows studying how the algorithm responds when a small perturbation is made in a particular layer of the atmosphere [Rodgers 1976, 1990]. We will use the AK method to define precisely what Umkehr should measure given a set of profiles measured by other platforms. This method allows us to compare trends and offsets in data more accurately than it has been done in the past. The updated Umkehr retrievals will be validated against SAGE II ozone profiles as well as SSBUV ozone profile data. We will discuss possible reasons for offset between data and differences in derived ozone profile trends. Considerable variability of the ozone profile within the 10-degree latitude envelope creates noise in the SAGE matching dataset and makes comparisons difficult. To eliminate this problem, the SAGE and Umkehr data had been previously de-seasonalized by subtracting the latitude/season dependent ozone climatology. However, the remaining noise in the ozone residuals was still considerably high for trend analysis and was attributed to longitude variability of SAGE sampling. The new ozone climatology (Labow, NASA) that has longitude dependent ozone variability will be used to minimize contribution of sampling noise in comparisons of satellite and ground station. The comparison of zenith-sky radiances (Umkehr N-value measurements) synthesized for a given set of SAGE profiles will be used to determine whether SAGE-derived N-values agree with the Umkehr-measured N-values. The instrumental effects will be discussed. Both the Umkehr data and SAGE II measurements will be analyzed for their information about ozone variability and loss and

  8. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  9. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Krogdahl, Annelise; Bastholt, Lars; Overgaard, Jens; Bentsen, Jens; Hahn, Christoffer Holst; Schytte, Sten; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler; Christiansen, Peer; Godballe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a prospective national clinical thyroid cancer database (DATHYRCA) has been active in Denmark since January 1, 1996, no assessment of data quality has been performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate completeness and data validity in the Danish national clinical thyroid...... cancer database: DATHYRCA. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: National prospective cohort. Denmark; population 5.5 million. Completeness of case ascertainment was estimated by the independent case ascertainment method using three governmental registries as a reference. The reabstracted record method was used to...... extended governmental databases, it is possible to establish national clinical cancer databases with a satisfactory completeness and validity. The DATHYRCA database is considered reliable in terms of describing thyroid carcinoma at a national level....

  10. Director's Update - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) has recently begun the proteomic interrogation of genomically-characterized tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  11. Bicalutamide monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    The current evidence is considered to support 150 mg of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for early stage prostate cancer.......The current evidence is considered to support 150 mg of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide for early stage prostate cancer....

  12. Update on clinical trials: genetic targets in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bora; Cream, Leah V; Harvey, Harold A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in United States. From data of American Cancer Society from 2007 reported total of 178,480 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The death rate from breast cancer has decreased in North America over time, but still accounts for second highest cancer death, following lung cancer. Breast cancer is staged based on tumor size, nodal involvement, and distant metastasis like any other solid tumors. However clinical staging is not the only important factor in management of breast cancer. Various molecular features divides breast cancer into many subgroups - that act differently, and respond differently from therapy. Thus the focus of breast cancer treatment has evolved focusing on specific targets. The most important biologic markers in subtyping of breast cancer so far are hormone receptor positivity and HER2/neu protein expression. Five molecular subtypes using intrinsic gene set include Basal mRNA, HER2 + mRNA, Luminal AmRNA, Luminal B mRNA, and Normal-like mRNA. In addition, better understanding of genetic target of breast cancer has given us arsenal of personalized, and more effective treatment approach.This review will focus on examples that highlight several mechanism of tumorigenesis, giving us not just understanding of gene pathways and the molecular biology, that could lead us to therapeutic target. Several important molecular targets have been investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, others are yet to be explored. We will also describe genetic mechanisms discovery related to overcoming resistance to current targeted therapies in breast cancer, including hormone receptor expression and HER 2- neu amplification. We will also review other exciting developments in understanding of breast cancer, the tumor microenvironment and cancer stem cells, and targeting agents in that area. PMID:23288634

  13. Validation of colorectal cancer surgery data from administrative data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is the primary treatment for colorectal cancer for both curative and palliative intent. Availability of high quality surgery data is essential for assessing many aspects of the quality of colorectal cancer care. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of different administrative data sources in identifying surgery for colorectal cancer with respect to completeness and accuracy. Methods All residents in Alberta, Canada who were diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer in years 2000-2005 were identified from the Alberta Cancer Registry and included in the study. Surgery data for these patients were obtained from the Cancer Registry (which collects the date of surgery for which the primary tumor was removed and compared to surgery data obtained from two different administrative data sources: Physician Billing and Hospital Inpatient data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and observed agreement were calculated compared to the Cancer Registry data. Results The Physician Billing data alone or combined with Hospital Inpatient data demonstrated equally high sensitivity (97% for both and observed agreement with the Cancer Registry data (93% for both for identifying surgeries. The Hospital Inpatient data, however, had the highest specificity (80%. The positive predictive value varied by disease stage and across data sources for stage IV (99% for stages I-III and 83-89% for stage IV, the specificity is better for colon cancer surgeries (72-85% than for rectal cancer surgeries (60-73%; validation measures did not vary over time. Conclusion Physician Billing data identify the colorectal cancer surgery more completely than Hospital Inpatient data although both sources have a high level of completeness.

  14. HIV– positive anal cancer: an update for the clinician

    OpenAIRE

    Savita V. Dandapani; Eaton, Michael; Thomas, Charles R.; Pagnini, Paul G

    2010-01-01

    Anal cancer used to be a rare cancer traditionally associated with elderly women. There are approximately 5260 cases per year in the U.S. (1). The onslaught of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus has led to a change in anal cancer demographics. Anal cancer is on the rise in the U.S and the number of anal cases documented has quadrupled in the past 20 yrs correlating with the rise of the HIV epidemic. The incidence of anal cancer is 40 to 80 fold higher in the HIV positive (HIV+) popu...

  15. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research. PMID:27222437

  16. Clinical use of cancer biomarkers in epithelial ovarian cancer: updated guidelines from the European Group on Tumor Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sölétormos, G.; Duffy, M.J.; Othman Abu Hassan, S.; Verheijen, RHM; Tholander, B.; Bast jr., R.C.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Sturgeon, C.M.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Petersen, P.H.; Troonen, H.; Carlo Torre, G.; Kanty Kulpa, J.; Tuxen, M.K.; Molina, R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: Because of its low sens

  17. Update in non small- cell lung cancer staging

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, RA; Snoeckx, A.; Spinhoven, M; Beeck, B Op de; Corthouts, B; Parizel, PM

    2013-01-01

    Significant progress has been made with the introduction of the TNM-7 staging system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Constituting the first major revision in 12 years, the seventh edition of NSCLC TNM (TNM-7) is based on the recommendations from the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lung Cancer Staging Project of 2007. This new TNM iteration includes a subset analysis on SCLC and carcinoid tumors.A thorough understanding of its principles by the radiologis...

  18. ACE-FTS version 3.0 data set: validation and data processing update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Waymark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On 12 August 2003, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE was launched into a 74° inclination orbit at 650 km with the mission objective to measure atmospheric composition using infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy (Bernath et al. 2005. The ACE mission consists of two main instruments, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO (McElroy et al. 2007, which are being used to investigate the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere.  Here, we focus on the high resolution (0.02 cm-1 infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS, that measures in the 750-4400 cm-1 (2.2 to 13.3 µm spectral region.  This instrument has been making regular solar occultation observations for more than nine years.  The current ACE-FTS data version (version 3.0 provides profiles of temperature and volume mixing ratios (VMRs of more than 30 atmospheric trace gas species, as well as 20 subsidiary isotopologues of the most abundant trace atmospheric constituents over a latitude range of ~85°N to ~85°S.  This letter describes the current data version and recent validation comparisons and provides a description of our planned updates for the ACE-FTS data set. [...

  19. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    OpenAIRE

    Agbarya, Abed; Ruimi, Nili; Epelbaum, Ron; Ben-Arye, Eran; Mahajna, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, s...

  20. TNM staging update for lung cancer: Why is this important?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cancer staging characterises the extent of disease facilitating selection of the most appropriate management and therapy and providing prediction of prognosis. As understanding of lung cancer evolves the opportunities arises to adjust disease staging. The adoption of the 7th edition tumour, node, metastasis staging system should result in improved treatment selection and more accurate prognostic information for the individual patient.

  1. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. PMID:26324357

  2. Validation of analytical breast cancer microarray analysis in medical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Amal Said; Louka, Manal Louis; Hana, Maha; Rashad, Shaymaa; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Sharaf-Eldin, Ahmed; Kassim, Samar Kamal

    2014-10-01

    A previously reported microarray data analysis by RISS algorithm on breast cancer showed over-expression of the growth factor receptor (Grb7) and it also highlighted Tweety (TTYH1) gene to be under expressed in breast cancer for the first time. Our aim was to validate the results obtained from the microarray analysis with respect to these genes. Also, the relationship between their expression and the different prognostic indicators was addressed. RNA was extracted from the breast tissue of 30 patients with primary malignant breast cancer. Control samples from the same patients were harvested at a distance of ≥5 cm from the tumour. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis was done on all samples. There was a significant difference between the malignant and control tissues as regards Grb7 expression. It was significantly related to the presence of lymph node metastasis, stage and histological grade of the malignant tumours. There was a significant inverse relation between expression of Grb7 and expression of both oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Grb7 was found to be significantly related to the biological classification of breast cancer. TTYH1 was not expressed in either the malignant or the control samples. The RISS by our group algorithm developed was laboratory validated for Grb7, but not for TTYH1. The newly developed software tool needs to be improved. PMID:25182704

  3. Updates from the 2014 San antonio breast cancer symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheenah Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The san antonio breast cancer syposium (SABCS 2014 was an exciting one this year. Data from the SOFT trial was presented that had potential implications on the treatment of pre menapausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. In a phase II trial fulvestrant was found to significantly improve progression free and overall survival compared to anastrazole in the first line treatment of women with hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer. We saw a number of intersting abstracts looking at trying to refine the role of platinums and exploring the role of blocking PD-1 among women with triple receptor negative breast cancer. We also saw the results of a number of trials trying to refine standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Here we will review some fon the most interesting abstracts presented this year at SABCS 2014.

  4. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  5. Choline metabolism-based molecular diagnosis of cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Glunde, Kristine; Penet, Marie-France; Jiang, Lu; Jacobs, Michael A.; Zaver M Bhujwalla

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal choline metabolism continues to be identified in multiple cancers. Molecular causes of abnormal choline metabolism are changes in choline kinase-α, ethanolamine kinase-α, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and -D and glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterases, as well as several choline transporters. The net outcome of these enzymatic changes is an increase in phosphocholine and total choline (tCho) and, in some cancers, a relative decrease of glycerophosphocholine. The incre...

  6. Systemic treatment for hereditary cancers: a 2012 update

    OpenAIRE

    Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Byrski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The history of specific therapy for hereditary tumors dates back to mid 1980s and involves a number of reports demonstrating regression of familial colon polyps upon administration of sulindac. Virtually no clinical studies on other hereditary cancer types were available until the year 2009, when Byrski et al. presented the data on unprecedented sensitivity of BRCA1-associated breast malignancies to cisplatin. This breakthrough has revived interest to the treatment of cancer in germ-line muta...

  7. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels ≥10 μg/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries

  8. Cancer gene therapy targeting angiogenesis: An updated review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Chiu Liu; Zan Shen; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Marie CM Lin

    2006-01-01

    Since the relationship between angiogenesis and tumor growth was established by Folkman in 1971,scientists have made efforts exploring the possibilities in treating cancer by targeting angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis growth factors and administration of angiogenesis inhibitors are the basics of antiangiogenesis therapy. Transfer of anti-angiogenesis genes has Received attention recently not only because of the advancement of recombinant vectors, but also because of the localized and sustained expression of therapeutic gene product inside the tumor after gene transfer. This review provides the up-to-date information about the strategies and the vectors studied in the field of anti-angiogenesis cancer gene therapy.

  9. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hajage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and we determined whether the accuracy of Adjuvant! Online is improved with other well-known prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French data set is composed of 456 women with early breast cancer. The Dutch data set is composed of 295 women less than 52 years of age. Agreement between observation and Adjuvant! Online prediction was checked, and logistic models were performed to estimate the prognostic information added by risk factors to Adjuvant! Online prediction. RESULTS: Adjuvant! Online prediction was overall well-calibrated in the French data set but failed in some subgroups of such high grade and HER2 positive patients. HER2 status, Mitotic Index and Ki67 added significant information to Adjuvant! Online prediction. In the Dutch data set, the overall 10-year survival was overestimated by Adjuvant! Online, particularly in patients less than 40 years old. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! Online needs to be updated to adjust overoptimistic results in young and high grade patients, and should consider new predictors such as Ki67, HER2 and Mitotic Index.

  10. Initial Validation of the Sleep Disturbances in Pediatric Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Lauren C; Schwartz, Lisa A; Mindell, Jodi A; Tucker, Carole A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE : The current study evaluates content validity of the Sleep Disturbance in Pediatric Cancer (SDPC) model using qualitative and quantitative stakeholder input.  METHODS : Parents of children (aged: 3-12 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20) and medical providers (n = 6) participated in semi-structured interviews about child sleep during cancer treatment. They also rated SDPC model component importance on a 0-4 scale and selected the most relevant sleep-related intervention targets.  RESULTS : Qualitatively, parents and providers endorsed that changes in the child's psychosocial, environmental, and biological processes affect sleep. Stakeholders rated most model components (parent: 32 of 40; provider: 39 of 41) as important (>2) to child sleep. Parents were most interested in interventions targeting difficulty falling asleep and providers selected irregular sleep habits/scheduling, though groups did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS : Stakeholders supported SDPC content validity. The model will inform subsequent measure and intervention development focusing on biological and behavioral factors most salient to sleep disturbances in pediatric cancer. PMID:26994058

  11. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.5–1% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hürthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  12. An update in breast cancer screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sanjay; Tapia, Grace; Goltsman, David; Beith, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the main controversies in a number of key areas of breast cancer management. Relevant studies that have contributed to guide the treatment of this heterogeneous disease in the field of breast screening, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of breast screening. MRI and tomosynthesis are emerging as new screening tools for a selected group of breast cancer patients. From a surgical perspective, oncoplastic techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are improving cosmetic results in breast-conserving surgery. For high-risk patients, controversies still remain regarding prophylactic mastectomies. Finally, the appropriate management of the axilla continues evolving with the increasing role of radiotherapy as an alternative treatment to axillary dissection. PMID:26689336

  13. Update in palliative management of hormone refractory cancer of prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pratipal; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2007-01-01

    Hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is an incurable disease and as in the pressure sensitive adhesive era the median survival of patients is increasing, these men increasingly develop symptomatic problems as a result of advanced local and or metastatic disease during their progression to death. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to improve survival in this group of patients with use of chemotherapy which reinforces the need of better options in palliative care. We discus th...

  14. Cancer gene therapy targeting angiogenesis: An updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ching-Chiu; Shen, Zan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie CM

    2006-01-01

    Since the relationship between angiogenesis and tumor growth was established by Folkman in 1971, scientists have made efforts exploring the possibilities in treating cancer by targeting angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis growth factors and administration of angiogenesis inhibitors are the basics of anti-angiogenesis therapy. Transfer of anti-angiogenesis genes has received attention recently not only because of the advancement of recombinant vectors, but also because of the localized an...

  15. Stereotactic body radiotherapy in lung cancer: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Ferreira, Paula Pratti Rodrigues; Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Neves Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade, E-mail: heloisa.carvalho@hc.fm.usp.br [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Gadia, Rafael [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia. Servico de Radioterapia

    2015-07-15

    For early-stage lung cancer, the treatment of choice is surgery. In patients who are not surgical candidates or are unwilling to undergo surgery, radiotherapy is the principal treatment option. Here, we review stereotactic body radiotherapy, a technique that has produced quite promising results in such patients and should be the treatment of choice, if available. We also present the major indications, technical aspects, results, and special situations related to the technique. (author)

  16. Acute kidney injury in critically ill cancer patients: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, Norbert; Vanholder, Raymond; Van Biesen, Wim; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer represent a growing group among actual ICU admissions (up to 20 %). Due to their increased susceptibility to infectious and noninfectious complications related to the underlying cancer itself or its treatment, these patients frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). A wide variety of definitions for AKI are still used in the cancer literature, despite existing guidelines on definitions and staging of AKI. Alternative diagnostic investigations such as Cystatin C and urinary biomarkers are discussed briefly. This review summarizes the literature between 2010 and 2015 on epidemiology and prognosis of AKI in this population. Overall, the causes of AKI in the setting of malignancy are similar to those in other clinical settings, including preexisting chronic kidney disease. In addition, nephrotoxicity induced by the anticancer treatments including the more recently introduced targeted therapies is increasingly observed. However, data are sometimes difficult to interpret because they are often presented from the oncological rather than from the nephrological point of view. Because the development of the acute tumor lysis syndrome is one of the major causes of AKI in patients with a high tumor burden or a high cell turnover, the diagnosis, risk factors, and preventive measures of the syndrome will be discussed. Finally, we will briefly discuss renal replacement therapy modalities and the emergence of chronic kidney disease in the growing subgroup of critically ill post-AKI survivors. PMID:27480256

  17. Gastrointestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease: An update with emphasis on imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Matthias; Dohan, Anthony; Allez, Matthieu; Boudiaf, Mourad; Camus, Marine; Laurent, Valérie; Hoeffel, Christine; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers depending on the specific type of IBD, the extent of the disease and its location. Patients with IBD and extensive colonic involvement are at increased risk of colorectal cancer whereas patients with Crohn disease have an increased risk for small-bowel and anal carcinoma. These cancers preferentially develop on sites of longstanding inflammation. In regards to colon cancer, several key pathogenic events are involved, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation. The risk for colon cancer in IBD patients correlates with longer disease duration, presence of sclerosing cholangitis, pancolitis, family history of colorectal cancer, early onset of the disease and severity of bowel inflammation. Identification of increased colorectal cancer risk in individual IBD patients has led to formal surveillance guidelines. Conversely, although an increased risk for other types of cancer has been well identified, no specific formal screening recommendations exist. Consequently, the role of the radiologist is crucial to alert the referring gastroenterologist when a patient with IBD presents with unusual imaging findings at either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This review provides an update on demographics, molecular, clinical and histopathological features of gastrointestinal cancers in IBD patients including colorectal carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and anal carcinoma, along with a special emphasis on the current role of CT and MR imaging. PMID:26315381

  18. External Validation of the Updated Partin Tables in a Cohort of French and Italian Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the discrimination and calibration properties of the newly developed 2007 Partin Tables in two European cohorts with localized prostate cancer. Methods: Data on clinical and pathologic characteristics were obtained for 1,064 men treated with radical prostatectomy at the Creteil University Health Center in France (n = 839) and at the Milan University Vita-Salute in Italy (n = 225). Overall discrimination was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, which quantified the accuracy of stage predictions for each center. Calibration plots graphically explored the relationship between predicted and observed rates of extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and lymph node invasion (LNI). Results: The rates of ECE, SVI, and LNI were 28%, 14%, and 2% in the Creteil cohort vs. 11%, 5%, and 5% in the Milan cohort. In the Creteil cohort, the accuracy of ECE, SVI, and LNI prediction was 61%, 71%, and 82% vs. 66%, 92% and 75% for the Milan cohort. Important departures were recorded between Partin Tables' predicted and observed rates of ECE, SVI, and LNI within both cohorts. Conclusions: The 2007 Partin Tables demonstrated worse performance in European men than they originally did in North American men. This indicates that predictive models need to be externally validated before their implementation into clinical practice

  19. Aspirin Use and Lung Cancer Risk: A Possible Relationship? Evidence from an Updated Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-yan Jiang; Tian-bao Huang; Lei Xu; Jing Yu; Yan Wu; Jiang Geng; Xu-dong Yao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Growing evidence has emerged and controversial results reported on possible relationship between aspirin use and lung cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this updated and comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate this issue, with focus on dose-risk and duration-risk relationships. Methods We searched electronic databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for cohor...

  20. Update on capecitabine alone and in combination regimens in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, N; Maiello, E; De Vita, F; Cinieri, S; Santini, D; Russo, A; Tommasi, S; Azzariti, A; Numico, G; Pisconti, S; Petriella, D; Lorusso, V; Millaku, A; Colucci, G

    2010-11-01

    Capecitabine is an orally administered fluoropyrimidine carbamate which has been developed as a prodrug of 5-FU with the goal to improve its tolerability and intratumoral drug concentration. The review aims to provide an evidence-based update of clinical trials investigating the clinical efficacy, adverse-event profile, dosage and administration of this drug, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics and/or new target-oriented drugs, in the management of colorectal cancer patients. PMID:21129610

  1. Validation of the University of California San Francisco Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Connelly, S. Thaddeus; Schmidt, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to validate the published UCSF Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire. To test for validity of the questionnaire 16 oral cancer patients completed the 8-item questionnaire immediately prior to and following treatment (surgical resection) of their oral cancer. For all 8 questions the difference between mean preoperative and mean postoperative responses were statistically significant (p

  2. Thorotrast induced liver cancer: update of German thorotrast study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Wesch, H. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiological Diagnostics and Therapy

    1999-02-01

    The German Thorotrast study was started in 1968. It comprises 2,326 Thorotrast patients and 1,890 contemporary matched controls group. 899 Thorotrast patients and 662 patients of the control group have been examined clinically and biophysically every two years. The evaluation of the causes of death demonstrates a statistically significant excess rate of malignant liver tumors, liver cirrhoses, myeloid leukaemias and bone marrow failures. The annual dose after an injection of two ampoules (24 ml) is about 25 cGy for the liver, 70 cGy for the spleen and 9 cGy for the bone marrow. Animal experiments demonstrated that non-radiation effects can be neglected. Correlation exists between the calculated dose to the liver and the frequency of liver cancer. The cumulative risk estimate for liver cancer of about 600 per 10{sup 4} person Gy comes close to the values which were calculated based on the epidemiological results of the Japanese bomb survivors when a quality factor of 20 for alpha radiation and a low dose rate reduction factor of 2 were applied. Dose and frequency of liver cirrhosis are also correlated. Liver cirrhosis is often combined with liver cancer but is not a prerequisite for tumor induction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Deutsche Thorotraststudie begann 1968. Sie umfasst 2326 Thorotrastpatienten und 1890 nach Alter und Geschlecht angepasste Kontrollpatienten. Die zu Beginn der Studie noch lebenden Thorotrastpatienten (n=899) und Patienten der Kontrollgruppe (n=622) wurden soweit moeglich in zweijaehrigen Abstaenden ambulant klinisch und biophysikalisch untersucht. Die Recherche der Todesursachen der verstorbenen Patienten ergab eine statistisch signifikante Exzessrate bei primaeren malignen Lebertumoren, Leberzirrhosen, myeloischen Leukaemien und Knochenmarksinsuffizienz. Die jaehrliche Dosis nach Injektion von zwei Ampullen (24 ml) betraegt etwa 25 cGy fuer die Leber, 70 cGy fuer die Milz und 9 cGy fuer das rote Knochenmark. Tierexperimente belegten, dass

  3. CYP17 inhibitors for prostate cancer treatment--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, V M; Salvador, J A R; Vasaitis, T S; Njar, V C O

    2008-01-01

    It is almost 70 years since the discovery by Huggins et al. that androgens are essential for prostate cancer (PC) growth and progression, and there has been about 30 years experience using ketoconazole for PC therapy. Since then we have come a long way in learning about the disease and developing new strategies to approach it, among which is cytochrome 17alpha-hydroxylase-C(17,20)-lyase (CYP17) inhibition. This review focuses on the efforts to find prospective CYP17 inhibitors, both steroidal and nonsteroidal, in the absence of a 3D structure of the enzyme. It covers almost 4 decades of literature with highlights on the most significant achievements in this area, providing insight into PC pathophysiology, management and treatment options. PMID:18473796

  4. Update on the Management of Pancreatic Cancer in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Yin; Sissoko, Moussa; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is more common in older adults, who are underrepresented in clinical trials and frequently under treated. Chronological age alone should not deter clinicians from offering treatment to geriatric patients, as they are a heterogeneous population. Geriatric assessment, frailty assessment tools, and toxicity risk scores help clinicians select appropriate patients for therapy. For resectable disease, surgery can be safe but should be done at a high-volume center. Adjuvant therapy is important; though there remains controversy on the role of radiation, chemotherapy is well studied and efficacious. In locally advanced unresectable disease, chemoradiation or chemotherapy alone is an option. Neoadjuvant therapy improves the chances of resectability in borderline resectable disease. Chemotherapy extends survival in metastatic disease, but treatment goals and risk-benefit ratios have to be clarified. Adequate symptom management and supportive care are important. There are now many new treatment strategies and novel therapies for this disease. PMID:27492426

  5. Follow up after IMRT in oral cavity cancer: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except for early stages (T1/2 N0), the prognosis for patients with oral cavity cancer (OCC) is known to be worse than for those with pharyngeal carcinoma. While definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-chemotherapy affords loco-regional control rates (LRC) of approximately 80% in advanced pharyngeal cancer, corresponding rates are reported to be much lower for OCC. The aim of this work was to evaluate loco-regional disease control and overall survival (OAS) in a relatively large OCC patient cohort treated in the IMRT era. Between October 2002 and June 2011, 160 OCC patients were treated with curative intention IMRT at our department. 122 patients (76%) were referred with primary disease and 38 patients (24%) with a recurrent OCC at least 3 months after surgery alone. Definitive IMRT was performed in 44/160 patients (28%), whilst 116 patients underwent previous surgery. Simultaneous systemic therapy was administered in 72%. Patients with postoperative IMRT (+/−systemic therapy) with R0-1 status (n = 99) reached significantly higher LRC/OAS rates than patients following IMRT for macroscopic disease (n = 61), with 84%/80% versus 38%/33% at 3 years, respectively (p < 0.0001). This was found in patients treated for initial, as well as recurrent, disease. Less than 2% persisting grade 3/4 late effects were observed. IMRT for R0-1 situations translated into a highly significant superior LRC and OAS compared to the IMRT cohort treated for macroscopic disease. Treatment was well tolerated

  6. Validation of the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Youjin; Choi, Jaekyung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Oh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Park, Kyoung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide has drawn attention to the needs for assessing and managing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of thyroid cancer survivors. We conducted this study to validate the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire. Methods Data obtained from 227 thyroid cancer survivors were analyzed using standard validity and reliability analysis techniques. Reliability was assessed by measuring internal c...

  7. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of differential thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1990, with the general tendency to develop minimally invasive operations, an endoscopic approach has been applied to neck surgery for both para thyroidectomy and thyroidectomy. The most widely spread minimally invasive technique for thyroidectomy is minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), described and developed for the first time at our institution in 1998. Ideal candidates for MIVAT are patients with a thyroid volume lower than 25 ml with nodules smaller than 35 mm. Consequently, MIVAT will present restricted indications, being suitable only for the treatment of about 10-15% of the whole standard surgical case load. Thus, together with small follicular lesions, low risk papillary carcinoma will result the main indication for MIVAT, being this small cancer usually harboured in normal glands of young females. On the other hand, in case of locally invasive carcinomas and/or lymph node metastasis the procedure must be immediately converted to the conventional technique. MIVAT also is not indicated for the treatment of medullary and anaplastic carcinomas. Recent prospective randomized studies clearly demonstrate that MIVAT allows achieving same clearance at the thyroid bed level and same outcome as conventional technique, when dealing with low risk papillary carcinoma. At the same time, patients can benefit from the main advantages of this minimally invasive technique: lower postoperative pain, faster postoperative recovery and excellent cosmetic outcome.

  8. An update of cancer mortality among chrysotile asbestos miners in Balangero, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolatto, G; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Pira, E; Decarli, A; Peto, J

    1990-01-01

    The mortality experience of a cohort of chrysotile miners employed since 1946 in Balangero, northern Italy was updated to the end of 1987 giving a total of 427 deaths out of 27,010 man-years at risk. A substantial excess mortality for all causes (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 149) was found, mainly because of high rates for some alcohol related deaths (hepatic cirrhosis, accidents). For mortality from cancer, however, the number of observed deaths (82) was close to that expected (76.2). The SMR was raised for oral cancer (SMR 231 based on six deaths), cancer of the larynx (SMR 267 based on eight deaths), and pleura (SMR 667 based on two deaths), although the excess only reached statistical significance for cancer of the larynx. Rates were not increased for lung, stomach, or any other type of cancer. No consistent association was seen with duration or cumulative dust exposure (fibre-years) for oral cancer, but the greatest risks for laryngeal and pleural cancer were in the highest category of duration and degree of exposure to fibres. Although part of the excess mortality from laryngeal cancer is probably attributable to high alcohol consumption in this group of workers, the data suggest that exposure to chrysotile asbestos (or to the fibre balangeroite that accounts for 0.2-0.5% of total mass in the mine) is associated with some, however moderate, excess risk of laryngeal cancer and pleural mesothelioma. The absence of excess mortality from lung cancer in this cohort is difficult to interpret. Images PMID:2176805

  9. Hereditary melanoma: Update on syndromes and management: Emerging melanoma cancer complexes and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, Efthymia; Eliades, Philip J; Shannon, Kristen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in cancer genomics have enabled the discovery of many cancer-predisposing genes that are being used to classify new familial melanoma/cancer syndromes. In addition to CDKN2A and CDK4, germline variants in TERT, MITF, and BAP1 have been added to the list of genes harboring melanoma-predisposing mutations. These newer entities may have escaped earlier description in part because of more advanced technologies now being used and in part because of their mixed cancer phenotype as opposed to a melanoma-focused syndrome. Dermatologists should be aware of (and be able to recognize) the clinical signs in high-risk patients in different contexts. Personal and family histories of cancer should always be sought in patients with multiple nevi or a positive history for melanoma, and should be updated annually. Various features that are unique to specific disorders, such as the appearance of melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors in cases of BAP1 melanoma syndrome, should also be recognized early. These patients should be offered regular screenings with the use of dermoscopy and total body photography, as needed. More importantly, referral to other specialists may be needed if a risk for internal malignancy is suspected. It is important to have in mind that these patients tend to develop multiple melanomas, along with various internal organ malignancies, often at younger ages; a multidisciplinary approach to their cancer screening and treatment is ideal. PMID:26892651

  10. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  11. Aspirin use and lung cancer risk: a possible relationship? Evidence from an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has emerged and controversial results reported on possible relationship between aspirin use and lung cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this updated and comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate this issue, with focus on dose-risk and duration-risk relationships.We searched electronic databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Relative risk (RR and its 95% confidence interval (CI were used for cohort studies, while odds ratio (OR were employed for case-control studies. The random effects and fixed effects models were used for analyses.18 studies were identified including 19835 lung cancer cases, which were eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Pooled data from case-control studies showed a significant inverse association between regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk. But for cohort studies, insignificant association was detected with little evidence of heterogeneity (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.95 - 1.16; I2: 10.3%, p value: 0.351. In case-control studies, standard aspirin use (>325mg was related to lower lung cancer incidence, compared with low-dose aspirin use (75-100mg. A similar trend was observed in cohort studies. Besides, when analysis was restricted to long time regular aspirin use (>5 years, insignificant results were reported in both cohort and case-control studies. Finally, regular aspirin use might result in higher reduction of non-small cell lung cancer incidence among men.Our findings do not support the protective effect of regular aspirin use on lung cancer risk. Long time aspirin use, sex, dose and type of lung cancer might alter the effect of aspirin use on lung cancer risk. More well-designed studies are needed to further clarify these associations.

  12. Validating and updating a risk model for pneumonia – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Held Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of risk prediction models is of increasing importance in medical research - their use in practice, however, is rare. Among other reasons this might be due to the fact that thorough validation is often lacking. This study focuses on two Bayesian approaches of how to validate a prediction rule for the diagnosis of pneumonia, and compares them with established validation methods. Methods Expert knowledge was used to derive a risk prediction model for pneumonia. Data on more than 600 patients presenting with cough and fever at a general practitioner’s practice in Switzerland were collected in order to validate the expert model and to examine the predictive performance of it. Additionally, four modifications of the original model including shrinkage of the regression coefficients, and two Bayesian approaches with the expert model used as prior mean and different weights for the prior covariance matrix were fitted. We quantify the predictive performance of the different methods with respect to calibration and discrimination, using cross-validation. Results The predictive performance of the unshrinked regression coefficients was poor when applied to the Swiss cohort. Shrinkage improved the results, but a Bayesian model formulation with unspecified weight of the informative prior lead to large AUC and small Brier score, naïve and after cross-validation. The advantage of this approach is the flexibility in case of a prior-data conflict. Conclusions Published risk prediction rules in clinical research need to be validated externally before they can be used in new settings. We propose to use a Bayesian model formulation with the original risk prediction rule as prior. The posterior means of the coefficients, given the validation data showed best predictive performance with respect to cross-validated calibration and discriminative ability.

  13. Generation and structural validation of a library of diverse xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides, including an update on xyloglucan nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomivaara, Sami T; Yaoi, Katsuro; O'Neill, Malcolm A; York, William S

    2015-01-30

    Xyloglucans are structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides that are involved in cell growth and expansion, energy metabolism, and signaling. Determining the structure-function relationships of xyloglucans would benefit from the availability of a comprehensive and structurally diverse collection of rigorously characterized xyloglucan oligosaccharides. Here, we present a workflow for the semi-preparative scale generation and purification of neutral and acidic xyloglucan oligosaccharides using a combination of enzymatic and chemical treatments and size-exclusion chromatography. Twenty-six of these oligosaccharides were purified to near homogeneity and their structures validated using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, high-performance anion exchange chromatography, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry and analytical chromatography were compared as methods for xyloglucan oligosaccharide quantification. 1H chemical shifts were assigned using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. A comprehensive update of the nomenclature describing xyloglucan side-chain structures is provided for reference. PMID:25497333

  14. Harmonisation and updatability based on valid fundamental data of the German electricity mix. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every product requires electricity for its manufacture, and the electricity mix used for this is a point of interest in life cycle assessments. Energy-related processes play an important role in life cycle assessments, which in turn are of major significance for product valuations. The Life Cycle Data Network has now carried out a study dedicated to generating a fundamental data record on ''Germany's electricity mix'' which describes the electricity mix supplied by German public power plants. This is the first time that a standardised data record has been made available which was compiled by common accord of all players concerned, whose data stem from quality assured sources and which can be updated year by year. (orig./GL)

  15. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of hexavalent chromium based on updated mortality for Painesville chromate production workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Hirsch, Shawn; Valdes Salgado, Raydel; Bartlett, Chris; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Rohr, Annette; Crump, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    The exposure-response for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-induced lung cancer among workers of the Painesville Ohio chromate production facility has been used internationally for quantitative risk assessment of environmental and occupational exposures to airborne Cr(VI). We updated the mortality of 714 Painesville workers (including 198 short-term workers) through December 2011, reconstructed exposures, and conducted exposure-response modeling using Poisson and Cox regressions to provide quantitative lung cancer risk estimates. The average length of follow-up was 34.4 years with 24,535 person-years at risk. Lung cancer was significantly increased for the cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=186; 95% confidence interval (CI) 145–228), for those hired before 1959, those with >30-year tenure, and those with cumulative exposure >1.41 mg/m3-years or highest monthly exposures >0.26 mg/m3. Of the models assessed, the linear Cox model with unlagged cumulative exposure provided the best fit and was preferred. Smoking and age at hire were also significant predictors of lung cancer mortality. Adjusting for these variables, the occupational unit risk was 0.00166 (95% CI 0.000713–0.00349), and the environmental unit risk was 0.00832 (95% CI 0.00359–0.0174), which are 20% and 15% lower, respectively, than values developed in a previous study of this cohort. PMID:26669850

  16. Coffee Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Heng-Quan; Wang, Jun-Zhou; Sun, Chang-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The results of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between the coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk were inconsistent. Thus, we performed an update meta-analysis of cohort studies to quantitatively summarize the association between coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We searched CBM (China Biology Medicine disc) and MEDLINE for studies of coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk up to June 2015. A total of 20 cohort studies were identified in this meta-analysis, and we analyzed these studies using random effects model. The dose-response analysis was conducted too. Results: The overall relative risk (RR) for highest coffee consumption versus lowest coffee consumption was 0.75 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.63-0.86). Statistic significant heterogeneity was found among these studies (I2 =37.8%, P for heterogeneity =0.045). The pooled RR for increment of 1 cup/day of coffee consumption was 0.99 (95%CI, 0.96-1.03) for the nine studies, without statistically significant. Conclusions: High coffee consumption is associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. However, the result should be accepted with caution, due to the potential confounder and bias could not be excluded. Further well designed studies are needed to confirm the finding. PMID:27022386

  17. Solar ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the annual numbers of performed solid organ transplants have continuously increased world-wide. Solid organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a greater risk to develop malignancies, with skin cancer representing the most common neoplasia. Additionally, OTRs in general develop a more aggressive form of malignancies. In consequence, dermatologic surveillance is of high importance for OTRs and these patients represent an increasing and significant challenge to clinicians including dermatologists. In OTRs, patient and organ survival have increased considerably and continuously over the past two decades as a result of better immunosuppressive regimens and better posttransplant care. Great progress has been made in our understanding that individual immunosuppressive regiments differ in their effect on skin cancer risk in OTRs, and that effects of individual immunosuppressive regiments on skin cancer risk depend on various other factors including viral infections. Since sunlight is the major source of vitamin D for most humans, OTRs, who have to protect themselves consequently against solar or artificial UV radiation, are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is not only associated with increased risk for metabolic bone disease, but with other severe health problems including various types of malignancies. As a consequence, screening for and treatment of vitamin D deficiency is warranted in OTRs. In this review, we give an update on our present understanding of skin cancer surveillance in OTRs. PMID:25207370

  18. The Reliability and Validity of Protocols for the Assessment of Endurance Sports Performance: An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher John; Dascombe, Ben James

    2015-01-01

    Sports performance testing is one of the most common and important measures used in sport science. Performance testing protocols must have high reliability to ensure any changes are not due to measurement error or inter-individual differences. High validity is also important to ensure test performance reflects true performance. Time-trial…

  19. Validation of the National Lung Cancer Audit database and analysis of the information it contains

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer related death in men and women in England. In 2004 the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) was created, as a national non-mandatory contemporary dataset of clinical features of individuals with lung cancer in part to identify variations in clinical practice and outcomes. The main aims of this dissertation are to determine the validity and representativeness of this dataset and then to investigate what factors influence access to surg...

  20. Validation of the Prognosis in Palliative Care Study Predictor Models in Terminal Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Shin; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Noh, Hye-Mi; Jin, Yeong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognosis in Palliative Care Study (PiPS) predictor models were developed in 2011 to estimate the survival of terminal cancer patients in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to validate the PiPS model for terminal cancer patients in Korea, and evaluate its value in clinical practice. Methods This study included 202 advanced cancer patients who were admitted to the cancer hospital's palliative care ward from November 2011 to February 2013. On admission, physicians recorded...

  1. Finite element model validation of bridge based on structural health monitoring—Part I: Response surface-based finite element model updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouhong Zong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the engineering practice, merging statistical analysis into structural evaluation and assessment is a tendency in the future. As a combination of mathematical and statistical techniques, response surface (RS methodology has been successfully applied to design optimization, response prediction and model validation. With the aid of RS methodology, these two serial papers present a finite element (FE model updating and validation method for bridge structures based on structural health monitoring. The key issues to implement such a model updating are discussed in this paper, such as design of experiment, parameter screening, construction of high-order polynomial response surface model, optimization methods and precision inspection of RS model. The proposed procedure is illustrated by a prestressed concrete continuous rigid-frame bridge monitored under operational conditions. The results from the updated FE model have been compared with those obtained from online health monitoring system. The real application to a full-size bridge has demonstrated that the FE model updating process is efficient and convenient. The updated FE model can relatively reflect the actual condition of Xiabaishi Bridge in the design space of parameters and can be further applied to FE model validation and damage identification.

  2. Finite element model validation of bridge based on structural health monitoring—Part I: Response surface-based finite element model updating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhouhong Zong; Xiaosong Lin; Jie Niu

    2015-01-01

    In the engineering practice, merging statistical analysis into structural evaluation and assessment is a tendency in the future. As a combination of mathematical and statistical techniques, response surface (RS) methodology has been successfully applied to design optimization, response prediction and model validation. With the aid of RS methodology, these two serial papers present a finite element (FE) model updating and validation method for bridge structures based on structural health monit...

  3. Updated meta-analysis of the MMPI-2 symptom validity scale (FBS): verified utility in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nathaniel W; Hoelzle, James B; Sweet, Jerry J; Arbisi, Paul A; Demakis, George J

    2010-05-01

    Clinical research interest in the symptom reporting validity scale currently known as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Symptom Validity Scale (FBS) has continued to be strong, with multiple new publications annually in peer-reviewed journals that publish psychological and neuropsychological assessment research. Related to this growth in relevant literature, the present study was conducted to update the Nelson, Sweet, and Demakis (2006b) FBS meta-analysis. A total of 83 FBS studies (43 new studies) were identified, and 32 (38.5%) met inclusion criteria. Analyses were conducted on a pooled sample of 2218 over-reporting and 3123 comparison participants. Large omnibus effect sizes were observed for FBS, Obvious-Subtle (O-S), and the Dissimulation Scale-Revised (Dsr2) scales. Moderate effect sizes were observed for the following scales: Back Infrequency (Fb), Gough's F-K, Infrequency (F), Infrequency Psychopathology (Fp), and Dissimulation (Ds2). Moderator analyses illustrate that relative to the F-family scales, FBS exhibited larger effect sizes when (1) effort is known to be insufficient and (2) evaluation is conducted in the context of traumatic brain injury. Overall, current results summarize an extensive literature that continues to support use of FBS in forensic neuropsychology practice. PMID:20473828

  4. American society of clinical oncology update on the role of bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vysotskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available American society of clinical oncology update on the roleof bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

  5. An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Jian; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Bolvin, David

    2013-01-01

    An updated 15-yr Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) composite climatology (TCC) is presented and evaluated. This climatology is based on a combination of individual rainfall estimates made with data from the primaryTRMMinstruments: theTRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the precipitation radar (PR). This combination climatology of passive microwave retrievals, radar-based retrievals, and an algorithm using both instruments simultaneously provides a consensus TRMM-based estimate of mean precipitation. The dispersion of the three estimates, as indicated by the standard deviation sigma among the estimates, is presented as a measure of confidence in the final estimate and as an estimate of the uncertainty thereof. The procedures utilized by the compositing technique, including adjustments and quality-control measures, are described. The results give a mean value of the TCC of 4.3mm day(exp -1) for the deep tropical ocean beltbetween 10 deg N and 10 deg S, with lower values outside that band. In general, the TCC values confirm ocean estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) analysis, which is based on passive microwave results adjusted for sampling by infrared-based estimates. The pattern of uncertainty estimates shown by sigma is seen to be useful to indicate variations in confidence. Examples include differences between the eastern and western portions of the Pacific Ocean and high values in coastal and mountainous areas. Comparison of the TCC values (and the input products) to gauge analyses over land indicates the value of the radar-based estimates (small biases) and the limitations of the passive microwave algorithm (relatively large biases). Comparison with surface gauge information from western Pacific Ocean atolls shows a negative bias (16%) for all the TRMM products, although the representativeness of the atoll gauges of open-ocean rainfall is still in question.

  6. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  7. Validity of fecal occult blood test in the national cancer screening program, Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aesun Shin

    Full Text Available AIM: The aims of the current study were to assess the validity of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT in an organized screening setting in Korea and to determine factors associated with FOBT validity, such as screening round, age group, and anatomical location of the cancer. METHODS: Study participants were those who were 50 years and older who received an FOBT through the National Cancer Screening Program between 2004 and 2007. Colorectal cancer diagnoses were ascertained through linkage with the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. The positivity rate, colorectal cancer detection rate, interval cancer rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the FOBT were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 2,193,093 tests were included in the analysis. Overall, the sensitivity of the FOBT for colorectal cancer was 59.7% for the first round and 56.1% for the subsequent round. Sensitivity was highest for distal colon cancer (65.9% in the first round, and for rectal cancer (58.4% for the subsequent round. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of the FOBT generally improved between 2004 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS: The FOBT showed reasonable validity in an organized screening setting, and the validity of the FOBT varied by screening round, anatomical location, and screening year.

  8. Validation of Cancer Institute Quality of Life Questionnaire Version II for cancer patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Vidhubala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Quality of Life (QOL questionnaire version I consisted of 38 items that were validated using 392 patients. The experiences gained through the interaction with the patients during the administration of the questionnaire provided a lot of inputs for the improvization of the tool. Aim: The current study is aimed at certain modifications of the QOL questionnaire version I and standardization of the same. Materials and Methods: The modifications of version I QOL scale included the change of verbatim, splitting, deleting, and adding of new items. Finally, version II included 42 items. It was administered to 183 cancer patients irrespective of their demographic details for further standardization. Statistics: The principal component method with varimax rotation was used. Spearman′s product moment correlation and Cronbach′s alpha coefficient were used for reliability analysis. Results: The data were subjected to factor analysis to explore the factors. Eleven factors emerged with the eigenvalue ranging from 8.03 to 1.10 and accounted for 66.7% variance. The first factor contributed maximally, 19.5%, and the remaining 10 factors contributed a total of 46.2% variance on QOL. They are general well-being, physical well-being, psychological well-being, familial relationship, sexual and personal ability, cognitive well-being, optimism and belief, economical well-being, information support, patient-physician relationship, and body image. The Cronbach alpha of 0.90 and split-half reliability of 0.80 indicated a high reliability of the tool. Conclusion: The factor structure showed that QOL is a multidimensional concept having different aspects. The Cancer Institute QOL Questionnaire version II for cancer patients is found to be a valid and reliable tool and feasible to administer at the clinical settings.

  9. Validation of the Intestinal Part of the Prostate Cancer Questionnaire 'QUFW94': Psychometric Properties, Responsiveness, and Content Validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Several treatment options are available for patients with prostate cancer. Applicable and valid self-assessment instruments for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and responsiveness of the intestinal part of the prostate cancer-specific questionnaire QUFW94. Methods and Materials: The content of the intestinal part of QUFW94 was examined by evaluation of experienced clinicians and reviewing the literature. The psychometric properties and responsiveness were assessed by analyzing HRQOL data from the randomized study Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG)/Swedish Association for Urological Oncology 3 (SFUO). Subscales were constructed by means of exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness was investigated by comparing baseline scores with the 4-year posttreatment follow-up. Results: The content validity was found acceptable, but some amendments were proposed. The factor analyses revealed two symptom scales. The first scale comprised five items regarding general stool problems, frequency, incontinence, need to plan toilet visits, and daily activity. Cronbach's alpha at 0.83 indicated acceptable homogeneity. The second scale was less consistent with a Cronbach's alpha at 0.55. The overall responsiveness was found to be very satisfactory. Conclusion: Two scales were identified in the bowel dimension of the QUFW94; the first one had good internal consistency. The responsiveness was excellent, and some modifications are suggested to strengthen the content validity.

  10. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; FALLAHZADEH, HOSSEIN; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire ...

  11. Validation of the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer brain cancer module (EORTC QLQ-BN20) in patients with brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Jeong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Brain Cancer Module has been translated into Korean, but to date, its reliability and validity have been evaluated in a pilot study alone. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire is, overall, a valid instrument to assess the health-related quality of life in Korean cancer patients, although its reliability and validity have not yet been evaluated ...

  12. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-11-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  13. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-15

    As the leading organization representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reaffirms its commitment to integrating cancer risk assessment and management, including molecular analysis of cancer predisposition genes, into the practice of oncology and preventive medicine. The primary goal of this effort is to foster expanded access to, and continued advances in, medical care provided to patients and families affected by hereditary cancer syndromes. The 1996 ASCO Statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility set forth specific recommendations relating to clinical practice, research needs, educational opportunities, requirement for informed consent, indications for genetic testing, regulation of laboratories, and protection from discrimination, as well as access to and reimbursement for cancer genetics services. In updating this Statement, ASCO endorses the following principles: Indications for Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends that genetic testing be offered when 1) the individual has personal or family history features suggestive of a genetic cancer susceptibility condition, 2) the test can be adequately interpreted, and 3) the results will aid in diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer. ASCO recommends that genetic testing only be done in the setting of pre- and post-test counseling, which should include discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early detection and prevention modalities. Special Issues in Testing Children for Cancer Susceptibility: ASCO recommends that the decision to offer testing to potentially affected children should take into account the availability of evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the probability of developing a malignancy during childhood. Where risk-reduction strategies are available or cancer predominantly develops in childhood, ASCO believes that

  14. Validity and Reliability of Psychosocial Factors Related to Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Jane G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The construct validity of hypothesized survey items and data reduction procedures for selected psychosocial constructs frequently used in breast cancer screening research were investigated in telephone interviews with randomly selected samples of 1,184 and 903 women and a sample of 169 Hispanic clinic clients. Validity of the constructs is…

  15. Survival Nomogram for Curatively Resected Korean Gastric Cancer Patients: Multicenter Retrospective Analysis with External Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang Wool Eom; Keun Won Ryu; Byung-Ho Nam; Yunjin Park; Hyuk-Joon Lee; Min Chan Kim; Gyu Seok Cho; Chan Young Kim; Seung Wan Ryu; Dong Woo Shin; Woo Jin Hyung; Jun Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database. Methods We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 200...

  16. Update on options for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Vishnu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Vishnu, Winston W TanDivision of Hematology Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USABackground: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men in US and European countries. Despite having a favorable prognosis, the incidence of incurable metastatic disease and mortality in the US is about 28,000 per year. Although hormone-based androgen deprivation therapies typically result in rapid responses, nearly all patients eventually develop progressive castration-resistant disease state. With readily available prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing, most of these patients are asymptomatic and manifest progression simply as a rising PSA. In patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, the median survival is about 1–2 years, with improvements in survival seen mostly with docetaxel-based regimens. The purpose of this article is to review the recent developments in the treatment of advanced CRPC.Recent findings: Since the two landmark trials (TAX-327 and Southwest Oncology Group 99–16 in CRPC, several newer cytotoxic drugs (epothilones, satraplatin, targeted agents (abiraterone, MDV3100 and vaccines have been tested in phase II and III setting with promising results.Conclusions: The role of newer agents in the treatment of CRPC still needs to be validated by phase III trials, which are currently ongoing. Whilst the novel biomarkers, ‘circulating tumor cells’, have been shown to provide important prognostic information and are anticipated to be incorporated in future clinical decision-making, their exact utility and relevance calls for a larger prospective validation.Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer, novel therapies, mechanisms of resistance, circulating tumor cells

  17. Identification of certain cancer-mediating genes using Gaussian fuzzy cluster validity index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupam Ghosh; Rajat K De

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we have used an index, called Gaussian fuzzy index (GFI), recently developed by the authors, based on the notion of fuzzy set theory, for validating the clusters obtained by a clustering algorithm applied on cancer gene expression data. GFI is then used for the identification of genes that have altered quite significantly from normal state to carcinogenic state with respect to their mRNA expression patterns. The effectiveness of the methodology has been demonstrated on three gene expression cancer datasets dealing with human lung, colon and leukemia. The performance of GFI is compared with 19 exiting cluster validity indices. The results are appropriately validated biologically and statistically. In this context, we have used biochemical pathways, -value statistics of GO attributes, -test and -score for the validation of the results. It has been reported that GFI is capable of identifying high-quality enriched clusters of genes, and thereby is able to select more cancer-mediating genes.

  18. Validity of 67Ga scintigraphy in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the diagnostic usefulness of 67Ga scintigraphy in patients with oral cancer. Fifty-five patients with previously untreated oral cancer were administered in this study. The diagnostic accuracy of 67Ga scintigraphy for primary cancer, cervical lymph node metastasis, systemic metastasis or double cancer were studied. The relations of the size of lesions to the diagnostic accuracy, and the degree of 67Ga-citrate accumulation were analyzed. In addition, we discussed what makes it difficult to diagnose the lesions by using 67Ga scintigrams. As a result, the sensitivity was 44.2% in primary cancer, 28.6% in cervical lymph node metastasis, and 25.0% in systemic metastasis or double cancer. It was suggested that 67Ga scintigraphy is disadvantageous for the detection of small lesions. In this study, the relation between the size of lesions and the degree of 67Ga-citrate accumulation was not clarified. The diagnostic problems of 67Ga scintigraphy were found to be its low reliability in imaging of the lesion's localization, normal biodistribution and non-specific accumulation of 67Ga-citrate. (author)

  19. 2001 updated standard options and recommendations for radiotherapy in non metastatic breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Context. - The 'Standards, Options an Recommendations' (SOR) project, started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of french cancer centers (FNCLCC), the 20 french cancer centers, and specialists from french public universities, general hospitals and private clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and the outcome of cancer patients. The methodology is based on a literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts, with feedback from specialists in cancer care delivery. Objectives. -To develop clinical practice guidelines for non metastatic breast cancer patients according to the definitions of the Standards, Options and Recommendations project. Methods. -Data were identified by searching Medline, web sites, and using the personal reference lists of members of the expert groups. Once the guidelines were defined, the document was submitted for review to 148 independent reviewers. Results. - This article presents the chapter radiotherapy resulting from the 2001 update of the version first published in 1996. The modified 2001 version of the standards, options and recommendations takes into account new information published. The main recommendations are (1) Breast irradiation after conservative surgery significatively decrease the risk of local recurrence (level of evidence A) and the decrease in the risk of local recidivation after chest wall irradiation is greater as the number of risk factors for local recurrence increases (level of evidence A). (2) After conservative surgery, a whole breast irradiation should be performed at a minimum dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions (standard, level of evidence A). (3) A boost in the tumour bed should be performed in women under 50 years, even if the surgical margins are free (standard, level of evidence B). (4) Internal mammary chain irradiation is indicated for internal or central tumours in the absence of axillary

  20. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eshini Perera; Neiraja Gnaneswaran; Marlon Perera; Rodney Sinclair

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA) rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiol...

  1. Nuclear insertions of mitochondrial origin: Database updating and usefulness in cancer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Amanda; Barbena, Elena; Mateiu, Ligia; del Mar González, María; Mairal, Quim; Lima, Manuela; Montiel, Rafael; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Santos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear insertions of mitochondrial origin (NUMTs) can be useful tools in evolution and population studies. However, due to their similarity to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), NUMTs may also be a source of contamination in mtDNA studies. The main goal of this work is to present a database of NUMTs, based on the latest version of the human genome-GRCh37 draft. A total of 755 insertions were identified. There are 33 paralogous sequences with over 80% sequence similarity and of a greater length than 500bp. The non-identical positions between paralogous sequences are listed for the first time. As an application example, the described database is used to evaluate the impact of NUMT contamination in cancer studies. The evaluation reveals that 220 positions from 256 with zero hits in the current mtDNA phylogeny could in fact be traced to one or more nuclear insertions of mtDNA. This is due to they are located in non-identical positions between mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). After in silico primer validation of each revised cancer study, risk of co-amplification between mtDNA and nDNA was detected in some cases, whereas in others no risk of amplification was identified. This approach to cancer studies clearly proves the potential of our NUMT database as a valuable new tool to validate mtDNA mutations described in different contexts. Moreover, due to the amount of information provided for each nuclear insertion, this database should play an important role in designing evolutionary, phylogenetic and epidemiological studies. PMID:21907832

  2. Discovery and validation of methylation markers for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Killian, J Keith; Sampson, Joshua; Guido, Richard; Glass, Andrew; Adams, Lisa; Luhn, Patricia; Brinton, Louise A; Rush, Brenda; d'Ambrosio, Lori; Gunja, Munira; Yang, Hannah P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lacey, James V; Lissowska, Jolanta; Podratz, Karl; Meltzer, Paul; Shridhar, Viji; Sherman, Mark E

    2014-10-15

    The prognosis of endometrial cancer is strongly associated with stage at diagnosis, suggesting that early detection may reduce mortality. Women who are diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma often have a lengthy history of vaginal bleeding, which offers an opportunity for early diagnosis and curative treatment. We performed DNA methylation profiling on population-based endometrial cancers to identify early detection biomarkers and replicated top candidates in two independent studies. We compared DNA methylation values of 1,500 probes representing 807 genes in 148 population-based endometrial carcinoma samples and 23 benign endometrial tissues. Markers were replicated in another set of 69 carcinomas and 40 benign tissues profiled on the same platform. Further replication was conducted in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in prospectively collected endometrial brushings from women with and without endometrial carcinomas. We identified 114 CpG sites showing methylation differences with p values of ≤ 10(-7) between endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrium. Eight genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL2, HS3ST2, HTR1B, MME, NPY and SOX1) were selected for further replication. Age-adjusted odds ratios for endometrial cancer ranged from 3.44 (95%-CI: 1.33-8.91) for ASCL2 to 18.61 (95%-CI: 5.50-62.97) for HTR1B. An area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 was achieved for discriminating carcinoma from benign endometrium. Replication in The Cancer Genome Atlas and in endometrial brushings from an independent study confirmed the candidate markers. This study demonstrates that methylation markers may be used to evaluate women with abnormal vaginal bleeding to distinguish women with endometrial carcinoma from the majority of women without malignancy. PMID:24623538

  3. Report on the recently-updated study of cancer mortality in the A-bomb survivors: insights for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima has recently released an updated study of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (The LSS is believed to contain about one-half of the total number of survivors who were within 2.5 km of the hypocentre.) The update has considerably more statistical power than previous studies because of five more years of follow-up(1986-1990 inclusive) and because of adding 10.536 survivors for whom DS86 dose estimates recently became available. Together these add about 550.000 person-years of follow-up compared to the previous report, which covered mortality to the end of 1985. Moreover, about 25% of the excess solid cancer deaths have occurred in these last five years of follow-up. Since the LSS is the most important source of information about the risk of induced cancer in humans following acute radiation exposures, this paper first summarizes this important new information. This is a keystone of radiation risk assessment and therefore of our radiation protection history; one cannot make sense of the current controversy concerning linearity without understanding what this data says and doesn't say. This communication then moves into a discussion of what implications there may be from this updated information, in the context of current debates about whether the linear-no threshold model is an appropriate one for radiation protection use. (DM)

  4. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the management of lung cancer: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents an update on the current role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT in the various clinical decision-making steps in lung carcinoma. The modality has been reported to be useful in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules, improving lung cancer staging, especially for the detection of nodal and metastatic site involvement, guiding therapy, monitoring treatment response, and predicting outcome in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Its role has been more extensively evaluated in NSCLC than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. Limitations in FDG PET-CT are encountered in cases of tumor histotypes characterized by low glucose uptake (mucinous forms, bronchioalveolar carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, in the assessment of brain metastases (high physiologic 18F-FDG uptake in the brain and in cases presenting with associated inflammation. The future potentials of newer PET tracers beyond FDG are enumerated. An evolving area is PET-guided assessment of targeted therapy (e.g., EGFR and EGFR tyrosine kinase overexpression in tumors which have significant potential for drug development.

  5. Validation of the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youjin; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Oh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Park, Kyoung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide has drawn attention to the needs for assessing and managing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of thyroid cancer survivors. We conducted this study to validate the Korean version of the thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire. Methods Data obtained from 227 thyroid cancer survivors were analyzed using standard validity and reliability analysis techniques. Reliability was assessed by measuring internal consistency via Cronbach α coefficient, and validity was assessed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient between the THYCA-QoL questionnaire and the following relevant assessment tools: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Korean version of Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI-K), the Korean version of Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI-K), Goldberg Short Screening Scale for Anxiety and Depression, and a nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A multitrait scaling analysis was performed to assess each item's convergent and discriminant validity. Results The reliability of the THYCA-QoL questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach α coefficients for multiple-item scales which ranged from 0.54 (sensory) to 0.82 (psychological). Except for a single item (sexual interest), the questionnaire's validity was established by significant correlation observed between scales in the THYCA-QoL questionnaire and scales used in other assessment tools. A multitrait scaling analysis confirmed that all scales met the recommended psychometric standards. Conclusion The Korean version of the THYCA-QoL questionnaire is a reliable and valid assessment tool that can be used in combination with the EORTC QLQ-C30 to assess the HRQoL of thyroid cancer survivors in Korea. PMID:26665122

  6. Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess delay in treatment for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background This study reports the reliability and validity of a questionnaire designed to measure the time from detection of a breast cancer to arrival at a cancer hospital, as well as the factors that are associated with delay. Methods The proposed questionnaire measures dates for estimation of the patient, provider and total intervals from detection to treatment, as well as factors that could be related to delays: means of problem identification (self-discovery or screening), the patients’ ...

  7. The Distress Thermometer and Its Validity: A First Psychometric Study in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Iskandarsyah; Cora de Klerk; Dradjat R Suardi; Monty P Soemitro; Sadarjoen, Sawitri S.; Jan Passchier

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT) into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. Methods: First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin...

  8. The Distress Thermometer and Its Validity: A First Psychometric Study in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT) into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. Methods First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in I...

  9. The Distress Thermometer and Its Validity: A First Psychometric Study in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandarsyah, Aulia; Klerk, Cora; Suardi, Dradjat; Soemitro, Monty; Sadarjoen, Sawitri; Passchier, Jan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT) into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. Methods: First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin...

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Cancer Pain Assessment Tool (KCPAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong A; Choi, Youn Seon; Lee, Juneyoung; Park, Jeanno; Lee, Myung Ah; Yeom, Chang Hwan; Jang, Se Kwon; Yoon, Duck Mi; Kim, Jun Suk

    2005-01-01

    The Korean Cancer Pain Assessment Tool (KCPAT), which was developed in 2003, consists of questions concerning the location of pain, the nature of pain, the present pain intensity, the symptoms associated with the pain, and psychosocial/spiritual pain assessments. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KCPAT. A stratified, proportional-quota, clustered, systematic sampling procedure was used. The study population (903 cancer patients) was 1% of the target po...

  11. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  12. Survival nomogram for curatively resected Korean gastric cancer patients: multicenter retrospective analysis with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database.We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 2006 at eight centers. Among these centers, six institutions were randomly assigned to the development set, and the other two centers were assigned to the validation set. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard regression model was performed, and discrimination and calibration were evaluated by external validation.Multivariate analyses revealed that age, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In the external validation, the concordance index was 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.784-0.878, and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic was 3.92 (P = 0.917.We developed and validated a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after curative resection for gastric cancer based on a multicenter database. This nomogram can be broadly applied even in general hospitals and is useful for counseling patients, and scheduling follow-up.

  13. Measuring metacognition in cancer: validation of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A Cook

    Full Text Available The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 assesses metacognitive beliefs and processes which are central to the metacognitive model of emotional disorder. As recent studies have begun to explore the utility of this model for understanding emotional distress after cancer diagnosis, it is important also to assess the validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 for use in cancer populations.229 patients with primary breast or prostate cancer completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre-treatment and again 12 months later. The structure and validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 were assessed using factor analyses and structural equation modelling.Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided evidence supporting the validity of the previously published 5-factor structure of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30. Specifically, both pre-treatment and 12 months later, this solution provided the best fit to the data and all items loaded on their expected factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that two dimensions of metacognition (positive and negative beliefs about worry were significantly associated with anxiety and depression as predicted, providing further evidence of validity.These findings provide initial evidence that the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 is a valid measure for use in cancer populations.

  14. Validity of breast, lung and colorectal cancer diagnoses in administrative databases: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Iosief; Giovannini, Gianni; Serraino, Diego; Fusco, Mario; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast, lung and colorectal cancers constitute the most common cancers worldwide and their epidemiology, related health outcomes and quality indicators can be studied using administrative healthcare databases. To constitute a reliable source for research, administrative healthcare databases need to be validated. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision codes to identify breast, lung and colorectal cancer diagnoses in administrative healthcare databases. Methods and analysis This review protocol has been developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. We will search the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library, using appropriate search strategies. We will include validation studies that used administrative data to identify breast, lung and colorectal cancer diagnoses or studies that evaluated the validity of breast, lung and colorectal cancer codes in administrative data. The following inclusion criteria will be used: (1) the presence of a reference standard case definition for the disease of interest; (2) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, positive predictive values, etc) and (3) the use of data source from an administrative database. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will assess quality using a checklist based on the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy (STARD) criteria. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required. We will submit results of this study to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results will serve as a guide to identify appropriate case definitions and algorithms of breast, lung and colorectal cancers for researchers involved in validating administrative healthcare databases as well as for

  15. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients

  16. Ascertaining invasive breast cancer cases; the validity of administrative and self-reported data sources in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Anna; Preen, David B; Saunders, Christobel; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.; Bulsara, Max; Rogers, Kris; Roughead, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Statutory State-based cancer registries are considered the ‘gold standard’ for researchers identifying cancer cases in Australia, but research using self-report or administrative health datasets (e.g. hospital records) may not have linkage to a Cancer Registry and need to identify cases. This study investigated the validity of administrative and self-reported data compared with records in a State-wide Cancer Registry in identifying invasive breast cancer cases. Methods Cases of inv...

  17. Measuring quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer: Update of the EORTC QLQ-H&N Module, Phase III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, Susanne; Araújo, Cláudia; Arraras, Juan Ignacio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to pilot test an updated version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck Module (EORTC QLQ-H&N60). METHODS: Patients with head and neck cancer were asked to complete a list of 60 head...

  18. Validation of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale among women with breast and cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Renata Amorim Lessa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the aim was to translate and culturally adapt the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale for the Portuguese language in the Brazilian context, and to check its reliability and validity to analyze the elements of the adherence of patients to the clinical treatment for breast and cervical cancer.Method: this was a methodological study, carried out in two oncology reference centers. The sample consisted of 198 participants, with 152 being treated for breast cancer and 46 being treated for cervical cancer. The content validation was performed by a committee of experts. The construct validation was demonstrated through factor analysis and the reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha.Results: the committee of experts made the necessary adjustments so that the scale was adapted to the Brazilian context. The factor analysis suggested a reduction from seven to five factors and the maintenance of 38 items similar to those of the original scale. The reliability, investigated through Cronbach's alpha, was .829, showing high internal consistency.Conclusion: it was concluded that the Brazilian version of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale is a valid and reliable instrument that is able to measure the elements of adherence to the treatment for breast and cervical cancer.

  19. Validation of a Milk Consumption Stage of Change Algorithm among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gerfen, Elissa; Mosher, Revonda B.; Shad, Aziza T.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the construct validity of a milk consumption Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer ages 11 to 21 years (n = 75). Methods: Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a health behavior intervention were analyzed. Assessments included a milk consumption SOC…

  20. The Danish Barriers Questionnaire-II: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per; Hansen, Ole Bo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Barriers Questionnaire-II (DBQ-II). METHODS: The validated Norwegian version of the DBQ-II was translated into Danish. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain...

  1. The Danish version of the questionnaire on pain communication: preliminary validation in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The modified version of the patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS) is a tool designed to assess cancer patients' perceptions of patient-health care provider pain communication process. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the......-PICS seems to be a reliable and valid measure of perceived patient-health care provider communication in the context of cancer pain....... shortened Danish version of the M-PICS (SDM-PICS). METHODS: The validated English version of the M-PICS was translated into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients were recruited for the study from specialized pain management facilities. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients...

  2. Cross Validation Evaluation for Breast Cancer Prediction Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin A. Mojarad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The presence of metastasis in the regional lymph nodes is the most important factor in predicting prognosis in breast cancer. Many biomarkers have been identified that appear to relate to the aggressive behaviour of cancer. However, the nonlinear relation of these markers to nodal status and also the existence of complex interaction between markers have prohibited an accurate prognosis. Approach: The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP for predicting breast cancer progression using a set of four biomarkers of breast tumors. The biomarkers include DNA ploidy, cell cycle distribution (G0G1/G2M, steroid receptors (ER/PR and S-Phase Fraction (SPF. A further objective of the study is to explore the predictive potential of these markers in defining the state of nodal involvement in breast cancer. Two methods of outcome evaluation viz. stratified and simple k-fold Cross Validation (CV are studied in order to assess their accuracy and reliability for neural network validation. Criteria such as output accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are used for selecting the best validation technique besides evaluating the network outcome for different combinations of markers. Results: The results show that stratified 2-fold CV is more accurate and reliable compared to simple k-fold CV as it obtains a higher accuracy and specificity and also provides a more stable network validation in terms of sensitivity. Best prediction results are obtained by using an individual marker-SPF which obtains an accuracy of 65%. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our findings suggest that MLP-based analysis provides an accurate and reliable platform for breast cancer prediction given that an appropriate design and validation method is employed.

  3. Development and Validation of a Prediction Model to Estimate Individual Risk of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Yu

    Full Text Available There is no reliable screening tool to identify people with high risk of developing pancreatic cancer even though pancreatic cancer represents the fifth-leading cause of cancer-related death in Korea. The goal of this study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model that can be used to screen for asymptomatic pancreatic cancer in Korean men and women.Gender-specific risk prediction models for pancreatic cancer were developed using the Cox proportional hazards model based on an 8-year follow-up of a cohort study of 1,289,933 men and 557,701 women in Korea who had biennial examinations in 1996-1997. The performance of the models was evaluated with respect to their discrimination and calibration ability based on the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow type χ2 statistic.A total of 1,634 (0.13% men and 561 (0.10% women were newly diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Age, height, BMI, fasting glucose, urine glucose, smoking, and age at smoking initiation were included in the risk prediction model for men. Height, BMI, fasting glucose, urine glucose, smoking, and drinking habit were included in the risk prediction model for women. Smoking was the most significant risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer in both men and women. The risk prediction model exhibited good discrimination and calibration ability, and in external validation it had excellent prediction ability.Gender-specific risk prediction models for pancreatic cancer were developed and validated for the first time. The prediction models will be a useful tool for detecting high-risk individuals who may benefit from increased surveillance for pancreatic cancer.

  4. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hasmeena Kathuria; Yaron Gesthalter; Avrum Spira; Brody, Jerome S.; Katrina Steiling

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective sc...

  5. Predicting mortality in patients treated differently: updating and external validation of a prediction model for nursing home residents with dementia and lower respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Martijn W; Mehr, David R; Kruse, Robin L; Lane, Patricia; Kowall, Neil W; Volicer, Ladislav; van der Steen, Jenny T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a model that was previously developed to predict 14-day mortality for nursing home residents with dementia and lower respiratory tract infection who received antibiotics could be applied to residents who were not treated with antibiotics. Specifically, in this same data set, to update the model using recalibration methods; and subsequently examine the historical, geographical, methodological and spectrum transportability through external validation of the updated model. Design 1 cohort study was used to develop the prediction model, and 4 cohort studies from 2 countries were used for the external validation of the model. Setting Nursing homes in the Netherlands and the USA. Participants 157 untreated residents were included in the development of the model; 239 untreated residents were included in the external validation cohorts. Outcome Model performance was evaluated by assessing discrimination: area under the receiver operating characteristic curves; and calibration: Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics and calibration graphs. Further, reclassification tables allowed for a comparison of patient classifications between models. Results The original prediction model applied to the untreated residents, who were sicker, showed excellent discrimination but poor calibration, underestimating mortality. Adjusting the intercept improved calibration. Recalibrating the slope did not substantially improve the performance of the model. Applying the updated model to the other 4 data sets resulted in acceptable discrimination. Calibration was inadequate only in one data set that differed substantially from the other data sets in case-mix. Adjusting the intercept for this population again improved calibration. Conclusions The discriminative performance of the model seems robust for differences between settings. To improve calibration, we recommend adjusting the intercept when applying the model in settings where different mortality rates

  6. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne; Creutzberg, Carien L; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Radisic, Vesna Bjelic; Galalae, Razvan; Schmalz, Claudia; Barlow, Ellen; Jensen, Pernille T; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Bergmark, Karin; Chie, Wei-Chu; Kuljanic, Karin; Costantini, Anna; Singer, Susanne; Koensgen, Dominique; Menon, Usha; Daghofer, Fedor

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects of...... the quality of life (QoL) of patients with endometrial cancer....

  7. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  8. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase. The wide

  9. External Validation of an Artificial Neural Network and Two Nomograms for Prostate Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ecke, Thorsten H.; Steffen Hallmann; Stefan Koch; Jürgen Ruttloff; Henning Cammann; Holger Gerullis; Kurt Miller; Carsten Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multivariate models are used to increase prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and to reduce unnecessary biopsies. An external validation of the artificial neural network (ANN) “ProstataClass” (ANN-Charité) was performed with daily routine data. Materials and Methods. The individual ANN predictions were generated with the use of the ANN application for PSA and free PSA assays, which rely on age, tPSA, %fPSA, prostate volume, and DRE (ANN-Charité). Diagnostic validity of tPSA, %fPSA...

  10. Development and external validation of a prostate health index-based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Zhu; Cheng-Tao Han; Gui-Ming Zhang; Fang Liu; Qiang Ding; Jian-Feng Xu; Vidal, Adriana C.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Chi-Fai Ng; Ding-Wei Ye

    2015-01-01

    To develop and externally validate a prostate health index (PHI)-based nomogram for predicting the presence of prostate cancer (PCa) at biopsy in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen 4–10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE). 347 men were recruited from two hospitals between 2012 and 2014 to develop a PHI-based nomogram to predict PCa. To validate these results, we used a separate cohort of 230 men recruited at another center between 2008 and 2013. Receiver operator curves ...

  11. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmeena Kathuria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention.

  12. The Psychosocial Screen for Cancer (PSSCAN: Further validation and normative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported on the development of a cancer-specific screening instrument for anxiety and depression (PSSCAN. No information on cut-off scores or their meaning for diagnosis was available when PSSCAN was first described. Needed were additional analyses to recommend empirically justified cut-off scores as well as data norms for healthy adult samples so as to lend meaning to the recommended cut-off scores. Methods We computed sensitivity/specificity indices based on a sample of 101 cancer patients who had provided PSSCAN data on anxiety and depression and who had completed another standardized instrument with strong psychometrics. Next, we compared mean scores for four samples with known differences in health status, a healthy community sample (n = 561, a sample of patients with a representative mix of cancer subtypes (n = 570, a more severely ill sample of in-patients with cancer (n = 78, and a community sample with a chronic illness other than cancer (n = 85. Results Sensitivity/specificity analyses revealed that an excellent balance of sensitivity/specificity was achievable with 92%/98% respectively for clinical anxiety and 100% and 86% respectively for clinical depression. Newly diagnosed patients with cancer were no more anxious than healthy community controls but showed elevations in depression scores. Both, patients with chronic illness other than cancer and those with longer-standing cancer diagnoses revealed greater levels of distress than newly diagnosed cancer patients or healthy adult controls. Conclusion These additional data on criterion validity and community versus patient norms for PSSCAN serve to enhance its utility for clinical practice.

  13. Towards a generic benchmarking platform for origin–destination flows estimation/updating algorithms: design, demonstration and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Barceló Bugeda, Jaime; BREEN Martijn; Bullejos, Manuel; Casas, Jordi; Cipriani, Ernesto; CIUFFO, Biagio; Djukic, Tamara; Hoogendoorn, Serge; Marzano, Vittorio; Montero Mercadé, Lídia; Nigro, Marialisa; PERARNAU Josep; Punzo, Vincenzo; Toledo, Tomer

    2016-01-01

    Estimation/updating of origin-destination (OD) flows and other traffic state parameters is a classical, widely adopted procedure in transport engineering, both in off-line and in on-line contexts. Notwithstanding numerous approaches proposed in the literature, there is still room for considerable improvements, also leveraging the unprecedented opportunity offered by information and communication technologies and big data. A key issue relates to the unobservability of OD flows in real networks...

  14. Towards a generic benchmarking platform for origin-destination flows estimation/updating algorithms: Design, demonstration and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Constantinos; BARCELÒ Jaume; BREEN Martijn; Bullejos, Manuel; Casas, Jordi; Cipriani, Ernesto; CIUFFO BIAGIO; Djukic, Tamara; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.; Marzano, Vittorio; MONTERO Lidia; Nigro, Marialisa; PERARNAU Josep; Punzo, Vincenzo; Toledo, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    Estimation/updating of origin-destination (OD) flows and other traffic state parameters is a classical, widely adopted procedure in transport engineering, both in off-line and in on-line contexts. Notwithstanding numerous approaches proposed in the literature, there is still room for considerable improvements, also leveraging the unprecedented opportunity offered by information and communication technologies and big data. A key issue relates to the unobservability of OD flows in real networks...

  15. Reliability and validity of a new scale on internal coherence (ICS of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schad Friedemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current inventories on quality of life used in oncology mainly focus on functional aspects of patients in the context of disease adaption and treatments (side effects (EORTC QLQ C30 or generically the status of common functions (Medical Outcome Study SF 36. Beyond circumscribed dimensions of quality of life (i.e., physical, emotional, social, cognitive etc., there is a lack of inventories which also address other relevant dimensions such as the 'sense of coherence' (SOC in cancer patients. SOC is important because of its potential prognostic relevance in cancer patients, but the current SOC scale has mainly been validated for psychiatric and psychosomatic patients. Our two-step validation study addresses the internal coherence (ICS scale, which is based on expert rating, using specific items for oncological patients, with respect to its reliability, validity and sensitivity to chemotherapy. Methods The items were tested on 114 participants (57 cancer patients and a matched control group, alongside questions on autonomic regulation (aR, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, self-regulation (SRQ and Karnofsky the Performance-Index (KPI. A retest of 65 participants was carried out after a median time span of four weeks. In the second part of the study, the ICS was used to assess internal coherence during chemotherapy in 25 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC and 17 breast cancer patients. ICS was recorded before, during and 4 – 8 weeks after treatment. Results The 10-item scale of 'internal coherence' (ICS shows good to very good reliability: Cronbach-α r = 0.91, retest-reliability r = 0.80. The ICS correlates with r = 0.43 – 0.72 to the convergence criteria (all p Conclusion The ICS has good to very good reliability, validity and sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  16. Testicular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Friman, P C; Finney, J W; Glasscock, S G; Weigel, J W; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Testicular self-examination (TSE) can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer, the third leading cause of death in young men. We evaluated the effectiveness of a brief and specific checklist for teaching TSE skills. Ten men were videotaped while performing testicular self-examinations before and after training. The TSE training resulted in large and significant increases in the number of TSE steps completed and duration of the TSE. Two urological validation measures support...

  17. Is Gompertzian or exponential kinetics a valid description of individual human cancer growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, M W; Swartzendruber, D E; Wardwell, R H; Bame, P D

    1990-10-01

    It is generally accepted that human cancers grow in an exponential or Gompertzian manner. This assumption is based on analysis of the growth of transplantable animal tumors and on averages of tumor growth in human populations. A computer model of breast cancer in individual patients has raised some doubts about this assumption. The computer model predicts an irregular pattern of tumor growth that incorporates plateaus or dormant periods separated by Gompertzian growth spurts. Since growth patterns involving plateaus are not predicted by conventionally accepted exponential or Gompertzian kinetics, sufficient documentation of their existence may be regarded as some evidence that the computer model is correct. The literature has been surveyed to identify growth patterns specifically predicted by the model. The literature contains clinical evidence from individual patients of this growth pattern in primary breast, large intestine and rectum, and pulmonary cancers and metastatic pulmonary cancer. Much data, including the only breast data, are not consistent with exponential or Gompertzian kinetics but are explainable by irregular growth kinetics. Exponential growth is valid for some tumors and for short times, but there are many papers citing significant deviations from that growth. Exponential growth may accurately describe averages of human tumor growth and growth of multipassaged experimental tumors, but it is not valid for all individual tumors. PMID:2259298

  18. The Distress Thermometer and its validity: a first psychometric study in Indonesian women with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Iskandarsyah

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. METHODS: First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Indonesia completed a standard socio-demographic form, the DT and the Problem List, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses identified an area under the curve = 0.81 when compared to the HADS cutoff score of 15. A cutoff score of 5 on the DT had the best sensitivity (0.81 and specificity (0.64. Patients who scored above this cutoff reported more problems in the practical, family, emotional, spiritual/religious and physical domains (30 out of 36 problems, p-value<0.05 than patients below the cutoff score. Patients at advanced stages of cancer experienced more emotional and physical problems. Patient's distress level was negatively correlated with overall quality of life, general health and all quality of life domains. CONCLUSIONS: The DT was found to be a valid tool for screening distress in Indonesian breast cancer patients. We recommend using a cutoff score of 5 in this population.

  19. Validating a Prognostic Scoring System for Postmastectomy Locoregional Recurrence in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study is designed to validate a previously developed locoregional recurrence risk (LRR) scoring system and further define which groups of patients with breast cancer would benefit from postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods and Materials: An LRR risk scoring system was developed previously at our institution using breast cancer patients initially treated with modified radical mastectomy between 1990 and 2001. The LRR score comprised 4 factors: patient age, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor negativity, and number of involved lymph nodes. We sought to validate the original study by examining a new dataset of 1545 patients treated between 2002 and 2007. Results: The 1545 patients were scored according to the previously developed criteria: 920 (59.6%) were low risk (score 0-1), 493 (31.9%) intermediate risk (score 2-3), and 132 (8.5%) were high risk (score ≥4). The 5-year locoregional control rates with and without PMRT in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 98% versus 97% (P=.41), 97% versus 91% (P=.0005), and 89% versus 50% (P=.0002) respectively. Conclusions: This analysis of an additional 1545 patients treated between 2002 and 2007 validates our previously reported LRR scoring system and suggests appropriate patients for whom PMRT will be beneficial. Independent validation of this scoring system by other institutions is recommended

  20. Proteomic analysis of gastric cancer and immunoblot validation of potential biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nina Ko(c)evar; Federico Odreman; Alessandro Vindigni; Snje(z)ana Frkovi(c) Grazio; Radovan Komel

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To search for and validate differentially expressed proteins in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.METHODS:We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to search for differentially expressed proteins in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.A set of proteins was validated with immunoblotting.RESULTS:We identified 30 different proteins involved in various biological processes:metabolism,development,death,response to stress,cell cycle,cell communication,transport,and cell motility.Eight proteinswere chosen for further validation by immunoblotting.Our results show that gastrokine-1,39S ribosomal protein L12 (mitochondrial precursor),plasma cell-induced resident endoplasmic reticulum protein,and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 were significantly underexpressed in gastric adenocarcinoma relative to adjacent non-tumor tissue samples.On the other hand,septin-2,ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N,and transaldolase were significantly overexpressed.Translationally controlled tumor protein was shown to be differentially expressed only in patients with cancer of the gastric cardia/esophageal border.CONCLUSION:This work presents a set of possible diagnostic biomarkers,validated for the first time.It might contribute to the efforts of understanding gastric cancer carcinogenesis.

  1. Validating a Prognostic Scoring System for Postmastectomy Locoregional Recurrence in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Skye Hung-Chun, E-mail: skye@kfsyscc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Clinical Research Office, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Tsai, Stella Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yu, Ben-Long [Department of Surgery, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Horng, Cheng-Fang [Clinical Research Office, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chii-Ming [Department of Surgery, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jian, James J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chu, Nan-Min [Department of Medical Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Mei-Hua [Department of Pathology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Mei-Ching [Department of Medical Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Andrew T. [Department of Medical Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This study is designed to validate a previously developed locoregional recurrence risk (LRR) scoring system and further define which groups of patients with breast cancer would benefit from postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods and Materials: An LRR risk scoring system was developed previously at our institution using breast cancer patients initially treated with modified radical mastectomy between 1990 and 2001. The LRR score comprised 4 factors: patient age, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor negativity, and number of involved lymph nodes. We sought to validate the original study by examining a new dataset of 1545 patients treated between 2002 and 2007. Results: The 1545 patients were scored according to the previously developed criteria: 920 (59.6%) were low risk (score 0-1), 493 (31.9%) intermediate risk (score 2-3), and 132 (8.5%) were high risk (score ≥4). The 5-year locoregional control rates with and without PMRT in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 98% versus 97% (P=.41), 97% versus 91% (P=.0005), and 89% versus 50% (P=.0002) respectively. Conclusions: This analysis of an additional 1545 patients treated between 2002 and 2007 validates our previously reported LRR scoring system and suggests appropriate patients for whom PMRT will be beneficial. Independent validation of this scoring system by other institutions is recommended.

  2. Identification and validation of oncologic miRNA biomarkers for luminal A-like breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailbhe M McDermott

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a common disease with distinct tumor subtypes phenotypically characterized by ER and HER2/neu receptor status. MiRNAs play regulatory roles in tumor initiation and progression, and altered miRNA expression has been demonstrated in a variety of cancer states presenting the potential for exploitation as cancer biomarkers. Blood provides an excellent medium for biomarker discovery. This study investigated systemic miRNAs differentially expressed in Luminal A-like (ER+PR+HER2/neu- breast cancer and their effectiveness as oncologic biomarkers in the clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples were prospectively collected from patients with Luminal A-like breast cancer (n = 54 and controls (n = 56. RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and subjected to microarray analysis (n = 10 Luminal A-like; n = 10 Control. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by artificial neural network (ANN data-mining algorithms. Expression of specific miRNAs was validated by RQ-PCR (n = 44 Luminal A; n = 46 Control and potential relationships between circulating miRNA levels and clinicopathological features of breast cancer were investigated. RESULTS: Microarray analysis identified 76 differentially expressed miRNAs. ANN revealed 10 miRNAs for further analysis (miR-19b, miR-29a, miR-93, miR-181a, miR-182, miR-223, miR-301a, miR-423-5p, miR-486-5 and miR-652. The biomarker potential of 4 miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-181a, miR-223 and miR-652 was confirmed by RQ-PCR, with significantly reduced expression in blood of women with Luminal A-like breast tumors compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.009 and 0.004 respectively. Binary logistic regression confirmed that combination of 3 of these miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-181a and miR-652 could reliably differentiate between cancers and controls with an AUC of 0.80. CONCLUSION: This study provides insight into the underlying molecular portrait of Luminal A-like breast

  3. Comprehensive capture of cutaneous melanoma by the Ontario Cancer Registry: validation study using community pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Rodrigo; Fung, Kinwah; Rochon, Paula; Chan, An-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is often managed outside hospital settings, creating the potential for underreporting to cancer registries. To our knowledge, completeness of melanoma capture in cancer registries has not been assessed using external data sources since the 1980s. We evaluated the melanoma capture rate from 1993 to 2009 in a provincial cancer registry. We identified all melanoma diagnoses in pathology reports from a major community laboratory in Ontario, Canada. Pathologically confirmed diagnoses were linked to Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) records using health insurance numbers. We calculated capture rates as the proportion of patients with melanoma confirmed by a pathology report, with a corresponding melanoma diagnosis in OCR. OCR captured 3,798 of 4,275 (88.8, 95 % confidence interval: 87.9, 89.8 %) invasive melanoma diagnoses over the 17-year period. Annual capture rates of 94 % or higher were found for over half the study period. Among all 29,133 melanoma diagnoses in OCR, 27.6 % were registered based on a pathology report alone, compared with 3.4 % for non-cutaneous malignancies. This suggests that comprehensive capture of melanoma cases by a provincial cancer registry is achievable using source data from community laboratories. There is a need for ongoing validation to ensure data remain accurate and complete to reliably inform clinical care, research, and policy. PMID:26537120

  4. Lung cancer and its association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:update on nexus of epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Mullapudi, Nandita; Yao, Hongwei; Spivack, Simon D.; Rahman, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The current research is focused on identifying the common and disparate events involved in epigenetic modifications that concurrently occur during the pathogenesis of COPD and lung cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge and understanding of epigenetic modifications in pathogenesis of COPD and lung cancer.RECENT FINDINGS:Th...

  5. Curcumin: Updated Molecular Mechanisms and Intervention Targets in Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has attracted great interest in the research of cancer during the past decades. Extensive studies documented that curcumin attenuates cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin has been demonstrated to interact with multiple molecules and signal pathways, which makes it a potential adjuvant anti-cancer agent to chemotherapy. Previous investigations focus on the mechanisms of action for curcumin, which is shown to manipulate transcription factors and induce apoptosis in various kinds of human cancer. Apart from transcription factors and apoptosis, emerging studies shed light on latent targets of curcumin against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, microRNAs (miRNA, autophagy and cancer stem cell. The present review predominantly discusses significance of EGFR, miRNA, autophagy and cancer stem cell in lung cancer therapy. Curcumin as a natural phytochemicals could communicate with these novel targets and show synergism to chemotherapy. Additionally, curcumin is well tolerated in humans. Therefore, EGFR-, miRNA-, autophagy- and cancer stem cell-based therapy in the presence of curcumin might be promising mechanisms and targets in the therapeutic strategy of lung cancer.

  6. Risser patient satisfaction scale: a validation study in Greek cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language. Methods This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient. Results The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p Conclusion The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings.

  7. GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population: an updated meta-analysis and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Liang Zhang, Yong-Hui Cui Department of Gastroenterology, The First People’s Hospital of Shangqiu City, Shangqiu, Henan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between the GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer in People’s Republic of China, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of the GSTM1 null genotype on the risk of gastric cancer, an updated meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM up to November 5, 2014. A total of 25 studies including 3,491 cases and 5,921 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association (odds ratio [OR] =1.47, 95% CI: 1.28–1.69 was found between the null GSTM1 and gastric cancer risk when all studies in Chinese population were pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by quality score, geographic area, and source of controls, the same results were observed. Additionally, a significant association was found both in smokers and non-smokers. This meta-analysis showed that the null GSTM1 may be a potential biomarker for gastric cancer risk in Chinese, and further studies with gene–gene and gene–environment interactions are required for definite conclusions. Keywords: meta-analysis, GSTM1, polymorphism, gastric cancer

  8. Studies Comparing Screen-Film Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography in Breast Cancer Screening: Updated Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) has several potential benefits as compared with screen-film mammography (SFM) in mammography screening. Digital technology also opens for implementation of advanced applications, including computer-aided detection (CAD) and tomosynthesis. Phantom studies and experimental clinical studies have shown that FFDM is equal or slightly superior to SFM for detection and characterization of mammographic abnormalities. Despite obvious advantages, the conversion to digital mammography has been slower than anticipated, and not only due to higher costs. Until very recently, some countries did not even permit the use of digital mammography in breast cancer screening. The reason for this reluctant attitude was concern about lower spatial resolution and about using soft-copy reading. Furthermore, there was a lack of data supporting improved diagnostic accuracy using FFDM in a screening setting, since two pioneer trials both showed nonsignificantly lower cancer detection rate at FFDM. The 10 studies comparing FFDM and SFM in mammography screening published so far have shown divergent and rather conflicting results. Nevertheless, there is a rapid conversion to digital mammography in breast cancer screening in many western countries. The aim of this article is to give an updated review of these studies, discuss the conflicting findings, and draw some conclusions from the results

  9. Predictive Accuracy of the PanCan Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model -External Validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; van Riel, Sarah J.; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Jacobs, Colin; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Scholten, Ernst Th; Skovgaard, Lene T.; van Ginneken, Bram; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. Methods: From th...

  10. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne; Creutzberg, Carien L; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Radisic, Vesna Bjelic; Galalae, Razvan; Schmalz, Claudia; Barlow, Ellen; Jensen, Pernille T; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Bergmark, Karin; Chie, Wei-Chu; Kuljanic, Karin; Costantini, Anna; Singer, Susanne; Koensgen, Dominique; Menon, Usha; Daghofer, Fedor

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects of...

  11. Validation of the French translation-adaptation of the impact of cancer questionnaire version 2 (IOCv2) in a breast cancer survivor population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Blanchin; S. Dauchy; A. Cano; A. Brédart; N.K. Aaronson; J.B. Hardouin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Impact of Cancer version 2 (IOCv2) was designed to assess the physical and psychosocial health experience of cancer survivors through its positive and negative impacts. Although the IOCv2 is available in English and Dutch, it has not yet been validated for use in French-speaking popu

  12. Altered plasma apolipoprotein modifications in patients with pancreatic cancer: protein characterization and multi-institutional validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Honda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the more common human malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas has the worst prognosis. The poor outcome seems to be attributable to difficulty in early detection. METHODS: We compared the plasma protein profiles of 112 pancreatic cancer patients with those of 103 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (Cohort 1 using a newly developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (oMALDI QqTOF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS system. RESULTS: We found that hemi-truncated apolipoprotein AII dimer (ApoAII-2; 17252 m/z, unglycosylated apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII-0; 8766 m/z, and their summed value were significantly decreased in the pancreatic cancer patients [P = 1.36×10(-21, P = 4.35×10(-14, and P = 1.83×10(-24 (Mann-Whitney U-test; area-under-curve values of 0.877, 0.798, and 0.903, respectively]. The significance was further validated in a total of 1099 plasma/serum samples, consisting of 2 retrospective cohorts [Cohort 2 (n = 103 and Cohort 3 (n = 163] and a prospective cohort [Cohort 4 (n = 833] collected from 8 medical institutions in Japan and Germany. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed a robust quantitative MS profiling system and used it to validate alterations of modified apolipoproteins in multiple cohorts of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  13. Eribulin for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer: an update on its safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty MK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark K Doherty, Patrick G Morris Department of Medical Oncology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death internationally. Treatment approaches for metastatic breast cancer have evolved in recent years; however chemotherapy remains a core component for the majority of patients. Agents such as anthracyclines and taxanes have been extensively studied and form standard treatment. Eribulin mesylate is a novel synthetic microtubule-directed chemotherapy, based on a naturally-occurring compound. Through phase I studies, eribulin was found to be tolerable and activity was seen in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Phase II studies in metastatic breast cancer further demonstrated its efficacy, with responses and survival which compare favorably with other studied chemotherapy agents. The phase III EMBRACE study showed superior survival for patients treated with eribulin compared with those who received a physician’s choice control. This led to its approval for use in many countries in this setting. Its toxicity profile is well established and manageable for the most part, with the commonest reported toxicities being alopecia, fatigue, neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. A second reported phase III study comparing eribulin to capecitabine failed to show an improvement in survival in pretreated patients. This article reviews the clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of eribulin, and summarizes the results of the major preclinical and clinical studies of eribulin in metastatic breast cancer. Keywords: eribulin, breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, review, new treatments, chemotherapy

  14. Role of multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Giovanni; Indino, Elena Lucia; Salvo, Vincenzo; Colarieti, Anna; Fierro, Davide; Scialpi, Michele; Panebianco, Valeria

    2016-05-24

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy of the male gender. The role of magnetic resonance imaging has evolved very rapidly over the years to be currently recognized as a fundamental tool in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of prostate cancer. PMID:26350047

  15. The Korean Version of the Body Image Scale-Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khang, Dongwoo; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Woo, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS). Methods The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 o...

  16. Validation of Cancer Institute Quality of Life Questionnaire Version II for cancer patients in India

    OpenAIRE

    E Vidhubala; Latha; R Ravikannan; C S Mani; R Muthuvel; V Surendren; F U John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire version I consisted of 38 items that were validated using 392 patients. The experiences gained through the interaction with the patients during the administration of the questionnaire provided a lot of inputs for the improvization of the tool. Aim: The current study is aimed at certain modifications of the QOL questionnaire version I and standardization of the same. Materials and Methods: The modifications of version I QOL scale included the...

  17. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    molecular imaging information. Developments in imaging technologies, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), have improved the detection rate of prostate cancer. MRI has improved lesion detection and local staging. Furthermore, MRI......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an essential role in the clinical management of patients. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis of anatomic, functional, and....../CT imaging of prostate cancer. Among these, choline (labeled with (18)F or (11)C), (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-fluoride have demonstrated promising results, and other new radiopharmaceuticals are currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies....

  18. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an essential role in the clinical management of patients. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis of anatomic, functional, and...... molecular imaging information. Developments in imaging technologies, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), have improved the detection rate of prostate cancer. MRI has improved lesion detection and local staging. Furthermore, MRI....../CT imaging of prostate cancer. Among these, choline (labeled with (18)F or (11)C), (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-fluoride have demonstrated promising results, and other new radiopharmaceuticals are currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies....

  19. Updates from the Intestinal Front Line: Autophagic Weapons against Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Simone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestine lies at the interface between the organism and its environment and responds to infection/inflammation in a multi-leveled manner, potentially leading to chronic inflammatory pathologies and cancer formation. Indeed, the immune response at the intestinal epithelium has been found to be involved in the origin and development of colorectal cancer, which is the third most commonly diagnosed neoplastic disease. Among the mechanisms induced upon inflammation, autophagy appears as a defensive strategy for the clearance of invading microbes and intracellular waste components. Autophagy has also been found to play an important role in colorectal cancer, where it seems to have a pro-survival or pro-death function depending on the stage of the neoplastic process. In this paper we discuss the dual role of autophagy in colorectal cancer and review evidence showing that modulation of autophagy affects the immune response and cancer biology. The study of key players involved in autophagy might contribute to the design of new approaches for colorectal cancer, consisting in combined therapies capable of modifying cancer-specific metabolism rather than simply evoking a generic apoptotic and/or autophagic response, thus enhancing the efficacy of currently used drugs and treatments.

  20. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Thomas L.; Cataneo, Renee N.; Lebauer, Cassie; Mundada, Mayur; Pass, Harvey I.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Rom, William N.; Vallières, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Methods Model-building phase (unblinded): Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation): We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively). The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF) values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B). Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening. Results Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88). In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel. Conclusions Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a

  1. Update on raloxifene: role in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel VG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Victor G Vogel Cancer Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA Abstract: Risk factors allow us to define women who are at increased lifetime risk for breast cancer, and the most important factor is age. Benign breast disease increases risk, and the most important histologies are atypical lobular or ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Family history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters also increases risk. Quantitative measures of risk give accurate predictions of breast cancer incidence for groups of women but not for individual subjects. Multiple published, randomized controlled trials, which employed selective estrogen receptor (ER modulators (SERMs, have demonstrated consistent reductions of 35% or greater in the risk of ER-positive invasive and noninvasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Professional organizations in the US now recommend the use of SERMs to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk, postmenopausal women. Raloxifene and tamoxifen reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive breast cancer with equal efficacy, but raloxifene is associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic disease, benign uterine conditions, and cataracts than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. No evidence exists establishing whether a reduction in breast cancer risk from either agent translates into reduced breast cancer mortality. Overall quality of life is similar with raloxifene or tamoxifen, but the incidence of dyspareunia, weight gain, and musculoskeletal complaints is higher with raloxifene use, whereas vasomotor symptoms, bladder incontinence, gynecologic symptoms, and leg cramps were higher with tamoxifen use. Keywords: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, raloxifene, risk reduction, chemoprevention

  2. Biomarker Validation for Aging: Lessons from mtDNA Heteroplasmy Analyses in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Barker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated biological and clinical utility of biomarkers has attracted significant interest recently. Aging and early cancer detection represent areas active in the search for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. While applications differ, overlapping biological features, analytical technologies and specific biomarker analytes bear comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as a biomarker in both biological models has been evaluated. However, it remains unclear whether mtDNA changes in aging and cancer represent biological relationships that are causal, incidental, or a combination of both. This article focuses on evaluation of mtDNA-based biomarkers, emerging strategies for quantitating mtDNA admixtures, and how current understanding of mtDNA in aging and cancer evolves with introduction of new technologies. Whether for cancer or aging, lessons from mtDNA based biomarker evaluations are several. Biological systems are inherently dynamic and heterogeneous. Detection limits for mtDNA sequencing technologies differ among methods for low-level DNA sequence admixtures in healthy and diseased states. Performance metrics of analytical mtDNA technology should be validated prior to application in heterogeneous biologically-based systems. Critical in evaluating biomarker performance is the ability to distinguish measurement system variance from inherent biological variance, because it is within the latter that background healthy variability as well as high-value, disease-specific information reside.

  3. Recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: Validation and improvement of an established prognostic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronlund, B; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Bülow-Lehnsby, A L; Engelholm, S A; Hansen, H H; Høgdall, C

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate and improve an established prognostic index in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. METHODS: A Canadian three-covariate prognostic index (tumour grade at diagnosis, initial performance status, and time to relapse/primary progression (TRP)) was validated in a well...... difference in survival between the prognostic groups good and intermediate (P<0.0001), whereas there was no significant difference in survival between the prognostic groups intermediate and poor (P=0.51). In order to improve the accuracy of the index, the candidate parameters, treatment free interval (TFI......), CA125 level and performance status, at time of relapse/primary progression, were added, whereas the parameters, tumour grade, and initial performance status, from the Canadian index were excluded. As the correlation coefficient between TRP and TFI was very high (r=0.91), TRP was substituted with TFI...

  4. The Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4) adapted to measure adherence to analgesic regimen among cancer patients. METHODS: The validated English version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale was translated into...... measuring the quality of patient-physician pain communication, and the Danish Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. RESULTS: A factor analysis of the DMARS-4 resulted in one factor. Mean (SD) score on the cumulative scale ranging from 4 to 20, with higher scores indicating better medication adherence......, was 17.8 (0.42). The DMARS-4 scores were related to the measures of patients' concerns about pain management and patients' pain communication. The internal consistency of the DMARS-4 was 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The DMARS-4 seems to be a valid and reliable measure of self-reported adherence to analgesic...

  5. Scottish validation study of cancer registration data childhood leukaemia 1968-1981: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to validate central registration data on all childhood leukaemia cases in Scotland between 1968 and 1981 in line with the Black Enquiry concerning West Cumbria. Missing files precluded a complete verification, but minor errors of registration were found in 44% of cases. A small number of important mistakes of omission (eight cases), wrong diagnosis (six cases) and postal code errors (nine cases) were found which might affect epidemiological studies of these relatively rare diseases. Precise and verified prospective data collection at the time of diagnosis is essential if the spatial distribution of childhood cancers is being studied. (author)

  6. Validated Competing Event Model for the Stage I-II Endometrial Cancer Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objectives(s): Early-stage endometrial cancer patients are at higher risk of noncancer mortality than of cancer mortality. Competing event models incorporating comorbidity could help identify women most likely to benefit from treatment intensification. Methods and Materials: 67,397 women with stage I-II endometrioid adenocarcinoma after total hysterectomy diagnosed from 1988 to 2009 were identified in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and linked SEER-Medicare databases. Using demographic and clinical information, including comorbidity, we sought to develop and validate a risk score to predict the incidence of competing mortality. Results: In the validation cohort, increasing competing mortality risk score was associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio [SDHR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.30) and decreased risk of endometrial cancer mortality (SDHR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78). Controlling for other variables, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) = 1 (SDHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.45-1.82) and CCI >1 (SDHR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.74-4.01) were associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality. The 10-year cumulative incidences of competing mortality within low-, medium-, and high-risk strata were 27.3% (95% CI, 25.2%-29.4%), 34.6% (95% CI, 32.5%-36.7%), and 50.3% (95% CI, 48.2%-52.6%), respectively. With increasing competing mortality risk score, we observed a significant decline in omega (ω), indicating a diminishing likelihood of benefit from treatment intensification. Conclusion: Comorbidity and other factors influence the risk of competing mortality among patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. Competing event models could improve our ability to identify patients likely to benefit from treatment intensification

  7. Validated Competing Event Model for the Stage I-II Endometrial Cancer Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Ruben; Gulaya, Sachin; Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Rose, Brent S. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wu, John; Noticewala, Sonal [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McHale, Michael T. [Department of Reproductive Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yashar, Catheryn M. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Vaida, Florin [Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: lmell@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives(s): Early-stage endometrial cancer patients are at higher risk of noncancer mortality than of cancer mortality. Competing event models incorporating comorbidity could help identify women most likely to benefit from treatment intensification. Methods and Materials: 67,397 women with stage I-II endometrioid adenocarcinoma after total hysterectomy diagnosed from 1988 to 2009 were identified in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and linked SEER-Medicare databases. Using demographic and clinical information, including comorbidity, we sought to develop and validate a risk score to predict the incidence of competing mortality. Results: In the validation cohort, increasing competing mortality risk score was associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio [SDHR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.30) and decreased risk of endometrial cancer mortality (SDHR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78). Controlling for other variables, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) = 1 (SDHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.45-1.82) and CCI >1 (SDHR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.74-4.01) were associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality. The 10-year cumulative incidences of competing mortality within low-, medium-, and high-risk strata were 27.3% (95% CI, 25.2%-29.4%), 34.6% (95% CI, 32.5%-36.7%), and 50.3% (95% CI, 48.2%-52.6%), respectively. With increasing competing mortality risk score, we observed a significant decline in omega (ω), indicating a diminishing likelihood of benefit from treatment intensification. Conclusion: Comorbidity and other factors influence the risk of competing mortality among patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. Competing event models could improve our ability to identify patients likely to benefit from treatment intensification.

  8. Omission of adjuvant therapy after gastric cancer resection: development of a validated risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Jashodeep; McMillan, Matthew T; Shang, Eric K; Mamtani, Ronac; Lewis, Russell S; Kelz, Rachel R; Teitelbaum, Ursina; Plastaras, John P; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Fraker, Douglas L; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Roses, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Gastric Cancer recommend adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy following after resection of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) for patients who have not received neoadjuvant therapy. Despite frequent noncompliance with NCCN Guidelines nationally, risk factors underlying adjuvant therapy omission (ATom) have not been well characterized. We developed an internally validated preoperative instrument stratifying patients by incremental risk of ATom. The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with stage IB-III GA undergoing gastrectomy; those receiving neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. Multivariable models identified factors associated with ATom between 2006 and 2011. Internal validation was performed using bootstrap analysis; model discrimination and calibration were assessed using k-fold cross-validation and Hosmer-Lemeshow procedures, respectively. Using weighted β-coefficients, a simplified Omission Risk Score (ORS) was created to stratify ATom risk. The impact of ATom on overall survival (OS) was examined in ORS risk-stratified cohorts. In 4,728 patients (median age, 70 years; 64.8% male), 53.7% had ATom. The bootstrap-validated model identified advancing age, comorbidity, underinsured/uninsured status, proximal tumor location, and clinical T1/2 and N0 tumors as independent ATom predictors, demonstrating good discrimination. The simplified ORS, stratifying patients into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories, predicted incremental risk of ATom (30% vs 53% vs 80%, respectively) and progressive delay to adjuvant therapy initiation (median time, 51 vs 55 vs 61 days, respectively). Patients at moderate/high-risk of ATom demonstrated worsening risk-adjusted mortality compared with low-risk patients (median OS, 26.4 vs 29.2 months). This ORS may aid in rational selection of multimodality treatment sequence in GA. PMID:25964639

  9. Validation that Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We have previously reported that metabolic tumor volume (MTV) obtained from pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxydeglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/ computed tomography (CT) predicted outcome in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). The purpose of this study was to validate these results on an independent dataset, determine whether the primary tumor or nodal MTV drives this correlation, and explore the interaction with p16INK4a status as a surrogate marker for human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods and Materials: The validation dataset in this study included 83 patients with squamous cell HNC who had a FDG PET/CT scan before receiving definitive radiotherapy. MTV and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were calculated for the primary tumor, the involved nodes, and the combination of both. The primary endpoint was to validate that MTV predicted progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary analyses included determining the prognostic utility of primary tumor vs. nodal MTV. Results: Similarly to our prior findings, an increase in total MTV of 17 cm3 (difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with a 2.1-fold increase in the risk of disease progression (p = 0.0002) and a 2.0-fold increase in the risk of death (p = 0.0048). SUVmax was not associated with either outcome. Primary tumor MTV predicted progression-free (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.94; p INK4a-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Conclusions: This study validates our previous findings that MTV independently predicts outcomes in HNC. MTV should be considered as a potential risk-stratifying biomarker in future studies of HNC.

  10. Development and validation of a treatment planning model for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliano, Robert Vincent

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) to induce local hyperthermia has been emerging in recent years as a promising cancer therapy, in both a stand-alone and combination treatment setting, including surgery radiation and chemotherapy. The mNP solution can be injected either directly into the tumor, or administered intravenously. Studies have shown that some cancer cells associate with, internalize, and aggregate mNPs more preferentially than normal cells, with and without antibody targeting. Once the mNPs are delivered inside the cells, a low frequency (30-300kHz) alternating electromagnetic field is used to activate the mNPs. The nanoparticles absorb the applied field and provide localized heat generation at nano-micron scales. Treatment planning models have been shown to improve treatment efficacy in radiation therapy by limiting normal tissue damage while maximizing dose to the tumor. To date, there does not exist a clinical treatment planning model for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia which is robust, validated, and commercially available. The focus of this research is on the development and experimental validation of a treatment planning model, consisting of a coupled electromagnetic and thermal model that predicts dynamic thermal distributions during treatment. When allowed to incubate, the mNPs are often sequestered by cancer cells and packed into endosomes. The proximity of the mNPs has a strong influence on their ability to heat due to interparticle magnetic interaction effects. A model of mNP heating which takes into account the effects of magnetic interaction was developed, and validated against experimental data. An animal study in mice was conducted to determine the effects of mNP solution injection duration and PEGylation on macroscale mNP distribution within the tumor, in order to further inform the treatment planning model and future experimental technique. In clinical applications, a critical limiting factor for the maximum applied field is

  11. In vitro three-dimensional (3D) models in cancer research: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Lauren C; Casagrande, Giovanna; Virador, Victoria M

    2013-03-01

    Tissues are three-dimensional (3D) entities as is the tumor that arises within them. Though disaggregated cancerous tissues have produced numerous cell lines for basic and applied research, it is generally agreed that these lines are poor models of in vivo phenomena. In this review we focus on in vitro 3D models used in cancer research, particularly their contribution to molecular studies of the early stages of metastasis, angiogenesis, the tumor microenvironment, and cancer stem cells. We present a summary of the various formats used in the field of tissue bioengineering as they apply to mechanistic modeling of cancer stages or processes. In addition we list studies that model specific types of malignancies, highlight drastic differences in results between 3D in vitro models and classical monolayer culturing techniques, and establish the need for standardization of 3D models for meaningful preclinical and therapeutic testing. PMID:22162252

  12. [Medical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, S-J; Rouprêt, M; Davin, J-L; Soulié, M

    2009-04-01

    Indications for hormonotherapy in prostate cancer are in deep mutation and are constantly evolving. Used initially (1941) in metastatic stages, hormone therapy is used nowadays in locally advanced prostate cancer and aggressive localized disease. Its prescription in association with radiotherapy or surgery has provided a benefit regarding survival free progression. The place of hormone therapy in localized prostate cancer is not well defined and the debate is still ongoing, especially in case of biochemical recurrence after irradiation or radical prostatectomy and even in neoadjuvant cases. Additional and further studies are ongoing and are strongly needed to establish new guidelines. Nevertheless, hormone therapy is not restricted any more to palliative cases and is part of the current therapeutic arsenal of the urologist for high risk localized and/or locally advanced prostate cancers. PMID:19465332

  13. Stress and breast cancer: a systematic update on the current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A vast body of research has been carried out to examine the relationship between psychological stress and the risk of breast cancer. Previous reviews on this issue have mainly focused on stressful life events and have included both prospective and retrospective studies. The results from these rev......A vast body of research has been carried out to examine the relationship between psychological stress and the risk of breast cancer. Previous reviews on this issue have mainly focused on stressful life events and have included both prospective and retrospective studies. The results from...... these reviews have revealed conflicting data. We evaluate whether stressful life events, work-related stress, or perceived global stress are differentially associated with breast cancer incidence and breast cancer relapse in prospective studies. Systematic and explicit methods were used to identify, select...

  14. An update on the pathobiological relevance of nuclear receptors for cancers of the head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Roland H; Wünsch, Desiree; Knauer, Shirley K.; Fetz, Verena

    2010-01-01

    Cancers of the head and neck are among the most common neoplasms worldwide, characterized by local tumor aggressiveness, high rate of early recurrence, development of metastasis and second primary tumors. Although disease management of head and neck cancer has improved significantly, overall survival-rates remained largely unchanged over the last decades. Thus, in addition to modern chemo-radiation treatment strategies combined with sophisticated surgery, there is s...

  15. Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses from Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Ethel S.; Huang, Lan; Bouville, Andre; Berg, Christine D.; Ron, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to radioactive iodine (131I) from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in Nevada in the 1950s may have increased thyroid cancer risks. To investigate the long-term effects of this exposure, we analyzed data on thyroid cancer incidence (18,545 cases) from eight Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tumor registries for the period 1973-2004. Excess relative risks (ERR) per Gray (Gy) for exposure received before age 15 were estimated by relating age-, birth year-, sex-, and ...

  16. ASWAGANDHA (WITHANIA SOMNIFERA) – AYURVEDIC BEQUEST FOR THE PATIENTS OF CANCER: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Paramkusha Madupu; Khemani Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) is a popularly known medicinal plant said in Ayurveda. It has been used to promote vigor and strength. The current ongoing researches are approving the plant can be useful in malignacies at various levels and with different mechanisms. An effort has been made in this paper to review such results focused at cancer therapy and management. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) is also known as Indian ginseng proves to be a beacon for blinded minds of cancer sufferers.

  17. Male breast cancer: An update in diagnosis, treatment and molecular profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Onami, Susan; Ozaki, Melanie; Mortimer, Joanne E; Pal, Sumanta Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of female breast cancer, resulting in a decline in incidence and a global improvement in clinical outcome. The statistics for male breast cancer (MBC) stand in sharp contrast – over the past several decades, there has been a steady rise in the incidence of this disease, and clinical outcome has improved at a much slower pace. In the current review, the clinicopathologic features of MBC are described in detail. An emphasis is p...

  18. Breast Cancer Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Update Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Tian; Jia-Ning Liang; Zhuo-Yun Wang; Dian Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Background. The incidence of breast cancer in RA patients remains controversial. Thus we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of RA on breast cancer. Methods. Published literature was available from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Pooled standardized incidence rate (SIR) was computed by random-effect model analysis. Results. We identified 16 separate studies in the present study, in which the number of patients ranged from 458 to 84,475. We did not find the increased canc...

  19. Standards and options: recommendations for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) in anemic cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (2007 update); Standards, options: recommandations 2007. Indication des agents stimulants l'erythropoiese (ASE) dans la prise en charge de l'anemie induite par la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, Ch. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Misset, J.L. [Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Casadevall, N. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Marec-Berard, P.; Ray-Coquard, I. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Chastagner, P. [Hopital d' Enfants Nancy, 54 (France); Kassab-Chahmi, D. [Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC), 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-03-15

    Introduction. - Beginning 1998, a working group of specialists convened by the guidelines department (Standards, Options and Recommendations: S.O.R.) of the National French Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (F.N.C.L.C.C.) published then regularly updated Recommendations relative to the use of ESA (epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, darbepoetin) in anemic patients with cancer. This article presents the updated Recommendations set up in 2007. Methods. - This updating process is based on the methodology developed and used in the 'Standards, Options: Recommendations' programme. The methodological approach combines systematic review with the judgement of a multidisciplinary group of experts. On the basis of analysis of literature, the conclusions and their level of evidence are established. Then, the conclusions accompanied by experts judgement lead to the Recommendations. A Recommendation is a proposal of one or several clinical attitudes intended to improve cancer patient care. Before publication, the R.P.C.-S.O.R. are re-examined by independent reviewers selected according to the same principles as the group of expert writers. Results. - New data, relative to the 'use of ESA in anemic cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy', did not lead to update the latest Recommendations validated in 2003. However, new data relative to the 'use of ESA in anaemia prophylaxis among adult patients with cancer' and to the 'use of iron with ESA in cancer patients' were sufficient to generate either major or minor modifications to the initial Recommendations. Conclusions. - Thus, it appears relevant to re-examine these Recommendations according to a systematic monitoring process which should be renewed in two years. (authors)

  20. Using method triangulation to validate a new instrument (CPWQ-com) assessing cancer patients' satisfaction with communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Lundstrøm, Louise Hyldborg; Petersen, Morten Aagaard;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication. METHODS: Based on focus group interviews...... with 77 informants, an 8-item instrument was developed. This short instrument aimed at assessing overall aspects of the communication between cancer patients and health care staff. The items were validated first through cognitive interviews with patient-observer agreement with 52 cancer patients who...... traditional cognitive interviews with 17 cancer patients. Finally, psychometric analyses took place with data from 1490 cancer patients. RESULTS: The weighted kappas concerning patient-observer agreement ranged 0.31-0.88. Disagreements mainly consisted of the observer choosing the response category indicating...

  1. Myeloperoxidase polymorphism, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk: an update meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Qin

    Full Text Available Myeloperoxidase (MPO is a metabolic/oxidative lysosomal enzyme secreted by reactive neutrophils at the sites of inflamed organs and tissues during phagocytosis. MPO has been either directly or indirectly linked to neoplasia, which is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancer. A large number of studies have reported the role of MPO G-463A polymorphism regarding breast-cancer risk. However, the published findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine more precise estimations for the relationship. Eligible studies were identified by searching several electronic databases for relevant reports published before June 2012. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, a total of five eligible studies were included in the pooled analyses. When the five eligible studies concerning MPO G-463A polymorphism were pooled into this meta-analysis, there was no evidence found for a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. We also categorized by ethnicity (Caucasian or Asian for subgroup analysis; according to this subgroup analysis, we found no significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. However, in the stratified analysis for the premenopausal group, women carrying the AA genotype were found to have a significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.94, p = 0.027. Under the recessive model, there was a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.93, p = 0.025. We conclude that MPO-G463A polymorphism might not be a good predictor of breast-cancer risk, though menopausal status modified women's risk of developing breast cancer.

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Update Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of breast cancer in RA patients remains controversial. Thus we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of RA on breast cancer. Methods. Published literature was available from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Pooled standardized incidence rate (SIR was computed by random-effect model analysis. Results. We identified 16 separate studies in the present study, in which the number of patients ranged from 458 to 84,475. We did not find the increased cancer risk in RA patients (SIR=0.86, 95% CI=0.72–1.02. However, subgroup analysis showed that breast cancer risk in RA patients was positively different in Caucasians (SIR=0.82, 95% CI=0.73–0.93 and non-Caucasians (SIR=1.21, 95% CI=1.19–1.23, respectively. In subgroup analysis by style, a reduced incidence was found in hospital-based case subjects (SIR=0.82, 95% CI=0.69–0.97. Similarly, subgroup analysis for adjusted factors indicated that in A3 (age and sex and A4 (age, sex, and race/ethnicity the risk was decreased (SIR=0.87, 95% CI=0.76–0.99; SIR=0.63, 95% CI=0.59–0.67. Conclusions. The meta-analysis revealed no increased breast cancer risk in RA patients. However, in the subgroup analysis, the risk of breast cancer is increased in non-Caucasians patients with RA while it decreased in Caucasian population, hospital-based case subjects, and A3 group. Such relationship may provide preference for risk of breast cancer in different population.

  3. The validation and clinical implementation of BRCAplus: a comprehensive high-risk breast cancer diagnostic assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansook Kim Chong

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women, with 10% of disease attributed to hereditary factors. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a high percentage of hereditary cases, there are more than 25 susceptibility genes that differentially impact the risk for breast cancer. Traditionally, germline testing for breast cancer was performed by Sanger dideoxy terminator sequencing in a reflexive manner, beginning with BRCA1 and BRCA2. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS has enabled the simultaneous testing of all genes implicated in breast cancer resulting in diagnostic labs offering large, comprehensive gene panels. However, some physicians prefer to only test for those genes in which established surveillance and treatment protocol exists. The NGS based BRCAplus test utilizes a custom tiled PCR based target enrichment design and bioinformatics pipeline coupled with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to identify mutations in the six high-risk genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, CDH1, and STK11. Validation of the assay with 250 previously characterized samples resulted in 100% detection of 3,025 known variants and analytical specificity of 99.99%. Analysis of the clinical performance of the first 3,000 BRCAplus samples referred for testing revealed an average coverage greater than 9,000X per target base pair resulting in excellent specificity and the sensitivity to detect low level mosaicism and allele-drop out. The unique design of the assay enabled the detection of pathogenic mutations missed by previous testing. With the abundance of NGS diagnostic tests being released, it is essential that clinicians understand the advantages and limitations of different test designs.

  4. An update on SeaBED: a TesBED for validating subsurface aquatic hyperspectral remote sensing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, James A.; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Rosario-Torres, Samuel

    2008-10-01

    SeaBED is an integrated data set and testing infrastructure for researchers to validate subsurface aquatic remote sensing algorithms. The purpose behind developing SeaBED is to collect multiple levels of image, field, and laboratory data with which to validate physical models, inversion algorithms, feature extraction tools and classification methods for subsurface aquatic sensing using hyperspectral imaging. The focus of this testbed facility is a field site located on Enrique Reef in southwestern Puerto Rico. This field site, which includes a heterogeneous mixture of both coral reef and seagrass habitats, offers a well defined system for evaluating analysis techniques under natural environmental conditions. Data produced from the field site currently includes airborne, satellite, and field-level hyperspectral and multispectral images, in situ spectral signatures, and water bio-optical properties. This data provides a valuable combination of sensing imagery and fully characterized ground truth information for developing and validating remote sensing algorithms. A major accomplishment for SeaBED was the collection of high-resolution hyperspectral imagery and associated ground truth of the near shore reefs and coastal ecosystems in southwestern Puerto Rico in 2007. The mission included 1740 km2 of imagery acquired at 4 m spatial resolution, with 110 km2 enhanced coverage of four science areas at 1, 2, 4 and 8 m spatial resolutions to facilitate investigation of spatial scaling issues and the testing of subsurface unmixing algorithms. We present an overview of SeaBED and also describe particulars of the 2007 data collection campaign, including both image acquisition and field data collection efforts.

  5. Pathology findings and validation of gastric and esophageal cancer cases in a European cohort (EPIC/EUR-GAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Fátima; Moutinho, Cátia; Pera, Guillem;

    2007-01-01

    classification of tumors. We describe the pathological features of incident gastric and esophageal cancers identified within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an investigation on gastric and esophageal cancer (EUR-GAST) in the EPIC project, a...... validation study of diagnoses reported by EPIC centers was conducted by a European panel of pathologists. Original pathology reports, stained slides of tumors and the respective paraffin blocks were requested from the centers. RESULTS: The whole series encompassed 467 cancer cases (gastric and esophageal...

  6. A validated gene expression profile for detecting clinical outcome in breast cancer using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, L J; Powe, D G; Reis-Filho, J S; Rakha, E; Lemetre, C; Weigelt, B; Abdel-Fatah, T M; Green, A R; Mukta, R; Blamey, R; Paish, E C; Rees, R C; Ellis, I O; Ball, G R

    2010-02-01

    Gene expression microarrays allow for the high throughput analysis of huge numbers of gene transcripts and this technology has been widely applied to the molecular and biological classification of cancer patients and in predicting clinical outcome. A potential handicap of such data intensive molecular technologies is the translation to clinical application in routine practice. In using an artificial neural network bioinformatic approach, we have reduced a 70 gene signature to just 9 genes capable of accurately predicting distant metastases in the original dataset. Upon validation in a follow-up cohort, this signature was an independent predictor of metastases free and overall survival in the presence of the 70 gene signature and other factors. Interestingly, the ANN signature and CA9 expression also split the groups defined by the 70 gene signature into prognostically distinct groups. Subsequently, the presence of protein for the principal prognosticator gene was categorically assessed in breast cancer tissue of an experimental and independent validation patient cohort, using immunohistochemistry. Importantly our principal prognosticator, CA9, showed that it is capable of selecting an aggressive subgroup of patients who are known to have poor prognosis. PMID:19347577

  7. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer: an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Harpreet Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical benefit.

  8. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer:an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Harpreet Singh; James L Gulley

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical beneift.

  9. Hematoporphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer: clinical update 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1996-04-01

    From 1983 to 1996 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 55 of 56 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative or PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial 'condemned mucosa' or 'field cancerization' of the oral cavity and larynx (7 cases); (2) Stage III/IV head and neck cancer (25 cases); (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and non AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the lower extremity (15 cases); (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis (3 cases); (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (4 cases); (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer (9 cases). At the time of this report, HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 24 patients (follow up 6 months to 9 years) with 'field cancerization' (CIS, T1N0M0) of the oral cavity and larynx (6 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (3 cases), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (12 cases), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1 case), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1 case), and radiation therapy or solar-induced basal cell/squamous cell carcinomas (2 cases). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck cancer are reviewed in this article.

  10. Association of COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is one of the most important enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism and its functional genetic polymorphisms may be associated with breast cancer (BC risk. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted to explore the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, the results remain inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performed in this study. Methods Systematic searches of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were performed. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Results A total of 56 studies including 34,358 breast cancer cases and 45,429 controls were included. Overall, no significant associations between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk were found for LL versus HH, HL versus HH, LL versus HL, recessive model LL versus HL+HH, and dominant model LL+HL versus HH. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, source of controls, and menopausal status, there was still no significant association detected in any of the genetic models. Conclusion Our meta-analysis results suggest that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism may not contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. Virtual slides The virtual slides(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs4806123577708417

  11. Month 2 culture status and treatment duration as predictors of recurrence in pulmonary tuberculosis: model validation and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Wallis

    Full Text Available New regimens capable of shortening tuberculosis treatment without increasing the risk of recurrence are urgently needed. A 2013 meta-regression analysis, using data from trials published from 1973 to 1997 involving 7793 patients, identified 2-month sputum culture status and treatment duration as independent predictors of recurrence. The resulting model predicted that if a new 4-month regimen reduced the proportion of patients positive at month 2 to 1%, it would reduce to 10% the risk of a relapse rate >10% in a trial with 680 subjects per arm. The 1% target was far lower than anticipated.Data from the 8 arms of 3 recent unsuccessful phase 3 treatment-shortening trials of fluoroquinolone-substituted regimens (REMox, OFLOTUB, and RIFAQUIN were used to assess and refine the accuracy of the 2013 meta-regression model. The updated model was then tested using data from a treatment shortening trial reported in 2009 by Johnson et al.The proportions of patients with recurrence as predicted by the 2013 model were highly correlated with observed proportions as reported in the literature (R2 = 0.86. Using the previously proposed threshold of 10% recurrences as the maximum likely considered acceptable by tuberculosis control programs, the original model correctly identified all 4 six-month regimens as satisfactory, and 3 of 4 four-month regimens as unsatisfactory (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 75%, PPV = 80%, and NPV = 100%. A revision of the regression model based on the full dataset of 66 regimens and 11181 patients resulted in only minimal changes to its predictions. A test of the revised model using data from the treatment shortening trial of Johnson et al found the reported relapse rates in both arms to be consistent with predictions.Meta-regression modeling of recurrence based on month 2 culture status and regimen duration can inform the design of future phase 3 tuberculosis clinical trials.

  12. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J; Ramus, S J; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, S A; Anderson, A R; Edlund, C K; Wu, A H; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, P M; Holt, S K; Chen, C; Doherty, J A; Rossing, M A; Whittemore, A S; McGuire, V; DiCioccio, R A; Goodman, M T; Lurie, G; Carney, M E; Wilkens, L R; Ness, R B; Moysich, K B; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, C K; Goode, E L; Sellers, T A; Vierkant, R A; Cunningham, J M; Cunningham, J C; Schildkraut, J M; Berchuck, A; Moorman, P G; Iversen, E S; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Vitonis, A F; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Song, H; Pharoah, P D P; Spurdle, A B; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Brewster, W; Galitovskiy, V; Chenevix-Trench, G

    2009-01-01

    been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P< or =0.10 in a log-additive model: rs2740574 in CYP3A4 (P=0.011), rs1805386 in LIG4 (P=0.007), and rs3218536 in XRCC2 (P=0.......095). Additional genotyping in other OCAC studies was undertaken and only the variant in CYP3A4, rs2740574, continued to show an association in the replication data among homozygous carriers: OR(homozygous(hom))=2.50 (95% CI 0.54-11.57, P=0.24) with 1406 cases and 2827 controls. Overall, in the combined data the...... odds ratio was 2.81 among carriers of two copies of the minor allele (95% CI 1.20-6.56, P=0.017, p(het) across studies=0.42) with 1969 cases and 3491 controls. There was no association among heterozygous carriers. CYP3A4 encodes a key enzyme in oestrogen metabolism and our finding between rs2740574 and...

  13. Validation of quality of life questionnaire for patients with cancer - Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhubala E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quality of Life (QOL is an important health outcome measure in oncology. Given the underlying pressure of individual geo-political entities, a universal solution may not be applicable and hence there is a need to develop a regional tool and standardize the same to address the linguistic and socio-cultural factors. OBJECTIVE: To standardize a tool to assess the QOL of patients with cancer to suit the Indian scenario. Materials and METHODS: The samples were collected from the Cancer Institute (WIA, Chennai. Samples comprise of 400 patients with all sites and stages of cancer. Period: January 2001 to January 2002. Patients were in the age range of 41-60 years. Thirty-eight items were pooled from existing tools, reviews, and the field trial, by which face and factorial validity were established. Reliability of the tool was also tested. Correlation analysis was done to find out the relation between the domains of QOL. Statistics used: Principal component method with varimax rotation was used. Spearmen product moment correlation and Cronbach alpha coefficient were used for reliability analysis. RESULTS: Ten factors emerged with Eigen values ranging from 8.55 to 1.10 and accounted for 62.6% of variance. The first factor contributed maximally, 22% of variance. The remaining nine factors contributed totally to 40% of the variance on QOL. The ten factors that emerged were psychological well being, self-adequacy, physical well being, confidence in self-ability, external support, pain, mobility, optimism and belief, interpersonal relationship and self-sufficiency and independence. The internal consistency using Cronbach alpha test was 0.90 and split-half reliability was 0.74. CONCLUSION: The tool was found to be highly reliable and valid. It was feasible to administer it at clinical settings.

  14. Development and validation of an instrument to measure factors related to colorectal cancer screening adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S W; Myers, R E; Tilley, B C

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the development and refinement of a set of scales for use in research on predictors of colorectal cancer screening adherence. The study population included 2693 of 4490 eligible white male automotive employees who answered a mailed questionnaire (60% response rate) on beliefs and attitudes related to colorectal cancer and screening. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and multitrait scaling analysis were used to evaluate the construct validity of a priori scales developed to measure salience and coherence, perceived susceptibility, worries about screening, screening efficacy, social influence, and intention. Analyses supported the construct validity of scales for salience and coherence, perceived susceptibility, and worries about screening. Four items originally assigned to the salience and coherence construct loaded on a separate factor that appeared to measure self-efficacy. There was no empirical support for scales measuring screening efficacy and social influence, and there was limited empirical support for a scale measuring intention. Confirmatory factor analysis of the scales measuring salience and coherence, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, and worries about screening showed a similar factor structure in white men with and without a personal history of polyps, indicating that the scales may be useful for studies of both colorectal cancer screening and surveillance. Multitrait scaling analysis showed some support for internal consistency reliability of those scales in women (n = 42) and in African-American men (n = 56), and there was some support for the factor structure in those two subgroups. Future studies should evaluate the psychometric properties of these and similar scales in diverse population subgroups. PMID:9332766

  15. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  16. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander Catarina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could

  17. Follow-up for cervical cancer: a Program in Evidence-Based Care systematic review and clinical practice guideline update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, L.; Kennedy, E.B.; Fyles, A.; Metser, U.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Program in Evidence-based Care (pebc) of Cancer Care Ontario published a guideline on the follow-up of cervical cancer. In 2014, the pebc undertook an update of the systematic review and clinical practice guideline for women in this target population. Methods The literature from 2007 to August 2014 was searched using medline and embase [extended to 2000 for studies of human papillomavirus (hpv) dna testing]. Outcomes of interest were measures of survival, diagnostic accuracy, and quality of life. A working group evaluated the need for changes to the earlier guidelines and incorporated comments and feedback from internal and external reviewers. Results One systematic review and six individual studies were included. The working group concluded that the new evidence did not warrant changes to the 2009 recommendations, although hpv dna testing was added as a potentially more sensitive method of detecting recurrence in patients treated with radiotherapy. Comments from internal and external reviewers were incorporated. Recommendations Summary Follow-up care after primary treatment should be conducted and coordinated by a physician experienced in the surveillance of cancer patients. A reasonable follow-up strategy involves visits every 3–4 months within the first 2 years, and every 6–12 months during years 3–5. Visits should include a patient history and complete physical examination, with elicitation of relevant symptoms. Vaginal vault cytology examination should not be performed more frequently than annually. Combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography, other imaging, and biomarker evaluation are not advocated; hpv dna testing could be useful as a method of detection of recurrence after radiotherapy. General recommendations for follow-up after 5 years are also provided. PMID:27122975

  18. External validation of an artificial neural network and two nomograms for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Hallmann, Steffen; Koch, Stefan; Ruttloff, Jürgen; Cammann, Henning; Gerullis, Holger; Miller, Kurt; Stephan, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multivariate models are used to increase prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and to reduce unnecessary biopsies. An external validation of the artificial neural network (ANN) "ProstataClass" (ANN-Charité) was performed with daily routine data. Materials and Methods. The individual ANN predictions were generated with the use of the ANN application for PSA and free PSA assays, which rely on age, tPSA, %fPSA, prostate volume, and DRE (ANN-Charité). Diagnostic validity of tPSA, %fPSA, and the ANN was evaluated by ROC curve analysis and comparisons of observed versus predicted probabilities. Results. Overall, 101 (35.8%) PCa were detected. The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were 0.501 for tPSA, 0.669 for %fPSA, 0.694 for ANN-Charité, 0.713 for nomogram I, and 0.742 for nomogram II, showing a significant advantage for nomogram II (P = 0.009) compared with %fPSA while the other model did not differ from %fPSA (P = 0.15 and P = 0.41). All models overestimated the predicted PCa probability. Conclusions. Beside ROC analysis, calibration is an important tool to determine the true value of using a model in clinical practice. The worth of multivariate models is limited when external validations were performed without knowledge of the circumstances of the model's development. PMID:22830050

  19. UPDATE February 2012 - The Food Crises: Predictive validation of a quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01

    Increases in global food prices have led to widespread hunger and social unrest---and an imperative to understand their causes. In a previous paper published in September 2011, we constructed for the first time a dynamic model that quantitatively agreed with food prices. Specifically, the model fit the FAO Food Price Index time series from January 2004 to March 2011, inclusive. The results showed that the dominant causes of price increases during this period were investor speculation and ethanol conversion. The model included investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Here, we extend the food prices model to January 2012, without modifying the model but simply continuing its dynamics. The agreement is still precise, validating both the descriptive and predictive abilities of the analysis. Policy actions are needed to avoid a third speculative bubble that would cause prices to rise above recent peaks by the end of 2012.

  20. Thyroid cancer rates and 131I doses from Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Huang, Lan; Bouville, Andre; Berg, Christine D; Ron, Elaine

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radioactive iodine ((131)I) from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in Nevada in the 1950s may have increased thyroid cancer risks. To investigate the long-term effects of this exposure, we analyzed data on thyroid cancer incidence (18,545 cases) from eight Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tumor registries for the period 1973-2004. Excess relative risks (ERR) per gray (Gy) for exposure received before age 15 were estimated by relating age-, birth year-, sex- and county-specific thyroid cancer rates to estimates of cumulative dose to the thyroid that take age into account. The estimated ERR per Gy for dose received before 1 year of age was 1.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-3.2]. There was no evidence that this estimate declined with follow-up time or that risk increased with dose received at ages 1-15. These results confirm earlier findings based on less extensive data for the period 1973-1994. The lack of a dose response for those exposed at ages 1-15 is inconsistent with studies of children exposed to external radiation or (131)I from the Chernobyl accident, and results need to be interpreted in light of limitations and biases inherent in ecological studies, including the error in doses and case ascertainment resulting from migration. Nevertheless, the study adds support for an increased risk of thyroid cancer due to fallout, although the data are inadequate to quantify it. PMID:20426666

  1. Benefit risk assessment and update on the use of docetaxel in the management of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alken S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scheryll Alken, Catherine M KellyDepartment of Medical Oncology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: The objective of this paper is to review the data supporting the use of docetaxel in the treatment of breast cancer, focusing on pharmacokinetics, efficacy in adjuvant and metastatic trials alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and the toxicity of docetaxel in comparison to paclitaxel. Docetaxel is a semisynthetic product derived from the European yew tree Taxus baccata L. It promotes the assembly of microtubules, stabilizes them, and thereby prevents their depolymerization. Docetaxel has been incorporated into neo-adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, both with and without anthracyclines. The inclusion of taxanes such as docetaxel in polychemotherapy regimens in early breast cancer is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality. As a single agent, docetaxel is highly active in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the combination of docetaxel and capecitabine was associated with an improvement in overall survival; however, toxicity was higher. The toxicity profile of docetaxel has been well documented and is predictable; the most frequent adverse effects are neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Taxane-specific adverse effects, such as peripheral neuropathy, are also expected but are manageable with appropriate dosing and scheduling.Keywords: taxanes, docetaxel, clinical trial, adverse effects, peripheral neuropathy, neutropenia

  2. Early detection of lung cancer using low-dose CT: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy. Due to a lack of early symptoms patients usually undergo therapy at advanced tumor stages when prognosis is poor. Feasibility studies of low-dose spiral CT screening of heavy smokers have shown that many small, resectable lung cancers can be diagnosed at early stages using simple diagnostic algorithms based on size and attenuation of detected pulmonary nodules with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign lesions. Preliminary results of repeat screening confirms small size and favourable stage distribution of detected cancers, using even simpler diagnostic algorithms: additional diagnostic procedures are only required in new or growing nodules whereas follow-up with low-dose CT is sufficient in nodules that appear unchanged to exclude slow growth. However, mortality reduction by lung cancer screening with low-dose CT has yet to be demonstrated. Several randomised controlled trials are under way to assess possible mortality reduction by comparison of mortalities in a screening group and a control group. It is hoped that through international cooperation data from these trials can be pooled to allow for statistically significant conclusions as early as possible. (orig.)

  3. TIMP-1 as a tumor marker in breast cancer - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Mouridsen, Henning;

    2008-01-01

    association between TIMP-1 and prognosis in breast cancer and new studies within this area have focused on the possibility of using blood samples or paraffin embedded tissue instead of tumor tissue extracts for measurements of TIMP-1. Interestingly, recent studies have investigated the association between...

  4. Benefit risk assessment and update on the use of docetaxel in the management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to review the data supporting the use of docetaxel in the treatment of breast cancer, focusing on pharmacokinetics, efficacy in adjuvant and metastatic trials alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and the toxicity of docetaxel in comparison to paclitaxel. Docetaxel is a semisynthetic product derived from the European yew tree Taxus baccata L. It promotes the assembly of microtubules, stabilizes them, and thereby prevents their depolymerization. Docetaxel has been incorporated into neo-adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, both with and without anthracyclines. The inclusion of taxanes such as docetaxel in polychemotherapy regimens in early breast cancer is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality. As a single agent, docetaxel is highly active in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the combination of docetaxel and capecitabine was associated with an improvement in overall survival; however, toxicity was higher. The toxicity profile of docetaxel has been well documented and is predictable; the most frequent adverse effects are neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. Taxane-specific adverse effects, such as peripheral neuropathy, are also expected but are manageable with appropriate dosing and scheduling

  5. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.S. van der; Vogelaar, I.P.; Carneiro, F.; Guilford, P.; Huntsman, D.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Caldas, C.; Schreiber, K.E.; Hardwick, R.H.; Ausems, M.G.; Bardram, L.; Benusiglio, P.R.; Bisseling, T.M.; Blair, V.; Bleiker, E.; Boussioutas, A.; Cats, A.; Coit, D.; DeGregorio, L.; Figueiredo, J.; Ford, J.M.; Heijkoop, E.; Hermens, R.; Humar, B.; Kaurah, P.; Keller, G.; Lai, J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.; Oliveira, C.; Pinheiro, H.; Ragunath, K.; Rasenberg, E.; Richardson, S.; Roviello, F.; Schackert, H.; Seruca, R.; Taylor, A.; Huurne, A. Ter; Tischkowitz, M.; Joe, S.T.; Dijck, B. van; Grieken, N.C. van; Hillegersberg, R. van; Sandick, J.W. van; Vehof, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Fitzgerald, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, inc

  6. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer : updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, Rachel S.; Vogelaar, Ingrid P.; Carneiro, Fatima; Guilford, Parry; Huntsman, David; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Caldas, Carlos; Schreiber, Karen E. Chelcun; Hardwick, Richard H.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Bardram, Linda; Benusiglio, Patrick R.; Bisseling, Tanya M.; Blair, Vanessa; Bleiker, Eveline; Boussioutas, Alex; Cats, Annemieke; Coit, Daniel; DeGregorio, Lynn; Figueiredo, Joana; Ford, James M.; Heijkoop, Esther; Hermens, Rosella; Humar, Bostjan; Kaurah, Pardeep; Keller, Gisella; Lai, Jennifer; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; O'Donovan, Maria; Oliveira, Carla; Pinheiro, Hugo; Ragunath, Krish; Rasenberg, Esther; Richardson, Susan; Roviello, Franco; Schackert, Hans; Seruca, Raquel; Taylor, Amy; ter Huurne, Anouk; Tischkowitz, Marc; Joe, Sheena Tjon A.; van Dijck, Benjamin; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Sandick, Johanna W.; Vehof, Rianne; van Krieken, J. Han; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, inc

  7. Fever and neutropenia hospital discharges in children with cancer: A 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Emily L; Croop, James; Carroll, Aaron E

    2016-02-01

    Fever and neutropenia (FN) is a common precipitant for hospitalization among children with cancer, but hospital utilization trends are not well described. This study describes national trends for hospital discharges for FN among children with cancer for the year 2012, compared with the authors' previous analysis from 2009. Data were analyzed from the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), an all-payer US hospital database, for 2012. Pediatric patients with cancer who had a discharge for FN were identified using age ≤19 years, urgent or emergent admit type, nontransferred, and a combination of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for fever and neutropenia. The authors evaluated factors associated with a "short length of stay" (SLOS). Sampling weights were used to permit national inferences. In 2012, children with cancer accounted for 1.8% of pediatric hospital discharges (n = 120,675), with 12.2% (n = 13,456) of cancer-related discharges meeting FN criteria. Two fifths of FN discharges had a SLOS, which accounted for $91 million (2015 US$) in hospital charges. The majority had no serious infections; most common infections were viral infection (9.6%) or upper respiratory infection (9.6%). Factors significantly associated with SLOS included having a diagnosis of ear infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.03), soft tissue sarcoma (OR = 1.47, CI: 1.10-1.95), and Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.51, CI: 1.09-2.10), as compared with not having those diagnoses. SLOS admissions continue to be rarely associated with serious infections, but contribute substantially to the burden of hospitalization for pediatric FN. Implementation of risk stratification schemas to identify patients who meet low-risk criteria may decrease financial burden. PMID:26900730

  8. Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy: The ERBB2 promoter and its exploitation for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene is associated with amplification of the gene in breast cancer but increased activity of the promoter also plays a significant role. Members of two transcription factor families (AP-2 and Ets) show increased binding to the promoter in over-expressing cells. Consequently, strategies have been devised to target promoter activity, either through the DNA binding sites for these factors, or through another promoter sequence, a polypurine-polypyrimidine repeat structure. The promoter has also been exploited for its tumour-specific activity to direct the accumulation of cytotoxic compounds selectively within cancer cells. Our current understanding of the ERBB2 promoter is reviewed and the status of these therapeutic avenues is discussed

  9. Validity of Quantitative Lymphoscintigraphy as a Lymphedema Assessment Tool for Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji-Na; Cheong, Youn-Soo; Min, Yu-Sun; Lee, Sang-Woo; Park, Ho Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of quantitative lymphoscintigraphy as a useful lymphedema assessment tool for patients with breast cancer surgery including axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Methods We recruited 72 patients with lymphedema after breast cancer surgery that included ALND. Circumferences in their upper limbs were measured in five areas: 15 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle (LE), the elbow, 10 cm distal to the LE, the wrist, and the metacarpophalangeal joint. Then, maximal circumference difference (MCD) was calculated by subtracting the unaffected side from the affected side. Quantitative asymmetry indices (QAI) were defined as the radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios of the affected side to the unaffected side. Patients were divided into 3 groups by qualitative lymphoscintigraphic patterns: normal, decreased function, and obstruction. Results The MCD was highest in the qualitative obstruction (2.76±2.48) pattern with significant differences from the normal (0.69±0.78) and decreased function (1.65±1.17) patterns. The QAIs of the axillary LNs showed significant differences among the normal (0.82±0.29), decreased function (0.42±0.41), and obstruction (0.18±0.16) patterns. As the QAI of the axillary LN increased, the MCD decreased. The QAIs of the upper limbs were significantly higher in the obstruction (3.12±3.07) pattern compared with the normal (1.15±0.10) and decreased function (0.79±0.30) patterns. Conclusion Quantitative lymphoscintigraphic analysis is well correlated with both commonly used qualitative lymphoscintigraphic analysis and circumference differences in the upper limbs of patients with breast cancer surgery with ALND. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy may be a good alternative assessment tool for diagnosing lymphedema after breast cancer surgery with ALND. PMID:26798607

  10. In-vessel core degradation code validation matrix update 1996-1999. Report by an OECD/NEA group of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991 the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) issued a State-of-the-Art Report (SOAR) on In-Vessel Core Degradation in Light Water Reactor (LWR) Severe Accidents. Based on the recommendations of this report a Validation Matrix for severe accident modelling codes was produced. Experiments performed up to the end of 1993 were considered for this validation matrix. To include recent experiments and to enlarge the scope, an update was formally inaugurated in January 1999 by the Task Group on Degraded Core Cooling, a sub-group of Principal Working Group 2 (PWG-2) on Coolant System Behaviour, and a selection of writing group members was commissioned. The present report documents the results of this study. The objective of the Validation Matrix is to define a basic set of experiments, for which comparison of the measured and calculated parameters forms a basis for establishing the accuracy of test predictions, covering the full range of in-vessel core degradation phenomena expected in light water reactor severe accident transients. The emphasis is on integral experiments, where interactions amongst key phenomena as well as the phenomena themselves are explored; however separate-effects experiments are also considered especially where these extend the parameter ranges to cover those expected in postulated LWR severe accident transients. As well as covering PWR and BWR designs of Western origin, the scope of the review has been extended to Eastern European (VVER) types. Similarly, the coverage of phenomena has been extended, starting as before from the initial heat-up but now proceeding through the in-core stage to include introduction of melt into the lower plenum and further to core coolability and retention to the lower plenum, with possible external cooling. Items of a purely thermal hydraulic nature involving no core degradation are excluded, having been covered in other validation matrix studies. Concerning fission product behaviour, the effect

  11. Recent updates of precision therapy for gastric cancer: Towards optimal tailored management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-01-01

    Signaling pathways of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer progression are being avidly studied to seek optimal treatment of gastric cancer. Among them, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathways have been widely investigated. Their aberrant expression or mutation has been significantly associated with advanced stage or poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Recently, aberrations of immune checkpoints including programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) have been suggested as an important step in the formation of a microenvironment favorable for gastric cancer. Accomplishments in basic research have led to the development of novel agents targeting these signaling pathways. However, phase III studies of selective anti-HGF/c-MET antibodies and mTOR inhibitor failed to show significant benefits in terms of overall survival and progression-free survival. Few agents directly targeting STAT3 have been developed. However, this target is still critical issue in terms of chemoresistance, and SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 might be a significant link to effectively inhibit STAT3 activity. Inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 showed durable efficacy in phase I studies, and phase III evaluation is warranted. Therapeutic strategy to concurrently inhibit multiple tyrosine kinases is a reasonable option, however, lapatinib needs to be further evaluated to identify good responders. Regorafenib has shown promising effectiveness in prolonging progression-free survival in a phase II study. In this topic highlight, we review the biologic roles and outcomes of clinical studies targeting these signaling pathways. PMID:27217696

  12. A clinical-molecular update on azanucleoside-based therapy for the treatment of hematologic cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Diesch, Jeannine; Zwick, Anabel; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Palau, Anna; Buschbeck, Marcus; Götze, Katharina S.

    2016-01-01

    The azanucleosides azacitidine and decitabine are currently used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in patients not only eligible for intensive chemotherapy but are also being explored in other hematologic and solid cancers. Based on their capacity to interfere with the DNA methylation machinery, these drugs are also referred to as hypomethylating agents (HMAs). As DNA methylation contributes to epigenetic regulation, azanucleosides are furth...

  13. Recent updates of precision therapy for gastric cancer: Towards optimal tailored management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-05-21

    Signaling pathways of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer progression are being avidly studied to seek optimal treatment of gastric cancer. Among them, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathways have been widely investigated. Their aberrant expression or mutation has been significantly associated with advanced stage or poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Recently, aberrations of immune checkpoints including programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) have been suggested as an important step in the formation of a microenvironment favorable for gastric cancer. Accomplishments in basic research have led to the development of novel agents targeting these signaling pathways. However, phase III studies of selective anti-HGF/c-MET antibodies and mTOR inhibitor failed to show significant benefits in terms of overall survival and progression-free survival. Few agents directly targeting STAT3 have been developed. However, this target is still critical issue in terms of chemoresistance, and SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 might be a significant link to effectively inhibit STAT3 activity. Inhibition of PD-1/PD-L1 showed durable efficacy in phase I studies, and phase III evaluation is warranted. Therapeutic strategy to concurrently inhibit multiple tyrosine kinases is a reasonable option, however, lapatinib needs to be further evaluated to identify good responders. Regorafenib has shown promising effectiveness in prolonging progression-free survival in a phase II study. In this topic highlight, we review the biologic roles and outcomes of clinical studies targeting these signaling pathways. PMID:27217696

  14. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer in the era of aromatase inhibitors: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Mokbel, Ramia; Karat, Isabella; Mokbel, Kefah

    2006-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women should include a third generation aromatase inhibitor (AI). On current evidence, adjuvant anstrozole or letrozole should be used upfront in such patients especially in those with high risk disease (node positive and/or tumours > 2 cm). The sequential approach of tamoxifen for 2–3 years followed by exemestane or anastrozole for 2–3 years is a reasonable alternative...

  15. The management of BCG failure in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Zlotta, Alexandre R.; Fleshner, Neil E.; Jewett, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) will fail intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. There is unfortunately no current gold standard for salvage intravesical therapy after appropriate BCG treatment. Indeed, outcomes are at best suboptimal. The vast majority of low-grade NMIBC are prone to recur but very rarely progress. Failure after intravesical BCG in these patients is usually superficial and low-grade. At the other end of the spectrum, failur...

  16. Surgical Management of Early Endometrial Cancer: An Update and Proposal of a Therapeutic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Francesca; Balbi, Giancarlo; Di Martino, Luca; Grauso, Flavio; Salzillo, Maria Elena; Messalli, Enrico Michelino

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years technical improvements have produced a dramatic shift from traditional open surgery towards a minimally invasive approach for the management of early endometrial cancer. Advancement in minimally invasive surgical approaches has allowed extensive staging procedures to be performed with significantly reduced patient morbidity. Debate is ongoing regarding the choice of a minimally invasive approach that has the most effective benefit for the patients, the surgeon, and the h...

  17. Validation that Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chad; Murphy, James D.; Khong, Brian; La, Trang H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Kong, Christina [Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Fischbein, Nancy J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Colevas, A. Dimitrios [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu, E-mail: qle@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported that metabolic tumor volume (MTV) obtained from pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxydeglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/ computed tomography (CT) predicted outcome in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). The purpose of this study was to validate these results on an independent dataset, determine whether the primary tumor or nodal MTV drives this correlation, and explore the interaction with p16{sup INK4a} status as a surrogate marker for human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods and Materials: The validation dataset in this study included 83 patients with squamous cell HNC who had a FDG PET/CT scan before receiving definitive radiotherapy. MTV and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) were calculated for the primary tumor, the involved nodes, and the combination of both. The primary endpoint was to validate that MTV predicted progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary analyses included determining the prognostic utility of primary tumor vs. nodal MTV. Results: Similarly to our prior findings, an increase in total MTV of 17 cm{sup 3} (difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with a 2.1-fold increase in the risk of disease progression (p = 0.0002) and a 2.0-fold increase in the risk of death (p = 0.0048). SUV{sub max} was not associated with either outcome. Primary tumor MTV predicted progression-free (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.94; p < 0.0001) and overall (HR = 1.57; p < 0.0001) survival, whereas nodal MTV did not. In addition, MTV predicted progression-free (HR = 4.23; p < 0.0001) and overall (HR = 3.21; p = 0.0029) survival in patients with p16{sup INK4a}-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Conclusions: This study validates our previous findings that MTV independently predicts outcomes in HNC. MTV should be considered as a potential risk-stratifying biomarker in future studies of HNC.

  18. Exercise barriers self-efficacy: development and validation of a subcale for individuals with cancer-related lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Buchan, Jena; Janda, Monika; Box, Robyn; Rogers, Laura; Hayes, Sandi

    2015-01-01

    Background No tool exists to measure self-efficacy for overcoming lymphedema-related exercise barriers in individuals with cancer-related lymphedema. However, an existing scale measures confidence to overcome general exercise barriers in cancer survivors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop, validate and assess the reliability of a subscale, to be used in conjunction with the general barriers scale, for determining exercise barriers self-efficacy in individuals facing lymphede...

  19. Discovery and validation of an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (INPROGAS) using antibody microarray-based oncoproteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Puig-Costa, Manuel; Codina-Cazador, Antonio; Cortés-Pastoret, Elisabet; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Flaquer, Sílvia; Llopis-Puigmarti, Francesca; Pujol-Amado, Eulalia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Ortiz, Rosa; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Queralt, Bernardo; Guardeño, Raquel; Martin-Castillo, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to improve gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis by identifying and validating an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (hereafter INPROGAS) using low-cost affinity proteomics. The detection of 120 cytokines, 43 angiogenic factors, 41 growth factors, 40 inflammatory factors and 10 metalloproteinases was performed using commercially available human antibody microarray-based arrays. We identified 21 inflammation-related proteins (INPROGAS) with significant differences in...

  20. Integration and Validation of the Genome-Scale Metabolic Models of Pichia pastoris: A Comprehensive Update of Protein Glycosylation Pathways, Lipid and Energy Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Màrius Tomàs-Gamisans

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs are tools that allow predicting a phenotype from a genotype under certain environmental conditions. GEMs have been developed in the last ten years for a broad range of organisms, and are used for multiple purposes such as discovering new properties of metabolic networks, predicting new targets for metabolic engineering, as well as optimizing the cultivation conditions for biochemicals or recombinant protein production. Pichia pastoris is one of the most widely used organisms for heterologous protein expression. There are different GEMs for this methylotrophic yeast of which the most relevant and complete in the published literature are iPP668, PpaMBEL1254 and iLC915. However, these three models differ regarding certain pathways, terminology for metabolites and reactions and annotations. Moreover, GEMs for some species are typically built based on the reconstructed models of related model organisms. In these cases, some organism-specific pathways could be missing or misrepresented.In order to provide an updated and more comprehensive GEM for P. pastoris, we have reconstructed and validated a consensus model integrating and merging all three existing models. In this step a comprehensive review and integration of the metabolic pathways included in each one of these three versions was performed. In addition, the resulting iMT1026 model includes a new description of some metabolic processes. Particularly new information described in recently published literature is included, mainly related to fatty acid and sphingolipid metabolism, glycosylation and cell energetics. Finally the reconstructed model was tested and validated, by comparing the results of the simulations with available empirical physiological datasets results obtained from a wide range of experimental conditions, such as different carbon sources, distinct oxygen availability conditions, as well as producing of two different recombinant proteins. In

  1. ANITA-2000 activation code package - updating of the decay data libraries and validation on the experimental data of the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisoni Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANITA-2000 is a code package for the activation characterization of materials exposed to neutron irradiation released by ENEA to OECD-NEADB and ORNL-RSICC. The main component of the package is the activation code ANITA-4M that computes the radioactive inventory of a material exposed to neutron irradiation. The code requires the decay data library (file fl1 containing the quantities describing the decay properties of the unstable nuclides and the library (file fl2 containing the gamma ray spectra emitted by the radioactive nuclei. The fl1 and fl2 files of the ANITA-2000 code package, originally based on the evaluated nuclear data library FENDL/D-2.0, were recently updated on the basis of the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library. This paper presents the results of the validation of the new fl1 decay data library through the comparison of the ANITA-4M calculated values with the measured electron and photon decay heats and activities of fusion material samples irradiated at the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG of the NEA-Frascati Research Centre. Twelve material samples were considered, namely: Mo, Cu, Hf, Mg, Ni, Cd, Sn, Re, Ti, W, Ag and Al. The ratios between calculated and experimental values (C/E are shown and discussed in this paper.

  2. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: An Update on Neoadjuvant Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite the high rates of response to chemotherapy. This scenario highlights the need to develop novel therapies and/or treatment strategies to reduce the mortality associated with TNBC. The neoadjuvant setting provides a model for rapid assessment of treatment efficacy with smaller patient accruals and over shorter periods of time compared to the traditional adjuvant setting. In addition, a clear surrogate endpoint of improved survival, known as pathologic complete response, already exists in this setting. Here, we review current data from completed and ongoing neoadjuvant clinical trials for TNBC

  3. Discovery and validation of prognostic markers in gastric cancer by genome-wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Zheng Zhang, Lian-Hai Zhang, Yang Gao, Chao-Hua Li, Shu-Qin Jia, Ni Liu, Feng Cheng, De-Yun Niu, William CS Cho, Jia-Fu Ji, Chang-Qing Zeng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To develop a prognostic gene set that can predict patient overall survival status based on the whole genome expression analysis.METHODS: Using Illumina HumanWG-6 BeadChip followed by semi-supervised analysis, we analyzed the expression of 47 296 transcripts in two batches of gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection. Thirty-nine samples in the first batch were used as the training set to discover candidate markers correlated to overall survival, and thirty-three samples in the second batch were used for validation.RESULTS: A panel of ten genes were identified as prognostic marker in the first batch samples and classified patients into a low- and a high-risk group with significantly different survival times (P = 0.000047. This prognostic marker was then verified in an independent validation sample batch (P = 0.0009. By comparing with the traditional Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging system, this ten-gene prognostic marker showed consistent prognosis results. It was the only independent prognostic value by multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.007. Interestingly, six of these ten genes are ribosomal proteins, suggesting a possible association between the deregulation of ribosome related gene expression and the poor prognosis.CONCLUSION: A ten-gene marker correlated with overall prognosis, including 6 ribosomal proteins, was identified and verified, which may complement the predictive value of TNM staging system.

  4. Clinical validity and utility of genetic risk scores in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Brian T; Kearns, James; Conran, Carly; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Current issues related to prostate cancer (PCa) clinical care (e.g., over-screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment of nonaggressive PCa) call for risk assessment tools that can be combined with family history (FH) to stratify disease risk among men in the general population. Since 2007, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 100 SNPs associated with PCa susceptibility. In this review, we discuss (1) the validity of these PCa risk-associated SNPs, individually and collectively; (2) the various methods used for measuring the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs, including genetic risk score (GRS); (3) the adequate number of SNPs needed for risk assessment; (4) reclassification of risk based on evolving numbers of SNPs used to calculate genetic risk, (5) risk assessment for men from various racial groups, and (6) the clinical utility of genetic risk assessment. In conclusion, data available to date support the clinical validity of PCa risk-associated SNPs and GRS in risk assessment among men with or without FH. PCa risk-associated SNPs are not intended for diagnostic use; rather, they should be used the same way as FH. Combining GRS and FH can significantly improve the performance of risk assessment. Improved risk assessment may have important clinical utility in targeted PCa testing. However, clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate this clinical utility as well as the acceptance of GRS by patients and physicians. PMID:27297129

  5. Development and validation of the Female Sexual Function Index adaptation for breast cancer patients (FSFI-BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartula, Iris; Sherman, Kerry A

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer treatment is common and screening for this is recommended. This study determined the reliability, validity, and acceptability of a breast cancer-specific adaptation of the Female Sexual Function Index, the FSFI-BC. This new measure addresses limitations in the FSFI when assessing sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer regarding applicability to non-sexually active women, measuring distress and changes after cancer. Female breast cancer survivors (n = 596; 429 sexually active, 166 non-sexually active) completed an online survey including demographic/medical information, the FSFI-BC, and scales measuring sexual functioning, fatigue, body image, physical and mental health, and relationship adjustment (Time 1). Three weeks later, 326 women (245 sexually active; 81 non-sexually active) completed the Time 2 survey including the FSFI-BC, and questions regarding its acceptability and perceived change in sexual functioning. Reliability, construct validity, and acceptability were examined using standard scale validation techniques. Exploratory factor analysis delineated seven factors: Changes after cancer, desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, satisfaction, and distress, accounting for 79.98 % (sexually active) and 77.19 % (non-active) variance in responses. Acceptable internal consistencies (non-active: α = 0.71-0.96; sexually active: α = 0.89-0.96) and test-retest reliabilities (non-active: r = 0.63-0.86; sexually active: r = 0.71-0.88) were evident. Inter-scale correlations provided evidence for convergent and divergent validities of the FSFI-BC. Both sexually active and non-active women provided positive feedback about the FSFI-BC. The optional partner questions demonstrated clinical utility. With desirable psychometric properties and acceptability to participants, the FSFI-BC is suitable for screening for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer. PMID:26198992

  6. Using linked routinely collected health data to describe prostate cancer treatment in New South Wales, Australia: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Bruce K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based patterns of care studies are important for monitoring cancer care but conducting them is expensive and resource-intensive. Linkage of routinely collected administrative health data may provide an efficient alternative. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of linked routinely collected administrative data for monitoring prostate cancer care in New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Methods The NSW Prostate Cancer Care and Outcomes Study (PCOS, a population-based survey of patterns of care for men aged less than 70 years diagnosed with prostate cancer in NSW, was linked to the NSW Cancer Registry, electronic hospital discharge records and Medicare and Pharmaceutical claims data from Medicare Australia. The main outcome measures were treatment with radical prostatectomy, any radiotherapy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy or androgen deprivation therapy, and cancer staging. PCOS data were considered to represent the true treatment status. The sensitivity and specificity of the administrative data were estimated and relevant patient characteristics were compared using chi-squared tests. Results The validation data set comprised 1857 PCOS patients with treatment information linked to Cancer Registry records. Hospital and Medicare claims data combined described treatment more accurately than either one alone. The combined data accurately recorded radical prostatectomy (96% sensitivity and brachytherapy (93% sensitivity, but not androgen deprivation therapy (76% sensitivity. External beam radiotherapy was rarely captured (5% sensitivity, but this was improved by including Medicare claims for radiation field setting or dosimetry (86% sensitivity. False positive rates were near 0%. Disease stage comparisons were limited by one-third of cases having unknown stage in the Cancer Registry. Administrative data recorded treatment more accurately for cases in urban areas. Conclusions Cancer Registry and hospital inpatient

  7. Meaninglessness in terminally ill cancer patients: a validation study and nurse education intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Hisayuki; Hirai, Kei; Tamura, Keiko; Kataoka, Jun; Ohnishi, Hideki; Akizuki, Nobuya; Kurihara, Yukie; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2007-08-01

    Recent empirical studies revealed that fostering patients' perception of meaning in their life is an essential task for palliative care clinicians. However, few studies have reported the effects of training programs for nurses specifically aimed at improving skills to relieve the meaninglessness of terminally ill cancer patients, and we have had no specific measurement instruments. The primary aims of this study were 1) to validate measurement tools to quantify nurses' self-reported practice and attitudes toward caring for terminally ill cancer patients feeling meaninglessness and 2) to explore the effects of the five-hour educational workshop focusing on meaninglessness on nurses' self-reported practice, attitudes toward caring for such patients, confidence, burnout, death anxiety, and meaning of life. A quasi-experimental pre-post questionnaire survey was performed on 147 nurses. The questionnaire was distributed before the intervention workshop and one and six months after. The workshop consisted of lecture, role-play, and the exercise of assessment and care planning based on two vignette verbatim records. First, using the first questionnaire sample and an additional sample of 20 nurses for the test-retest examination, we validated a six-item Self-Reported Practice scale, and an eight-item Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaninglessness scale with three subscales (Willingness to Help, Positive Appraisal, and Helplessness). The nurses also completed a scale to assess confidence in caring for terminally ill patients with meaninglessness, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Death Attitude Inventory, the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, the Self-Reported Practice Score in General Communication, and the three pain-related items from the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing. For the Self-Reported Practice scale and the subscales of the Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaninglessness scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0

  8. Application of Autofluorescence Endoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Rationale and an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Aihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of basic researches, several intravital fluorophores have been determined so far in human colorectal tissue. Autofluorescence endoscopy (AFE can detect slight alterations in their distribution and concentration during the colorectal carcinogenesis process and, thus facilitate noninvasive screening colonoscopies without the need for fluorescent substances or staining reagents to be administered. While detecting faint autofluorescence intensity by conventional fiberoptic endoscopy remains challenging, the latest AFE system with high-resolution videoendoscope capabilities enables such detection by using a false-color display algorithm. To this end, the diagnostic benefits of AFE have been reported in several multicenter randomized controlled studies of colorectal cancer (CRC screening and differential diagnosis. CRC screening using the latest AFE technology could, therefore, lead to future reductions in CRC mortality.

  9. Biological Validation of Plant-derived Anti-human Colorectal Cancer Monoclonal Antibody CO17-1A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Arshad; Ahn, Mi-Hyun; Song, Mira; Oh, Eun-Yi; Hong, Juyeon; Choo, Young-Kug; Ko, Kinarm; Han, Yeon Soo; Oh, Seung Han; Van Der Linden, Joke; Leusen, Jeanette H. W.; Ko, Kisung

    2009-01-01

    We validated expression and biological activities of plant-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb(P)) CO17-1A for its efficacy in cancer immunotherapy. PCR and immunoblot analyses demonstrated insertion and expression of heavy and light chains of MAb CO17-1A in transgenic plants, respectively. Confocal an

  10. The validation of a simulation model incorporating radiation risk for mammography breast cancer screening in women with a hereditary-increased breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Jacobi, Cathrien E.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jansen-van der Weide MC, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: For women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation or a strong family history of breast cancer, there is no clear estimation of the risk of tumour induction versus the beneficial effects of mammography screening available. This study aims to validate the Simulation Model on Radiation Risk and br

  11. Validation of Novel Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Progression by the Combination of Bioinformatics, Clinical and Functional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Riina-Minna; Mattsson, Jesse; Li, Yifeng; Tallgrén, Terhi; Tong Ochoa, Natalia; Bjartell, Anders; Åkerfelt, Malin; Taimen, Pekka; Boström, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The identification and validation of biomarkers for clinical applications remains an important issue for improving diagnostics and therapy in many diseases, including prostate cancer. Gene expression profiles are routinely applied to identify diagnostic and predictive biomarkers or novel targets for cancer. However, only few predictive markers identified in silico have also been validated for clinical, functional or mechanistic relevance in disease progression. In this study, we have used a broad, bioinformatics-based approach to identify such biomarkers across a spectrum of progression stages, including normal and tumor-adjacent, premalignant, primary and late stage lesions. Bioinformatics data mining combined with clinical validation of biomarkers by sensitive, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), followed by functional evaluation of candidate genes in disease-relevant processes, such as cancer cell proliferation, motility and invasion. From 300 initial candidates, eight genes were selected for validation by several layers of data mining and filtering. For clinical validation, differential mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by qRT-PCR in 197 clinical prostate tissue samples including normal prostate, compared against histologically benign and cancerous tissues. Based on the qRT-PCR results, significantly different mRNA expression was confirmed in normal prostate versus malignant PCa samples (for all eight genes), but also in cancer-adjacent tissues, even in the absence of detectable cancer cells, thus pointing to the possibility of pronounced field effects in prostate lesions. For the validation of the functional properties of these genes, and to demonstrate their putative relevance for disease-relevant processes, siRNA knock-down studies were performed in both 2D and 3D organotypic cell culture models. Silencing of three genes (DLX1, PLA2G7 and RHOU) in the prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and VCaP by siRNA resulted in marked growth arrest

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) for Breast Cancer (BC) - Validation Protocol of the Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The sentinel ganglion concept originates in the assumption according to which the primary tumor drains into a specific ganglionar area and then runs through the lymphatic nodes in an orderly, sequential mode. When neoplastic dissemination along the lymphatic pathway occurs, there is an initial invasion of a specific lymph node (rarely more than one) located on the drainage route. That firstly lymph node has been identified as the sentinel node, which mirrors the regional ganglionar status. In order to establish the indication for lymphadenectomy and avoid the situations in which such a surgical procedure would be of no use (N-), the only correct method consists in the identification and biopsy of the sentinel node. Radioactive tracing and/or use of vital staining enable the identification of the regional ganglionar group towards which the primary lesion is draining. The technique of sentinel lymph node identification and biopsy by means of radioactive tracing includes: - pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy, - identification of the sentinel lymph node and its excisional biopsy, - intra-operative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical stains of the sentinel lymph node. Regional lymphadenectomy serves two major purposes: - diagnosis (axillary lymph node invasion represents an important prognostic factor) and therapeutic (to ensure local control of the disease). Regional lymph node invasion in breast cancer is directly related to the primary tumour size. In the less advanced stages (T1), as there is rarely invasion of the axillary lymph nodes, lymphadenectomy can be avoided in most cases. The paper presents the refinement of the technique, the validation of the method for the identification and biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using Tc99 and the intra-operative use of NEOPROBE 2000 gamma camera at the 'Prof. Dr. Alexandru Trestioreanu' Oncological Institute in Bucharest. 93 patients with primary breast cancer (T1, T2, N0

  13. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center’s experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27–91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3–135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia ≥Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: An Update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Koutcher, Lawrence; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Rowan, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Pfister, David G. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Nancy Y., E-mail: Leen2@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, 442 patients with histologically confirmed OPC underwent IMRT at our center. There were 379 men and 63 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 27-91). The disease was Stage I in 2%, Stage II in 4%, Stage III in 21%, and Stage IV in 73% of patients. The primary tumor subsite was tonsil in 50%, base of tongue in 46%, pharyngeal wall in 3%, and soft palate in 2%. The median prescription dose to the planning target volume of the gross tumor was 70 Gy for definitive (n = 412) cases and 66 Gy for postoperative cases (n = 30). A total 404 patients (91%) received chemotherapy, including 389 (88%) who received concurrent chemotherapy, the majority of which was platinum-based. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 36.8 months (range, 3-135). The 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 5.4%, 5.6%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 84.9%. The incidence of late dysphagia and late xerostomia {>=}Grade 2 was 11% and 29%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of IMRT in achieving excellent locoregional control and low rates of xerostomia. According to our knowledge, this study is the largest report of patients treated with IMRT for OPC.

  15. Validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Flávia Oliveira de Almeida Marques; Ferreira, Elaine Barros; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: develop the content and face validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy. Method: descriptive methodological research. The Theory of Psychometrics was used for the validation process, developed by 15 experts in the theme area of the educative manual and by two language and publicity professionals. A minimum agreement level of 80% was considered to guarantee the validity of the material. Results: the items addressed in the assessment tool of the educative manual were divided in three blocks: objectives, structure and format, and relevance. Only one item, related to the sociocultural level of the target public, obtained an agreement rate educative manual proposed were attended to. This can contribute to the understanding of the therapeutic process the head and neck cancer patient is submitted to during the radiation therapy, besides supporting clinical practice through the nursing consultation. PMID:27305178

  16. Polymorphism in IGFBP3 gene is associated with prostate cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Yunkai; Nian, Xuewu; Liu, Xuesen; Hu, Hailong; Zhang, Changwen; Xie, Linguo; Han, Ruifa; Wu, Changli; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) is the major protein that binds with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and is considered to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers. We aimed to examine the association between prostate cancer (PCa) and the IGFBP3 gene-202A/C polymorphism. Methods A comprehensive search within PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted to identify all case–control studies up to October 30, 2015, for a meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed or random effects model. Results Eighteen studies including 10,538 cases and 10,078 controls were identified. Overall, the CC genotype of IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism was associated with increased risk of PCa in homozygote comparison (CC vs AA − OR =1.16, 95% CI: 1.08–1.25) and in recessive model (CC vs AA+AC − OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.04–1.17). In dominant model, the CC/AC genotypes also implicated an increased risk of PCa (CC+AC vs AA − OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.05–1.19). The C allele of IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism was the risk allele for PCa relative to the A allele (OR =1.09, 95% CI: 1.05–1.14). Further stratification analysis revealed that the association between –202A/C polymorphism and PCa risk among Caucasians, but not in other ethnicities, was statistically significant (recessive model, OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.19). In addition, the IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism was associated with PCa risk in both population-based and hospital-based studies in homozygote comparison, recessive model, and allele model. Conclusion Our meta-analysis indicates that the IGFBP3-202A/C polymorphism is associated with the risk of PCa, particularly in Caucasians, with the C allele being the risk allele for PCa. PMID:27462171

  17. A clinical-molecular update on azanucleoside-based therapy for the treatment of hematologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesch, Jeannine; Zwick, Anabel; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Palau, Anna; Buschbeck, Marcus; Götze, Katharina S

    2016-01-01

    The azanucleosides azacitidine and decitabine are currently used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in patients not only eligible for intensive chemotherapy but are also being explored in other hematologic and solid cancers. Based on their capacity to interfere with the DNA methylation machinery, these drugs are also referred to as hypomethylating agents (HMAs). As DNA methylation contributes to epigenetic regulation, azanucleosides are further considered to be among the first true "epigenetic drugs" that have reached clinical application. However, intriguing new evidence suggests that DNA hypomethylation is not the only mechanism of action for these drugs. This review summarizes the experience from more than 10 years of clinical practice with azanucleosides and discusses their molecular actions, including several not related to DNA methylation. A particular focus is placed on possible causes of primary and acquired resistances to azanucleoside treatment. We highlight current limitations for the success and durability of azanucleoside-based therapy and illustrate that a better understanding of the molecular determinants of drug response holds great potential to overcome resistance. PMID:27330573

  18. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer in the era of aromatase inhibitors: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Ramia; Karat, Isabella; Mokbel, Kefah

    2006-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women should include a third generation aromatase inhibitor (AI). On current evidence, adjuvant anstrozole or letrozole should be used upfront in such patients especially in those with high risk disease (node positive and/or tumours > 2 cm). The sequential approach of tamoxifen for 2-3 years followed by exemestane or anastrozole for 2-3 years is a reasonable alternative to 5 years of AI monotherapy in patients with low risk disease (node negative and tumour smaller than 2 cm) especially if the tumour is positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors.Node-positive patients completing 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen should be offered letrozole for up 48 months. Further research is required to establish the long-term cardiovascular safety of AIs especially that of letrozole and exmestane, the optimal AI to use, duration of AI therapy and whether monotherapy with an AI for 5 years is superior to sequencing an AI after 2-3 years of tamoxifen. The bone mineral density (BMD) should be measured at baseline and monitored during therapy in women being treated with AIs. Anti-osteoporosis agents should such as bisphosphonates should be considered in patients at high risk of bone fractures. PMID:16981992

  19. Second primary cancer following Hodgkin's disease: Updated results of an Italian multicentric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of second primary cancer (SPC) was evaluated in 947 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD) during the period January 1969 to December 1979. The median follow-up of this series was 10.5 years (range, 9 to 19). Treatment categories included radiotherapy (RT) alone (115 patients, 12%), chemotherapy (CHT) alone (161 patients, 17%), combined RT plus CHT (381 patients, 40%), and salvage treatment for resistant or relapsing HD (290 patients, 30.6%). Fifty-six SPCs were observed, occurring between 1 and 17 years from initial treatment. Among these, secondary acute nonlymphoid leukemia (s-ANLL) was the most frequent SPC (23 cases). Secondary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (s-NHL) occurred in 5 patients, whereas a secondary solid tumor (s-ST) was observed in 28 patients. The calculated actuarial risk (+/- SE) of developing SPC was 5.0% (+/- 0.9%) and 23.1% (+/- 5.8%) at 10 and 19 years, respectively. Concerning treatment modalities and s-ANLL risk, no cases were observed in the radiotherapy group, whereas CHT plus RT and salvage groups showed the highest actuarial risk. This was, in fact, at 10 and 19 years, 3.1% (+/- 0.9%) and 8.1% (+/- 4.0%) in the former group, and 1.8% (+/- 1.0%) and 16% (+/- 9.0%) in the latter. A statistically significant difference was observed when the CHT plus RT group was compared with CHT and RT groups (P = .04). Concerning the relationships with chemotherapeutic regimens, 12 s-ANLL cases occurred in the mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) plus RT group, and only one case in the group receiving doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) plus RT. A statistically significant difference of s-ANLL actuarial risk was found comparing patients receiving MOPP plus RT to all other treatment groups (P = .04)

  20. Decentral gene expression analysis: analytical validation of the Endopredict genomic multianalyte breast cancer prognosis test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronenwett Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EndoPredict (EP is a clinically validated multianalyte gene expression test to predict distant metastasis in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy alone. The test is based on the combined analysis of 12 genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Recently, it was shown that EP is feasible for reliable decentralized assessment of gene expression. The aim of this study was the analytical validation of the performance characteristics of the assay and its verification in a molecular-pathological routine laboratory. Methods Gene expression values to calculate the EP score were assayed by one-step RT-qPCR using RNA from FFPE tumor tissue. Limit of blank, limit of detection, linear range, and PCR efficiency were assessed for each of the 12 PCR assays using serial samples dilutions. Different breast cancer samples were used to evaluate RNA input range, precision and inter-laboratory variability. Results PCR assays were linear up to Cq values between 35.1 and 37.2. Amplification efficiencies ranged from 75% to 101%. The RNA input range without considerable change of the EP score was between 0.16 and 18.5 ng/μl. Analysis of precision (variation of day, day time, instrument, operator, reagent lots resulted in a total noise (standard deviation of 0.16 EP score units on a scale from 0 to 15. The major part of the total noise (SD 0.14 was caused by the replicate-to-replicate noise of the PCR assays (repeatability and was not associated with different operating conditions (reproducibility. Performance characteristics established in the manufacturer’s laboratory were verified in a routine molecular pathology laboratory. Comparison of 10 tumor samples analyzed in two different laboratories showed a Pearson coefficient of 0.995 and a mean deviation of 0.15 score units. Conclusions The EP test showed reproducible performance

  1. Decentral gene expression analysis: analytical validation of the Endopredict genomic multianalyte breast cancer prognosis test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EndoPredict (EP) is a clinically validated multianalyte gene expression test to predict distant metastasis in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy alone. The test is based on the combined analysis of 12 genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Recently, it was shown that EP is feasible for reliable decentralized assessment of gene expression. The aim of this study was the analytical validation of the performance characteristics of the assay and its verification in a molecular-pathological routine laboratory. Gene expression values to calculate the EP score were assayed by one-step RT-qPCR using RNA from FFPE tumor tissue. Limit of blank, limit of detection, linear range, and PCR efficiency were assessed for each of the 12 PCR assays using serial samples dilutions. Different breast cancer samples were used to evaluate RNA input range, precision and inter-laboratory variability. PCR assays were linear up to Cq values between 35.1 and 37.2. Amplification efficiencies ranged from 75% to 101%. The RNA input range without considerable change of the EP score was between 0.16 and 18.5 ng/μl. Analysis of precision (variation of day, day time, instrument, operator, reagent lots) resulted in a total noise (standard deviation) of 0.16 EP score units on a scale from 0 to 15. The major part of the total noise (SD 0.14) was caused by the replicate-to-replicate noise of the PCR assays (repeatability) and was not associated with different operating conditions (reproducibility). Performance characteristics established in the manufacturer’s laboratory were verified in a routine molecular pathology laboratory. Comparison of 10 tumor samples analyzed in two different laboratories showed a Pearson coefficient of 0.995 and a mean deviation of 0.15 score units. The EP test showed reproducible performance characteristics with good precision and negligible laboratory

  2. PET-Based Treatment Response Evaluation in Rectal Cancer: Prediction and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a positron emission tomography (PET)-based response prediction model to differentiate pathological responders from nonresponders. The predictive strength of the model was validated in a second patient group, treated and imaged identical to the patients on which the predictive model was based. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one rectal cancer patients were prospectively included in this study. All patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT) imaging both before the start of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and after 2 weeks of treatment. Preoperative treatment with CRT was followed by a total mesorectal excision. From the resected specimen, the tumor regression grade (TRG) was scored according to the Mandard criteria. From one patient group (n = 30), the metabolic treatment response was correlated with the pathological treatment response, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based cutoff value for the reduction of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) within the tumor to differentiate pathological responders (TRG 1–2) from nonresponders (TRG 3–5). The applicability of the selected cutoff value for new patients was validated in a second patient group (n = 21). Results: When correlating the metabolic and pathological treatment response for the first patient group using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.98), a cutoff value of 48% SUVmax reduction was selected to differentiate pathological responders from nonresponders (specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 64%). Applying this cutoff value to the second patient group resulted in a specificity and sensitivity of, respectively, 93% and 83%, with only one of the pathological nonresponders being false positively predicted as pathological responding. Conclusions: For rectal cancer, an accurate PET-based prediction of the pathological treatment response is feasible already after 2 weeks of CRT. The presented predictive model could be used to select

  3. A multicenter, cross-platform clinical validation study of cancer cytogenomic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Marilyn M; Monzon, Federico A; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Laffin, Jennifer J; Levy, Brynn; Leon, Annette; Miron, Patricia; Rossi, Michael R; Toruner, Gokce; Alvarez, Karla; Doho, Gregory; Dougherty, Margaret J; Hu, Xiaofeng; Kash, Shera; Streck, Deanna; Znoyko, Iya; Hagenkord, Jill M; Wolff, Daynna J

    2015-11-01

    Cytogenomic microarray analysis (CMA) offers high resolution, genome-wide copy number information and is widely used in clinical laboratories for diagnosis of constitutional abnormalities. The Cancer Genomics Consortium (CGC) conducted a multiplatform, multicenter clinical validation project to compare the reliability and inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of this technology for clinical oncology applications. Four specimen types were processed on three different microarray platforms-from Affymetrix, Agilent, and Illumina. Each microarray platform was employed at two independent test sites. The results were compared in a blinded manner with current standard methods, including karyotype, FISH, or morphology. Twenty-nine chronic lymphocytic leukemia blood, 34 myelodysplastic syndrome bone marrow, and 30 fresh frozen renal epithelial tumor samples were assessed by all six laboratories. Thirty formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal tumor samples were analyzed at the Affymetrix and Agilent test sites only. All study samples were initial diagnostic samples. Array data were analyzed at each participating site and were submitted to caArray for central analysis. Laboratory interpretive results were submitted to the central analysis team for comparison with the standard-of-care assays and for calculation of intraplatform reproducibility and cross-platform concordance. The results demonstrated that the three microarray platforms 1) detect clinically actionable genomic changes in cancer compatible to standard-of-care methods; 2) further define cytogenetic aberrations; 3) identify submicroscopic alterations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH); and 4) yield consistent results within and between laboratories. Based on this study, the CGC concludes that CMA is a sensitive and reliable technique for copy number and LOH assessment that may be used for clinical oncology genomic analysis. PMID:26454669

  4. The value of TOP2A gene copy number variation as a biomarker in breast cancer: Update of DBCG trial 89D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.V.; Ejlertsen, B.; Moller, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of TOP2A and HER2 in the Danish Breast Cancer Coopererative Group (DBCG) trial 89D suggested that TOP2A amplifications and possible also deletions are predictive markers for the effect of adjuvant epirubicin in patients with primary breast cancer. We present an updated...... and extended statistical analysis, requested for IVD-labeling of TOP2A testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the DBCG trial 89D 980 Danish patients were randomly assigned to nine cycles of intravenous CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) or CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and...... patients with primary breast cancer, favoring treatment with epirubicin in patients with TOP2A amplifications, and perhaps deletions. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact importance of TOP2A deletions on outcome, but deletions have proven to be associated with a very poor prognosis...

  5. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 6Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 7Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 8Youth Cancer Service SA/NT, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer commonly experience elevated levels of distress. Routinely administered distress screening tools can be effective in identifying individuals in need of referral to psychosocial services. The distress thermometer and problem checklist are widely used screening tools that have been validated among some cancer populations, but which have not to date been validated for use among AYAs with cancer. The primary aim of this study is to validate the distress thermometer and a modified problem checklist for use with AYA cancer patients, aged 15–25 years. Specifically, we aim to 1 determine appropriate cutoffs for clinical referral on the distress thermometer; 2 investigate the content validity of the modified problem checklist; and 3 assess the clinical utility of the tool from the perspectives of both patients and health care professionals. The secondary aims of the study are to 4 establish prevalence and predictors of distress in AYA cancer patients and 5 examine the

  6. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' α. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented successfully in

  7. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' {alpha}. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented

  8. Visual inspection with acetic acid as a cervical cancer test: accuracy validated using latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath John A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of an alternative cervical cancer test – visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA – by addressing possible imperfections in the gold standard through latent class analysis (LCA. The data were originally collected at peri-urban health clinics in Zimbabwe. Methods Conventional accuracy (sensitivity/specificity estimates for VIA and two other screening tests using colposcopy/biopsy as the reference standard were compared to LCA estimates based on results from all four tests. For conventional analysis, negative colposcopy was accepted as a negative outcome when biopsy was not available as the reference standard. With LCA, local dependencies between tests were handled through adding direct effect parameters or additional latent classes to the model. Results Two models yielded good fit to the data, a 2-class model with two adjustments and a 3-class model with one adjustment. The definition of latent disease associated with the latter was more stringent, backed by three of the four tests. Under that model, sensitivity for VIA (abnormal+ was 0.74 compared to 0.78 with conventional analyses. Specificity was 0.639 versus 0.568, respectively. By contrast, the LCA-derived sensitivity for colposcopy/biopsy was 0.63. Conclusion VIA sensitivity and specificity with the 3-class LCA model were within the range of published data and relatively consistent with conventional analyses, thus validating the original assessment of test accuracy. LCA probably yielded more likely estimates of the true accuracy than did conventional analysis with in-country colposcopy/biopsy as the reference standard. Colpscopy with biopsy can be problematic as a study reference standard and LCA offers the possibility of obtaining estimates adjusted for referent imperfections.

  9. Gene expression classification of colon cancer into molecular subtypes: characterization, validation, and prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Marisa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CC pathological staging fails to accurately predict recurrence, and to date, no gene expression signature has proven reliable for prognosis stratification in clinical practice, perhaps because CC is a heterogeneous disease. The aim of this study was to establish a comprehensive molecular classification of CC based on mRNA expression profile analyses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fresh-frozen primary tumor samples from a large multicenter cohort of 750 patients with stage I to IV CC who underwent surgery between 1987 and 2007 in seven centers were characterized for common DNA alterations, including BRAF, KRAS, and TP53 mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype, mismatch repair status, and chromosomal instability status, and were screened with whole genome and transcriptome arrays. 566 samples fulfilled RNA quality requirements. Unsupervised consensus hierarchical clustering applied to gene expression data from a discovery subset of 443 CC samples identified six molecular subtypes. These subtypes were associated with distinct clinicopathological characteristics, molecular alterations, specific enrichments of supervised gene expression signatures (stem cell phenotype-like, normal-like, serrated CC phenotype-like, and deregulated signaling pathways. Based on their main biological characteristics, we distinguished a deficient mismatch repair subtype, a KRAS mutant subtype, a cancer stem cell subtype, and three chromosomal instability subtypes, including one associated with down-regulated immune pathways, one with up-regulation of the Wnt pathway, and one displaying a normal-like gene expression profile. The classification was validated in the remaining 123 samples plus an independent set of 1,058 CC samples, including eight public datasets. Furthermore, prognosis was analyzed in the subset of stage II-III CC samples. The subtypes C4 and C6, but not the subtypes C1, C2, C3, and C5, were independently associated with shorter relapse

  10. Validation of the memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center nomogram to predict disease-specific survival after R0 resection in a Chinese gastric cancer population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglai Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prediction of disease-specific survival (DSS for individual patient with gastric cancer after R0 resection remains a clinical concern. Since the clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric cancer vary widely between China and western countries, this study is to evaluate a nomogram from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC for predicting the probability of DSS in patients with gastric cancer from a Chinese cohort. METHODS: From 1998 to 2007, clinical data of 979 patients with gastric cancer who underwent R0 resection were retrospectively collected from Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute and used for external validation. The performance of the MSKCC nomogram in our population was assessed using concordance index (C-index and calibration plot. RESULTS: The C-index for the MSKCC predictive nomogram was 0.74 in the Chinese cohort, compared with 0.69 for American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC staging system (P<0.0001. This suggests that the discriminating value of MSKCC nomogram is superior to AJCC staging system for prognostic prediction in the Chinese population. Calibration plots showed that the actual survival of Chinese patients corresponded closely to the MSKCC nonogram-predicted survival probabilities. Moreover, MSKCC nomogram predictions demonstrated the heterogeneity of survival in stage IIA/IIB/IIIA/IIIB disease of the Chinese patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, we externally validated MSKCC nomogram for predicting the probability of 5- and 9-year DSS after R0 resection for gastric cancer in a Chinese population. The MSKCC nomogram performed well with good discrimination and calibration. The MSKCC nomogram improved individualized predictions of survival, and may assist Chinese clinicians and patients in individual follow-up scheduling, and decision making with regard to various treatment options.

  11. Portuguese validation of the Symptom Inventory of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Cristina Bernat Kolankiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the reliability and validity of the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the instrument for symptom assessment, titled MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - core. Method A cross-sectional study with 268 cancer patients in outpatient treatment, in the municipality of Ijuí, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the MDASI general, symptoms and interferences was respectively (0.857, (0.784 and (0.794. The factor analysis showed adequacy of the data (0.792. In total, were identified four factors of the principal components related to the symptoms. Factor I: sleep problems, distress (upset, difficulties in remembering things and sadness. Factor II: dizziness, nausea, lack of appetite and vomiting. Factor III: drowsiness, dry mouth, numbness and tingling. Factor IV: pain, fatigue and shortness of breath. A single factor was revealed in the component of interferences with life (0.780, with prevalence of activity in general (59.7%, work (54.9% and walking (49.3%. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - core showed adequate psychometric properties in the studied population.

  12. Development and Validation of a Prediction Model to Estimate Individual Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ami; Woo, Sang Myung; Joo, Jungnam; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Woo Jin; Park, Sang-Jae; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is no reliable screening tool to identify people with high risk of developing pancreatic cancer even though pancreatic cancer represents the fifth-leading cause of cancer-related death in Korea. The goal of this study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model that can be used to screen for asymptomatic pancreatic cancer in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods Gender-specific risk prediction models for pancreatic cancer were developed using the Cox propor...

  13. Validation of a questionnaire for self-rating of urological and gynaecological morbidity after treatment of gynaecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Patient self-assessment of symptom severity provides clinicians and researchers with important information. It is crucial to evaluate the validity of a self-assessment questionnaire in the context of its intended use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the uro-gynaecological questionnaire (UGQ), a new instrument for patient self-assessment of urological-, genital-, menopausal-, and pain symptomatology in gynaecological cancer patients. Material and methods: The UGQ was developed after literature review, patient- and expert interviews and pilot testing. From February 1992 to October 1992, 88 gynaecological cancer patients were invited to participate in a validation study after the initiation of their primary radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The method of validation investigated whether patients and researchers interpreted the items of the questionnaire in the same way. The patient's written response before interview was compared with an observer rating of the patient's open-ended audio-taped responses to the same questionnaire, administered as an interview. Qualitative recordings by the observer were made to describe potential misinterpretations. Results: The agreement between the patient's and the observer's ratings was high: the median overall agreement was 0.91 (range 0.71-1.00) and the median kappa was 0.88 (range 0.45-1.00). The quantitative and the qualitative results identified a few minor validity problems; especially, the issue of selective reporting, i.e. some patients only reporting those symptoms they considered relevant for the study, which may lead to systematic errors. Conclusions: The results strongly suggest that patients interpret the UGQ items as intended, i.e. they are valid. The UGQ is recommended for patient self-assessment of uro-gynaecological morbidity in gynaecological cancer patients

  14. Development and Validation of the Korean Version of Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite: Questionnaire Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life after Prostate Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jung Jun; Lim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although the quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer (PCa) patients is a major issue, there is no unified and useful methodology for assessing QoL. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) is a globally used tool to measure QoL after PCa treatment that comprises urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal domains. Acknowledging the need for such a tool applicable to Korean PCa patients, we translated EPIC into Korean and validated the new version. Materials and Methods The Korean...

  15. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Jin-You Wang; Yi-Jun Shen; Bo Dai; Chun-Guang Ma; Wen-Jun Xiao; Guo-Wen Lin; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several prediction models have been developed to estimate the outcomes of prostate biopsies.Most of these teels were designed for use with Western populations and have not been validated across different ethnic groups.Therefore,we evaluated the predictive value of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in a Chinese cohort.Clinicopathological information was obtained from 495 Chinese men who had undergone extended prostate biopsies between January 2009 and March 2011.The estimated probabilities of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason >6) were calculated using the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators.Overall measures,discrimination,calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed for the model evaluation.Of these patients,28.7% were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 19.4% had high-grade disease.Compared to the PCPT model and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of 4 ng ml-1,the ERSPC risk calculator exhibited better discriminative ability for predicting positive biopsies and high-grade disease (the area under the curve was 0.831 and 0.852,respectively,P<0.01 for both).Decision curve analysis also suggested the favourable clinical utility of the ERSPC calculator in the validation dataset.Both prediction models demonstrated miscalibration:the risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease was overestimated by approximately 20% for a wide range of predicted probabilities.In conclusion,the ERSPC risk calculator outperformed both the PCPT model and the PSA threshold of 4 ng ml-1 in predicting prostate cancer and high-grade disease in Chinese patients.However,the prediction tools derived from Western men significantly overestimated the probability of prostate cancer and high-grade disease compared to the outcomes of biopsies in a Chinese cohort.

  16. External validation of nomograms for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients treated with definitive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Zhu; Wei-Jie Gu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen

    2014-01-01

    Using a population-based cancer registry, Thuret et al. developed 3 nomograms for estimating cancer-specific mortality in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma. In the initial cohort, only 23.0% of the patients were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy and had pN stage. To generalize the prediction models in clinical practice, we evaluated the performance of the 3 nomograms in a series of penile cancer patients who were treated with definitive surgery. Clinicopathologic information was obt...

  17. Four clinically utilized drugs were identified and validated for treatment of adrenocortical cancer using quantitative high-throughput screening

    OpenAIRE

    Nilubol Naris; Zhang Lisa; Shen Min; Zhang Ya-Qin; He Mei; Austin Christopher P; Kebebew Electron

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an emerging approach to discover clinically approved drugs that demonstrate antineoplastic effect. The effective therapeutics for patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma(ACC) are greatly needed. The objective of this study was to identify and validate drugs with antineoplastic effect in ACC cells using a novel quantitative high-throughput drug screening (qHTS) technique. Methods A quantitative high-throughput proliferation a...

  18. Validation of Six Nomograms for Predicting Non-sentinel Lymph Node Metastases in a Dutch Breast Cancer Population

    OpenAIRE

    Dingemans, Siem A; de Rooij, Peter D.; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M.; Budel, Leo M.; Contant, Caroline M.; van der Pool, Anne E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The usefulness of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with positive sentinel nodes (SN) is still an ongoing debate. Several nomograms have been developed for predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastases (NSLNM). We validated six nomograms using data from 10 years of breast cancer surgery in our hospital. Methods We retrospectively analyzed all patients with a proven breast malignancy and a SN procedure between 2001 and 2011 in our hospital. Results Data from 1084 pat...

  19. Validating drug repurposing signals using electronic health records: a case study of metformin associated with reduced cancer mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hua; Aldrich, Melinda C; Chen, Qingxia; Liu, Hongfang; Peterson, Neeraja B.; Dai, Qi; Levy, Mia; Shah, Anushi; Han, Xue; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Min; Ying LI; Julien, Jamii St.; Warner, Jeremy; Friedman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Drug repurposing, which finds new indications for existing drugs, has received great attention recently. The goal of our work is to assess the feasibility of using electronic health records (EHRs) and automated informatics methods to efficiently validate a recent drug repurposing association of metformin with reduced cancer mortality. Methods By linking two large EHRs from Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Mayo Clinic to their tumor registries, we constructed a cohort includ...

  20. Translation and validation of European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life Questionnaire -C30 into Moroccan version for cancer patients in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of cancer on the quality of life of affected patients is critical to clinical research as well as to optimal management and care. The aim of this study was to adapt the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire into Moroccan Arabic and to determine its psychometric properties. After translation, back translation and pretesting of the pre-final version, the translated version was submitted to a committee of professionals composed by oncologists and epidemiologists. The psychometric properties were tested in patients with cancer. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and the test-retest reliability using interclass correlation coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by examining item-convergent and divergent validity. It was also tested using Spearman’s correlation between QLQ-C30 scales and EQ-5D. Results The study was conducted in 125 patients. The Moroccan version was internally reliable, Cronbach’s α was 0.87 for the total scale and ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 for the subscales. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.64 for “social functioning” to 0.89 for “physical activities” subscales. The instrument demonstrated a good construct and concomitant validity. Conclusions We have developed a semantically equivalent translation with cultural adaptation of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The assessment of its measurement properties showed that it is quite reliable and a valid measure of the effect of cancer on the quality of life in Moroccan patients. PMID:24721384

  1. Validation of the Kattan preoperative nomogram for prostate cancer recurrence using a community based cohort: Results from cancer of the prostate strategic urological research endeavor (CaPSURE)

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, KL; Meng, MV; Elkin, EP; Cooperberg, MR; Pasta, DJ; Kattan, MW; Wallace, K.; Carroll, PR

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The Kattan preoperative nomogram combines preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason grade and clinical stage to estimate disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Several studies using patient data from academic centers have validated the nomogram. We assessed the performance of the Kattan nomogram using the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urological Research Endeavor database, a national, largely community based observational disease registry. Materials and...

  2. Validity, reliability and responsiveness to change of the Italian palliative care outcome scale:A multicenter study of advanced cancer patients Cancer palliative care

    OpenAIRE

    COSTANTINI, MASSIMO; Rabitti, Elisa; Beccaro, Monica; Fusco, Flavio; Peruselli, Carlo; La Ciura, Pietro; Valle, Alessandro; Suriani, Cinzia; Berardi, Maria Alejandra; Valenti, Danila; Mosso, Felicita; Morino, Piero; Zaninetta, Giovanni; Tubere, Giorgio; Piazza, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing requirement to assess outcomes, but few measures have been tested for advanced medical illness. We aimed to test the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS), and to analyse predictors of change after the transition to palliative care. Methods Phase 1: multicentre, mixed method study comprising cognitive and qualitative interviews with patients and staff, cultural refinement and adaption. Phase 2: consecutive cancer ...

  3. Measuring and Validating a General Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale: An Adaptation of the Revised-IPQ-Genetic Predisposition Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wing Tak Lam

    Full Text Available Illness perceptions are linked to individual help-seeking and preventive behaviors. Previous illness perception studies have identified five dimensions of illness-related experience and behaviour. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R for genetic predisposition (IPQ-R-GP was developed to measure illness perceptions in those genetically-predisposed to blood disease. We adapted the IPQ-R-GP to measure perceptions of generalized cancer predisposition. This paper describes the development and validation of the Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale (CPPS.The draft CPPS scale was first administered to 167 well Hepatitis B carriers and 123 other healthy individuals and the factor structure was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Then the factor structure was confirmed in a second sample comprising 148 healthy controls, 150 smokers and 152 passive smokers using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA.Six-factors comprising 26 items provided optimal fit by eigen and scree-plot methods, accounting for 58.9% of the total variance. CFA indicated good fit of the six-factor model after further excluding three items. The six factors, Emotional representation (5 items, Illness coherence (4 items, Treatment control (3 items, Consequences (5 items, Internal locus of control (2 items and External locus of control (4 items demonstrated adequate-to-good subscale internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.63-0.90. Divergent validity was suggested by low correlations with optimism, self-efficacy, and scales for measuring physical and psychological health symptoms.The CPPS appears to be a valid measure of perceived predisposition to generic cancer risks and can be used to examine cancer-risk-related cognitions in individuals at higher and lower cancer risk.

  4. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  5. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jinqin; Xie, Tianwu; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning.

  6. Red bone marrow dose calculations in radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the updated VCH adult male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red bone marrow (RBM) is an important dose-limiting tissue that has high radiosensitivity but is difficult to identify on clinical medical images. In this study, we investigated dose distribution in RBM for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Four suborgans were identified in the skeleton of the visible Chinese human phantom: cortical bone (CB), trabecular bone (TB), RBM, and yellow bone marrow (YBM). Dose distributions in the phantom were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. When the left os coxae was taken as the organ-at-risk (OAR), the difference in absorbed dose between RBM and each CB and TB was up to 20%, but was much less (≤3.1%) between RBM and YBM. When the left os coxae and entire bone were both taken as OARs, RBM dose also increased with increasing planning target volume size. The results indicate the validity of using dose to homogeneous bone marrow mixture for estimating dose to RBM when RBM is not available in computational phantoms. In addition, the human skeletal system developed in this study provides a model for considering RBM dose in radiotherapy planning. (paper)

  7. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;

    2011-01-01

    for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about......Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  8. Predictive accuracy of the PanCan lung cancer risk prediction model - external validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. From the DLCST database, 1,152 nodules from 718 participants were included. Parsimonious and full PanCan risk prediction models were applied to DLCST data, and also coefficients of the model were recalculated using DLCST data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate risk discrimination. AUCs of 0.826-0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were significant predictors and could be included in the parsimonious model. Sex appears to be a less useful predictor. (orig.)

  9. Predictive accuracy of the PanCan lung cancer risk prediction model - external validation based on CT from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Riel, Sarah J. van; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst T.; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Saghir, Zaigham [Herlev Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herlev (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hohwue Thomsen, Laura [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Skovgaard, Lene T. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Biostatistics, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Lung cancer risk models should be externally validated to test generalizability and clinical usefulness. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) is a population-based prospective cohort study, used to assess the discriminative performances of the PanCan models. From the DLCST database, 1,152 nodules from 718 participants were included. Parsimonious and full PanCan risk prediction models were applied to DLCST data, and also coefficients of the model were recalculated using DLCST data. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate risk discrimination. AUCs of 0.826-0.870 were found for DLCST data based on PanCan risk prediction models. In the DLCST, age and family history were significant predictors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013). Female sex was not confirmed to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer; in fact opposing effects of sex were observed in the two cohorts. Thus, female sex appeared to lower the risk (p = 0.047 and p = 0.040) in the DLCST. High risk discrimination was validated in the DLCST cohort, mainly determined by nodule size. Age and family history of lung cancer were significant predictors and could be included in the parsimonious model. Sex appears to be a less useful predictor. (orig.)

  10. Prostate cancer-specific anxiety in Dutch patients on active surveillance: validation of the memorial anxiety scale for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C.N. van den Bergh; I.J. Korfage; G.J.J.M. Borsboom; E.W. Steyerberg; M.L. Essink-Bot

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Men with prostate cancer (PC) may show specific disease-related anxiety. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Dutch adaptation of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). METHODS: The MAX-PC was translated using standardized forward-backward procedures. Patients (

  11. Four clinically utilized drugs were identified and validated for treatment of adrenocortical cancer using quantitative high-throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilubol Naris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an emerging approach to discover clinically approved drugs that demonstrate antineoplastic effect. The effective therapeutics for patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma(ACC are greatly needed. The objective of this study was to identify and validate drugs with antineoplastic effect in ACC cells using a novel quantitative high-throughput drug screening (qHTS technique. Methods A quantitative high-throughput proliferation assay of 2,816 clinically approved drugs was performed in the NCI-H295R ACC cell line. We validated the antiproliferative effect of candidate compounds in NCI-H295R cells. Further validation was performed in 3-dimensional multicellular aggregates (MCA of NCI-H295R and SW-13 cell lines. Results We identified 79 active compounds against ACC cells; 21 had an efficacy ≥60% and IC50 50. Methotrexate inhibited growth and caused disintegration of MCA in both cell lines at concentrations well below the maximum serum level (10 to 100 fold of IC50. Pyrimethamine caused growth inhibition in both cell lines at 10 fold of IC50 concentration. Conclusions qHTS of previously approved compounds is an effective and efficient method to identify anticancer drugs for a rare cancer such as ACC. We have validated the antineoplastic effect of Bortezomib, ouabain, Methotrexate and pyrimethamine, which could be translated into clinical trials in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic ACC.

  12. Discovery and validation of an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (INPROGAS) using antibody microarray-based oncoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Costa, Manuel; Codina-Cazador, Antonio; Cortés-Pastoret, Elisabet; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Flaquer, Sílvia; Llopis-Puigmarti, Francesca; Pujol-Amado, Eulalia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Ortiz, Rosa; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Queralt, Bernardo; Guardeño, Raquel; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Roig, Josep; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to improve gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis by identifying and validating an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (hereafter INPROGAS) using low-cost affinity proteomics. The detection of 120 cytokines, 43 angiogenic factors, 41 growth factors, 40 inflammatory factors and 10 metalloproteinases was performed using commercially available human antibody microarray-based arrays. We identified 21 inflammation-related proteins (INPROGAS) with significant differences in expression between GC tissues and normal gastric mucosa in a discovery cohort of matched pairs (n=10) of tumor/normal gastric tissues. Ingenuity pathway analysis confirmed the “inflammatory response”, “cellular movement” and “immune cell trafficking” as the most overrepresented biofunctions within INPROGAS. Using an expanded independent validation cohort (n = 22), INPROGAS classified gastric samples as “GC” or “non-GC” with a sensitivity of 82% (95% CI 59-94) and a specificity of 73% (95% CI 49-89). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value in this validation cohort were 75% (95% CI 53-90) and 80% (95% CI 56-94), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value in this validation cohort were 75% (95% CI 53-90) and 80% (95% CI 56-94), respectively. Antibody microarray analyses of the GC-associated inflammatory proteome identified a 21-protein INPROGAS that accurately discriminated GC from noncancerous gastric mucosa. PMID:24722433

  13. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample.   Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA. Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed.   Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995. When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977 and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975.   Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends.

  14. Estimating and validating disability-adjusted life years at the global level: a methodological framework for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soerjomataram Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs link data on disease occurrence to health outcomes, and they are a useful aid in establishing country-specific agendas regarding cancer control. The variables required to compute DALYs are however multiple and not readily available in many countries. We propose a methodology that derives global DALYs and validate variables and DALYs based on data from various cancer registries. Methods We estimated DALYs for four countries (Norway, Bulgaria, India and Uganda within each category of the human development index (HDI. The following sources (indicators were used: Globocan2008 (incidence and mortality, various cancer registries (proportion cured, proportion treated and duration of disease, treatment guidelines (duration of treatment, specific burden of disease studies (sequelae and disability weights, alongside expert opinion. We obtained country-specific population estimates and identified resource levels using the HDI, DALYs are computed as the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disabilities. Results Using mortality:incidence ratios to estimate country-specific survival, and by applying the human development index we derived country-specific estimates of the proportion cured and the proportion treated. The fit between the estimates and observed data from the cancer registries was relatively good. The final DALY estimates were similar to those computed using observed values in Norway, and in WHO’s earlier global burden of disease study. Marked cross-country differences in the patterns of DALYs by cancer sites were observed. In Norway and Bulgaria, breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer were the main contributors to DALYs, representing 54% and 45%, respectively, of the totals. These cancers contributed only 27% and 18%, respectively, of total DALYs in India and Uganda. Conclusions Our approach resulted in a series of variables that can be used to estimate country

  15. External validation of nomograms for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients treated with definitive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Wei-Jie Gu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen

    2014-01-01

    Using a population-based cancer registry, Thuret et al. developed 3 nomograms for estimating cancer-specific mortality in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma. In the initial cohort, only 23.0% of the patients were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy and had pN stage. To generalize the prediction models in clinical practice, we evaluated the performance of the 3 nomograms in a series of penile cancer patients who were treated with definitive surgery. Clinicopathologic information was obtained from 160 M0 penile cancer patients who underwent primary tumor excision and regional lymphadenectomy between 1990 and 2008. The predicted probabilities of cancer-specific mortality were calculated from 3 nomograms that were based on different disease stage definitions and tumor grade. Discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed to compare model performance. The discrimination ability was similar in nomograms using the TNM classification or American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (Harrell’s concordance index = 0.817 and 0.832, respectively), whereas it was inferior for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results staging (Harrel ’s concordance index = 0.728). Better agreement with the observed cancer-specific mortality was shown for the model consisting of TNM classification and tumor grade, which also achieved favorable clinical net benefit, with a threshold probability in the range of 0 to 42%. The nomogram consisting of TNM classification and tumor grading was shown to have better performance for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients who underwent definitive surgery. Our data support the integration of this model in decision-making and trial design.

  16. Identification and Validation of a New Set of Five Genes for Prediction of Risk in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mustacchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular tests predicting the outcome of breast cancer patients based on gene expression levels can be used to assist in making treatment decisions after consideration of conventional markers. In this study we identified a subset of 20 mRNA differentially regulated in breast cancer analyzing several publicly available array gene expression data using R/Bioconductor package. Using RTqPCR we evaluate 261 consecutive invasive breast cancer cases not selected for age, adjuvant treatment, nodal and estrogen receptor status from paraffin embedded sections. The biological samples dataset was split into a training (137 cases and a validation set (124 cases. The gene signature was developed on the training set and a multivariate stepwise Cox analysis selected five genes independently associated with DFS: FGF18 (HR = 1.13, p = 0.05, BCL2 (HR = 0.57, p = 0.001, PRC1 (HR = 1.51, p = 0.001, MMP9 (HR = 1.11, p = 0.08, SERF1a (HR = 0.83, p = 0.007. These five genes were combined into a linear score (signature weighted according to the coefficients of the Cox model, as: 0.125FGF18 − 0.560BCL2 + 0.409PRC1 + 0.104MMP9 − 0.188SERF1A (HR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9–4.0, p < 0.001. The signature was then evaluated on the validation set assessing the discrimination ability by a Kaplan Meier analysis, using the same cut offs classifying patients at low, intermediate or high risk of disease relapse as defined on the training set (p < 0.001. Our signature, after a further clinical validation, could be proposed as prognostic signature for disease free survival in breast cancer patients where the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy added to endocrine treatment is uncertain.

  17. Validation of nutritional risk index method against patient-generated subjective global assessment in screening malnutrition in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Nasirimotlagh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate malnutrition screening tool of nutrition risk index (NRI) against patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a gold standard tool in colorectal cancer patients before radiotherapy. Methods Nutritional status of 52 volunteer colorectal cancer patients with a mean age of 54.1±16.8 years who referred to radiotherapy center were assessed by PG-SGA (gold standard method) and NRI. Serum albumin levels of patients were determined by colorimetric method. A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the NRI in screening patients at risk of malnutrition, in comparison with the PG-SGA in patients before radiotherapy. Results The findings of PG-SGA and NRI showed that 52% and 45% of patients in our study were moderately or severely malnourished respectively. The NRI had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 60% against PG-SGA. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predicative value was 62%. The agreement between NRI and PG-SGA was statistically insignificant (kappa =0.267; P>0.05). Conclusions The findings of present study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with colorectal cancer. Moreover, NRI method had low sensitivity and specificity in assessing nutritional status of patients with cancer. It seems that the combination of anthropometric, laboratory parameters and a subjective scoring system may be helpful tools in screening of malnutrition in cancer patients. PMID:24255578

  18. Development and validation of the general module of the system of quality of life instruments for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chonghua; Yang, Zheng; Meng, Qiong; Feng, Changyong; Wang, Hongyue; Tang, Xuelang; Zhang, Caizhen; Lu, Yubo; Luo, Jionghong; Zhang, Xiaqing

    2008-01-01

    Based on World Health Organization (WHO)'s definition of Quality of Life (QOL) and programmed decision procedures, we developed a general module of the System of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients (QLICP-GM) utilizing focus group discussions, pilot tests of 448 cases and field tests of 600 cases of 5 different cancer patients. The number of items in the final version was reduced to 32 from a 78-item pool. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated by indicators such as validity and reliability coefficients, SRM, and statistical methods of correlational analysis, t tests, and structural equation modeling. Correlational and structural equation model analyses indicate good construct validity with RMSEA 0.086, NNFI 0.947 and CFI 0.961. Good criterion-related validity was found when FACT-G was used as the criterion. The test-retest reliability for all domains and the overall scale is above 0.85; the internal consistency alpha for each domain is higher than 0.70 except of the social function; alpha and the split-half reliability of the overall scale is 0.88 and 0.93, respectively. The pre-post changes of QOL scores are of statistical significances in 3 domains of physical function, psychological function, common symptoms and side effects, and the overall instrument, with standardized response mean ranging from 0.16 to 0.67. Equivalence tests showed nonequivalence on quality of life score changes of these domains and the overall instrument. Our study shows that the QLICP-GM has good validity, reliability, responsiveness, and can be used as the general module for cancer patients in China. PMID:17724721

  19. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yeon-Su

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. Methods We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29 and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. Results This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p Conclusion This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference genes and combination, for RT-qPCR analysis of 'all stomach tissues', and B2M and B2M-GAPDH as the best single reference gene and combination, for 'stomach cancer cell lines'. Use of these validated reference genes should provide more exact interpretation of differential gene expressions at transcription level in stomach cancer.

  20. DNA methylation-based biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Laird-Offringa Ite A; Alonzo Todd A; Anglim Paul P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in the United States. This disease is clinically divided into two sub-types, small cell lung cancer, (10–15% of lung cancer cases), and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; 85–90% of cases). Early detection of NSCLC, which is the more common and less aggressive of the two sub-types, has the highest potential for saving lives. As yet, no routine screening method that enables early detection exists, and this is a key factor in the high mortalit...

  1. Initial prostate biopsy: development and internal validation of a biopsy-specific nomogram based on the prostate cancer antigen 3 assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, J.; Auprich, M.; Ahyai, S.A.; Taille, A. De La; Poppel, H. van; Marberger, M.; Stenzl, A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Huland, H.; Fisch, M.; Abbou, C.C.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marks, L.S.; Ellis, W.; Partin, A.W.; Pummer, K.; Graefen, M.; Haese, A.; Walz, J.; Briganti, A.; Shariat, S.F.; Chun, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) assay in combination with established clinical risk factors improves the identification of men at risk of harboring prostate cancer (PCa) at initial biopsy (IBX). OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate internally the first IBX-specific PCA3-based nomo

  2. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rexhepaj, Elton

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Methods Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Results Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Conclusion Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have

  3. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Michael J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5 in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Methods Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Results Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359 of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS. The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5 and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006. Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5 was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008. An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045, low grade (p = 0.007, Ki-67 (p = 0.001 and Her2 (p = 0.026 negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018. Conclusion Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have

  4. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have validated survivin CNR as a marker of good prognosis in

  5. Biomarker validation for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A critical component to successful cancer screening is the identification of a lesion for which intervention will result in prolonged survival or cure.The five-year survival of patients with resected stage IA pancreas cancer (the earliest identifiable lesion and |

  6. Validating of the pre-clinical mouse model for metastatic breast cancer to the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sun HWANG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast carcinoma has a great tendency to spread to the mandible. It is concomitantly associated with bone destruction, food intake disorder, and a poorer prognosis. Appropriate animal models need to be developed for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process of breast cancer cells to mandible and to test the effects of potential lead compounds. Here, we assessed the metastasis model of intracardiac injection using luciferase-transfected metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231Luc+ by determining the incidences of metastasis, mCT images, and histopathological results. A high bioluminescence signal mainly detected mandibular lesions with less frequent distal femora and proximal tibiae lesions. Extensive mandibular bone destruction occurred in nude mice grafted with metastatic breast cancer cells. This type of animal model might be a useful tool in assessing therapeutic implications and the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs for osteolytic cancers.

  7. Evidence Supporting Radiation Hormesis in Atomic Bomb Survivor Cancer Mortality Data

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for ...

  8. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in the expression levels of HPRT1 and 18S rRNA in 'normal-' versus 'tumor stomach tissues'. The stability analyses by geNorm suggest B2M-GAPDH, as best reference gene combination for 'stomach cancer cell lines'; RPL29-HPRT1, for 'all stomach tissues'; and ACTB-18S rRNA, for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. NormFinder also identified B2M as the best reference gene for 'stomach cancer cell lines', RPL29-B2M for 'all stomach tissues', and 18S rRNA-ACTB for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. The comparisons of normalized expression of the target gene, GPNMB, showed different interpretation of target gene expression depend on best single reference gene or combination. This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference

  9. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  10. The development and validation of oral cancer staging using administrative health data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral cancer is a major global health problem. The complexity of histological prognosticators in oral cancer makes it difficult to compare the benefits of different treatment regimens. The Taiwanese National Health database provides an opportunity to assess correlations between outcome and treatment protocols and to compare the effects of different treatment regimens. However, the absence of indices of disease severity is a critical problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain how accurately we could assess the severity of oral cancer at the time of initial diagnosis on the basis of variables in a national database. In the cancer registry database of a medical center in Taiwan, we identified 1067 histologically confirmed cases of oral cancer (ICD9 codes 140, 141 and 143–145) that had been first diagnosed and subjected to initial treatment in this hospital. The clinical staging status was considered as the gold standard and we used concordance (C)-statistics to assess the model’s predictive performance. We added the predictors of treatment modality, cancer subsite, and age group to our models. Our final overall model included treatment regimen, site, age, and two interaction terms; namely, interactions between treatment regimen and age and those between treatment regimen, site, and age. In this model, the C-statistics were 0.82–0.84 in male subjects and 0.96–0.99 in female subjects. Of the models stratified by age, the model that considered treatment regimen and site had the highest C-statistics for the interaction term, this value being greater than 0.80 in male subjects and 0.9 in female subjects. In this study, we found that adjusting for sex, age at first diagnosis, oral cancer subsite, and therapy regimen provided the best indicator of severity of oral cancer. Our findings provide a method for assessing cancer severity when information about staging is not available from a national health-related database

  11. Cancer mortality among radiological technologists in Japan. Updated analysis of follow-up data from 1969 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Shinji; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    1999-04-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 12,195 male radiological technologists who received the occupational exposure to low dose radiation over a long term. A total of 1,097 deaths including 435 from cancer were ascertained by Koseki and death certificates from 1969 to 1993. Cancer mortality among the study population was basically compared with that of whole Japanese men. The significant low SMRs were obtained for all cancers, stomach and lung cancer partly due to Healthy Worker Effect, unlike the results of the early reports with some inappropriateness in the methods. Apparent high risks of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers were observed, although none of site-specific cancers revealed the statistically significant increase. For these cancers, the SMRs among old sub-cohort were somewhat higher than those of young sub-cohort, whereas similar SMRs for solid cancer were obtained between the two sub cohorts. The SMR for leukemia reached statistically significant level of 1.75 (95%Cl: 1.07-2.71) when using whole professional and technical workers as a standard population. The study results might suggest that the chronic exposure to low-dose radiation enhanced the risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. (author)

  12. Antibody validation and scoring guidelines for ABCG2 immunohistochemical staining in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederbye, Camilla Natasha; Palshof, Jesper Andreas; Hansen, Tine Plato;

    2016-01-01

    cancer (CRC), probably because of the use of different antibodies and scoring approaches. In this study, we systematically studied six commercially available anti-ABCG2 antibodies, using cell lines with up-regulation of ABCG2, and selected one antibody for validation in CRC tissue. Furthermore, we...... cytoplasmic signal. Intra-tumor heterogeneity in ABCG2 immunoreactivity was observed; however, statistical analyses of tissue microarrays (TMAs) and the corresponding whole sections from primary tumors of 57 metastatic CRC patients revealed a strong positive correlation between maximum TMA scores and whole...

  13. Nomogram predicting response after chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer using sequential PETCT imaging: A multicentric prospective study with external validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and externally validate a predictive model for pathologic complete response (pCR) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) based on clinical features and early sequential 18F-FDG PETCT imaging. Materials and methods: Prospective data (i.a. THUNDER trial) were used to train (N = 112, MAASTRO Clinic) and validate (N = 78, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore) the model for pCR (ypT0N0). All patients received long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery. Clinical parameters were age, gender, clinical tumour (cT) stage and clinical nodal (cN) stage. PET parameters were SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and maximal tumour diameter, for which response indices between pre-treatment and intermediate scan were calculated. Using multivariate logistic regression, three probability groups for pCR were defined. Results: The pCR rates were 21.4% (training) and 23.1% (validation). The selected predictive features for pCR were cT-stage, cN-stage, response index of SUVmean and maximal tumour diameter during treatment. The models’ performances (AUC) were 0.78 (training) and 0.70 (validation). The high probability group for pCR resulted in 100% correct predictions for training and 67% for validation. The model is available on the website (www.predictcancer.org). Conclusions: The developed predictive model for pCR is accurate and externally validated. This model may assist in treatment decisions during CRT to select complete responders for a wait-and-see policy, good responders for extra RT boost and bad responders for additional chemotherapy

  14. Updated activated sludge model number 1 parameter values for improved prediction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge processes: validation at 13 full-scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, Jean-Marc; Stricker, Anne-Emmanuelle; Marquot, Aurélien; Racault, Yvan; Gillot, Sylvie; Héduit, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model number 1 (ASM1) is the main model used in simulation projects focusing on nitrogen removal. Recent laboratory-scale studies have found that the default values given 20 years ago for the decay rate of nitrifiers and for the heterotrophic biomass yield in anoxic conditions were inadequate. To verify the relevance of the revised parameter values at full scale, a series of simulations were carried out with ASM1 using the original and updated set of parameters at 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The simulation results were compared with data collected at 13 full-scale nitrifying-denitrifying municipal treatment plants. This work shows that simulations using the original ASM1 default parameters tend to overpredict the nitrification rate and underpredict the denitrification rate. The updated set of parameters allows more realistic predictions over a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:19860142

  15. Glutathione S-transferase P1, gene-gene interaction, and lung cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population: An updated meta-analysis and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To assess the impact of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism on the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population, an updated meta-analysis and review was performed. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine published through January 22, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. Results: A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2026 lung cancer cases and 2451 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significantly increased lung cancer risk was associated with the variant genotypes of GSTP1 polymorphism in the Chinese population (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84. In subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area and source of controls, the significant results were found in population-based studies (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.13-2.31; GG vs. AG: OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03-2.16; GG vs. AA + AG: OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12-2.26. A gene-gene interaction analysis showed that there was an interaction for individuals with combination of GSTM1 (or GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 (AG + GG mutant genotype for lung cancer risk in Chinese. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism may increase the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population.

  16. Evaluation and validation of candidate endogenous control genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Nicola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR forms the basis of many breast cancer biomarker studies and novel prognostic assays, paving the way towards personalised cancer treatments. Normalisation of relative RQ-PCR data is required to control for non-biological variation introduced during sample preparation. Endogenous control (EC genes, used in this context, should ideally be expressed constitutively and uniformly across treatments in all test samples. Despite widespread recognition that the accuracy of the normalised data is largely dependent on the reliability of the EC, there are no reports of the systematic validation of genes commonly used for this purpose in the analysis of gene expression by RQ-PCR in primary breast cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to identify the most suitable endogenous control genes for RQ-PCR analysis of primary breast tissue from a panel of eleven candidates in current use. Oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 was used a target gene to compare the effect of choice of EC on the estimate of gene quantity. Results The expression and validity of candidate ECs (GAPDH, TFRC, ABL, PPIA, HPRT1, RPLP0, B2M, GUSB, MRPL19, PUM1 and PSMC4 was determined in 6 benign and 21 malignant primary breast cancer tissues. Gene expression data was analysed using two different statistical models. MRPL19 and PPIA were identified as the most stable and reliable EC genes, while GUSB, RPLP0 and ABL were least stable. There was a highly significant difference in variance between ECs. ESR1 expression was appreciably higher in malignant compared to benign tissues and there was a significant effect of EC on the magnitude of the error associated with the relative quantity of ESR1. Conclusion We have validated two endogenous control genes, MRPL19 and PPIA, for RQ-PCR analysis of gene expression in primary breast tissue. Of the genes in current use in this field, the above combination offers increased accuracy and resolution in the

  17. Validation of a Predictive Model for Survival in Metastatic Cancer Patients Attending an Outpatient Palliative Radiotherapy Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To validate a predictive model for survival of patients attending a palliative radiotherapy clinic. Methods and Materials: We described previously a model that had good predictive value for survival of patients referred during 1999 (1). The six prognostic factors (primary cancer site, site of metastases, Karnofsky performance score, and the fatigue, appetite and shortness-of-breath items from the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale) identified in this training set were extracted from the prospective database for the year 2000. We generated a partial score whereby each prognostic factor was assigned a value proportional to its prognostic weight. The sum of the partial scores for each patient was used to construct a survival prediction score (SPS). Patients were also grouped according to the number of these risk factors (NRF) that they possessed. The probability of survival at 3, 6, and 12 months was generated. The models were evaluated for their ability to predict survival in this validation set with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The median survival and survival probabilities of the training and validation sets were similar when separated into three groups using both SPS and NRF methods. There was no statistical difference in the performance of the SPS and NRF methods in survival prediction. Conclusion: Both the SPS and NRF models for predicting survival in patients referred for palliative radiotherapy have been validated. The NRF model is preferred because it is simpler and avoids the need to remember the weightings among the prognostic factors

  18. Linguistic Validation of the Turkish Version of the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Cancer Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon Gunn, G.; Atalar, Banu; Mendoza, Tito R.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Selek, Uğur; Özyar, Enis; Rosenthal, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of patient symptom reports with frequent symptom assessment may be preferred over the more commonly used health-related quality of life questionnaires. Aims: We sought to linguistically validate the Turkish version of the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck module (MDASI-HN) patient reported outcome questionnaire. Study Design: Validation study. Methods: Following standard forward and backward translation of the original and previously validated English MDASI-HN into a Turkish version (T-MDASI-HN), it was administered to patients with head and neck cancer able to read and understand Turkish. Patients were then cognitively debriefed to evaluate their understanding and comprehension of the T-MDASI-HN. Individual and group responses are presented using descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-six participants with head and neck cancer completed the T-MDASIHN and accompanying cognitive debriefing. Overall, 97 percent of the individual TMDASI-HN items were completed. Average recorded time to complete the 28 item TMDASI-HN questionnaire was 5.4 minutes (range 2–10). Average overall ease of completion, understandability, and acceptability were favorably rated at 1.0, 1.1, and 0.2, respectively, on scales from 0 to 10. Only 5 of the 26 of participants reported trouble completing any single questionnaire items, namely the “difficulty remembering” item for 3 individuals. Conclusion: The T-MDASI-HN is linguistically valid with ease of completion, relevance, comprehensibility, and applicability and it can be a useful clinical and research tool. PMID:27308079

  19. How valid is single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diagnosis for the individual risk assessment of breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Clemens B; Hefler, Lukas A; Schneeberger, Christian; Huber, Johannes C

    2006-03-01

    The number of reports investigating disease susceptibility based on the carriage of low-penetrance, high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has increased in recent years. Evidence is accumulating defining specific individual variations in breast cancer susceptibility. Genetic variations of estradiol and xenobiotics metabolisms as well as genes involved in cell-cycle control have been described as significant contributors to breast cancer susceptibility, with variations depending on ethnic background and co-factors such as smoking and family history of breast cancer. In sum, the highest level of evidence to date linking SNPs and breast cancer comes from nested case-control studies within the prospective Nurses' Health Study. These data establish seven SNPs - hPRB +331G/A, AR CAG repeat, CYP19 (TTTA)10, CYP1A1 MspI, VDR FOK1, XRCC1 Arg194Trp and XRCC2 Arg188His - as small but significant risk factors for spontaneous, non-hereditary breast cancer. In addition, meta-analysis of data in the literature establishes the TGFBR1*6A, HRAS1, GSTP Ile105Val and GSTM1 SNPs as low-penetrance genetic risk factors of sporadic breast cancer. The clinical consequences of such a risk elevation may be detailed instruction of the patient as to general measures of breast cancer prevention such as a low-fat diet, optimization of body mass index, physical exercise, avoidance of alcohol and long-term hormone replacement therapy, and participation in a breast cancer screening program between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Specific surgical or drug interventions such as prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy or prophylactic intake of tamoxifen are not indicated based on SNP analysis at this time. PMID:16835078

  20. Telerobotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer: Report of the first case in Hong Kong and China with an updated literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Siu-Man Ng; Janet Fung-Yee Lee; Raymond Ying-Chang Yiu; Jimmy Chak-Man Li; Sophie Sok-Fei Hon

    2007-01-01

    Telerobotic surgery is the most advanced development in the field of minimally invasive surgery. The da Vinci surgical system, which is currently the most widely used telerobotic device, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America for clinical use in all abdominal operations in July 2000. The first da Vinci surgical system in China was installed in November 2005 at our institution. We herein report the first telerobotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection using the 3-arm da Vinci surgical system for low rectal cancer in Hong Kong and China, which was performed in August 2006. The operative time and blood loss were 240 min and 200 mL, respectively. There was no complication, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day five. An updated review of published literature on telerobotic-assisted colorectal surgery is included in this report, with special emphasis on its advantages and limitations.

  1. About Updating

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Survey of several forms of updating, with a practical illustrative example. We study several updating (conditioning) schemes that emerge naturally from a common scenarion to provide some insights into their meaning. Updating is a subtle operation and there is no single method, no single 'good' rule. The choice of the appropriate rule must always be given due consideration. Planchet (1989) presents a mathematical survey of many rules. We focus on the practical meaning of these rules. After sum...

  2. A clinical data validated mathematical model of prostate cancer growth under intermittent androgen suppression therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Travis; Kuang, Yang; Nagy, John D.

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is commonly treated by a form of hormone therapy called androgen suppression. This form of treatment, while successful at reducing the cancer cell population, adversely affects quality of life and typically leads to a recurrence of the cancer in an androgen-independent form. Intermittent androgen suppression aims to alleviate some of these adverse affects by cycling the patient on and off treatment. Clinical studies have suggested that intermittent therapy is capable of maintaining androgen dependence over multiple treatment cycles while increasing quality of life during off-treatment periods. This paper presents a mathematical model of prostate cancer to study the dynamics of androgen suppression therapy and the production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a clinical marker for prostate cancer. Preliminary models were based on the assumption of an androgen-independent (AI) cell population with constant net growth rate. These models gave poor accuracy when fitting clinical data during simulation. The final model presented hypothesizes an AI population with increased sensitivity to low levels of androgen. It also hypothesizes that PSA production is heavily dependent on androgen. The high level of accuracy in fitting clinical data with this model appears to confirm these hypotheses, which are also consistent with biological evidence.

  3. Method development and validation for the analysis of a new anti-cancer infusion solution via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Fabrizio; Schober, Margot; Greilberger, Joachim; Matzi, Veronika; Lindenmann, Jörg; Maier, Alfred; Herwig, Ralf; Wintersteiger, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    A fast and simple HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantification of a completely new anti-cancer drug during the manufacturing process. The combination of four compounds including α-ketoglutaric acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, N-acetyl-L-methionine and N-acetyl-L-selenomethionine, administered intravenously, is still in test phase but has already shown promising results in cancer therapy. HPLC separation was achieved on an RP-18 column with a gradient system. However, the highly different concentrations of the compounds required a variation in the detection wavelength within one run. In order to produce a chromatogram where peaks were comparable on a similar range scale, detection at absorption maxima for the two most concentrated components was avoided. After optimization of the gradient program it was possible to detect all four substances within 14 min in spite of their strongly different chemical structure. The method developed was validated for accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility and robustness in relation to temperature and pH of buffer. Linearity as well as the limit of detection and quantification were determined. This HPLC method was found to be precise, accurate and reproducible and can be easily used for in-line process control during the manufacture of the anti-tumour infusion solution. PMID:21246718

  4. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  5. Validation of expression patterns for nine miRNAs in 204 lymph-node negative breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Jonsdottir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although lymph node negative (LN- breast cancer patients have a good 10-years survival (∼85%, most of them still receive adjuvant therapy, while only some benefit from this. More accurate prognostication of LN- breast cancer patient may reduce over- and under-treatment. Until now proliferation is the strongest prognostic factor for LN- breast cancer patients. The small molecule microRNA (miRNA has opened a new window for prognostic markers, therapeutic targets and/or therapeutic components. Previously it has been shown that miR-18a/b, miR-25, miR-29c and miR-106b correlate to high proliferation. METHODS: The current study validates nine miRNAs (miR-18a/b miR-25, miR-29c, miR-106b, miR375, miR-424, miR-505 and let-7b significantly correlated with established prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. Total RNA was isolated from 204 formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE LN- breast cancers and analyzed with quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Independent T-test was used to detect significant correlation between miRNA expression level and the different clinicopathological features for breast cancer. RESULTS: Strong and significant associations were observed for high expression of miR-18a/b, miR-106b, miR-25 and miR-505 to high proliferation, oestrogen receptor negativity and cytokeratin 5/6 positivity. High expression of let-7b, miR-29c and miR-375 was detected in more differentiated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high miR-106b expression had an 81% survival rate vs. 95% (P = 0.004 for patients with low expression. CONCLUSION: High expression of miR-18a/b are strongly associated with basal-like breast cancer features, while miR-106b can identify a group with higher risk for developing distant metastases in the subgroup of Her2 negatives. Furthermore miR-106b can identify a group of patients with 100% survival within the otherwise considered high risk group of patients with

  6. Development, external validation and clinical usefulness of a practical prediction model for radiation-induced dysphagia in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Acute dysphagia is a distressing dose-limiting toxicity occurring frequently during concurrent chemo-radiation or high-dose radiotherapy for lung cancer. It can lead to treatment interruptions and thus jeopardize survival. Although a number of predictive factors have been identified, it is still not clear how these could offer assistance for treatment decision making in daily clinical practice. Therefore, we have developed and validated a nomogram to predict this side-effect. In addition, clinical usefulness was assessed by comparing model predictions to physicians' predictions. Materials and methods: Clinical data from 469 inoperable lung cancer patients, treated with curative intent, were collected prospectively. A prediction model for acute radiation-induced dysphagia was developed. Model performance was evaluated by the c-statistic and assessed using bootstrapping as well as two external datasets. In addition, a prospective study was conducted comparing model to physicians' predictions in 138 patients. Results: The final multivariate model consisted of age, gender, WHO performance status, mean esophageal dose (MED), maximum esophageal dose (MAXED) and overall treatment time (OTT). The c-statistic, assessed by bootstrapping, was 0.77. External validation yielded an AUC of 0.94 on the Ghent data and 0.77 on the Washington University St. Louis data for dysphagia ≥ grade 3. Comparing model predictions to the physicians' predictions resulted in an AUC of 0.75 versus 0.53, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed model performed well was successfully validated and demonstrated the ability to predict acute severe dysphagia remarkably better than the physicians. Therefore, this model could be used in clinical practice to identify patients at high or low risk.

  7. Association of COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Xue; Peng Qiliu; Qin Aiping; Chen Zhiping; Lin Liwen; Deng Yan; Xie Li; Xu Juanjuan; Li Haiwei; Li Taijie; Li Shan; Zhao Jinmin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the most important enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism and its functional genetic polymorphisms may be associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted to explore the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, the results remain inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performe...

  8. Construct Validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in Cancer Survivors: Analyses Based on Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…

  9. Association between NFKB1 −94ins/del ATTG Promoter Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-κB is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous malignancies, and the functional polymorphism −94ins/del ATTG (rs28362491 in the human NFKB1 gene is associated with cancer risk. Previous studies on the association between the −94ins/del ATTG polymorphism and cancer risk reported conflicting results. To clarify this relationship, we performed a meta-analysis of 21 case-control studies involving 6127 cases and 9238 controls. We used pooled odds ratios (ORs with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs to assess the association. We found that the NFKB1 promoter −94ins/del ATTG polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in four genetic models (ins/ins versus del/del, OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.11–1.93; dominant model, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03–1.53; recessive model, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.05–1.51; ins allele versus del allele, OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05–1.35. Stratified analyses revealed a significant association between the polymorphism and ovarian, oral, and prostate cancers. Similar results were determined in an Asian population and not in a Caucasian population. Thus, our results suggested that the polymorphism can contribute to cancer risk. Moreover, the polymorphism can exert race- and cancer-specific effects on cancer risk. Further large-scale and functional studies are necessary to elucidate this possible effect.

  10. Validation of nomogram-based prediction of survival probability after salvage re-irradiation of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment outcomes after salvage re-irradiation in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer vary widely due to heterogeneous patient characteristics, and it is difficult to evaluate optimal re-irradiation schedules. This study aimed to validate a nomogram, originally developed by Tanvetyanon et al., used to predict the survival probability of patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after re-irradiation. Twenty-eight patients with recurrent head and neck cancer who underwent salvage re-irradiation between June 2007 and November 2011 were evaluated. The median total dose used for initial radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range, 22-72). Re-irradiation sites included the nasopharynx or Rouviere's node (n=14), external ear (n=4), neck lymph node (n=3) and other sites (n=7). Overall survival after re-irradiation was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the 2-year survival probability was estimated using Tanvetyanon's nomogram. Twenty-two patients were treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy using a median total dose of 30 Gy (range, 15-40) in 1-7 fractions and six patients were treated with conventional external beam radiotherapy using 45 Gy (range, 23.4-60) in 10-30 fractions. The 2-year overall survival was 21.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-41.3), and the 2-year survival probability was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 9.9-23.6). The 2-year overall survival in 20 patients with unfavorable prognosis (median 2-year survival probability, 5.5%) and in 8 patients with favorable prognosis (median 2-year survival probability, 45%) were 11.0 and 45.7%, respectively (P=0.05). Our findings show that Tanvetyanon's nomogram accurately estimates the survival probability in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after re-irradiation. (author)

  11. Reducing, Maintaining, or Escalating Uncertainty? The Development and Validation of Four Uncertainty Preference Scales Related to Cancer Information Seeking and Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty is a central characteristic of many aspects of cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Brashers's (2001) uncertainty management theory details the multifaceted nature of uncertainty and describes situations in which uncertainty can both positively and negatively affect health outcomes. The current study extends theory on uncertainty management by developing four scale measures of uncertainty preferences in the context of cancer. Two national surveys were conducted to validate the scales and assess convergent and concurrent validity. Results support the factor structure of each measure and provide general support across multiple validity assessments. These scales can advance research on uncertainty and cancer communication by providing researchers with measures that address multiple aspects of uncertainty management. PMID:27450905

  12. Validation of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram for predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive breast-cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi X

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Bi,1,* Yongsheng Wang,2 Minmin Li,1,* Peng Chen,2 Zhengbo Zhou,2 Yanbing Liu,2 Tong Zhao,2 Zhaopeng Zhang,2 Chunjian Wang,2 Xiao Sun,2 Pengfei Qiu2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong Cancer Hospital, 2Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Background: The main purpose of the study reported here was to validate the clinical value of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC nomogram that predicts non-sentinel lymph node (SLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients with breast cancer. Methods: Data on 1,576 patients who received sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB at the Shandong Cancer Hospital from December 2001 to March 2014 were collected in this study, and data on 509 patients with positive SLN were analyzed to evaluate the risk factors for non-SLN metastasis. The MSKCC nomogram was used to estimate the probability of non-SLN metastasis and was compared with actual probability after grouping into deciles. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn and predictive accuracy was assessed by calculating the area under the ROC curve. Results: Tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, multifocality, number of positive SLNs, and number of negative SLNs were correlated with non-SLN metastasis (P<0.05 by univariate analysis. However, multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P=0.039, histological grade (P=0.043, lymphovascular invasion (P=0.001, number of positive SLNs (P=0.001, and number of negative SLNs (P=0.000 were identified as independent predictors for non-SLN metastasis. The trend of actual probability in various decile groups was comparable to the predicted probability. The area under the ROC curve was 0.722. Patients with predictive values lower than 10% (97/492, 19.7% had a frequency of non-SLN metastasis of 17.5% (17/97. Conclusion: The

  13. Development and Validation of the Korean Version of Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite: Questionnaire Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life after Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jung Jun; Lim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although the quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer (PCa) patients is a major issue, there is no unified and useful methodology for assessing QoL. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) is a globally used tool to measure QoL after PCa treatment that comprises urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal domains. Acknowledging the need for such a tool applicable to Korean PCa patients, we translated EPIC into Korean and validated the new version. Materials and Methods The Korean version of EPIC was devised by translation, back-translation, and reconciliation. Subsequently, we randomly selected 153 patients with localized PCa treated with radical perineal prostatectomy (67, 43.8%), radical retropubic prostatectomy (19, 12.4%), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (12, 7.8%), robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (36, 23.5%), and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of the prostate (19, 12.4%) and asked them to complete EPIC. Reliability was assessed by test-retest correlation and Cronbach's alpha. Validity was assessed by factor analysis, interscale correlation, and correlation with Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P). Results Test-retest correlation and Cronbach's alpha were high in each of the domains (0.92, 0.91, 0.76, 0.84 and 0.86, 0.84, 0.92, 0.83, p<0.0001). Interscale correlation among the domains was low (r<0.37), which indicated that EPIC is composed of proper domains. Interscale correlation between the function and bother subscales was high (0.94, 0.81, 0.84 and 0.80, p<0.0001). EPIC domains had low correlation with FACT-P, permitting complementary use. Conclusions The Korean version of EPIC was developed by a proper process, as evident by its high reliability and validity. Therefore, it is a reliable, comprehensive, systematic method that evaluates QoL in Korean patients after PCa treatment. Furthermore, it can be adapted as an objective methodology for research globally. PMID:20856644

  14. Implementing an online tool for genome-wide validation of survival-associated biomarkers in ovarian-cancer using microarray data from 1287 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Győrffy, Balázs; Lánczky, András; Szállási, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    ). A Kaplan–Meier survival plot was generated and significance was computed. The tool can be accessed online at www.kmplot.com/ovar. We used this integrative data analysis tool to validate the prognostic power of 37 biomarkers identified in the literature. Of these, CA125 (MUC16; P=3.7x10–5, hazard...... biomarker validation platform that mines all available microarray data to assess the prognostic power of 22 277 genes in 1287 ovarian cancer patients. We specifically used this tool to evaluate the effect of 37 previously published biomarkers on ovarian cancer prognosis....... set up using gene expression data and survival information of 1287 ovarian cancer patients downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas (Affymetrix HG-U133A, HG-U133A 2.0, and HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays). After quality control and normalization, only probes present on all...

  15. Validation of quality of life questionnaire for patients with cancer - Indian scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhubala E; Latha; Kannan Ravi; Mani C; Karthikesh K; Muthuvel R; Surendran V; Premkumari Rohini

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality of Life (QOL) is an important health outcome measure in oncology. Given the underlying pressure of individual geo-political entities, a universal solution may not be applicable and hence there is a need to develop a regional tool and standardize the same to address the linguistic and socio-cultural factors. OBJECTIVE: To standardize a tool to assess the QOL of patients with cancer to suit the Indian scenario. Materials and METHODS: The samples were collected from the C...

  16. Bioinformatic Analysis for the Validation of Novel Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Drug Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Laura Anne Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genetic control of tumour progression presents the opportunity for bioinformatics and gene expression data to be used as a basis for tumour grading. The development of a genetic signature based on microarray data allows for the development of personalised chemotherapeutic regimes. Method: ONCOMINE was utilised to create a genetic signature for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and to compare the expression of genes between normal ovarian and cancerous cells. Ingenuity Pathways...

  17. Defining a Valid Age Cutoff in Staging of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Iain J.; Kuk, Deborah; Wreesmann, Volkert; Morris, Luc; Palmer, Frank L.; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Gönen, Mithat; Shah, Jatin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age 45 years is used as a cutoff in the staging of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) as it represents the median age of most datasets. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically optimized age threshold using a large dataset of patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods Overall, 1807 patients with a median follow-up of 109 months were included in the study. Recursive partitioning was used to determine which American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) variables were most predictive of disease-specific death, and whether a different cutoff for age would be found. From the resulting tree, a new age cutoff was picked and patients were restaged using this new cutoff. Results The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) by Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) stage was 99.6, 100, 96, and 81 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Using recursive partitioning, the presence of distant metastasis was the most powerful predictor of DSS. For M0 patients, age was the next most powerful predictor, with a cutoff of 56 years. For M1 patients, a cutoff at 54 years was most predictive. Having reviewed the analysis, age 55 years was selected as a more robust age cutoff than 45 years. The 10-year DSS by new stage (using age 55 years as the cutoff) was 99.2, 98, 100, and 74 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Conclusion A change in age cutoff in the AJCC/UICC staging for WDTC to 55 years would improve the accuracy of the system and appropriately prevent low-risk patients being overstaged and overtreated. PMID:26215199

  18. Validating of the pre-clinical mouse model for metastatic breast cancer to the mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Young Sun HWANG; Han, Sang-Sun; Kim, Ki-Rim; Lee, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyung; PARK Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma has a great tendency to spread to the mandible. It is concomitantly associated with bone destruction, food intake disorder, and a poorer prognosis. Appropriate animal models need to be developed for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process of breast cancer cells to mandible and to test the effects of potential lead compounds. Here, we assessed the metastasis model of intracardiac injection using luciferase-transfected metastatic br...

  19. Psychosocial consequences of cancer screening - development and validation of a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, H; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    COS were tested on participants in a lung cancer screening program. The results were thematically analyzed to identify the key consequences of abnormal and false-positive screening results. Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used to analyze data. Dimensionality, objectivity, and...... reliability were established by item analysis, examining the fit between item responses and Rasch models. Results: Eight themes specifically relevant for participants in lung cancer screening results were identified: “self-blame,” “focus on symptoms,” “stigmatization,” “introvert,” “harm of smoking...... experience in lung cancer screening. Part I: “anxiety,” “behavior,” “dejection,” “sleep,” “selfblame,” “focus on airway symptoms,” “stigmatization,” “introvert,” and “harm of smoking.” Part II: “calm/relax,” “social network,” “existential values,” “impulsivity,” “empathy,” and “regretful of still smoking...

  20. Identification of Valid Reference Genes for the Normalization of RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Treated with and without Transient Transfection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Teng-Fei; Ge, Fei; Chen, Ce-Shi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been documented for human breast cancer cell lines containing different cancer subtypes treated with transient transfec...

  1. Development and analytical validation of a 25-gene next generation sequencing panel that includes the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to assess hereditary cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Judkins, Thaddeus; Leclair, Benoît; Bowles, Karla; Gutin, Natalia; Trost, Jeff; McCulloch, James; Bhatnagar, Satish; Murray, Adam; Craft, Jonathan; Wardell, Bryan; Bastian, Mark; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Jian CHEN; Tran, Thanh; Williams, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Germline DNA mutations that increase the susceptibility of a patient to certain cancers have been identified in various genes, and patients can be screened for mutations in these genes to assess their level of risk for developing cancer. Traditional methods using Sanger sequencing focus on small groups of genes and therefore are unable to screen for numerous genes from several patients simultaneously. The goal of the present study was to validate a 25-gene panel to assess genetic r...

  2. The Malay Version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ C30): Reliability and Validity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, N; Low, WY; Yip, CH

    2010-01-01

    The Malay Version of EORTC-QLQ C30 was validated among Malaysian women who had undergone breast cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: Test-retest evaluation (i.e. three weeks and ten weeks following surgery) was carried out to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. The Cronbach’s alpha value was used to determine the internal consistency, meanwhile, test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) indicates the reliability of the scale. Effect Size Index and Mean Differences...

  3. Validation of three early ejaculation diagnostic tools: a composite measure is accurate and more adequate for diagnosis by updated diagnostic criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jern

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (M age = 42.8 and 892 controls (M age = 33.1 years from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation. Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1 responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2 responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. RESULTS: All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98. A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms - CHEES consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R (2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance. Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three

  4. An update on TroVax® for the treatment of progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abern M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Abern1, Howard L Kaufman2, Kalyan Latchamsetty11Department of Urology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of General Surgery and Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Prostate cancer is a common human malignancy with few effective therapeutic options for treating advanced castration-resistant disease. The potential therapeutic effectiveness of immunotherapy and vaccines, in particular, has gained popularity based on the identification of prostate-associated antigens, potent expression vectors for vaccination, and data from recent clinical trials. A modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4, a tumor-associated glycoprotein, has shown promise in preclinical studies and clinical trials in patients with colorectal and renal cell carcinoma. This review will discuss the rationale for immunotherapy in prostate cancer and describe preclinical and limited clinical data in prostate cancer for the MVA-5T4 (TroVax® vaccine.Keywords: castration resistance, prostate cancer, TroVax, vaccine

  5. An integrated disease/pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model suggests improved interleukin-21 regimens validated prospectively for mouse solid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Elishmereni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-21 is an attractive antitumor agent with potent immunomodulatory functions. Yet thus far, the cytokine has yielded only partial responses in solid cancer patients, and conditions for beneficial IL-21 immunotherapy remain elusive. The current work aims to identify clinically-relevant IL-21 regimens with enhanced efficacy, based on mathematical modeling of long-term antitumor responses. For this purpose, pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD data were acquired from a preclinical study applying systemic IL-21 therapy in murine solid cancers. We developed an integrated disease/PK/PD model for the IL-21 anticancer response, and calibrated it using selected "training" data. The accuracy of the model was verified retrospectively under diverse IL-21 treatment settings, by comparing its predictions to independent "validation" data in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma-challenged mice (R(2>0.90. Simulations of the verified model surfaced important therapeutic insights: (1 Fractionating the standard daily regimen (50 µg/dose into a twice daily schedule (25 µg/dose is advantageous, yielding a significantly lower tumor mass (45% decrease; (2 A low-dose (12 µg/day regimen exerts a response similar to that obtained under the 50 µg/day treatment, suggestive of an equally efficacious dose with potentially reduced toxicity. Subsequent experiments in melanoma-bearing mice corroborated both of these predictions with high precision (R(2>0.89, thus validating the model also prospectively in vivo. Thus, the confirmed PK/PD model rationalizes IL-21 therapy, and pinpoints improved clinically-feasible treatment schedules. Our analysis demonstrates the value of employing mathematical modeling and in silico-guided design of solid tumor immunotherapy in the clinic.

  6. Validation of the University of Washington quality of life questionnaires for head and neck cancer patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′cruz A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QOL is a multidimensional construct capturing the subjective wellbeing of patients in physical, emotional, functional and social domains. Available work on post treatment QOL have only been made in western literature and less in Indian literature. Aims : To translate the UW-QOL into both Hindi and Marathi and psychometrically validate the translation in HandN cancer patients in Indian population. Settings and Design : A prospective study was done at the Tata Memorial Hospital for patients who were treated for H and N cancers. Materials and Methods : 147 patients were enrolled from January to April 2005. The study was carried out in two phases. Patients were given translated versions of the UW-QOL and EORTC QOL questionnaires pre-operatively, 15 days post-operatively and then three months post-operatively. Results : Both the Hindi and Marathi translations had strong internal consistency (Cronbach′s alpha=0.7971 and 0.7839. UW-QOL composite scores correlated well with the global questions on overall QOL in both the Hindi (r=0.69 and Marathi (r=0.66 translations and also with T-stage. QOL scores were worse three months post-operatively than pre-operatively and for patients undergoing surgery that violated the mucosa. A strong correlations was observed (r>0.50 between all similar domains on the UW-QOL and EORTC HandN35 except the saliva item on the Marathi translation, where r< 0.50, but P-values were significant. Conclusions : The Marathi and Hindi versions of the UW-QOL appear to be valid and reliable instruments for assessing the QOL in Indian population and will be a vital tool for achieving greater insight into the short- and the long term QOL.

  7. Association of GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer: an updating meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihong; Xu, Yuemin; Fu, Qiang; Yu, Jianjun; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Zhangshun; Li, Chao; Guo, Hui; Xie, Mingkai

    2013-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily helps remove carcinogens from the body and thus might be associated with prostate cancer risk. In recent years, GSTT1 polymorphism has been extensively studied as a potential prostate cancer risk factor; however, the results are inconsistent. To investigate the association between GSTT1 and prostate cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of 33 studies with 6,697 prostate patients and 7,643 controls. For GSTM1 null versus present genotype, the random effects odds ratio was 0.98 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.83-1.16) based on a wide population. Subgroup analyses in the different ethnic groups and different controls were performed. The OR was 1.01 (95 % CI 0.86-1.19) in Caucasians, 1.01 (95 % CI 0.70-1.47) in Asians, and 0.77 (95 % CI 0.42-1.42) in Africans. The OR was 0.98 (95 % CI 0.82-1.16) in non-benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) controls and 1.09 (95 % CI 0.66-1.79) in BPH controls. In conclusion, our present meta-analysis demonstrates that there is no association between GSTT1 polymorphism and prostate cancer, even in the sub-analysis concerning different races and control sources. The direction of further research should focus not only on the simple relationship of GSTT1 and prostate cancer but also on gene-environment interaction and distinctions of different GSTs. PMID:23456766

  8. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  9. Validity of Three Recently Proposed Prognostic Grading Indexes for Breast Cancer Patients With Radiosurgically Treated Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We tested the validity of 3 recently proposed prognostic indexes for breast cancer patients with brain metastases (METs) treated radiosurgically. The 3 indexes are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA), New Breast Cancer (NBC)-Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), and our index, sub-classification of RPA class II patients into 3 sub-classes (RPA class II-a, II-b and II-c) based on Karnofsky performance status, tumor number, original tumor status, and non-brain METs. Methods and Materials: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using our database of 269 consecutive female breast cancer patients (mean age, 55 years; range, 26-86 years) who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) alone, without whole-brain radiation therapy, for brain METs during the 15-year period between 1996 and 2011. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the absolute risk of each event. Results: Kaplan-Meier plots of our patient series showed statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into 3, 4, or 5 groups based on the 3 systems (P<.001). However, the mean survival time (MST) differences between some pairs of groups failed to reach statistical significance with all 3 systems. Thus, we attempted to regrade our 269 breast cancer patients into 3 groups by modifying our aforementioned index along with the original RPA class I and III, (ie, RPA I+II-a, II-b, and II-c+III). There were statistically significant MST differences among these 3 groups without overlap of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between any 2 pairs of groups: 18.4 (95% CI = 14.0-29.5) months in I+II-a, 9.2 in II-b (95% CI = 6.8-12.9, P<.001 vs I+II-a) and 5.0 in II-c+III (95% CI = 4.2-6.8, P<.001 vs II-b). Conclusions: As none of the new grading systems, DS-GPS, BC-RPA and our system, was applicable to our set of radiosurgically treated patients for comparing survivals after GKRS, we slightly modified our system for breast cancer

  10. Development and Validation of a Histological Method to Measure Microvessel Density in Whole-Slide Images of Cancer Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Koen M; Croons, Valerie; Waumans, Yannick; Sluydts, Ellen; De Schepper, Stefanie; Andries, Luc; Waelput, Wim; Fransen, Erik; Vermeulen, Peter B; Kockx, Mark M; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite all efforts made to develop predictive biomarkers for antiangiogenic therapies, no unambiguous markers have been identified so far. This is due to among others the lack of standardized tests. This study presents an improved microvessel density quantification method in tumor tissue based on stereological principles and using whole-slide images. Vessels in tissue sections of different cancer types were stained for CD31 by an automated and validated immunohistochemical staining method. The stained slides were digitized with a digital slide scanner. Systematic, uniform, random sampling of the regions of interest on the whole-slide images was performed semi-automatically with the previously published applications AutoTag and AutoSnap. Subsequently, an unbiased counting grid was combined with the images generated with these scripts. Up to six independent observers counted microvessels in up to four cancer types: colorectal carcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, ovarian carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. At first, inter-observer variability was found to be unacceptable. However, after a series of consensus training sessions and interim statistical analysis, counting rules were modified and inter-observer concordance improved considerably. Every CD31-positive object was counted, with exclusion of suspected CD31-positive monocytes, macrophages and tumor cells. Furthermore, if interconnected, stained objects were considered a single vessel. Ten regions of interest were sufficient for accurate microvessel density measurements. Intra-observer and inter-observer variability were low (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.7) if the observers were adequately trained. PMID:27583442

  11. Neural Analyses Validate and Emphasize the Role of Progesterone Receptor in Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronongan, Arturo; Venturini, Barbara; Canuti, Debora; Dlay, Satnam; Naguib, Raouf N G; Sherbet, Gajanan V

    2016-04-01

    Oestrogen receptor (ER) expression is routinely measured in breast cancer management, but the clinical merits of measuring progesterone receptor (PR) expression have remained controversial. Hence the major objective of this study was to assess the potential of PR as a predictor of response to endocrine therapy. We report on analyses of the relative importance of ER and PR for predicting prognosis using robust multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. Receptor determinations use immunohistochemical (IHC) methods or radioactive ligand binding assays (LBA). In view of the heterogeneity of intratumoral receptor distribution, we examined the relative merits of the IHC and LBA methods. Our analyses reveal a more significant correlation of IHC-determined PR than ER with both nodal status and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). In LBA, PR displayed higher correlation with survival and ER with nodal status. There was concordance of correlation of PR with DFS by both IHC and LBA. This study suggests a clear distinction between PR and ER, with PR displaying greater correlation than ER with disease progression and prognosis, and emphasizes the marked superiority of the IHC method over LBA. These findings may be valuable in the management of patients with breast cancer. PMID:27069179

  12. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  13. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  14. Email Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/listserv.html Email Updates To use the sharing features on this ... view your email history or unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ...

  15. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  16. Initial clinical validation of Health Heritage, a patient-facing tool for personal and family history collection and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Leigh A; Postula, Kristen J Vogel; Knaus, William A

    2016-04-01

    Personal and family health histories remain important independent risk factors for cancer; however they are currently not being well collected or used effectively. Health Heritage was designed to address this need. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of Health Heritage to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to accurately stratify cancer risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100 random patients seen at an adult genetics clinic presenting with concern for an inherited predisposition to cancer. Relevant personal and family history obtained from the patients' medical records was entered into Health Heritage. Recommendations by Health Heritage were compared to national guidelines of eligibility for genetic evaluation. Agreement between Health Heritage referral for genetic evaluation and guideline eligibility for genetic evaluation was 97 % (sensitivity 98 % and specificity 88 %). Risk stratification for cancer was also compared between Health Heritage and those documented by a geneticist. For patients at increased risk for breast, ovarian, or colorectal cancer as determined by the geneticist, risk stratification by Health Heritage agreed 90, 93, and 75 %, respectively. Discordances in risk stratification were attributed to both complex situations better handled by the geneticist and Health Heritage's adherence to incorporating all information into its algorithms. Health Heritage is a clinically valid tool to identify patients appropriate for further genetic evaluation and to encourage them to confirm the assessment and management recommendations with cancer genetic experts. Health Heritage also provides an estimate of cancer risk that is complementary to a genetics team. PMID:26711915

  17. One life saved by four prevented recurrencies? Update of the early breast cancer trialists confirms. Postoperative radiotherapy improves survival after breast conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L. [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Sedlmayer, F. [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg (Austria); Budach, W. [University Hospital Duesseldorf (DE)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    The debate about the impact of local control on survival in early breast cancer patients is still going on, in spite of the continuously growing evidence that avoidance of locoregional disease reduces the risk of tumor-specific death. Recently, B. Fisher, one of the pioneers of breast conserving therapy claimed that during the last two decades, as a result of the use of systemic therapy in conjunction with breast conserving surgery and radiation, the incidence of locoregional recurrence has been reduced to a level where further reduction is likely to have little impact on survival. The penultimate meta-analysis of the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) reported the effect of radiotherapy in early breast cancer on recurrence and survival in 2005 and provided the essential message that four prevented local recurrences at 5 years would avoid one breast cancer death in 15 years. The scientific community has eagerly awaited the quinquennial update of the EBCTCG which has now been published. A total of 17 randomized studies comparing postoperative radiotherapy vs. none were analyzed and comprised 7 new studies in addition to follow-up data of from 9 previously reported trials. A total of 10,801 patients with pT1-2 tumors were included, the majority of whom (n=7,287) were node negative, while 1,050 were node positive (2,464 unknown). In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, all patients received breast conserving surgery, consisting of lumpectomy (n=8,422) or more extensive techniques like quadrantectomy or sectoral resection (n= 2,399). The effect of radiotherapy on 10-year recurrences of any type and their relation to the 15-year breast cancer death rate were studied in correlation to various prognostic parameters and treatment characteristics (e.g., surgery, tamoxifen use). Moreover, a subgroup analysis was performed according to low, intermediate, and high initial risk of recurrence, from which the expected absolute benefit was derived

  18. Discovery and validation of prognostic markers in gastric cancer by genome-wide expression profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Zheng Zhang; Jia-Fu Ji; Chang-Qing Zeng; Lian-Hai Zhang; Yang Gao; Chao-Hua Li; Shu-Qin Jia; Ni Liu; Feng Cheng; De-Yun Niu; William CS Cho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To develop a prognostic gene set that can predict patient overall survival status based on the whole genome expressionanalysis.METHODS: Using Illumina HumanWG-6 BeadChip followed by semi-supervised analysis, we analyzed the expression of 47 296 transcripts in two batches of gastriccancer patients who underwent surgical resection.Thirty-nine samples in the first batch were used as the training set to discover candidate markers correlated tooverall survival, and thirty-three samples in the second batch were used for validation.RESULTS: A panel of ten genes were identified as prognostic marker in the first batch samples and classified patients into a low- and a high-risk group with significantly different survival times (P = 0.000047). This prognosticmarker was then verified in an independent validation sample batch (P = 0.0009). By comparing with the traditional Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system, thisten-gene prognostic marker showed consistent prognosis results. It was the only independent prognostic value by multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.007). Interestingly,six of these ten genes are ribosomal proteins,suggesting a possible association between the deregulation of ribosome related gene expression and the poorprognosis.CONCLUSION: A ten-gene marker correlated with overall prognosis, including 6 ribosomal proteins, was identified and verified, which may complement the predictive value of TNM staging system.

  19. Preoperative mediastinal lymph node staging for non-small cell lung cancer: 2014 update of the 2007 ESTS guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    De Leyn, Paul; Dooms, Christophe; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Lardinois, Didier; Passlick, Bernward; Rami-Porta, Ramon; Turna, Akif; Van Schil, Paul; Venuta, Frederico; Waller, David; Weder, Walter; Zielinski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging and restaging of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with potentially resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is of paramount importance. In 2007, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) published an algorithm on preoperative mediastinal staging integrating imaging, endoscopic and surgical techniques. Over the last years more evidence of the different mediastinal staging technique has become available. Therefore, a revision of the ESTS guidelines w...

  20. Update on the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: focus on the cost-effectiveness of new agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnenègre A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Vergnenègre,1,4 I Borget,2 C Chouaid3,4 1Service de Pathologie Respiratoire et d'Allergologie, CHU Dupuytren, Limoges, France; 2Etudes et Recherche en Économie de la Santé, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; 3Service de Pneumologie, CHU Saint-Antoine, Paris, France; 4Inserm, U707, Paris, France Background: The incidence of lung cancer and the cost of drug treatment have increased dramatically in the last decade. This article examines the costs of new target agents, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs and anti-angiogenic drugs. Methods: This study uses PubMed research to focus on the topics of lung cancer, economics, and new targeted therapies. Results: The published papers only addressed TKIs and anti-angiogenic antibodies. For gefitinib, the results favored a clinical-based selection, despite the low number of studies. Erlotinib was studied in second line and as a maintenance treatment (with the studies reaching opposite conclusions in terms of cost-effectiveness. Economic analyses were not in favor of bevacizumab, but the studies on this topic were very heterogeneous. Conclusion: The economic impact of a drug depends on the health care system organization. Future clinical trials must include economic analyses, particularly with TKIs in the first line. Keywords: lung cancer, new target agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti-angiogenic, bevacizumab

  1. Activated Ras signaling pathways and reovirus oncolysis: an update on the mechanism of preferential reovirus replication in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunGong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of wild-type, unmodified Type 3 Dearing (T3D strain reovirus as an anticancer agent has currently expanded to 32 clinical trials (both completed and ongoing involving reovirus in the treatment of cancer. It has been more than 30 years since the potential of reovirus as an anticancer agent was first identified in studies that demonstrated the preferential replication of reovirus in transformed cell lines but not in normal cells. Later investigations have revealed the involvement of activated Ras signaling pathways (both upstream and downstream and key steps of the reovirus infectious cycle in promoting preferential replication in cancer cells with reovirus-induced cancer cell death occurring through necrotic, apoptotic, and autophagic pathways. There is increasing evidence that reovirus-induced antitumor immunity involving both innate and adaptive responses also contributes to therapeutic efficacy though this discussion is beyond the scope of this article. Here we review our current understanding of the mechanism of oncolysis contributing to the broad anticancer activity of reovirus. Further understanding of reovirus oncolysis is critical in enhancing the clinical development and efficacy of reovirus.

  2. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part II: Benchmark comparisons of PUMA core parameters with MCNP5 and improvements due to a simple cell heterogeneity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO2 rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update of reactor physics calculation methods and models was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. This paper presents benchmark comparisons of core parameters of a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the PUMA reactor code with MCNP5. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, more symmetric than Atucha-II, and has some experimental data available. To validate the new models benchmark comparisons of k-effective, channel power and axial power distributions obtained with PUMA and MCNP5 have been performed. In addition, a simple cell heterogeneity correction recently introduced in PUMA is presented, which improves significantly the agreement of calculated channel powers with MCNP5. To complete the validation, the calculation of some of the critical configurations of the Atucha-I reactor measured during the experiments performed at first criticality is also presented. (authors)

  3. The validity of risk assessments for lung cancer induced by radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available input data for the risk assessment from low level radon daughter (Rn-d) exposure are mostly either of low quality, partially contradicting or simply ''guesstimates''. Therefore at present only the upper limit of this risk can be estimated. Results of epidemiological studies amongst miners are associated with large uncertainties with regard to the assessment of past radiation exposure, lung cancer diagnostic and/or classification and synergistic effects due to smoking and dust exposure. An alternative approach uses dosimetric modelling for Rn-d inhalation to obtain Rn-d exposure-dose conversion factors. Large uncertainty is caused by individual variability due the influence of life style, physical and biological parameters. It is concluded that for ''normal'' indoor Rn-d exposure the resulting risk is neglegible compared to other risks ''accepted'' by society

  4. Breast cancer screening in women at increased risk according to different family histories: an update of the Modena Study Group experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortesi Laura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend on the level of risk. Here we present an update of our screening programs based on risk classification. Methods We defined different risk categories and surveillance strategies to identify early BC in 1325 healthy women recruited by the Modena Study Group for familial breast and ovarian cancer. Four BC risk categories included BRCA1/2 carriers, increased, intermediate, and slightly increased risk. Women who developed BC from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2005 (N = 44 were compared with the number of expected cases matched for age and period. BRCA1/2 carriers were identified by mutational analysis. Other risk groups were defined by different levels of family history for breast or ovarian cancer (OC. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR was used to evaluate the observed and expected ratio among groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results After a median follow-up of 55 months, there was a statistically significant difference between observed and expected incidence [SIR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6 to 7.6; p P P P = 0.0018 was higher than expected, while the difference between observed and expected among women at slightly increased risk was not statistically significant (SIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.9 to 8.3; P = .74. Conclusion The rate of cancers detected in women at high risk according to BRCA status or strong family history, as defined according to our operational criteria, was significantly higher than expected in an age-matched general population. However, we failed to identify a greater incidence of BC in the slightly increased risk group. These results support the effectiveness of the proposed program to identify and monitor individuals at high risk, whereas prospective trials are needed for

  5. Updated concept of validity check when determining the customs value of goods carried in (imported) in the customs territory of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Федотов, О. П.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with a study of conceptual basics of validity check when determining the customs value of goods carried in (imported) in the customs territory of Ukraine. On the basis of the analysis of the effective legislation of Ukraine related to the state customs procedures the author revealed the issues of concern that arise when determining the «tentative indicators» of the customs value of goods that is used in the risk management system when clearing the goods carried in the custom...

  6. Continuous Validity of Pedicled Myocutaneous and Myofascial Flaps in Reconstruction after Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to reevaluate the role and effectiveness of pedicled myocutanous and myofascial flaps in reconstruction after resection of head and neck cancer. Patients and Methods: This study represents the authors own experience using pedicled myocutanous and myofascial flaps in reconstruction after resection of malignant tumors of different sites in the head and neck. The study included 121 patients with head and neck cancer operated upon at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University and Alminia Cancer Center over 3 years duration, between July 2005 and the end of July 2008. Four types of flaps were used namely the Pectoralis major (Group I), lower trapezius (Group II), Latissimus dorsi (Group III), and the temporalis ((Group IV) flaps. Utility of the different types of these flaps was reevaluated in terms of indications, advantages, and postoperative complications. Results: This study included 121 patients, 83 males and 38 females. The mean age was 56 years (range, 14- 65 years). Oral malignancies represented most of the cases (71 cases). Pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap was the most commonly used flap (84 cases) and its main indication was oral and pharyngeal defects. Lower trapezius and Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps were used in 14 and 12 cases respectively. Their main indications were tumors in the occiput, ear pinna, parotid and neck regions. The Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was also used for reconstruction of oral and pharyngeal defects in 7 female patients with large breasts and for salvage reconstruction after failure of reconstruction by (PMMC) flap in one patient and for reconstruction after excision of local recurrence on top of previous (PMMC) flap in another patient. Temporalis myofascial flap was used in 12 cases and the main indication was orbital defects. The overall postoperative complications was 19.8% (24/121). It was 20% (17/84) in group I, 28.6% (4/14) in group II, and 25% (3/12) in group III. No flap

  7. An updated protocol to detect invalid entries in an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM): how do valid and invalid submissions compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jeremy A; Konstan, Joseph; Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Galos, Dylan; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-10-01

    Researchers use protocols to screen for suspicious survey submissions in online studies. We evaluated how well a de-duplication and cross-validation process detected invalid entries. Data were from the Sexually Explicit Media Study, an Internet-based HIV prevention survey of men who have sex with men. Using our protocol, 146 (11.6 %) of 1254 entries were identified as invalid. Most indicated changes to the screening questionnaire to gain entry (n = 109, 74.7 %), matched other submissions' payment profiles (n = 56, 41.8 %), or featured an IP address that was recorded previously (n = 43, 29.5 %). We found few demographic or behavioral differences between valid and invalid samples, however. Invalid submissions had lower odds of reporting HIV testing in the past year (OR 0.63), and higher odds of requesting no payment compared to check payments (OR 2.75). Thus, rates of HIV testing would have been underestimated if invalid submissions had not been removed, and payment may not be the only incentive for invalid participation. PMID:25805443

  8. Robust and validated models to predict high risk of non-sentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Benefit from axillary lymph node dissection in sentinel node positive breast cancer patients is under debate. Based on data from 1820 Danish breast cancer patients operated in 2002-2008, we have developed two models to predict high risk of non-sentinel node metastases when...... cohort to 0.60 in the validation cohort. When dividing patients with isolated tumor cells into high and low risk of non-sentinel node metastases according to number of risk factors present, 37% in the high-risk group had non-sentinel node metastases. Specificity and sensitivity was 0.48 and 0...... micrometastases or isolated tumor cells are found in sentinel node. The aim of this study was to validate these models in an independent Danish dataset. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 720 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 180 with isolated tumor cells in sentinel node operated in 2009-2010 from...

  9. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2010-04-29

    Abstract Background Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. Methods We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. Results In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the top six most

  10. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. METHODS: We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. RESULTS: In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the top six most

  11. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. Our study demonstrates that the top six most stably expressed miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26

  12. Design and Validation of PEG-Derivatized Vitamin E Copolymer for Drug Delivery into Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Liu, Qinhui; Li, Wenyao; Zhang, Ting; Li, Hanmei; Li, Rui; Chen, Lei; Pu, Shiyun; Kuang, Jiangying; Su, Zhiguang; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Jinhan

    2016-08-17

    This study examined the ability of amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives to assemble into micelles for drug delivery. Linear PEG chains were modified on one end with hydrophobic vitamin E succinate (VES), and PEG and VES were mixed in different molar ratios to make amphiphiles, which were characterized in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC), drug loading capacity (DLC), serum stability, tumor spheroid penetration and tumor targeting in vitro and in vivo. The amphiphile PEG5K-VES6 (PAMV6), which has a wheat-like structure, showed a CMC of 3.03 × 10(-6) M, good serum stability, and tumor accumulation. The model drug, pirarubicin (THP), could be efficiently loaded into PAMV6 micelles at a DLC of 24.81%. PAMV6/THP micelles were more effective than THP solution at inducing cell apoptosis and G2/M arrest in 4T1 cells. THP-loaded PAMV6 micelles also inhibited tumor growth much more than free THP in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. PAMV6-based micellar systems show promise as nanocarriers for improved anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:27418000

  13. Validity, reliability and understanding of the EORTC-C30 and EORTC-BR23, quality of life questionnaires specific for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alessandra Silva Michels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To validate and assess reliability and understanding of the EORTC–C30 quality of life questionnaire and its breast cancer specific module, the EORTC-BR23. Methods: This study was conducted at the AC Camargo Cancer Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 100 women diagnosed with breast cancer were interviewed. Internal consistency, confirmatory factorial analysis, convergent validity, construct validity and degree of understanding were examined. Reliability was assessed by comparison of means at times 1 and 2, inter-class coefficient and Bland-Altman graphics. Results: Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.72 to 0.86 for the EORTC-C30 and from 0.78 to 0.83 for the EORTC-BR23 questionnaire. Most questions were confirmed in the confirmatory factorial analysis. In the construct validity analysis, the questionnaires were capable of differentiating patients with or without lymphedema, apart from the symptom scales of both questionnaires. Both questionnaires presented a significant correlation in most domains of the SF-36, in the convergent validity analysis. Only a few criticisms were reported concerning questions, and the mean grade of understanding was high (C30 = 4.91 and BR23 = 4.89. The questionnaires presented good rates of reliability, with the exception of the functional scale of the C30 and the symptom scale of the BR23. Conclusions: The EORTC-C30 and EORTC-BR23 quality of life questionnaires were validated, presented good rates of reliability and are easily understood, allowing them to be used in Brazil to assess quality of life among women with breast cancer.

  14. Adjuvant radiation therapy of regional lymph nodes in breast cancer - a meta-analysis of randomized trials- an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of regional lymph nodes (LN) in early breast cancer is still a matter of debate. RT increases the Overall survival (OS) rate of breast cancer patients after breast conserving surgery and after mastectomy in patients with involved LN. The contribution of RT to regional LN to this improvement was poorly identified. Recently, the results of three large randomized trials addressing this question were published as full papers. Published data of the MA.20 (n = 1832), the EORTC22922–10925 (EORTC) (n = 4004) trial and the French trial (n = 1334) were the foundation of this meta-analysis. Major eligibility criteria were positive i) axillary LN (all trials), ii) LN negative disease with high risk for recurrence (MA.20), and iii) medial/central tumor location (French, EORTC). The MA.20 and the EORTC trial analyzed the effect of additional regional RT to the internal mammary (IM) LN and medial supraclavicular (MS) LN, whereas in the French trial all patients received RT to the MS-LN and solely RT to the IM-LN was randomized. Primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS). Regional RT of MS-LN and IM-LN (MA.20 and EORTC) resulted in a significant improvement of OS [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88 (95 % CL 0.78 - 0.99)]. Adding results of the French trial and using a random effects model to respect the different design of the French trial, the effect on OS of regional RT remained significant [HR 0.90 (95 % CL 0.82 - 0.99)]. The absolute benefits in OS were 1 % in the MA.20 trial at 10 years, 1.6 % in the EORTC trial at 10 years, and 3.3 % in the French trial at 10 years (not significant in single trials). Regional RT of MS-LN and IM-LN (MA.20 and EORTC) yielded to a significant improvement of DFS [HR 0.86 (95 % CL 0.78 - 0.95)] and DMFS [HR 0.84 (95 % CL 0.75 - 0.94)]. Additional regional RT to the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular LN statistically significantly improved DFS

  15. Identification and Validation of Genes with Expression Patterns Inverse to Multiple Metastasis Suppressor Genes in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Natascia; Collins, Joshua W.; Shen, Changyu; Caplen, Natasha J.; Merchant, Anand S.; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Goswami, Chirayu P.; Hoshino, Takashi; Qian, Yongzhen; Sledge, George W.; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) have contributed to an understanding of regulatory pathways unique to the lethal metastatic process. When re-expressed in experimental models, MSGs block cancer spread to, and colonization of distant sites without affecting primary tumor formation. Genes have been identified with expression patterns inverse to a single MSG, and found to encode functional, druggable signaling pathways. We now hypothesize that common signaling pathways mediate the effects of multiple MSGs. By gene expression profiling of human MCF7 breast carcinoma cells expressing a scrambled siRNA or siRNAs to each of 19 validated MSGs (NME1, BRMS1, CD82, CDH1, CDH2, CDH11, CASP8, MAP2K4, MAP2K6, MAP2K7, MAPK14, GSN, ARHGDIB, AKAP12, DRG1, CD44, PEBP1, RRM1, KISS1), we identified genes whose expression was significantly opposite to at least five MSGs. Five genes were selected for further analysis: PDE5A, UGT1A, IL11RA, DNM3 and OAS1. After stable downregulation of each candidate gene in the aggressive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231T, in vitro motility was significantly inhibited. Two stable clones downregulating PDE5A (phosphodiesterase 5A), enzyme involved in the regulation of cGMP-specific signaling, exhibited no difference in cell proliferation, but reduced motility by 47 and 66% compared to the empty vector-expressing cells (p=0.01 and p=0.005). In an experimental metastasis assay, two shPDE5A-MDA-MB-231T clones produced 47–62% fewer lung metastases than shRNA-scramble expressing cells (p=0.045 and p= 0.009 respectively). This study demonstrates that previously unrecognized genes are inversely related to the expression of multiple MSGs, contribute to aspects of metastasis, and may stand as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25086928

  16. Putting evidence into practice: an update of evidence-based interventions for cancer-related fatigue during and following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sandra A; Hoffman, Amy J; Clark, Jane C; DeGennaro, Regina M; Poirier, Patricia; Robinson, Carolene B; Weisbrod, Breanna L

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has deleterious effects on physical, social, cognitive, and vocational functioning, and causes emotional and spiritual distress for patients and their families; however, it remains under-recognized and undertreated. This article critically reviews and integrates the available empirical evidence supporting the efficacy of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment approaches to CRF, highlighting new evidence since 2007 and 2009 Putting Evidence Into Practice publications. Interventions that are recommended for practice or likely to be effective in improving fatigue outcomes include exercise; screening for treatable risk factors; management of concurrent symptoms; yoga; structured rehabilitation; Wisconsin ginseng; cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia, pain, and depression; mindfulness-based stress reduction; and psychoeducational interventions such as anticipatory guidance, psychosocial support, and energy conservation and activity management. This information can be applied to improve the management of CRF, inform health policy and program development, shape the design of clinical trials of new therapies for CRF, and drive basic and translational research. PMID:25427608

  17. Validation of an elastic registration technique to estimate anatomical lung modification in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Tomotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persano Diego

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of lung parenchyma anatomical modification is useful to estimate dose discrepancies during the radiation treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC patients. We propose and validate a method, based on free-form deformation and mutual information, to elastically register planning kVCT with daily MVCT images, to estimate lung parenchyma modification during Tomotherapy. Methods We analyzed 15 registrations between the planning kVCT and 3 MVCT images for each of the 5 NSCLC patients. Image registration accuracy was evaluated by visual inspection and, quantitatively, by Correlation Coefficients (CC and Target Registration Errors (TRE. Finally, a lung volume correspondence analysis was performed to specifically evaluate registration accuracy in lungs. Results Results showed that elastic registration was always satisfactory, both qualitatively and quantitatively: TRE after elastic registration (average value of 3.6 mm remained comparable and often smaller than voxel resolution. Lung volume variations were well estimated by elastic registration (average volume and centroid errors of 1.78% and 0.87 mm, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this method is able to estimate lung deformations in thorax MVCT, with an accuracy within 3.6 mm comparable or smaller than the voxel dimension of the kVCT and MVCT images. It could be used to estimate lung parenchyma dose variations in thoracic Tomotherapy.

  18. Validation of an elastic registration technique to estimate anatomical lung modification in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of lung parenchyma anatomical modification is useful to estimate dose discrepancies during the radiation treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. We propose and validate a method, based on free-form deformation and mutual information, to elastically register planning kVCT with daily MVCT images, to estimate lung parenchyma modification during Tomotherapy. We analyzed 15 registrations between the planning kVCT and 3 MVCT images for each of the 5 NSCLC patients. Image registration accuracy was evaluated by visual inspection and, quantitatively, by Correlation Coefficients (CC) and Target Registration Errors (TRE). Finally, a lung volume correspondence analysis was performed to specifically evaluate registration accuracy in lungs. Results showed that elastic registration was always satisfactory, both qualitatively and quantitatively: TRE after elastic registration (average value of 3.6 mm) remained comparable and often smaller than voxel resolution. Lung volume variations were well estimated by elastic registration (average volume and centroid errors of 1.78% and 0.87 mm, respectively). Our results demonstrate that this method is able to estimate lung deformations in thorax MVCT, with an accuracy within 3.6 mm comparable or smaller than the voxel dimension of the kVCT and MVCT images. It could be used to estimate lung parenchyma dose variations in thoracic Tomotherapy

  19. Update '98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  20. A clinicopathological study of early-stage synchronous bilateral breast cancer: a retrospective evaluation and prospective validation of potential risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate potential risk factors for synchronous bilateral breast cancer sBBC. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients diagnosed and treated with operable bilateral breast cancer (BBC between June 2007 and December 2011. Risk factors for sBBC were evaluated in this cohort and further validated in a prospective observational validation analysis of patients between January 2012 and December 2012. Patients treated with operable unilateral breast cancer during the same period were used as a control group. RESULTS: A total of 11,247 patients with primary breast cancer underwent operations at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and December 2012. The incidence of sBBC was 1.6%. The age at diagnosis (HR = 2.4, 95% C.I.: 1.4-4.0, p = 0.001, presence of sclerosing adenosis (HR = 11.8, 95% C.I.: 5.3-26.3, p<0.001, lobular carcinoma component involvement (HR = 5.6, 95% C.I.: 2.6-12.1, p<0.001, and family history of first-degree relatives with breast cancer (HR = 2.0, 95% C.I.: 1.1-3.4, p<0.001 were independent risk factors for sBBC. A subsequent validation study failed to confirm the significance of family history. No significant difference on survival was found between patients with early-stage sBBC and control cases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with the presence of sclerosing in the affected breast, and lobular carcinoma component involvement may be at high risk for developing sBBC. This study supports the hypothesis that the host-carcinoma biological relationship, especially for the tumor microenvironment, played a critical role in the carcinogenesis of sBBC.

  1. Algorithm update of the GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared CO2 product (version 1) and validation of the UTLS CO2 data using CONTRAIL measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Kimoto, Shuhei; Sugimura, Ryo; Imasu, Ryoichi; Kawakami, Shuji; Shiomi, Kei; Kuze, Akihiko; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu

    2016-05-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers in the thermal infrared (TIR) band since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR version 1 (V1) CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. We first evaluated the impact of considering TIR CO2 averaging kernel functions on CO2 concentrations using CO2 profile data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME), and found that the impact at around the CME level flight altitudes (˜ 11 km) was on average less than 0.5 ppm at low latitudes and less than 1 ppm at middle and high latitudes. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper-atmospheric CO2 data were within 0.1 % of the averages of the CONTRAIL CME CO2 data with and without TIR CO2 averaging kernels for all seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of comparisons for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreements of TIR and CME CO2 data were worse in spring and summer than in fall and winter in the Northern Hemisphere in the upper troposphere. While the differences between TIR and CME CO2 data were on average within 1 ppm in fall and winter, TIR CO2 data had a negative bias up to 2.4 ppm against CME CO2 data with TIR CO2 averaging kernels at the northern low and middle latitudes in spring and summer. The negative bias at the northern middle latitudes resulted in the maximum of TIR CO2 concentrations being lower than that of CME CO2 concentrations, which led to an underestimate of the amplitude of CO2

  2. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chelle L.; Clark-Snustad, Kindra; Devine, Beth; Grembowski, David; Thornton, Timothy A.; Ko, Cynthia W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py]) were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000). The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000) in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000) in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000) in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000). Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low. PMID:27293427

  3. Measuring health-related quality of life in children with cancer living in mainland China: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL is widely used instrument to measure pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL for children aged 2 to 18 years. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in a group of Chinese children with cancer. Methods The PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module were administered to children with cancer (aged 5-18 years and parents of such children (aged 2-18 years. For comparison, a survey on a demographically group-matched sample of the general population with children (aged 5-18 and parents of children (aged 2-18 years was conducted with the PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales. Result The minimal mean percentage of missing item responses (except the School Functioning scale supported the feasibility of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module for Chinese children with cancer. Most of the scales showed satisfactory reliability with Cronbach's α of exceeding 0.70, and all scales demonstrated sufficient test-retest reliability. Assessing the clinical validity of the questionnaires, statistically significant difference was found between healthy children and children with cancer, and between children on-treatment versus off-treatment ≥12 months. Positive significant correlations were observed between the scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient factorial validity. Moderate to good agreement was found between child self- and parent proxy-reports. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese Mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in children with cancer living in mainland China.

  4. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian

  5. Câncer de mama estádio inicial e radioterapia: atualização Early stage breast cancer and radiotherapy: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nader Marta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de mama é a neoplasia maligna mais frequente entre as mulheres. A escolha terapêutica depende do estádio clínico da doença, das características anatomopatológicas, idade, entre outros. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar uma atualização dos conceitos e definições da radioterapia (RT no tratamento conservador do câncer de mama estádio inicial, enfatizando as indicações, contraindicações, dose e fracionamento da RT (esquema clássico, hipofracionado e irradiação parcial da mama, RT adjuvante no carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS, irradiação das cadeias linfonodais e relação da RT com preditores moleculares de recorrência. Foram utilizadas as bases de dados MEDLINE, SciELO e Cochrane para a seleção dos principais artigos disponíveis sobre a temática proposta. A RT adjuvante tem um papel definido na abordagem das pacientes com câncer da mama submetidas à terapia cirúrgica conservadora. Em pacientes selecionadas, podem-se empregar esquemas de RT hipofracionada ou irradiação parcial das mamas. Todas as pacientes com CDIS devem receber RT adjuvante. Não se sabe a correlação do papel da RT com preditores moleculares de recorrência local e sistêmica.Breast cancer (BC is the most common malignancy among women. Therapeutic options are based on disease staging, histopathological characteristics, age, and others. The objective of the present study is to carry out an update of the concepts and definitions of radiotherapy (RT in conservative treatment of early-stage breast cancer, with emphasis on indications, contraindications, RT dose fractionation schedules (classic, hypofractionated and partial breast irradiation, adjuvant RT in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS and molecular predictors of recurrence. MEDLINE, SciELO and Cochrane databases were used for article selection. Adjuvant RT is indicated for patients with BC who underwent conservative breast surgery. In selected patients, hypofractionated or partial

  6. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: tobacco control--reducing cancer incidence and saving lives. 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-15

    As an international medical society dedicated to cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates a fundamental reform of United States and international policy toward addictive tobacco products. ASCO's goal is the immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world. The centerpiece of ASCO's policy is the recommendation for an independent commission to study the tobacco problem in all of its dimensions: social, medical, legal, and economic (both domestically and globally). The commission membership should include broad-based representation and expertise on tobacco issues. In ASCO's view, tobacco control efforts to date have been less than successful because they are too fragmented and incremental, leaving many important issues unaddressed. A more comprehensive solution could flow from this study, including input from a variety of government agencies involved with public health, agriculture, First Amendment and other legal considerations, and international trade. The study, within defined time limits, should culminate in a report that outlines a strategy for achieving immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world, including explicit plans and a timetable for implementation. Although this comprehensive approach to tobacco control will take many years to implement even under the best of circumstances, there are certain measures that could be undertaken immediately with meaningful impact on tobacco usage. These include: Increasing efforts to discourage tobacco use, particularly among the young Raising federal excise taxes by at least $2 per pack and encouraging states to consider tobacco taxes as a first resort in revenue enhancement Ensuring that tobacco settlement funds be devoted only to health-related projects, including medical treatment, biomedical research, and tobacco prevention efforts Requiring disclosure of all ingredients in tobacco products Comprehensively

  7. Validation of Serological Antibody Profiles Against Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Antigens as Markers for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Piña, Dolores Azucena; Pedroza-Saavedra, Adolfo; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Chihu-Amparan, Lilia; Rodriguez-Ocampo, Angelica Nallelhy; Orozco-Fararoni, Emilia; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent neoplasia among women worldwide. Cancer prevention programs around the world have used the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear as the primary diagnostic test to reduce the burden of CC. Nevertheless, such programs have not been effective in developing countries, thus leading to research on alternative tests for CC screening. During the virus life cycle and in the process toward malignancy, different human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins are expressed, and they induce a host humoral immune response that can be used as a potential marker for different stages of the disease. We present a new Slot blot assay to detect serum antibodies against HPV16 E4, E7, and VLPs-L1 antigens. The system was validated with sera from a female population (n = 485) aged 18 to 64 years referred to the dysplasia clinic at the General Hospital in Cuautla, Morelos, Mexico. To evaluate the clinical performance of the serological markers, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values and receiver-operating characteristic curves (for antibodies alone or in combination) were calculated in groups of lesions of increasing severity. The results showed high prevalence of anti-E4 (73%) and anti-E7 (80%) antibodies in the CC group. Seropositivity to 1, 2, or 3 antigens showed associations of increasing magnitude with CC (odds ratio [OR] = 12.6, 19.9, and 58.5, respectively). The highest association with CC was observed when the analysis was restricted to only anti-E4+E7 antibodies (OR = 187.7). The best clinical performance to discriminate CC from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 to 3 was the one for the combination of anti-E4 and/or anti-E7 antibodies, which displayed high sensitivity (93.3%) and moderate specificity (64.1%), followed by anti-E4 and anti-E7 antibodies (73.3% and 80%; 89.6% and 66%, respectively). In addition, the sensitivity of anti-E4 and/or anti-E7 antibodies is high at any time of sexual activity (TSA

  8. PROMIS--Prostate MR imaging study: A paired validating cohort study evaluating the role of multi-parametric MRI in men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shater Bosaily, A.; Parker, C.; Brown, L. C.; Gabe, R; Hindley, R. G.; Kaplan, R; Emberton, M.; Ahmed, H. U.; PROMIS Group

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies are prone to detection errors. Multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) may improve the diagnostic pathway. METHODS: PROMIS is a prospective validating paired-cohort study that meets criteria for level 1 evidence in diagnostic test evaluation. PROMIS will investigate whether multi-parametric (MP)-MRI can discriminate between men with and without clinically-significant prostate cancer who are at risk prior to first biopsy. Up to 714 men will hav...

  9. An external validation study of nomograms designed to predict isolated loco-regional and distant endometrial cancer recurrences: how applicable are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Bendifallah, S.; Canlorbe, G; Raimond, E; Bazire, L; Huguet, F.; Graesslin, O; Rouzier, R; Darai, E.; Ballester, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: To externally validate and assess the robustness of two nomograms to predict the recurrence risk of women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods: Using an independent, multicentre external patient cohort we assessed the discrimination and calibration of two nomograms – the 3-year isolated loco-regional (ILRR) and distant (DR) recurrence nomograms – in women with surgically treated stage I–III EC. Results: Two hundred and seventy one eligible women were identified from two universit...

  10. Reliable and valid assessment of competence in endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration for mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, L.; Vilmann, P.; Clementsen, P.; Annema, J. T.; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) guided by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is important in mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Training standards and implementation strategies of this technique are currently under discussion. The aim of this study was to explore the reliability...... and validity of a newly developed EUS Assessment Tool (EUSAT) designed to measure competence in EUS - FNA for mediastinal staging of NSCLC....

  11. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;

    2011-01-01

    in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions for...

  12. TGF-β Blockade Reduces Mortality and Metabolic Changes in a Validated Murine Model of Pancreatic Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie H Greco; Lena Tomkötter; Anne-Kristin Vahle; Rae Rokosh; Antonina Avanzi; Syed Kashif Mahmood; Michael Deutsch; Sara Alothman; Dalia Alqunaibit; Atsuo Ochi; Constantinos Zambirinis; Tasnima Mohaimin; Mauricio Rendon; Elliot Levie; Mridul Pansari

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition characterized by a combination of anorexia, muscle wasting, weight loss, and malnutrition. This condition affects an overwhelming majority of patients with pancreatic cancer and is a primary cause of cancer-related death. However, few, if any, effective therapies exist for both treatment and prevention of this syndrome. In order to develop novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer cachexia, appropriate animal models are necessary. In this s...

  13. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Attitudes and Beliefs about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use among Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun J. Mao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite cancer patients' extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, validated instruments to measure attitudes, and beliefs predictive of CAM use are lacking. We aimed at developing and validating an instrument, attitudes and beliefs about CAM (ABCAM. The 15-item instrument was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB as a framework. The literature review, qualitative interviews, expert content review, and cognitive interviews were used to develop the instrument, which was then administered to 317 outpatient oncology patients. The ABCAM was best represented as a 3-factor structure: expected benefits, perceived barriers, and subjective norms related to CAM use by cancer patients. These domains had Eigenvalues of 4.79, 2.37, and 1.43, and together explained over 57.2% of the variance. The 4-item expected benefits, 7-item perceived barriers, and 4-item subjective norms domain scores, each had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.91, 0.76, and 0.75, respectively. As expected, CAM users had higher expected benefits, lower perceived barriers, and more positive subjective norms (all <0.001 than those who did not use CAM. Our study provides the initial evidence that the ABCAM instrument produced reliable and valid scores that measured attitudes and beliefs related to CAM use among cancer patients.

  14. Satisfaction with care among patients with non-metastatic breast cancer: development and first steps of validation of the REPERES-60 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrand Pierre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The care itinerary for cancer involves difficulties that occur in several different areas, whether in the diagnostic procedures, in surgery, or in adjuvant treatment. The aim of this work was to obtain a valid instrument measuring satisfaction among patients with breast cancer and exploring their care itinerary overall. Methods Development phase: Patient focus groups were implemented in two French regions in order to identify areas of satisfaction in relation to the different phases of care provision in breast cancer. On the basis of the literature and the themes and wordings derived from the focus groups, the patients identified several areas of satisfaction, which they found to be partially covered in an American satisfaction measure that has been validated in the French general population (the Consumer Satisfaction Survey in its French version, CSS-VF, 39 items. The patient focus groups suggested adaptation of certain dimensions of this instrument to the potential care providers (37 items and produced 45 new items in six areas. Validation phase: Using a large sample of patients (cohort of 820 women with invasive non-metastatic breast cancer approached one month after treatment, this phase selected items that were comprehensible (non-response rate Results Results were in favour of not inserting additional broken-down items into the CSS-VF and retaining 21 new items. The factor analysis found the initial structure of the CSS-VF (39 items in 9 dimensions and the 21 new items divide up into four dimensions (listening abilities and information provided by doctors, organisation and follow-up of medical care provision, psychological support, material environment. No redundancy was observed between new items and CSS-VF items. Internal consistency was high. Divergent and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Conclusion Adding four new dimensions to the CSS-VF yielded a valid 60-item instrument for assessment of care provided in

  15. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mokhles, Sahar [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lagerwaard, Frank J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Warner, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Takkenberg, Johanna J.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Maat, Alex P.W.M. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Woody, Neil M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogram for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r{sup 2}=0.97) and external SABR (r{sup 2}=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r{sup 2}=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities.

  16. Predicting Overall Survival After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Development and External Validation of the Amsterdam Prognostic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A prognostic model for 5-year overall survival (OS), consisting of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and a nomogram, was developed for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: A primary dataset of 703 ES-NSCLC SABR patients was randomly divided into a training (67%) and an internal validation (33%) dataset. In the former group, 21 unique parameters consisting of patient, treatment, and tumor factors were entered into an RPA model to predict OS. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed for RPA-selected factors to evaluate their relationship with OS. A nomogram for OS was constructed based on factors significant in multivariate modeling and validated with calibration plots. Both the RPA and the nomogram were externally validated in independent surgical (n=193) and SABR (n=543) datasets. Results: RPA identified 2 distinct risk classes based on tumor diameter, age, World Health Organization performance status (PS) and Charlson comorbidity index. This RPA had moderate discrimination in SABR datasets (c-index range: 0.52-0.60) but was of limited value in the surgical validation cohort. The nomogram predicting OS included smoking history in addition to RPA-identified factors. In contrast to RPA, validation of the nomogram performed well in internal validation (r2=0.97) and external SABR (r2=0.79) and surgical cohorts (r2=0.91). Conclusions: The Amsterdam prognostic model is the first externally validated prognostication tool for OS in ES-NSCLC treated with SABR available to individualize patient decision making. The nomogram retained strong performance across surgical and SABR external validation datasets. RPA performance was poor in surgical patients, suggesting that 2 different distinct patient populations are being treated with these 2 effective modalities

  17. Bioanalytical method validation: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi

    2010-10-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development, culminating in a marketing approval. The objective of this paper is to review the sample preparation of drug in biological matrix and to provide practical approaches for determining selectivity, specificity, limit of detection, lower limit of quantitation, linearity, range, accuracy, precision, recovery, stability, ruggedness, and robustness of liquid chromatographic methods to support pharmacokinetic (PK), toxicokinetic, bioavailability, and bioequivalence studies. Bioanalysis, employed for the quantitative determination of drugs and their metabolites in biological fluids, plays a significant role in the evaluation and interpretation of bioequivalence, PK, and toxicokinetic studies. Selective and sensitive analytical methods for quantitative evaluation of drugs and their metabolites are critical for the successful conduct of pre-clinical and/or biopharmaceutics and clinical pharmacology studies. PMID:23781413

  18. Using linked routinely collected health data to describe prostate cancer treatment in New South Wales, Australia: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong Bruce K; Smith David P; Goldsbury David E; O'Connell Dianne L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Population-based patterns of care studies are important for monitoring cancer care but conducting them is expensive and resource-intensive. Linkage of routinely collected administrative health data may provide an efficient alternative. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of linked routinely collected administrative data for monitoring prostate cancer care in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods The NSW Prostate Cancer Care and Outcomes Study (PCOS), a population-bas...

  19. Targeted Sequencing for Discovery and Validation of DNA Methylation Markers of Colon Cancer Metastasis — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. A key issue in treating colon cancer patients is inability to accurately predict tumors that have metastatic potential and require adjuvant chemotherapy. This project will test the model that tumor metastases arise from intra-tumor heterogeneity generated by DNA methylation events, and that detecting these events can provide a predictve signature of tumors with poor outcome

  20. Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in three Italian administrative healthcare databases: a diagnostic accuracy study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Iosief; Serraino, Diego; Giovannini, Gianni; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Alessandrini, Giuliana; Bidoli, Ettore; Chiari, Rita; Cirocchi, Roberto; De Giorgi, Marcello; Franchini, David; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Fusco, Mario; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Administrative healthcare databases are useful tools to study healthcare outcomes and to monitor the health status of a population. Patients with cancer can be identified through disease-specific codes, prescriptions and physician claims, but prior validation is required to achieve an accurate case definition. The objective of this protocol is to assess the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision—Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in identifying patients diagnosed with the relative disease in three Italian administrative databases. Methods and analysis Data from the administrative databases of Umbria Region (910 000 residents), Local Health Unit 3 of Napoli (1 170 000 residents) and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (1 227 000 residents) will be considered. In each administrative database, patients with the first occurrence of diagnosis of breast, lung or colorectal cancer between 2012 and 2014 will be identified using the following groups of ICD-9-CM codes in primary position: (1) 233.0 and (2) 174.x for breast cancer; (3) 162.x for lung cancer; (4) 153.x for colon cancer and (5) 154.0–154.1 and 154.8 for rectal cancer. Only incident cases will be considered, that is, excluding cases that have the same diagnosis in the 5 years (2007–2011) before the period of interest. A random sample of cases and non-cases will be selected from each administrative database and the corresponding medical charts will be assessed for validation by pairs of trained, independent reviewers. Case ascertainment within the medical charts will be based on (1) the presence of a primary nodular lesion in the breast, lung or colon–rectum, documented with imaging or endoscopy and (2) a cytological or histological documentation of cancer from a primary or metastatic site. Sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs will be calculated. Dissemination Study results will be disseminated widely through

  1. A comparison of several modulated radiotherapy techniques for head and neck cancer and dosimetric validation of VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has the potential to shorten treatment times for fluence modulated radiotherapy. We compared dose distributions of VMAT, step-and-shoot IMRT and serial tomotherapy for typical head and neck (H and N) planning target volumes (PTV) with sparing of one parotid, a complex paradigm and a situation often encountered in H and N radiotherapy. Finally, we validated the dosimetric accuracy of VMAT delivery. Material and methods: Based on CT datasets of 10 patients treated for H and N cancer (PTV1:60 Gy/PTV2:56 Gy) with IMRT (7/9 fields), serial tomotherapy (MIMiC) and VMAT were compared with regard to plan quality and treatment efficiency. Plan quality was assessed by calculating homogeneity/conformity index (HI/CI), mean dose to parotid and brain stem and the maximum dose to the spinal cord. For plan efficiency evaluation, total treatment time (TTT) and number of monitor units (MU) were considered. A dosimetric evaluation of VMAT was performed using radiosensitive film, ion chamber and 2D-array. Results: For MIMiC/IMRT7F/IMRT9F/VMAT, mean CI was 1.98/2.23/2.23/1.82, HIPTV1 was 1.12/1.20/1.20/1.11 and HIPTV2 was 1.11/1.15/1.13/1.12. Mean doses to the shielded parotid were 19.5 Gy/14.1 Gy/13.9 Gy/14.9 Gy and the spinal cord received maximum doses of 43.6 Gy/40.8 Gy/41.6 Gy/42.6 Gy. The mean MU’s were 2551/945/925/521 and the mean TTT was 12.8 min/7.6 min/8.5 min/4.32 min. The ion chamber measurements showed an absolute deviation of 0.08 ± 1.10% and 98.45 ± 3.25% pixels passed γ-analyses for 3%/3 mm and 99.95 ± 0.09% for 5%/5 mm for films. 2D-array measurements reported an agreement for 3%/3 mm of 95.65 ± 2.47%–98.33 ± 0.65% and for 5%/5 mm 99.79 ± 0.24%–99.92 ± 0.09% depending on the measurement protocol. Conclusion: All treatment paradigms produced plans of excellent quality and dosimetric accuracy with IMRT providing best OAR sparing and VMAT being the most efficient treatment option in our comparison of

  2. Locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer treated by combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation: updated results in a series of 120 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - To evaluate our updated data concerning survival and locoregional control in a study of locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer after primary chemotherapy followed by external preoperative irradiation. Patients and methods. - Between 1982 and 1998, 120 patients (75 stage IIIA, 41 stage IIIB, and 4 stage IIIC according to AJCC staging system 2002) were consecutively treated by four courses of induction chemotherapy with anthracycline-containing combinations followed by preoperative irradiation (45 Gy to the breast and nodal areas) and a fifth course of chemotherapy. Three different locoregional approaches were proposed, depending on tumour characteristics and tumour response. After completion of local therapy, all patients received a sixth course of chemotherapy and a maintenance adjuvant chemotherapy regimen without anthracycline. The median follow-up from the beginning of treatment was 140 months. Results. - Mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed in 49 patients (with residual tumour larger than 3 cm in diameter or located behind the nipple or with bifocal tumour), and conservative treatment in 71 patients (39 achieved clinical complete response or partial response >90% and received additional radiation boost to initial tumour bed; 32 had residual mass ≤3 cm in diameter and were treated by wide excision and axillary dissection followed by a boost to the excision site). Ten-year actuarial local failure rate was 13% after irradiation alone, 23% after wide excision and irradiation, and 4% after mastectomy (p =0.1). After multivariate analysis, possibility of breast-conserving therapy was related to initial tumour size (<6 vs. ≥6 cm in diameter, p =0.002). Ten-year overall metastatic disease-free survival rate was 61%. After multivariate analysis, metastatic disease-free survival rates were significantly influenced by clinical stage (stage IIIA-B vs. IIIC, p =0.0003), N-stage (N0 vs. N1-2a, and 3c, p = 0.017), initial tumour size (<6

  3. Validation of the euroqol five-dimensions - three-level quality of life instrument in a classical Indian language (Odia and its use to assess quality of life and health status of cancer patients in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The Odia version of the EQ5D has good reliability and validity for the measurement of health status in cancer and outpatient department patients. Cancer patients in this part of the country have a poor QOL and may need a closer look at pain management and improved societal support systems.

  4. Development and validation of a scoring system for late anorectal side-effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a scoring system for evaluation of long term anorectal dysfunction following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Patients treated for prostate cancer with radiotherapy filled in questionnaires on anorectal function and quality of life. Items for the condensed anorectal dysfunction score (RT-ARD) were identified and weighted by binomial regression analysis. The score was tested in a separate patient material by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and correlations to quality of life domains. Results: A total of 309 patients participated in the study. The items selected were “incontinence for solid stool”, “ability to defer defecation”, “unproductive call to stool”, “clustering of stool”, and “mucus in stool.” Patients were grouped into three categories according to the RT-ARD score; 0–8 (no RT-ARD), 9–23 (minor RT-ARD), 24–45 (major RT-ARD). ROC analyses revealed high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (85%) for major RT-ARD. The prediction model demonstrated a perfect fit in 60%, moderate fit in 36% and no fit in 4%. There was good correlation between the RT-ARD score and quality of life. Conclusions: The RT-ARD score is a validated and simple instrument for evaluation of anorectal dysfunction following radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and the RT-ARD score correlates to the patient’s quality of life

  5. Clinical validation of FDG-PET/CT in the radiation treatment planning for patients with oesophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, Christina T.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Woutersen, Dankert; Mul, Veronique E.; Berveling, Maaike J.; Pruim, Jan; van der Jagt, Eric J.; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Groen, Henk; Plukker, John Th.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the proportion of locoregional recurrences (LRRs) that could have been prevented if radiotherapy treatment planning for oesophageal cancer was based on PET/CT instead of CT. Materials and methods: Ninety oesophageal cancer patients, elig

  6. Mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: development, validation, and comparative analysis with two Western risk calculators in Korean men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We developed a mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNUPC-RC that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort. Additionally, the application was validated and subjected to head-to-head comparisons with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Here, we describe its development and validation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As a retrospective study, consecutive men who underwent initial prostate biopsy with more than 12 cores at a tertiary center were included. In the development stage, 3,482 cases from May 2003 through November 2010 were analyzed. Clinical variables were evaluated, and the final prediction model was developed using the logistic regression model. In the validation stage, 1,112 cases from December 2010 through June 2012 were used. SNUPC-RC was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator (ERSPC-RC and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPT-RC. The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The clinical value was evaluated using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: PC was diagnosed in 1,240 (35.6% and 417 (37.5% men in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Age, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate size, and abnormality on digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography were significant factors of PC and were included in the final model. The predictive accuracy in the development cohort was 0.786. In the validation cohort, AUC was significantly higher for the SNUPC-RC (0.811 than for ERSPC-RC (0.768, p<0.001 and PCPT-RC (0.704, p<0.001. Decision curve analysis also showed higher net benefits with SNUPC-RC than with the other calculators. CONCLUSIONS: SNUPC-RC has a higher predictive accuracy and clinical benefit than Western risk calculators. Furthermore, it is easy

  7. Using administrative health data to describe colorectal and lung cancer care in New South Wales, Australia: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldsbury David E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring treatment patterns is crucial to improving cancer patient care. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of linked routinely collected administrative health data for monitoring colorectal and lung cancer care in New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Methods Colorectal and lung cancer cases diagnosed in NSW between 2000 and 2002 were identified from the NSW Central Cancer Registry (CCR and linked to their hospital discharge records in the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC. These records were then linked to data from two relevant population-based patterns of care surveys. The main outcome measures were the sensitivity and specificity of data from the CCR and APDC for disease staging, investigative procedures, curative surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and selected comorbidities. Results Data for 2917 colorectal and 1580 lung cancer cases were analysed. Unknown disease stage was more common for lung cancer in the administrative data (18% than in the survey (2%. Colonoscopies were captured reasonably accurately in the administrative data compared with the surveys (82% and 79% respectively; 91% sensitivity, 53% specificity but all other colorectal or lung cancer diagnostic procedures were under-enumerated. Ninety-one percent of colorectal cancer cases had potentially curative surgery recorded in the administrative data compared to 95% in the survey (96% sensitivity, 92% specificity, with similar accuracy for lung cancer (16% and 17%; 92% sensitivity, 99% specificity. Chemotherapy (~40% sensitivity and radiotherapy (sensitivity≤30% were vastly under-enumerated in the administrative data. The only comorbidity that was recorded reasonably accurately in the administrative data was diabetes. Conclusions Linked routinely collected administrative health data provided reasonably accurate information on potentially curative surgical treatment, colonoscopies and comorbidities such as diabetes. Other diagnostic procedures

  8. Comparing GIS-based measures in access to mammography and their validity in predicting neighborhood risk of late-stage breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing neighborhood environment in access to mammography remains a challenge when investigating its contextual effect on breast cancer-related outcomes. Studies using different Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based measures reported inconsistent findings. METHODS: We compared GIS-based measures (travel time, service density, and a two-Step Floating Catchment Area method [2SFCA] of access to FDA-accredited mammography facilities in terms of their Spearman correlation, agreement (Kappa and spatial patterns. As an indicator of predictive validity, we examined their association with the odds of late-stage breast cancer using cancer registry data. RESULTS: The accessibility measures indicated considerable variation in correlation, Kappa and spatial pattern. Measures using shortest travel time (or average and service density showed low correlations, no agreement, and different spatial patterns. Both types of measures showed low correlations and little agreement with the 2SFCA measures. Of all measures, only the two measures using 6-timezone-weighted 2SFCA method were associated with increased odds of late-stage breast cancer (quick-distance-decay: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.32; slow-distance-decay: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37 after controlling for demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: Various GIS-based measures of access to mammography facilities exist and are not identical in principle and their association with late-stage breast cancer risk. Only the two measures using the 2SFCA method with 6-timezone weighting were associated with increased odds of late-stage breast cancer. These measures incorporate both travel barriers and service competition. Studies may observe different results depending on the measure of accessibility used.

  9. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. Methods One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members’ evaluations of the discussions. Results Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others’ experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Conclusions Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a

  10. Validity and reliability testing of two instruments to measure breast cancer patients' concerns and information needs relating to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult to determine the most effective approach to patient education or tailor education interventions for patients in radiotherapy without tools that assess patients' specific radiation therapy information needs and concerns. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop psychometrically sound tools to adequately determine the concerns and information needs of cancer patients during radiation therapy. Two tools were developed to (1) determine patients concerns about radiation therapy (RT Concerns Scale) and (2) ascertain patient's information needs at different time point during their radiation therapy (RT Information Needs Scale). Tools were based on previous research by the authors, published literature on breast cancer and radiation therapy and information behaviour research. Thirty-one breast cancer patients completed the questionnaire on one occasion and thirty participants completed the questionnaire on a second occasion to facilitate test-retest reliability. One participant's responses were removed from the analysis. Results were analysed for content validity, internal consistency and stability over time. Both tools demonstrated high internal consistency and adequate stability over time. The nine items in the RT Concerns Scale were retained because they met all pre-set psychometric criteria. Two items were deleted from the RT Information Needs Scale because they did not meet content validity criteria and did not achieve pre-specified criteria for internal consistency. This tool now contains 22 items. This paper provides preliminary data suggesting that the two tools presented are reliable and valid and would be suitable for use in trials or in the clinical setting

  11. Validation of an Ion Torrent Sequencing Platform for the Detection of Gene Mutations in Biopsy Specimens from Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Fujita

    Full Text Available Treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is often determined by the presence of biomarkers that predict the response to agents targeting specific molecular pathways. Demands for multiplex analysis of the genes involved in the pathogenesis of NSCLC are increasing.We validated the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM system using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel and compared the results with those obtained using the gold standard methods, conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing. The cycleave PCR method was used to verify the results.The Ion Torrent PGM resulted in a similar level of accuracy in identifying multiple genetic mutations in parallel, compared with conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing; however, the Ion Torrent PGM was superior to the other sequencing methods in terms of increased ease of use, even when taking into account the small amount of DNA that was obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE biopsy specimens.

  12. Potential Reduction of Contralateral Second Breast-Cancer Risks by Prophylactic Mammary Irradiation: Validation in a Breast-Cancer-Prone Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Shuryak; Lubomir B Smilenov; Kleiman, Norman J.; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term breast-cancer survivors have a highly elevated risk (1 in 6 at 20 years) of contralateral second breast cancer. This high risk is associated with the presence of multiple pre-malignant cell clones in the contralateral breast at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis. Mechanistic analyses suggest that a moderate dose of X-rays to the contralateral breast can kill these pre-malignant clones such that, at an appropriate Prophylactic Mammary Irradiation (PMI) dose, the ...

  13. Cancer-specific survival after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: proposal and multi-institutional validation of a post-operative nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, D R; Hupertan, V.; Colin, P.; Ouzzane, A; Descazeaud, A; Long, J. A.; Pignot, G; Crouzet, S; Rozet, F; Neuzillet, Y; Soulie, M.; Bodin, T; Valeri, A.; Cussenot, O; Rouprêt, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Owing to the scarcity of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) it is often necessary for investigators to pool data. A patient-specific survival nomogram based on such data is needed to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) post nephroureterectomy (NU). Herein, we propose and validate a nomogram to predict CSS post NU. Patients and methods: Twenty-one French institutions contributed data on 1120 patients treated with NU for UUT-UC. A total of 667 had full data for nom...

  14. International validation of the EORTC QLQ-ELD14 questionnaire for assessment of health-related quality of life elderly patients with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, S; Darlington, A-S; Fitzsimmons, D; Fayers, P; Arraras, J I; Bonnetain, F; Brain, E; Bredart, A; Chie, W-C; Giesinger, J; Hammerlid, E; O'Connor, S J; Oerlemans, S; Pallis, A; Reed, M; Singhal, N; Vassiliou, V; Young, T; Johnson, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Older people represent the majority of cancer patients but their specific needs are often ignored in the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-ELD15 was developed to supplement the EORTC's core questionnaire, the QLQ-C30, for measuring HRQOL in patients aged >70 years in oncology studies. Methods: Patients (n=518) from 10 countries completed the QLQ-C30, QLQ-ELD15 and a debriefing interview. Eighty two clinically stable patients repeated the questionnaires 1 week later (test–retest analysis) and 107 others, with an expected change in clinical status, repeated the questionnaires 3 months later (response to change analysis, RCA). Results: Information from the debriefing interview, factor analysis and item response theory analysis resulted in the removal of one item (QLQ-ELD15→QLQ-ELD14) and revision of the proposed scale structure to five scales (mobility, worries about others, future worries, maintaining purpose and illness burden) and two single items (joint stiffness and family support). Convergent validity was good. In known-group comparisons, the QLQ-ELD14 differentiated between patients with different disease stage, treatment intention, number of comorbidities, performance status and geriatric screening scores. Test–retest and RCA analyses were equivocal. Conclusion: The QLQ-ELD14 is a validated HRQOL questionnaire for cancer patients aged ⩾70 years. Changes in elderly patients' self-reported HRQOL may be related to both cancer evolution and non-clinical events. PMID:23868003

  15. Validity of soft-tissue thickness of calf measured using MRI for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine whether soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured using MRI could be valid for assessing unilateral lower extremity lymphoedema (LEL) secondary to cervical and endometrial cancer treatments. Materials and methods: Seventy women with unilateral LEL and 25 without LEL after cervical or endometrial cancer treatments underwent MRI examinations of their calves. Total thickness of soft-tissue (TT), muscle thickness (MT), and subcutaneous tissue thickness (STT) of the calf, and the difference between the affected and contralateral unaffected calf regarding TT (DTT), MT (DMT), and STT (DSTT) were obtained using fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging in the middle of the calves. The volume of the calf and difference in volume (DV) between calves were obtained by the method of water displacement. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the validity of MRI measurements by volume measurements in staging LEL. Results: There was a close correlation between volume and TT for the affected (r = 0.927) or unaffected calves (r = 0.896). STT of the affected calf, and DTT or DSTT of the calves were closely correlated with volume of the affected calf or DV of the calves (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in TT, STT, volume of the affected calf, DTT, DSTT, and DV between stages except in volume of the affected calf or in DV between stage 0 and 1. For staging LEL, DSTT showed the best discrimination ability among all the parameters. Conclusions: Soft-tissue thickness of the calf measured at MRI could be valid for quantitatively staging unilateral LEL, and DSTT of the calves could be the best classifying factor. - Highlights: • The soft tissue thickness of calves on MRI could quantitatively assess secondary LEL. • Calf soft tissue thickness indicated concurrent or construct validity of calf volume. • The difference of subcutaneous tissue thickness of calves could be used to stage LEL

  16. Validation of a questionnaire for self-assessment of sexual function and vaginal changes after gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Klee, Marianne C; Thranov, Ingrid;

    2004-01-01

    The Sexual function-Vaginal changes Questionnaire (SVQ), was developed to investigate sexual and vaginal problems in gynaecological cancer patients. The instrument consists of 20 core items, measuring sexual interest, lubrication, orgasm, dyspareunia, vaginal dimensions, intimacy, sexual problems...

  17. Validation of the cell cycle G2 delay assay in assessing ionizing radiation sensitivity and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jeff W; Kristina Tansavatdi; Kristin L Lockett; Allen, Glenn O.; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Jeff W Hill1, Kristina Tansavatdi4, Kristin L Lockett4, Glenn O Allen1, Cristiane Takita2, Alan Pollack2, Jennifer J Hu1,31Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Genetic variations in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair genes are associated with p...

  18. Translation and validation of European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life Questionnaire -C30 into Moroccan version for cancer patients in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjari, Chakib; El Fakir, Samira; Bendahhou, Karima; El Rhazi, Karima; Abda, Naima; Zidouh, Ahmed; Benider, Abdelatif; Errihani, Hassan; Bekkali, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of cancer on the quality of life of affected patients is critical to clinical research as well as to optimal management and care. The aim of this study was to adapt the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire into Moroccan Arabic and to determine its psychometric properties. After translation, back translation and pretesting of the pre-final version, the translated version w...

  19. 2008 update of standards, options: recommendations for management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumours (excluding lymphoma, sarcoma and melanoma), summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Context: An update of the S.O.R.-C.P.G. for management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumours has been initiated by the French National Federation of Cancer Centres (F.N.C.L.C.C.) in collaboration with French league against cancer, specialists from university or general hospitals and private clinics, and with the French National Cancer Institute. This work performed is based on the methodology developed and used in the 'Standards, Options: Recommendations' program (S.O.R.). Objectives. To update the S.O.R. guideline for the management of patients with salivary gland malignant tumors (excluding lymphoma, sarcoma and melanoma) previously validated in 1997 and 2003. Method: The guideline development process is based on literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts. The methodological approach combines systematic review with expert judgement. Recommendations take into account the effectiveness and toxicity of the different therapeutic alternatives and the levels of evidence. Following their development and prior to publication, S.O.R.-guidelines are reviewed by independent practitioners in cancer care delivery. Results: This paper is a summary version of the full clinical practice guideline presenting the updated recommendations. Recommendations on radiotherapy have been updated to underline new Options on more and more accessible emerging techniques including 'intensity-modulated radiotherapy', '3-D conformational radiotherapy', 'Cyber-knife', 'Tomotherapy', 'Proton therapy' and 'particle accelerators producing carbon ions' (e.g. last generation hadron therapy). Therapeutical modalities have also been specified. (authors)

  20. Validation of the cell cycle G2 delay assay in assessing ionizing radiation sensitivity and breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff W Hill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeff W Hill1, Kristina Tansavatdi4, Kristin L Lockett4, Glenn O Allen1, Cristiane Takita2, Alan Pollack2, Jennifer J Hu1,31Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Genetic variations in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair genes are associated with prolonged cell cycle G2 delay following ionizing radiation (IR treatment and breast cancer risk. However, different studies reported conflicting results examining the association between post-IR cell cycle delay and breast cancer risk utilizing four different parameters: cell cycle G2 delay index, %G2–M, G2/G0–G1, and (G2/G0–G1/S. Therefore, we evaluated whether different parameters may influence study results using a data set from 118 breast cancer cases and 225 controls as well as lymphoblastoid and breast cancer cell lines with different genetic defects. Our results suggest that cell cycle G2 delay index may serve as the best parameter in assessing breast cancer risk, genetic regulation of IR-sensitivity, and mutations of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and TP53. Cell cycle delay in 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers was not different from that in controls. We also showed that IR-induced DNA-damage signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX was inversely associated with cell cycle G2 delay index. In summary, the cellular responses to IR are extremely complex; mutations or genetic variations in DNA damage signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair contribute to cell cycle G2 delay and breast cancer risk. The cell cycle G2 delay assay characterized in this study may help identify subpopulations with elevated risk of breast cancer or susceptibility to adverse effects in normal tissue

  1. Validation of the cell cycle G2 delay assay in assessing ionizing radiation sensitivity and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic variations in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair genes are associated with prolonged cell cycle G2 delay following ionizing radiation (IR) treatment and breast cancer risk. However, different studies reported conflicting results examining the association between post-IR cell cycle delay and breast cancer risk utilizing four different parameters: cell cycle G2 delay index, %G2–M, G2/G0–G1, and (G2/G0–G1)/S. Therefore, we evaluated whether different parameters may influence study results using a data set from 118 breast cancer cases and 225 controls as well as lymphoblastoid and breast cancer cell lines with different genetic defects. Our results suggest that cell cycle G2 delay index may serve as the best parameter in assessing breast cancer risk, genetic regulation of IR-sensitivity, and mutations of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and TP53. Cell cycle delay in 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers was not different from that in controls. We also showed that IR-induced DNA-damage signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX) was inversely associated with cell cycle G2 delay index. In summary, the cellular responses to IR are extremely complex; mutations or genetic variations in DNA damage signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair contribute to cell cycle G2 delay and breast cancer risk. The cell cycle G2 delay assay characterized in this study may help identify subpopulations with elevated risk of breast cancer or susceptibility to adverse effects in normal tissue following radiotherapy

  2. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR expression studies in human breast cancer cell lines treated with and without transient transfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Liu

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been documented for human breast cancer cell lines containing different cancer subtypes treated with transient transfection, we identified appropriate and reliable reference genes from thirteen candidates in a panel of 10 normal and cancerous human breast cell lines under experimental conditions with/without transfection treatments with two transfection reagents. Reference gene expression stability was calculated using four algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and comparative delta Ct, and the recommended comprehensive ranking was provided using geometric means of the ranking values using the RefFinder tool. GeNorm analysis revealed that two reference genes should be sufficient for all cases in this study. A stability analysis suggests that 18S rRNA-ACTB is the best reference gene combination across all cell lines; ACTB-GAPDH is best for basal breast cancer cell lines; and HSPCB-ACTB is best for ER+ breast cancer cells. After transfection, the stability ranking of the reference gene fluctuated, especially with Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent in two subtypes of basal and ER+ breast cell lines. Comparisons of relative target gene (HER2 expression revealed different expressional patterns depending on the reference genes used for normalization. We suggest that identifying the most stable and suitable reference genes is critical for studying specific cell lines under certain circumstances.

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based HPV Genotyping Assay Validated in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Oropharyngeal and Cervical Cancer Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulos, Nicholas P; Schumaker, Lisa M; Mathias, Trevor J; White, Ruth; Troyer, Jennifer; Wells, David; Cullen, Kevin J

    2016-07-01

    Available clinical human papilloma virus (HPV) diagnostics for head and neck cancer have limited sensitivity and/or fail to define the HPV genotype. Common HPV genotyping assays are costly and labor intensive. We sought to develop a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based HPV genotyping assay that was sensitive enough to work on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. We developed an ion torrent NGS HPV genotyping assay using barcoded HPV PCR broad-spectrum general primers 5(+)/6(+) (BSGP)5(+)/6(+). To validate genotype specificity and use in archived clinical FFPE tumor samples, we compared NGS HPV genotyping at 2 sequencing centers with typing by Roche Linear Array assay in 42 oropharyngeal and cervical cancer specimens representing 10 HPV genotypes, as well as HPV-negative cases. To demonstrate the detection of a broad range of HPV genotypes, we genotyped a cohort of 266 cervical cancers. A comparison of NGS genotyping of FFPE cancer specimens with genotyping by Linear Array showed concordant results in 34/37 samples (92%) at sequencing site 1 and 39/42 samples (93%) at sequencing site 2. Concordance between sites was 92%. Designed for use with 10 ng genomic DNA, the assay detected HPV using as little as 1.25 ng FFPE-derived genomic DNA. In 266 cervical cancer specimens, the NGS assay identified 20 different HPV genotypes, including all 13 carcinogenic genotypes. This novel NGS assay provides a sensitive and specific high-throughput method to detect and genotype HPV in a range of clinical specimens derived from FFPE with low per-sample cost. PMID:27006646

  4. Analytic Validation of the Automated Bone Scan Index as an Imaging Biomarker to Standardize Quantitative Changes in Bone Scans of Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Aseem; Morris, Michael J.; Kaboteh, Reza; Båth, Lena; Sadik, May; Gjertsson, Peter; Lomsky, Milan; Edenbrandt, Lars; Minarik, David; Bjartell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible and quantitative imaging biomarker is needed to standardize the evaluation of changes in bone scans of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis. We performed a series of analytic validation studies to evaluate the performance of the automated bone scan index (BSI) as an imaging biomarker in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Methods Three separate analytic studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the automated BSI. Simulation study: bone scan simulations with predefined tumor burdens were created to assess accuracy and precision. Fifty bone scans were simulated with a tumor burden ranging from low to high disease confluence (0.10–13.0 BSI). A second group of 50 scans was divided into 5 subgroups, each containing 10 simulated bone scans, corresponding to BSI values of 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 10.0. Repeat bone scan study: to assess the reproducibility in a routine clinical setting, 2 repeat bone scans were obtained from metastatic prostate cancer patients after a single 600-MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate injection. Follow-up bone scan study: 2 follow-up bone scans of metastatic prostate cancer patients were analyzed to determine the interobserver variability between the automated BSIs and the visual interpretations in assessing changes. The automated BSI was generated using the upgraded EXINI boneBSI software (version 2). The results were evaluated using linear regression, Pearson correlation, Cohen κ measurement, coefficient of variation, and SD. Results Linearity of the automated BSI interpretations in the range of 0.10–13.0 was confirmed, and Pearson correlation was observed at 0.995 (n = 50; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–0.99; P cancer. PMID:26315832

  5. Development and validation of a simple questionnaire for the identification of hereditary breast cancer in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmero Edenir I

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a significant public health problem worldwide and the development of tools to identify individuals at-risk for hereditary breast cancer syndromes, where specific interventions can be proposed to reduce risk, has become increasingly relevant. A previous study in Southern Brazil has shown that a family history suggestive of these syndromes may be prevalent at the primary care level. Development of a simple and sensitive instrument, easily applicable in primary care units, would be particularly helpful in underserved communities in which identification and referral of high-risk individuals is difficult. Methods A simple 7-question instrument about family history of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer, FHS-7, was developed to screen for individuals with an increased risk for hereditary breast cancer syndromes. FHS-7 was applied to 9218 women during routine visits to primary care units in Southern Brazil. Two consecutive samples of 885 women and 910 women who answered positively to at least one question and negatively to all questions were included, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Results Of the 885 women reporting a positive family history, 211 (23.8%; CI95%: 21.5–26.2 had a pedigree suggestive of a hereditary breast and/or breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. Using as cut point one positive answer, the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were 87.6% and 56.4%, respectively. Concordance between answers in two different applications was given by a intra-class correlation (ICC of 0.84 for at least one positive answer. Temporal stability of the instrument was adequate (ICC = 0.65. Conclusion A simple instrument for the identification of the most common hereditary breast cancer syndrome phenotypes, showing good specificity and temporal stability was developed and could be used as a screening tool in primary care to refer at

  6. Detection of colorectal cancer in symptomatic outpatients without visible rectal bleeding: Validity of the fecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Niels Christian; Tøttrup, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding.......In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding....

  7. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson P; McDonald FEJ; Anazodo A; Costa DSJ; Wakefield CE; White K; Thompson K; Osborn MP

    2015-01-01

    Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research ...

  8. Determination of 3H-thymidine incorporation into ovarian cancer cells and its validity with regard to cytostatic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of 3H-thymidine in ovarian cancer cells determined by autoradiography represents a method of additional tumor characterization. The in vitro tests allowed roughly hints about the efficiency of an intended therapy in 49 patients suffering from ovarian cancer. High risk patients ought to be excluded from chemotherapy, if the incorporation of thymidine is low. For this decision the results of oncobiograms and clinical parameters were evaluated. The 3H-thymidine incorporation enables to select an individual kind of therapy for any patient with regard to success and duration of treatment. (author)

  9. Potential reduction of contralateral second breast-cancer risks by prophylactic mammary irradiation: validation in a breast-cancer-prone mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term breast-cancer survivors have a highly elevated risk (1 in 6 at 20 years of contralateral second breast cancer. This high risk is associated with the presence of multiple pre-malignant cell clones in the contralateral breast at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis. Mechanistic analyses suggest that a moderate dose of X-rays to the contralateral breast can kill these pre-malignant clones such that, at an appropriate Prophylactic Mammary Irradiation (PMI dose, the long-term contralateral breast cancer risk in breast cancer survivors would be considerably decreased. AIMS: To test the predicted relationship between PMI dose and cancer risk in mammary glands that have a high risk of developing malignancies. METHODS: We tested the PMI concept using MMTV-PyVT mammary-tumor-prone mice. Mammary glands on one side of each mouse were irradiated with X-rays, while those on the other side were shielded from radiation. The unshielded mammary glands received doses of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 Gy in 4-Gy fractions. RESULTS: In high-risk mammary glands exposed to radiation doses designed for PMI (12 and 16 Gy, tumor incidence rates were respectively decreased by a factor of 2.2 (95% CI, 1.1-5.0 at 12 Gy, and a factor of 3.1 (95% CI, 1.3-8.3 at 16 Gy, compared to those in the shielded glands that were exposed to very low radiation doses. The same pattern was seen for PMI-exposed mammary glands relative to zero-dose controls. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of cancer risk reduction by PMI was consistent with mechanistic predictions. Contralateral breast PMI may thus have promise as a spatially targeted breast-conserving option for reducing the current high risk of contralateral second breast cancers. For estrogen-receptor positive primary tumors, PMI might optimally be used concomitantly with systemically delivered chemopreventive drugs such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, while for estrogen-receptor negative tumors, PMI might be used alone.

  10. Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Julie A Schmidt; Ruth C Travis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vegetarian diets might affect the risk of cancer. Objective: The objective was to describe cancer incidence in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in a large sample in the United Kingdom. Design: This was a pooled analysis of 2 prospective studies including 61,647 British men and women comprising 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, and 20,544 vegetarians (including 2246 vegans). Cancer incidence was followed through nationwide cancer registries. Cancer risk by vegetarian status was e...

  11. Reliable categorisation of visual scoring of coronary artery calcification on low-dose CT for lung cancer screening: validation with the standard Agatston score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Fu-Zong; Wang, Yen-Chi [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Ju, Yu-Jeng [National Taiwan University, Department of Psychology, Taipei (China); Mar, Guang-Yuan [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung 813 (China); Chuo, Chiung-Chen [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); Lin, Huey-Shyan [Fooyin University, School of Nursing, Kaohsiung (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2013-05-15

    To validate the reliability of the visual coronary artery calcification score (VCACS) on low-dose CT (LDCT) for concurrent screening of CAC and lung cancer. We enrolled 401 subjects receiving LDCT for lung cancer screening and ECG-gated CT for the Agatston score (AS). LDCT was reconstructed with 3- and 5-mm slice thickness (LDCT-3mm and LDCT-5mm respectively) for VCACS to obtain VCACS-3mm and VCACS-5mm respectively. After a training session comprising 32 cases, two observers performed four-scale VCACS (absent, mild, moderate, severe) of 369 data sets independently, the results were compared with four-scale AS (0, 1-100, 101-400, >400). CACs were present in 39.6 % (146/369) of subjects. The sensitivity of VCACS-3mm was higher than for VCACS-5mm (83.6 % versus 74.0 %). The median of AS of the 24 false-negative cases in VCACS-3mm was 2.3 (range 1.1-21.1). The false-negative rate for detecting AS {>=} 10 on LDCT-3mm was 1.9 %. VCACS-3mm had higher concordance with AS than VCACS-5mm (k = 0.813 versus k = 0.685). An extended test of VCACS-3mm for four junior observers showed high inter-observer reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.90) and good concordance with AS (k = 0.662-0.747). This study validated the reliability of VCACS on LDCT for lung cancer screening and showed that LDCT-3mm was more feasible than LDCT-5mm for CAD risk stratification. (orig.)

  12. Prospective validation of immunological infiltrate for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer--a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Issa-Nummer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We have recently described an increased lymphocytic infiltration rate in breast carcinoma tissue is a significant response predictor for anthracycline/taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate the tumor-associated lymphocyte infiltrate as predictive marker for response to anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The immunological infiltrate was prospectively evaluated in a total of 313 core biopsies from HER2 negative patients of the multicenter PREDICT study, a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto study. Intratumoral lymphocytes (iTuLy, stromal lymphocytes (strLy as well as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC were evaluated by histopathological assessment. Pathological complete response (pCR rates were analyzed and compared between the defined subgroups using the exact test of Fisher. RESULTS: Patients with lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC had a significantly increased pCR rate of 36.6%, compared to non-LPBC patients (14.3%, p<0.001. LPBC and stromal lymphocytes were significantly independent predictors for pCR in multivariate analysis (LPBC: OR 2.7, p = 0.003, strLy: OR 1.2, p = 0.01. The amount of intratumoral lymphocytes was significantly predictive for pCR in univariate (OR 1.2, p = 0.01 but not in multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR 1.2, p = 0.11. CONCLUSION: Confirming previous investigations of our group, we have prospectively validated in an independent cohort that an increased immunological infiltrate in breast tumor tissue is predictive for response to anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. Patients with LPBC and increased stromal lymphocyte infiltration have significantly increased pCR rates. The lymphocytic infiltrate is a promising additional parameter for histopathological evaluation of breast cancer core biopsies.

  13. Validation of tissue change monitoring (TCM) on the Sonablate® 500 during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of prostate cancer with real-time thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wo-Hsing; Sanghvi, Narendra T.; Carlson, Roy; Schatzl, Georg; Marberger, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The Sonablate® 500 has quantitative, real-time Tissue Change Monitoring (TCM) software that estimates changes in tissue properties due to HIFU treatment of prostate cancer. This study validates the Sonablate 500 TCM system using real-time thermometry. Five patients with histologically confirmed, organ-confined prostate cancer were enrolled. Four patients with focal cancer had hemiablation and one had whole gland ablation. TCM generates energy reading based on spectral analysis on the RF backscattered ultrasound signals; results are used as an estimator of tissue temperature. Needle thermocouples were placed transperineally under TRUS guidance in the prostate to monitor temperatures from focal zone, posterior to the focal zone and on the lateral gland where no HIFU was applied. The HIFU treatments averaged 37, 35 and 19.7 Watts for the treatment for anterior, middle and posterior zones. The measured temperatures (Average, Max, and Min) in the HIFU treatment zones were 84, 114 and 70 degrees C. The temperature estimated by TCM energy readings were 83% 75-100 degrees C and 17% 60-75 degrees C with an average of 91 degrees C. Outside the focal zone, average recorded temperature was 50 degrees C. Average temperature in the lateral lobe where no HIFU was applied was 40.7 degrees C.

  14. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Publications Shop AICR Health @ Work Healthy Recipes Cancer Research Update AICR eNews AICR Newsletter ScienceNow CancerResource Where ... Patients and Survivors Materials for Health Professionals Our Cancer Research Research Grants Conference Continuous Update Project Research Progress ...

  15. Validation of a questionnaire for self-rating of urological and gynaecological morbidity after treatment of gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine; Klee, Marianne Carol; Groenvold, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    of the uro-gynaecological questionnaire (UGQ), a new instrument for patient self-assessment of urological-, genital-, menopausal-, and pain symptomatology in gynaecological cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The UGQ was developed after literature review, patient- and expert interviews and pilot...

  16. Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy: HER2/neu peptides as tumour vaccines for T cell recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade there has been renewed interest in the use of vaccine immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. This review focuses on HER2/neu, a tumour-associated antigen that is overexpressed in 10–40% of breast cancers and other carcinomata. Several immunogenic HER2/neu peptides recognized by T lymphocytes have been identified to be included in cancer vaccines. Some of these peptides have been assessed in clinical trials of patients with breast and ovarian cancer. Although it has been possible to detect immunological responses against the peptides in the immunized patients, no clinical responses have so far been described. Immunological tolerance to self-antigens like HER2/neu may limit the functional immune responses against them. It will be of interest to determine whether immune responses against HER2/neu epitopes can be of relevance to cancer treatment

  17. Validation of the quality of life-radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI) in patients receiving definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The incidence of prostate cancer has tripled over the last 10 years, doubled over the last four years and continues to increase. A common method of treating prostate cancer is with external beam radiotherapy with or without hormones. Accurate and comprehensive documentation through prospective studies with long term follow-up is necessary to reduce the negative impact of treatment on a patient's quality of life. While it is increasingly recognized that radiation therapy treatment for prostate cancer may result in permanent alteration of the patient's quality of life, the extent and timing of this change in quality of life has not been adequately investigated in a comprehensive and prospective manner. Furthermore, there are limited instruments developed for use with patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to report on the validation of the Quality of Life Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI), a 24-item visual analogue general quality of life tool developed for use with patients receiving radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Health related quality of life was assessed in a prospective study of 62 patients treated with either combined hormonal therapy (HT) plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT alone for locally advanced prostate cancer. Quality life was measured prospectively before, during, and after radiation therapy. Results: The estimated reliability of the subscales was assessed with coefficient alpha which ranged from 0.57 to 0.68. Internal consistency was calculated using initial questionnaires for the entire sample, yielding a Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. Test-retest produced a correlation coefficient of 0.75 (p<0.0001) [n=60]. Construct validity was assessed by a repeated measures design to look for time effect, group effect, group and time interaction effect. We examined quality of life total scores, subscale total scores and performance status scores for patients who were treated with HT+ EBRT and

  18. Actualización de la estadificación del cáncer de pulmón Lung cancer staging: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Christian González; Gabriel Bruno; Osvaldo Salariato; Claudia Álvarez; Lisandro Paganini; Javier Vallejos; Adriana Dieguez

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), junto con The International Union Against Cancer (UICC) y The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), crearon un Comité Internacional de Estadificación (ISC) que recopiló retrospectivamente y analizó los datos procedentes de pacientes de diferentes partes del mundo, con el propósito de efectuar cambios en la 6a edición del TNM de cáncer de pulmón. La misma había sido publicada en el 2002 y no había tenido modificaciones de...

  19. Measuring and Validating a General Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale: An Adaptation of the Revised-IPQ-Genetic Predisposition Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Liao, Qiuyan; Wong, Jennifer Hiu Fai; Lai, Ching Lung; Yuen, Man Fung; Tsang, Janice Wing Hang; Fielding, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Illness perceptions are linked to individual help-seeking and preventive behaviors. Previous illness perception studies have identified five dimensions of illness-related experience and behaviour. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for genetic predisposition (IPQ-R-GP) was developed to measure illness perceptions in those genetically-predisposed to blood disease. We adapted the IPQ-R-GP to measure perceptions of generalized cancer predisposition. This paper descri...

  20. Qualitative inquiry: a method for validating patient perceptions of palliative care while enrolled on a cancer clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Slota, Christina; Ulrich, Connie M.; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Baker, Karen; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Palliative care is a vital component of patient-centered care. It has increasingly become central to the management and care of seriously ill patients by integrating physical, psychosocial, and spiritual supportive services. Through qualitative inquiry, this paper examines cancer patients’ perceptions of the process and outcomes of the pain and palliative care consultative services they received while enrolled in a clinical trial. Methods A qualitative analysis of open-ended questi...

  1. Separating spectral mixtures in hyperspectral image data using independent component analysis: validation with oral cancer tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Jan, Chia-Ing; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lin, Chia-Yi; Mo, Jen-Feng; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2013-12-01

    Recently, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems, which can provide 100 or more wavelengths of emission autofluorescence measures, have been used to delineate more complete spectral patterns associated with certain molecules relevant to cancerization. Such a spectral fingerprint may reliably correspond to a certain type of molecule and thus can be treated as a biomarker for the presence of that molecule. However, the outcomes of HSI systems can be a complex mixture of characteristic spectra of a variety of molecules as well as optical interferences due to reflection, scattering, and refraction. As a result, the mixed nature of raw HSI data might obscure the extraction of consistent spectral fingerprints. Here we present the extraction of the characteristic spectra associated with keratinized tissues from the HSI data of tissue sections from 30 oral cancer patients (31 tissue samples in total), excited at two different wavelength ranges (330 to 385 and 470 to 490 nm), using independent and principal component analysis (ICA and PCA) methods. The results showed that for both excitation wavelength ranges, ICA was able to resolve much more reliable spectral fingerprints associated with the keratinized tissues for all the oral cancer tissue sections with significantly higher mean correlation coefficients as compared to PCA (p<0.001).

  2. Systematic antibody generation and validation via tissue microarray technology leading to identification of a novel protein prognostic panel in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although omic-based discovery approaches can provide powerful tools for biomarker identification, several reservations have been raised regarding the clinical applicability of gene expression studies, such as their prohibitive cost. However, the limited availability of antibodies is a key barrier to the development of a lower cost alternative, namely a discrete collection of immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based biomarkers. The aim of this study was to use a systematic approach to generate and screen affinity-purified, mono-specific antibodies targeting progression-related biomarkers, with a view towards developing a clinically applicable IHC-based prognostic biomarker panel for breast cancer. We examined both in-house and publicly available breast cancer DNA microarray datasets relating to invasion and metastasis, thus identifying a cohort of candidate progression-associated biomarkers. Of these, 18 antibodies were released for extended analysis. Validated antibodies were screened against a tissue microarray (TMA) constructed from a cohort of consecutive breast cancer cases (n = 512) to test the immunohistochemical surrogate signature. Antibody screening revealed 3 candidate prognostic markers: the cell cycle regulator, Anillin (ANLN); the mitogen-activated protein kinase, PDZ-Binding Kinase (PBK); and the estrogen response gene, PDZ-Domain Containing 1 (PDZK1). Increased expression of ANLN and PBK was associated with poor prognosis, whilst increased expression of PDZK1 was associated with good prognosis. A 3-marker signature comprised of high PBK, high ANLN and low PDZK1 expression was associated with decreased recurrence-free survival (p < 0.001) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) (p < 0.001). This novel signature was associated with high tumour grade (p < 0.001), positive nodal status (p = 0.029), ER-negativity (p = 0.006), Her2-positivity (p = 0.036) and high Ki67 status (p < 0.001). However, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that the signature was

  3. Development and external validation of a predictive model for pathological complete response of rectal cancer patients including sequential PET-CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an accurate predictive model and a nomogram for pathologic complete response (pCR) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer based on clinical and sequential PET-CT data. Accurate prediction could enable more individualised surgical approaches, including less extensive resection or even a wait-and-see policy. Methods and materials: Population based databases from 953 patients were collected from four different institutes and divided into three groups: clinical factors (training: 677 patients, validation: 85 patients), pre-CRT PET-CT (training: 114 patients, validation: 37 patients) and post-CRT PET-CT (training: 107 patients, validation: 55 patients). A pCR was defined as ypT0N0 reported by pathology after surgery. The data were analysed using a linear multivariate classification model (support vector machine), and the model's performance was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The occurrence rate of pCR in the datasets was between 15% and 31%. The model based on clinical variables (AUCtrain = 0.61 ± 0.03, AUCvalidation = 0.69 ± 0.08) resulted in the following predictors: cT- and cN-stage and tumour length. Addition of pre-CRT PET data did not result in a significantly higher performance (AUCtrain = 0.68 ± 0.08, AUCvalidation = 0.68 ± 0.10) and revealed maximal radioactive isotope uptake (SUVmax) and tumour location as extra predictors. The best model achieved was based on the addition of post-CRT PET-data (AUCtrain = 0.83 ± 0.05, AUCvalidation = 0.86 ± 0.05) and included the following predictors: tumour length, post-CRT SUVmax and relative change of SUVmax. This model performed significantly better than the clinical model (ptrain validation = 0.056). Conclusions: The model and the nomogram developed based on clinical and sequential PET-CT data can accurately predict pCR, and can be used as a decision support tool for surgery after prospective

  4. The Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) scale: development and validation of an instrument to measure quality of life of the family caregiver of patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, M A; Jacobsen, P B; Wagner, H; Friedland, J; Cox, C

    1999-01-01

    Family caregivers have become increasingly responsible for providing home care for cancer patients. Research has documented the distress of family caregivers; however, little has been done to evaluate the broader impact of caregiving on quality of life (QoL). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC), a new self-report instrument. Two hundred and sixty-three family caregivers of patients with lung, breast or prostate neoplasms participated. Test-retest reliability was 0.95 and internal consistency was 0.91. As expected, there were moderate correlations with overall mental health (r = 0.64), emotional distress (r = -0.50 to -0.52), burden (r = -0.65) and patient's performance status (r = -0.47) and low correlations with overall physical health (r = 0.13), social support (r = 0.22) and social desirability (r = 0.08). These results show that increased overall mental health is associated with better QoL, while more emotional distress and worsening patient performance status are associated with poorer QoL. Thus, the CQOLC appears to possess adequate validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Future directions include further evaluation of sensitivity to change and factor analysis to determine the principal health-related QoL domains evaluated by the CQOLC. PMID:10457738

  5. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  6. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  7. Association between MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer: new data in a Chinese population and an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linguo; Sun, Yan; Chen, Tao; Tian, Dawei; Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ding, Na; Shen, Zhonghua; Xu, Hao; Nian, Xuewu; Sha, Nan; Han, Ruifa; Hu, Hailong; Wu, Changli

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human murine double minute 2 protein (MDM2) is mainly a negative regulator of p53 tumor suppressor pathway. We aimed to investigate the association between MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. Methods A total of 535 bladder cancer patients and 649 health controls were recruited for our study. MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the genotype and susceptibility of bladder cancer. Kaplan–Meier estimates and log-rank test were obtained to analyze the association between the genotype and risk of recrudesce in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify independent prognostic factors. To further investigate the association, we conducted a meta-analysis including six studies. Results The frequency of the MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism showed no significant difference between cases and controls (all P>0.05). In the stratification analysis, the results showed that G allele carriers were prone to have a significant decrease in risk of low-grade bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio: 0.613, 95% confidence interval: 0.427–0.881), and G variant was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with or without chemotherapy (P0.05). Conclusion MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism has no influence on bladder cancer risk in Asians, but this single nucleotide polymorphism may be associated with genetic susceptibility of bladder cancer among Caucasians. PMID:26672516

  8. 76 FR 73506 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... revisions to the Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval System (EDGAR) Filer Manual to reflect updates to the EDGAR system. The revisions are being made primarily to support the updates to submission form types ABS-15G and ABS-15G/A; to support changes in XBRL validations for filings containing...

  9. Validation of the Danish version of the disease specific instrument EORTC QLQ-CR38 to assess Health-related quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind; Jess, Per; Laurberg, Søren; Groenvold, M

    2012-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of EORTC QLQ-CR38. METHODS: EORTC QLQ-CR38 was administered to 190 patients with colorectal cancer in two Danish hospitals, one month after their operation. A psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire's structure...... problems. Suboptimal psychometric performances were found for the scales: micturition problems, symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract and weight loss. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the scale chemotherapy side effects was limited by the low number of patients receiving chemotherapy. It was...... not possible to assess the psychometric properties of the scale female sexual problems and the single item sexual enjoyment due to a high number of missing values. The homogeneity of the study population made the evaluation of known-group validity difficult. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study...

  10. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  11. Association between MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer: new data in a Chinese population and an updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie LG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguo Xie,1,2,* Yan Sun,2,* Tao Chen,1,2,* Dawei Tian,1,2 Yujuan Li,3 Yu Zhang,1,2 Na Ding,2 Zhonghua Shen,1,2 Hao Xu,1,2 Xuewu Nian,4 Nan Sha,1,2 Ruifa Han,1,2 Hailong Hu,1,2 Changli Wu1,2 Objective: Human murine double minute 2 protein (MDM2 is mainly a negative regulator of p53 tumor suppressor pathway. We aimed to investigate the association between MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. Methods: A total of 535 bladder cancer patients and 649 health controls were recruited for our study. MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the genotype and susceptibility of bladder cancer. Kaplan–Meier estimates and log-rank test were obtained to analyze the association between the genotype and risk of recrudesce in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify independent prognostic factors. To further investigate the association, we conducted a meta-analysis including six studies. Results: The frequency of the MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism showed no significant difference between cases and controls (all P>0.05. In the stratification analysis, the results showed that G allele carriers were prone to have a significant decrease in risk of low-grade bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio: 0.613, 95% confidence interval: 0.427–0.881, and G variant was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with or without chemotherapy (P<0.05. The results of the meta-analysis showed that G allele and GG genotype of MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism were significantly associated with increased risk of bladder cancer in Caucasians (both P<0.05, and no association was observed in total populations and Asians (P>0.05. Conclusion: MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism has no influence on bladder cancer risk in Asians, but

  12. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxygglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: Validation in preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the feasibility of utilizing 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) in conjunction with a positron-sensitive intraoperative probe to guide breast tumor excision was investigated. The probe was constructed with a plastic scintillator tip coupled to a photomultiplier tube with fiber optic cable. Anticipated resolution degradation was evaluated by measurement of line spread functions in the presence of background radiation. Realistic photon background distributions were simulated with a human torso phantom and a cardiac insert. The relationship between resolution and energy threshold was measured to find the optimal discriminator settings. In addition, probe sensitivity as a function of energy threshold was determined for various size-simulated tumors. Finally, the ability to localize breast cancers in vivo was tested in a rodent model. Mammary rat tumors implanted in Lewis rats were examined after injection with FDG; these results were correlated with those of histologic analyses. Measurements of line spread functions indicated that resolution could be maximized in a realistic background photon environment by increasing the energy threshold to levels at or above the Compton continuum edge (340 keV). At this setting, the probe's sensitivity was determined to be 58 and 11 cps/μCi for 3.18- and 6.35-mm diameter simulated tumors, respectively. Probe readings correlated well with histologic results; the probe was generally able to discriminate between tumor and normal tissue. This study indicates that breast cancer surgery guided by a positron-sensitive probe warrants future evaluation in breast-conserving surgery of patients with breast cancer. 23 refs., 5 figs

  13. Sanitary surveillance in France in relation with the Chernobylsk accident. Updated situation on thyroid cancers and epidemiological studies during 2006; Surveillance sanitaire en France en lien avec l'accident de Tchernobyl. Bilan actualise sur les cancers thyroidiens et etudes epidemiologiques en cours en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belot, A. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. de Biostatistiques des Hospices civils de Lyon, Dept. Maladies Chroniques et Traumatismes (DMCT), Unite cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Caserio-Schonemann, C. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unite cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cherie-Challine, M. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), DMCT, unitr cancer, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Colonna, M. [Registre du cancer de l' Isere - reseau Francim, 38 - Grenoble (France); Lacour, B. [Registre National des Tumeurs Solides de l' enfant (RNTSE) - reseau Francim, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Lasalle, J.L. [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie Sud, Drass Paca, 13 - Marseille (France); Leenhardt, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Service central de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Orgiazzi, J. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Service d' endocrinologie, 69 - Lyon (France); Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS), Dept. sante environnement (DSE), 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Schvartz, C. [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de Marne Ardennes - reseau Francim, Centre de lutte contre le cancer, 51 - Reims (France)

    2006-07-01

    An increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children has been reported since 1990 in areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine which have been highly contaminated during the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A similar increase is now observed in young adults in the same areas. In France, thyroid cancer is characterized by low occurrence and good prognosis. However, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing for more than 20 years, and in 1986, the Chernobyl cloud of radioactive dust crossed the French territory. Thus, the National institute for public health surveillance (I.n.V.S.) carried out several studies to evaluate whether the incidence increase in thyroid cancer is related to radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Since 2000, the I.n.V.S. is in charge of a national multidisciplinary approach involving a wide range of public health actors, including the French network of cancer registries (Francim). Since 2003, the I.n.V.S. has been working on improving the surveillance system according to the actions described in the national cancer plan 2003-2007. The I.n.V.S. has increased its financial contribution to cancer registries including the national registry of solid tumors in children, which was created in 2000. The Institute is also working on the implementation of a multi source system for the national cancer surveillance in link with cancer registries. For the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the I.n.V.S. is publishing updated results from the latest research conducted in close collaboration with the partners. These results do not support the initial hypothesis of a potential 'Chernobyl effect' in France. The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is also reported in most of developed countries. Practices in cancer diagnosis and the increased rate of total thyroidectomy for benign lesion may lead pathologists to unexpectedly discover small thyroid tumors. This fact is likely to explain most of the incidence increase

  14. Validity, reliability and responsiveness of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-LC13 in Australians with early stage non-small cell lung cancer, CHERE Working Paper 2007/13

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine King; Julie Winstanley; Patsy Kenny; Rosalie Viney; Siggi Zapart; Michael Boyer

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of two questionnaires, the QLQ-C30 and LC-13, as measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in an Australian sample of people with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Background: These two questionnaires are complementary components of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer?s (EORTC?s) modular approach to measuring HRQOL: the QLQ-C30 is the core questionnaire, containing 30 items relevant to all ca...

  15. The validity and reliability of the 'Cancer Caregiving Tasks, Consequences and Needs Questionnaire' (CaTCoN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten A;

    2014-01-01

    hypothesized, and the subscales were tested by item-item correlations, followed by factor analysis, calculation of internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha, and multitrait-scaling analysis. Further, theoretically based hypotheses about convergence and divergence between CaTCoN and FAMCARE/FIN (sub)scales were......TCoN subscales (Cronbach's alpha range 0.65-0.95). The hypothesized convergent CaTCoN and FAMCARE/FIN subscales correlated 0.59-0.74, and hypothesized divergent CaTCoN and FAMCARE/FIN subscales correlated -0.11-0.25, thus confirming the hypotheses concerning convergent and discriminant validity between Ca...

  16. Pathology-based validation of FDG PET segmentation tools for volume assessment of lymph node metastases from head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FDG PET is increasingly incorporated into radiation treatment planning of head and neck cancer. However, there are only limited data on the accuracy of radiotherapy target volume delineation by FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to validate FDG PET segmentation tools for volume assessment of lymph node metastases from head and neck cancer against the pathological method as the standard. Twelve patients with head and neck cancer and 28 metastatic lymph nodes eligible for therapeutic neck dissection underwent preoperative FDG PET/CT. The metastatic lymph nodes were delineated on CT (NodeCT) and ten PET segmentation tools were used to assess FDG PET-based nodal volumes: interpreting FDG PET visually (PETVIS), applying an isocontour at a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 (PETSUV), two segmentation tools with a fixed threshold of 40 % and 50 %, and two adaptive threshold based methods. The latter four tools were applied with the primary tumour as reference and also with the lymph node itself as reference. Nodal volumes were compared with the true volume as determined by pathological examination. Both NodeCT and PETVIS showed good correlations with the pathological volume. PET segmentation tools using the metastatic node as reference all performed well but not better than PETVIS. The tools using the primary tumour as reference correlated poorly with pathology. PETSUV was unsatisfactory in 35 % of the patients due to merging of the contours of adjacent nodes. FDG PET accurately estimates metastatic lymph node volume, but beyond the detection of lymph node metastases (staging), it has no added value over CT alone for the delineation of routine radiotherapy target volumes. If FDG PET is used in radiotherapy planning, treatment adaptation or response assessment, we recommend an automated segmentation method for purposes of reproducibility and interinstitutional comparison. (orig.)

  17. Pathology-based validation of FDG PET segmentation tools for volume assessment of lymph node metastases from head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinagl, Dominic A.X. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (874), P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hoogen, Frank J.A. van den [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Merkx, Matthias A.W. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Slootweg, Piet J. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    FDG PET is increasingly incorporated into radiation treatment planning of head and neck cancer. However, there are only limited data on the accuracy of radiotherapy target volume delineation by FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to validate FDG PET segmentation tools for volume assessment of lymph node metastases from head and neck cancer against the pathological method as the standard. Twelve patients with head and neck cancer and 28 metastatic lymph nodes eligible for therapeutic neck dissection underwent preoperative FDG PET/CT. The metastatic lymph nodes were delineated on CT (Node{sub CT}) and ten PET segmentation tools were used to assess FDG PET-based nodal volumes: interpreting FDG PET visually (PET{sub VIS}), applying an isocontour at a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 (PET{sub SUV}), two segmentation tools with a fixed threshold of 40 % and 50 %, and two adaptive threshold based methods. The latter four tools were applied with the primary tumour as reference and also with the lymph node itself as reference. Nodal volumes were compared with the true volume as determined by pathological examination. Both Node{sub CT} and PET{sub VIS} showed good correlations with the pathological volume. PET segmentation tools using the metastatic node as reference all performed well but not better than PET{sub VIS}. The tools using the primary tumour as reference correlated poorly with pathology. PET{sub SUV} was unsatisfactory in 35 % of the patients due to merging of the contours of adjacent nodes. FDG PET accurately estimates metastatic lymph node volume, but beyond the detection of lymph node metastases (staging), it has no added value over CT alone for the delineation of routine radiotherapy target volumes. If FDG PET is used in radiotherapy planning, treatment adaptation or response assessment, we recommend an automated segmentation method for purposes of reproducibility and interinstitutional comparison. (orig.)

  18. Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) 4. report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth Report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) updates the information on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report in 1984. Data are reviewed on radiation exposure and the risk of radiation-induced leukaemia and cancer in young people living in Seascale; possible effects of paternal preconception irradiation in cancer; exposure to chemicals used at and discharged from the Sellafield site and the risk to the general population and offspring of site workers; and the infectious aetiology of childhood cancer. The history of the Royal Ordnance Factories sited at Sellafield and Drigg in the 1940s and a historical review of childhood cancer in Seascale is also given. (UK)

  19. Quality of life of head and neck cancer patient: Validation of the European organization for research and treatment of cancer QLQ-C30 and European organization for research and treatment of cancer QLQ-H&N35 in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaukar D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To present the first cross-culture validation of the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC quality of life questionnaires, the EORTC-QLQ-C30, and the QLQ-H&N35 in India. Settings and Design: These questionnaires were translated into two vernacular languages and pilot test was done on 15 patients. Two hundred head and neck cancer patients completed the QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-H&N35 at two time points during their treatment. Psychometric evaluation of the structure, reliability, and validity of the questionnaire was undertaken. Results: The data supports the reliability of the scales. Validity was tested by item-scale, scale--scale correlation and by performing known group comparisons. The results demonstrated that the items correlated with their respective scale and no significant correlation was found between scales. The questionnaire was responsive to change over a period of time. Summary: This data suggests that the EORTC QLO-C30 and the QLQ-H&N35 are reliable and valid questionnaires when applied to a sample of head and neck cancer patients in India.

  20. Clinical validation of FDG-PET/CT in the radiation treatment planning for patients with oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the proportion of locoregional recurrences (LRRs) that could have been prevented if radiotherapy treatment planning for oesophageal cancer was based on PET/CT instead of CT. Materials and methods: Ninety oesophageal cancer patients, eligible for high dose (neo-adjuvant) (chemo)radiotherapy, were included. All patients underwent a planning FDG-PET/CT-scan. Radiotherapy target volumes (TVs) were delineated on CT and patients were treated according to the CT-based treatment plans. The PET images remained blinded. After treatment, TVs were adjusted based on PET/CT, when appropriate. Follow up included CT-thorax/abdomen every 6 months. If LRR was suspected, a PET/CT was conducted and the site of recurrence was compared to the original TVs. If the LRR was located outside the CT-based clinical TV (CTV) and inside the PET/CT-based CTV, we considered this LRR possibly preventable. Results: Based on PET/CT, the gross tumour volume (GTV) was larger in 23% and smaller in 27% of the cases. In 32 patients (36%), >5% of the PET/CT-based GTV would be missed if the treatment planning was based on CT. The median follow up was 29 months. LRRs were seen in 10 patients (11%). There were 3 in-field recurrences, 4 regional recurrences outside both CT-based and PET/CT-based CTV and 3 recurrences at the anastomosis without changes in TV by PET/CT; none of these recurrences were considered preventable by PET/CT. Conclusion: No LRR was found after CT-based radiotherapy that could have been prevented by PET/CT. The value of PET/CT for radiotherapy seems limited

  1. Influence of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism on the Risk of Lung Cancer and the Clinical Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ning; Gong, Yi; He, Jian; Xia, Jingwen; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been implicated in lung cancer risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the results are controversial. We performed meta-analysis to investigate the effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on lung cancer risk and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. Materials and Methods The databases of PubMed, Ovid, Wanfang and Chinese Biomedicine were searched for eligib...

  2. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  3. Quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer receiving targeted or multimodal therapy - Update of the EORTC QLQ-H & N35, Phase I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, Susanne; Arraras, Juan I.; Baumann, Ingo; Boehm, Andreas; Chie, Wei-Chu; Galalae, Razvan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Hammerlid, Eva; Pinto, Monica; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Schmalz, Claudia; Sen, Mehmet; Sherman, Allen C.; Spiegel, Karin; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma; Yarom, Noam; Zotti, Paola; Hofmeister, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to identify relevant quality of life (QOL) issues in patients with head and neck cancer receiving multimodal and/or targeted therapies. Methods. The literature was searched for QOL issues reported after multimodal and/or targeted therapies resulting in a l

  4. Cell Line Derived Multi-Gene Predictor of Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: A Validation Study on US Oncology 02-103 Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Kui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to assess the predictive accuracy of a multi-gene predictor of response to docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy on gene expression data from patients who received these drugs as neoadjuvant treatment. Methods Tumor samples were obtained from patients with stage II-III breast cancer before starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC followed by four cycles of docetaxel/capecitabine (TX on US Oncology clinical trial 02-103. Most patients with HER-2-positive cancer also received trastuzumab (H. The chemotherapy predictor (TFEC-MGP was developed from publicly available gene expression data of 42 breast cancer cell-lines with corresponding in vitro chemotherapy sensitivity results for the four chemotherapy drugs. No predictor was developed for treatment with trastuzumab. The predictive performance of TFEC-MGP in distinguishing cases with pathologic complete response from those with residual disease was evaluated for the FEC/TX and FEC/TX plus H group separately. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC was used as the metric of predictive performance. Genomic predictions were performed blinded to clinical outcome. Results The AU-ROC was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57-0.82 for the FEC/TX group (n=66 and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20-0.66 for the FEC/TX plus H group (n=25. Among the patients treated with FEC/TX, the AU-ROC was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52-0.86 for estrogen receptor (ER-negative (n=28 and it was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.36-0.82 for ER-positive cancers (n=37. ER status was not reported for one patient. Conclusions Our results indicate that the cell line derived 291-probeset genomic predictor of response to FEC/TX combination chemotherapy shows good performance in a blinded validation study, particularly in ER-negative patients.

  5. Validation of LRG1 as a potential biomarker for detection of epithelial ovarian cancer by a blinded study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1 was found to be differentially expressed in sera from patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of LRG1 for detection of EOC, including early stage EOC, and to evaluate if LRG1 can complement CA125 in order to improve EOC detection using two independent blinded sample sets.Serum LRG1 and CA125 were measured by immunoassays. All assays were performed blinded to clinical data. Using the two independent sample sets (156 participants for sample set 1, and 233 for sample set 2, LRG1 was differentially expressed in EOC cases as compared to healthy, surgical, and benign controls, and its performance was not affected by the conditions of blood collection. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC for LRG1 in differentiating EOC cases from non-cases were 0.797 and 0.786 for sample set 1 and 2. For differentiating EOC cases from healthy controls, the AUC values for LRG1 were 0.792 and 0.794. At a fixed specificity of 95%, LRG1 detects 52%, and 53.5% of EOC cases from healthy controls for sample set 1 and 2. When combining LRG1 and CA125, the AUC value increased to 0.927, which was improved compared to CA125 (AUC=0.916 (p=0.008 alone in distinguishing EOC cases from non-cases. More importantly, LRG1 also showed potential performance in differentiating early stage EOC from non-cases with an AUC of 0.715 for sample set 1, and 0.690 for sample set 2. The combination of LRG1 and CA125 resulted in an AUC of 0.838, which outperforms CA125 (AUC=0.785 (p=0.018 in detecting early stage EOC cases from non-cases using the larger sample set.LRG1 could be a useful biomarker alone or in combination with CA125 for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  6. A to Z List of Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Y Z Get email updates from NCI on cancer health information, news, and other topics Get email updates from NCI A Abiraterone Acetate Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) ABVD ABVE ...

  7. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Li, Qiyuan; Kar, Siddhartha; Seo, Ji-Heui; Tyrer, Jonathan; Spindler, Tassja J.; Lee, Janet; Chen, Yibu; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Aben, Katja K. H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bowtell, David; Webb, Penelope M.; deFazio, Anna; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Sellers, Thomas A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Monteiro, Alvaro; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10−5). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10−3, FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10−10 for risk variants (P<10−4) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC. PMID:26391404

  8. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizejewski, Gerald J. [Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K{sup +} ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity.

  9. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity

  10. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanmei; Zhao, Qingya; Berbeco, Ross I.; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B.

    2008-12-01

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  11. Four-Week Neoadjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Validation Phase II Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To validate tolerance and pathological complete response rate (pCR) of a 4-week preoperative course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with T3 to T4 and/or N+ rectal cancer received preoperative IMRT (47.5 Gy in 19 fractions) with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m2 b.i.d., Monday to Friday) and oxaliplatin (60 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15). Surgery was scheduled 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Primary end points were toxicity and pathological response rate. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were also analyzed. Results: A total of 100 patients were evaluated. Grade 1 to 2 proctitis was observed in 73 patients (73%). Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 9% of the patients. Grade 3 proctitis in 18% of the first 50 patients led to reduction of the dose per fraction to 47.5 Gy in 20 treatments. The rate of Grade 3 proctitis decreased to 4% thereafter (odds ratio, 0.27). A total of 99 patients underwent surgery. A pCR was observed in 13% of the patients, major response (96–100% of histological response) in 48%, and pN downstaging in 78%. An R0 resection was performed in 97% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 55 months, the LC, DFS, and OS rates were 100%, 84%, and 87%, respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative CAPOX-IMRT therapy (47.5 Gy in 20 fractions) is feasible and safe, and produces major pathological responses in approximately 50% of patients.

  12. Four-Week Neoadjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Validation Phase II Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbea, Leire, E-mail: larbea@unav.es [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Diaz-Gonzalez, Juan A.; Moreno, Marta; Rodriguez, Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Hernandez, Jose Luis [Department of General Surgery, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Sola, Jesus Javier [Department of Pathology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Ramos, Luis Isaac [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Subtil, Jose Carlos [Department of Gastroenterology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Nunez, Jorge [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain); Chopitea, Ana; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Gaztanaga, Miren; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus; Aristu, Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To validate tolerance and pathological complete response rate (pCR) of a 4-week preoperative course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with T3 to T4 and/or N+ rectal cancer received preoperative IMRT (47.5 Gy in 19 fractions) with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m{sup 2} b.i.d., Monday to Friday) and oxaliplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1, 8, and 15). Surgery was scheduled 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Primary end points were toxicity and pathological response rate. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were also analyzed. Results: A total of 100 patients were evaluated. Grade 1 to 2 proctitis was observed in 73 patients (73%). Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 9% of the patients. Grade 3 proctitis in 18% of the first 50 patients led to reduction of the dose per fraction to 47.5 Gy in 20 treatments. The rate of Grade 3 proctitis decreased to 4% thereafter (odds ratio, 0.27). A total of 99 patients underwent surgery. A pCR was observed in 13% of the patients, major response (96-100% of histological response) in 48%, and pN downstaging in 78%. An R0 resection was performed in 97% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 55 months, the LC, DFS, and OS rates were 100%, 84%, and 87%, respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative CAPOX-IMRT therapy (47.5 Gy in 20 fractions) is feasible and safe, and produces major pathological responses in approximately 50% of patients.

  13. Validating Fiducial Markers for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) may be beneficial for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The goal was to validate the use of intraparenchymal textured gold fiducials in patients receiving APBI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients were enrolled on this prospective study that had three or four textured gold intraparenchymal fiducials placed at the periphery of the lumpectomy cavity and were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal APBI. Free-breathing four-dimensional computed tomography image sets were obtained pre- and posttreatment, as were daily online megavoltage (MV) orthogonal images. Intrafraction motion, variations in respiratory motion, and fiducial marker migration were calculated using the 3D coordinates of individual fiducials and a calculated center of mass (COM) of the fiducials. We also compared the relative position of the fiducial COM with the geometric center of the seroma. Results: There was less than 1 mm of intrafraction respiratory motion, variation in respiratory motion, or fiducial marker migration. The change in seroma position relative to the fiducial COM was 1 mm ± 1 mm. The average position of the geometric seroma relative to the fiducial COM pretreatment compared with posttreatment was 1 mm ± 1 mm. The largest daily variation in displacement when using bony landmark was in the anteroposterior direction and two standard deviations (SD) of this variation was 10 mm. The average variation in daily separation between the fiducial pairs from daily MV images was 3 mm ± 3 mm therefore 2 SD is 6 mm. Conclusion: Fiducial markers are stable throughout the course of APBI. Planning target volume margins when using bony landmarks should be 10 mm and can be reduced to 6 mm if using fiducials.

  14. Role of MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism in the etiology of prostate cancer: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Yadav

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate/homocysteine pathway and is essential for synthesis, repair and methylation of DNA. Various studies have performed to evaluate the role of MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism to the risk of prostate cancer and the results were inconclusive and inconsistent. A meta-analysis of published case-control studies, up to December 2014, was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of prostate cancer. PubMed, Science direct, Springer link and Google scholar databases were searched for case-control studies and crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of association. The analyses were conducted with Open Meta-Analyst and MIX softwares. Total thirteen case-control studies with 4673 prostate cancer patients and 6982 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No associations were observed between MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism and prostate cancer in any genetic model (allele contrast (C vs. A: OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91–1.13; p = 0.73; dominant model (CC + AC vs. AA: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91–1.06, p = 0.73; homozygote model (CC vs. AA: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.83–1.10, p = 0.55; co-dominant model (AC vs. AA: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91–1.07, p = 0.76; and recessive model (CC vs. AC + AA: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.84–1.10, p = 0.61. Moreover, when the data were stratified on the basis of ethnicity no significant associations were observed. The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism has no effect on the etiology of prostate cancer.

  15. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  16. Moving Objects Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  17. Development and validation of automatic tools for interactive recurrence analysis in radiation therapy: optimization of treatment algorithms for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is an important part in the evaluation process and clinical quality assurance of treatment concepts. With the example of 9 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer we developed and validated interactive analysis tools to support the evaluation workflow. After an automatic registration of the radiation planning CTs with the follow-up images, the recurrence volumes are segmented manually. Based on these volumes the DVH (dose volume histogram) statistic is calculated, followed by the determination of the dose applied to the region of recurrence and the distance between the boost and recurrence volume. We calculated the percentage of the recurrence volume within the 80%-isodose volume and compared it to the location of the recurrence within the boost volume, boost + 1 cm, boost + 1.5 cm and boost + 2 cm volumes. Recurrence analysis of 9 patients demonstrated that all recurrences except one occurred within the defined GTV/boost volume; one recurrence developed beyond the field border/outfield. With the defined distance volumes in relation to the recurrences, we could show that 7 recurrent lesions were within the 2 cm radius of the primary tumor. Two large recurrences extended beyond the 2 cm, however, this might be due to very rapid growth and/or late detection of the tumor progression. The main goal of using automatic analysis tools is to reduce time and effort conducting clinical analyses. We showed a first approach and use of a semi-automated workflow for recurrence analysis, which will be continuously optimized. In conclusion, despite the limitations of the automatic calculations we contributed to in-house optimization of subsequent study concepts based on an improved and validated target volume definition

  18. A Validated Prediction Model for Overall Survival From Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Toward Survival Prediction for Individual Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are homogeneous according to the TNM staging system, they form a heterogeneous group, which is reflected in the survival outcome. The increasing amount of information for an individual patient and the growing number of treatment options facilitate personalized treatment, but they also complicate treatment decision making. Decision support systems (DSS), which provide individualized prognostic information, can overcome this but are currently lacking. A DSS for stage III NSCLC requires the development and integration of multiple models. The current study takes the first step in this process by developing and validating a model that can provide physicians with a survival probability for an individual NSCLC patient. Methods and Materials: Data from 548 patients with stage III NSCLC were available to enable the development of a prediction model, using stratified Cox regression. Variables were selected by using a bootstrap procedure. Performance of the model was expressed as the c statistic, assessed internally and on 2 external data sets (n=174 and n=130). Results: The final multivariate model, stratified for treatment, consisted of age, gender, World Health Organization performance status, overall treatment time, equivalent radiation dose, number of positive lymph node stations, and gross tumor volume. The bootstrapped c statistic was 0.62. The model could identify risk groups in external data sets. Nomograms were constructed to predict an individual patient's survival probability ( (www.predictcancer.org)). The data set can be downloaded at (https://www.cancerdata.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.02.048). Conclusions: The prediction model for overall survival of patients with stage III NSCLC highlights the importance of combining patient, clinical, and treatment variables. Nomograms were developed and validated. This tool could be used as a first building block for a decision support system

  19. A Validated Prediction Model for Overall Survival From Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Toward Survival Prediction for Individual Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberije, Cary, E-mail: cary.oberije@maastro.nl [Radiation Oncology, Research Institute GROW of Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Radiation Oncology, Research Institute GROW of Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven, KU Leuven (Belgium); Houben, Ruud [Radiation Oncology, Research Institute GROW of Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van de; Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deasy, Joseph O. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne-Marie C. [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Maastricht, Research Institute GROW of Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Rimner, Andreas; Din, Shaun [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Lambin, Philippe [Radiation Oncology, Research Institute GROW of Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Although patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are homogeneous according to the TNM staging system, they form a heterogeneous group, which is reflected in the survival outcome. The increasing amount of information for an individual patient and the growing number of treatment options facilitate personalized treatment, but they also complicate treatment decision making. Decision support systems (DSS), which provide individualized prognostic information, can overcome this but are currently lacking. A DSS for stage III NSCLC requires the development and integration of multiple models. The current study takes the first step in this process by developing and validating a model that can provide physicians with a survival probability for an individual NSCLC patient. Methods and Materials: Data from 548 patients with stage III NSCLC were available to enable the development of a prediction model, using stratified Cox regression. Variables were selected by using a bootstrap procedure. Performance of the model was expressed as the c statistic, assessed internally and on 2 external data sets (n=174 and n=130). Results: The final multivariate model, stratified for treatment, consisted of age, gender, World Health Organization performance status, overall treatment time, equivalent radiation dose, number of positive lymph node stations, and gross tumor volume. The bootstrapped c statistic was 0.62. The model could identify risk groups in external data sets. Nomograms were constructed to predict an individual patient's survival probability ( (www.predictcancer.org)). The data set can be downloaded at (https://www.cancerdata.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.02.048). Conclusions: The prediction model for overall survival of patients with stage III NSCLC highlights the importance of combining patient, clinical, and treatment variables. Nomograms were developed and validated. This tool could be used as a first building block for a decision support system.

  20. Update on the role of melatonin in the prevention of cancer tumorigenesis and in the management of cancer correlates, such as sleep-wake and mood disturbances: review and remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone; Antoniello, Neldo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review on the role of melatonin in the prevention of cancer tumorigenesis—in vivo and in vitro—as well as in the management of cancer correlates, such as sleep-wake and mood disturbances. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified “shift-work that involves circadian disruption” as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A) based on “limited evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of shift-work that involves nigh...

  1. Personalized Estimate of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Development and External Validation of a Nomogram in Cancer Patients Receiving Highly/Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihuang; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Keefe, Dorothy; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Xue, Cong; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Chen, Likun; Chan, Alexandre; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is presented in over 30% of cancer patients receiving highly/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC/MEC). The currently recommended antiemetic therapy is merely based on the emetogenic level of chemotherapy, regardless of patient's individual risk factors. It is, therefore, critical to develop an approach for personalized management of CINV in the era of precision medicine.A number of variables were involved in the development of CINV. In the present study, we pooled the data from 2 multi-institutional investigations of CINV due to HEC/MEC treatment in Asian countries. Demographic and clinical variables of 881 patients were prospectively collected as defined previously, and 862 of them had full documentation of variables of interest. The data of 548 patients from Chinese institutions were used to identify variables associated with CINV using multivariate logistic regression model, and then construct a personalized prediction model of nomogram; while the remaining 314 patients out of China (Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) entered the external validation set. C-index was used to measure the discrimination ability of the model.The predictors in the final model included sex, age, alcohol consumption, history of vomiting pregnancy, history of motion sickness, body surface area, emetogenicity of chemotherapy, and antiemetic regimens. The C-index was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62-0.72) for the training set and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72) for the validation set. The C-index was higher than that of any single predictor, including the emetogenic level of chemotherapy according to current antiemetic guidelines. Calibration curves showed good agreement between prediction and actual occurrence of CINV.This easy-to-use prediction model was based on chemotherapeutic regimens as well as patient's individual risk factors. The prediction accuracy of CINV occurrence in this nomogram was well validated by an independent data set. It could

  2. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning

  3. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  4. Long-Term Improvement in Treatment Outcome After Radiotherapy and Hyperthermia in Locoregionally Advanced Cervix Cancer: An Update of the Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The local failure rate in patients with locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is 41-72% after radiotherapy (RT) alone, whereas local control is a prerequisite for cure. The Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial showed that combining RT with hyperthermia (HT) improved 3-year local control rates of 41-61%, as we reported earlier. In this study, we evaluate long-term results of the Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial after 12 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1996, a total of 114 women with locoregionally advanced cervical carcinoma were randomly assigned to RT or RT + HT. The RT was applied to a median total dose of 68 Gy. The HT was given once weekly. The primary end point was local control. Secondary end points were overall survival and late toxicity. Results: At the 12-year follow-up, local control remained better in the RT + HT group (37% vs. 56%; p = 0.01). Survival was persistently better after 12 years: 20% (RT) and 37% (RT + HT; p = 0.03). World Health Organization (WHO) performance status was a significant prognostic factor for local control. The WHO performance status, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and tumor diameter were significant for survival. The benefit of HT remained significant after correction for these factors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Grade 3 or higher radiation-induced late toxicities were similar in both groups. Conclusions: For locoregionally advanced cervical cancer, the addition of HT to RT resulted in long-term major improvement in local control and survival without increasing late toxicity. This combined treatment should be considered for patients who are unfit to receive chemotherapy. For other patients, the optimal treatment strategy is the subject of ongoing research

  5. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhondali W

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM criteria for depression were used as a gold standard.Results: Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91% completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%. Thirty six patients (36% were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15% identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508 and PCI (κ=0.431 and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663. We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=-0.043. Identification according to OA (yes/no resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively.Conclusion: The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. Keywords: depression, elderly, cancer, screening, geriatric assessment

  6. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: Is it promising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas P Sutter; Henry Fechner

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors worldwide. The therapeutic outcome of conventional therapies is inefficient. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Gene therapy is a promising molecular alternative in the treatment of gastric cancer,including the replacement of defective tumor suppressor genes, the inactivation of oncogenes, the introduction of suicide genes, genetic immunotherapy, anti-angiogenetic gene therapy, and virotherapy. Improved molecular biological techniques and a better understanding of gastric carcinogenesis have allowed us to validate a variety of genes as molecular targets for gene therapy.This review provides an update of the new developments in cancer gene therapy, new principles, techniques,strategies and vector systems, and shows how they may be applied in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  7. Automatisches Software-Update

    OpenAIRE

    Clauß, Matthias; Fischer, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Vorgestellt wird ein neuer Dienst zum eigenverantwortlichen Software-Update von PC-Systemen, die unter Linux Red Hat 7.3 betrieben werden. Grundlage des Dienstes bildet das Verfahren YARU (Yum based Automatic RPM Update) als Bestandteil der im URZ eingesetzten Admin-Technologie für Linux-Rechner.

  8. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  9. Livestock Update. September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; September Herd Management Advisor; Time for Fall Nutrition Tune-Up; BVD's Role in Shipping Fever Pneumonia; Sheep Field Day & Ram Lamb Sale; 2014 Virginia Tech Sheep Management Basics Workshop; Sheep Update; and Swine Production in Virginia.

  10. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  11. Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy: Intracellular signaling pathways of ErbB2/HER-2 and family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ErbB (also termed HER) receptors are expressed in various tissues of epithelial, mesenchymal and neuronal origin, in which they are involved in the control of diverse biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Furthermore, their deregulated expression has been implicated in many types of human cancers and is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Owing to the importance of ErbB proteins in both development and cellular transformation, a lot of attention has been drawn to the intracellular signals initiated by the engagement of this family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This review will focus on the membrane proximal events triggered by the ErbB receptor network and will address questions of how receptor heterodimerization may contribute to signal specification and diversification