WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer trends progress

  1. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. NCI Dictionary | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Custom Report | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Secondhand Smoke Exposure | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Red Meat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Financial Burden of Cancer Care | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Medicaid Coverage of Tobacco Dependency Treatments | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. UV Exposure and Sun Protective Practices | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Sun-Protective Behavior | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Financial Burden of Cancer Care - Life After Cancer Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. UV Exposure and Sun-Protective Behavior - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Smoke-free Workplace Rules and Laws | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  4. Ghrelin and cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Hsiao, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function. Emerging evidences have revealed ghrelin's function in regulating several processes related to cancer progression, especially in metastasis and proliferation. We further show the relative GHRL and GHSR expression in pan-cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), suggesting the potential pathological role of the axis in cancers. This review focuses on ghrelin's biological function in cancer progression, and reveals its clinical significance especially the impact on cancer patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  6. Trends and progress in system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Eykhoff, Pieter

    1981-01-01

    Trends and Progress in System Identification is a three-part book that focuses on model considerations, identification methods, and experimental conditions involved in system identification. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with a discussion of model method in system identification, citing four examples differing on the nature of the models involved, the nature of the fields, and their goals. Subsequent chapters describe the most important aspects of model theory; the """"classical"""" methods and time series estimation; application of least squares and related techniques for the e

  7. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  8. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    , the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  9. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  10. Cancer Trends: Influencing Care and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the trends being seen in cancer are changing how we view cancer and how we address it, from prompting research to identify the underlying causes of cancers increasing in incidence to informing research on treatment and prevention.

  11. [Research progress and trend on grassland agroecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jizhou; Li, Xianglin; Hou, Fujiang

    2002-08-01

    The connotation, progress, research frontiers and developmental trend of grassland agroecology are discussed in this paper. The interface theory, structure and function, coupling and discordance, and health assessment of grassland agroecosystems were recognized as the four research frontiers of the discipline. There exist three primary interfaces in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., vegetation-site, grassland-animal and production-management. Research into a series of the ecological processes that occurred at these interfaces is the key to revealing the features of the system behavior. There are four sections in a grassland agroecosystem, i.e., pre-plant, plant, animal and post-biotic sections. System coupling and discordance are the two important concepts to describe interactions among the production sections. System coupling among the sections can lead to system improvement by exerting the potential of system capacity. Health of an ecosystem is a reflection of its structure and function, and health assessment is a measurement of its orderliness and service value.

  12. Biobehavioral Influences on Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Erin S.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the contributions of stress-related behavioral factors to cancer growth and metastasis and the biobehavioral mechanisms underlying these relationships. We describe behavioral factors that are important in modulation of the stress response and the pivotal role of neuroendocrine regulation in the downstream alteration of physiological pathways relevant to cancer control, including the cellular immune response, inflammation, and tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and cell-signaling pathways. Consequences for cancer progression and metastasis, as well as quality of life, are delineated. Finally, behavioral and pharmacological interventions for cancer patients with the potential to alter these biobehavioral pathways are discussed. PMID:21094927

  13. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  14. Recent trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M.; Alonso, R.; Musetti, C.; Barrios, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: The National Cancer Registry (NCR) collects information from cancer mortality from the death certificates: 147 631 deaths were identified in the period from cancer, which was recorded topography, sex and age. They were calculated for each year mortality rates adjusted for age (TMAE) using as standard the world population. Trends were assessed using the method and calculated the joinpoint Estimated Annual Percent Change (ESPP). Results: The TMAE presents downward trend in both sexes (ESPP = significant -0.60 in men and -0.49 In women). In the period studied, mortality presented decreasing trend when it comes to cancer breast cancer in women (ESPP -0.79, significant), and increased for prostate cancer (ESPP = 0.70) and kidney (ESPP = 1.82 and 1.71 in men and women respectively). As regards the digestive system decreased mortality observed for esophageal cancer (ESPP in = -1.93 men and women = -1.78) and stomach (ESPP = -2.22 men and women -2.24 ). Mortality for cancer of colorectum is stable in men (ESPP = 0.35 No significant (NS)) and shows a decline slight but steady in women (ESPP -0.5). As for cancers that show strong association with smoking, decreased mortality observed lung and laryngeal cancer in men (ESPP = -1.11 and -2.05 respectively), confirming the trend found between 1990 and 2001; in women there is increased mortality from lung cancer (ESPP = 2.76) that is not accompanied by increased mortality from laryngeal cancer (-0.1 ESPP = NS). Mortality from cancers oral cavity and pharynx is stable, but in women a significant increase (ESPP = 1.84) is observed when the oral cavity is analyzed in isolation (lip, tongue, gums, palate). As cervical cancer, mortality trends in 20 years is to increase (ESPP = 1.14), however, if consider only the past decade, mortality appears stabilized (ESPP = 0.57 NS). Conclusions: The overall trend of cancer mortality (all sites

  15. Epigenetic Regulation in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggero, Katia; Farran-Matas, Sonia; Martinez-Tebar, Adrian; Aytes, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    An important number of newly identified molecular alterations in prostate cancer affect gene encoding master regulators of chromatin biology epigenetic regulation. This review will provide an updated view of the key epigenetic mechanisms underlying prostate cancer progression, therapy resistance, and potential actionable mechanisms and biomarkers. Key players in chromatin biology and epigenetic master regulators has been recently described to be crucially altered in metastatic CRPC and tumors that progress to AR independency. As such, epigenetic dysregulation represents a driving mechanism in the reprograming of prostate cancer cells as they lose AR-imposed identity. Chromatin integrity and accessibility for transcriptional regulation are key features altered in cancer progression, and particularly relevant in nuclear hormone receptor-driven tumors like prostate cancer. Understanding how chromatin remodeling dictates prostate development and how its deregulation contributes to prostate cancer onset and progression may improve risk stratification and treatment selection for prostate cancer patients.

  16. Italian cancer figures, report 2009: Cancer trend (1998-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the aim of this collaborative project of the Italian Network of Cancer Registries (Airtum; www.registri-tumori.it) was to analyse cancer incidence and mortality trends in Italy with special reference to the period 1998-2005. the study was based on the Airtum database, which collects and checks data from all the Airtum registries. The present study was based on 20 general and 2 specific populationbased cancer registries. Overall, we analysed 818,017 incident cases and 342,444 cancer deaths for the time period 1998-2005. Seventy percent of the analysed population was from the North of Italy, 17% from the Centre, and 13% from the South. A joinpoint analysis was carried out to detect the point in time where the trend changed; trends are described by means of the estimated annual percent change (APC), with appropriate 95% confidence intervals. Crude and standardized incidence and mortality rates were computed for 36 cancer sites, for both sexes, three age-classes (0-49, 50-69 and 70+ years), and three geographic areas (North, Centre, and South of Italy). Specific chapters are devoted to long-term trends (1986-2005), differences among age-groups, and international comparisons. In 1998-2005, cancer mortality for all sites showed a statistically significant decrease among men (APC - 1.7) and women (- 0.8). Mortality significantly decreased in both sexes for stomach cancer, rectum cancer, liver cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Mortality also decreased among men for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, oesophagus, lung, prostate, urinary bladder, and leukaemia. Among women mortality decreased for cancers of the colon, bone, breast, and uterus not otherwise specified. An increase in mortality was recorded for lung cancer among women (+1.5) and melanoma among men (+2.6). Incidence for all cancers together (except non-melanoma skin cancers) increased among men (APC +0.3) and remained stable among women. Cancer sites which showed increasing incidence were thyroid and melanoma

  17. Progression Trend of Critical Thinking among Nursing Students in Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Simin Sharif; Azizollah Arbabisarjou; Nasrin Mahmoudi

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking is defined as a basic skill for nurses which leads to the best performance based on the best existing evidence. Although acquisition of this skill is highly emphasized, still there is no single definition for it. considering importance of critical thinking in performing nursing clinical care, current study was conducted aiming at investigating critical thinking progressive trend among nursing students in a nine-year period using library approach. Methods: This sy...

  18. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  19. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    attributable to general population screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap test and successful treatment of screening-detected premalignant lesions. The immunization of school-aged children with the vaccine for human papilloma virus (HPV is anticipated to further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Implications for cancer control strategies: The projected aging and growth of the population are expected to lead to a progressive and significant increase in the total number of new cancer cases in Canada over the next 25 years. Consequently, this report indicates the need to continue to strengthen cancer control strategies and leverage resources to meet future health care requirements and reduce the burden of cancer in Canada. Although incidence rates are projected to decrease for many cancers, the rates for some cancers, for example, thyroid, liver, uterus, pancreas, kidney and leukemia, are estimated to increase. Additional etiological research is needed to better understand risk factors and guide prevention efforts. This monograph underscores the importance of cancer prevention by curbing smoking; promoting healthy eating, physical activity and weight management; enhancing uptake of cancer screening; and increasing coverage of HPV vaccination. The implication of future changes in our demographic profiles and cancer trends should be addressed from the full spectrum of cancer control, including research and surveillance, prevention and early detection, treatment, and psychosocial, palliative and medical care.

  20. Hyperglycemia, a Neglected Factor during Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxing Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence from large cohort studies suggests that there exists a higher cancer incidence in people with type 2 diabetes (DM2. However, to date, the potential reasons for this association remain unclear. Hyperglycemia, the most important feature of diabetes, may be responsible for the excess glucose supply for these glucose-hungry cells, and it contributes to apoptosis resistance, oncogenesis, and tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy. Considering associations between diabetes and malignancies, the effect of hyperglycemia on cancer progression in cancer patients with abnormal blood glucose should not be neglected. In this paper, we describe the role that hyperglycemia plays in cancer progression and treatment and illustrate that hyperglycemia may contribute to a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells and lead to drug resistance. Therefore, controlling hyperglycemia may have important therapeutic implications in cancer patients.

  1. Recent Progress in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Klein, Alison P.; Erdek, Michael A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in our understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23856911

  2. Progress and controversies in developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speiser Daniel E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy has become a standard approach for cancer management, through the use of cytokines (eg: interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer vaccines hold promise as another form of immunotherapy, and there has been substantial progress in identifying shared antigens recognized by T cells, in developing vaccine approaches that induce antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients, and in developing new technology for monitoring immune responses in various human tissue compartments. Dramatic clinical regressions of human solid tumors have occurred with some cancer vaccines, but the rate of those responses remains low. This article is part of a 2-part point:counterpoint series on peptide vaccines and adoptive therapy approaches for cancer. The current status of cancer vaccination, and associated challenges, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to increase our knowledge of cancer immunobiology, as well as to improve monitoring of cellular immune function after vaccination. Progress in both areas will facilitate development of effective cancer vaccines, as well as of adoptive therapy. Effective cancer vaccines promise to be useful for treatment and prevention of cancer at low cost and with low morbidity.

  3. Changing Trends in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlter Özer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death. It requires multimodal treatment and surgery is the most effective treatment modality. Radical surgery includes total or subtotal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. The extent of lymphadenectomy still remains controversial. Eastern surgeons have performed D2 or more extended lymphadenectomy while their Western colleagues have performed more limited lymph node dissection. However, the trend has been changing in favour of D2 lymph node dissection in both hemispheres. Currently, D2 is the recommended type of lymphadenectomy in experienced centres in the west. In Japan, D2 lymph node dissection is the standard surgical approach. More extensive lymphadenectomy than D2 has not been found to be associated with improved survival and generally is not performed. Bursectomy and splenectomy are additional controversial issues in surgical performance, and trends regarding them will be discussed. The performance of bursectomy is controversial and there is no clear evidence of its clinical benefit. However, a trend toward better survival in patients with serosal invasion has been reported. Routine splenectomy as a part of lymph node dissection has largely been abandoned, although splenectomy is recommended in selected cases. Minimally invasive surgery has gained wide popularity and indications for minimally invasive procedures have been expanding due to increasing experience and improving technology. Neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects and seems necessary to provide a survival benefit. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be kept in mind prior to treatment

  4. Molecular biology of prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Timothy C.; Sehgal, I.; Timme, T.L.; Rn, C.; Yang, G.; Park, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men (Boring C.C. et al, CA 44:7-26, 1994). As with other forms of cancer, prostate cancer is a multistep disease process that involves the acquisition of multiple genetic alternations (Armitage P and Doll K, Br J Cancer 8:1-12, 1954). For prostate cancer, alternations in specific dominantly acting oncogenes including ras and myc and tumor suppressor genes including p53 and Rb have been reported. However, a simple phenotype-genotype correlation for prostate cancer progression may not be readily accessible because prostate cancer demonstrates remarkable genetic heterogeneity. Recent clinical data indicate that this heterogeneity exists both among the multiple cancer foci as well as within individual cancer foci. Furthermore, based on chromosomal analysis, it has been suggested that metastases do not necessarily seed from the largest index cancer focus at the primary site. Such observations imply that abrupt changes in gene expression may trigger metastatic behavior in relatively small cohorts of malignant cells present at the local site. This pattern of progression may result from compromised function of specific 'control' genes which could affect the activity of multiple downstream genes involved in specific pathways of malignant progression. Such a mechanistic framework involving networks of gene expression could explain the acquisition of the complex metastatic phenotype. Using the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model system (Thompson et al, Cell 56:917-930, 1989) we demonstrated that progression of experimental prostate cancer to metastasis was invariably associated with functional inactivation of p53 (Thompson el al, Oncogene 10:869-879, 1995). Southern blotting analyses revealed that metastases do not necessarily originate from the most abundant clone in the primary carcinoma. Furthermore, the role of p53 as a potential metastasis suppressor

  5. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjun; Kantoff, Philip W; Wooster, Richard; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies prompted the development and application of various nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, herein referred to as cancer nanomedicine. Considerable technological success has been achieved in this field, but the main obstacles to nanomedicine becoming a new paradigm in cancer therapy stem from the complexities and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an incomplete understanding of nano-bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls required for clinical translation and commercialization. This Review highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches that capitalize on our growing understanding of tumour biology and nano-bio interactions to develop more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients.

  6. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  7. Progression inference for somatic mutations in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods were employed to determine progression inference of genomic alterations in commonly occurring cancers. Using cross-sectional TCGA data, we computed evolutionary trajectories involving selectivity relationships among pairs of gene-specific genomic alterations such as somatic mutations, deletions, amplifications, downregulation, and upregulation among the top 20 driver genes associated with each cancer. Results indicate that the majority of hierarchies involved TP53, PIK3CA, ERBB2, APC, KRAS, EGFR, IDH1, VHL, etc. Research into the order and accumulation of genomic alterations among cancer driver genes will ever-increase as the costs of nextgen sequencing subside, and personalized/precision medicine incorporates whole-genome scans into the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Keywords: Oncology, Cancer research, Genetics, Computational biology

  8. Cancer initiation and progression: an unsimplifiable complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frezza Eldo E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most complex diseases affecting humans and, despite the impressive advances that have been made in molecular and cell biology, how cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability is still widely debated. Conclusion There is no doubt that human carcinogenesis is a dynamic process that depends on a large number of variables and is regulated at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Viewing cancer as a system that is dynamically complex in time and space will, however, probably reveal more about its underlying behavioural characteristics. It is encouraging that mathematicians, biologists and clinicians continue to contribute together towards a common quantitative understanding of cancer complexity. This way of thinking may further help to clarify concepts, interpret new and old experimental data, indicate alternative experiments and categorize the acquired knowledge on the basis of the similarities and/or shared behaviours of very different tumours.

  9. Progress in the surgery of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schiessel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of rectal cancer has been improved a great deal within the last 20 years. Major progress has been made in the preoperative evaluation by introducing MRI- imaging as a basis for the further management. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy has been shown to be effective in downstaging of advanced tumours. The surgical technique has been improved in many respects.- Total mesorectal excision has reduced local recurrences, sphincter saving techniques such as low anterior resection and intersphincteric resection reduced the need for a permanent stoma to 10%-20%. Recently the introduction of minimal invasive techniques and the application of robotic systems have reduced the surgical trauma.

  10. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  11. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  12. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  13. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  14. A Role for TIMP-1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardelli, James

    2004-01-01

    ... as compared to patients that survive. This suggests that this protein may have multiple functions that include both inhibition of cancer promoting proteinases and stimulation of cell-signaling pathways that promote cancer progression...

  15. Adoption research, practice, and societal trends: Ten years of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2017-12-01

    Adoption involves the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child's birth parents to adults who will raise the child (Reitz & Watson, 1992). Research related to adoption has expanded over the past 10 years and has incorporated more focus on implications for practice and public policy. This expansion has reflected increased awareness of the lived experience of adopted individuals, in addition to that of adoptive families and birth or first parents and families, collectively known as the adoption kinship network (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Trends discussed included research and social trends or movements (2007-2017) since the publication of the final article in a series of articles in the psychological literature related to adoption in The Counseling Psychologist (Baden & Wiley, 2007; Lee, 2003; O'Brien & Zamostny, 2003; Wiley & Baden, 2005; Zamostny, O'Brien, Baden, & Wiley, 2003; Zamostny, Wiley, O'Brien, Lee, & Baden, 2003). This article summarizes the social trends and research related to adoption over the last 10 years, including longitudinal and meta-analytic studies, increased research and conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity development, research on microaggressions, and research on diverse adoptive families, including those with gay and lesbian parents. Social trends included increased knowledge related to Internet accessibility, genetic information, continued focus on openness, and viewing adoption through a more critical lens. Implications are discussed for the development of programs that enhance competence of mental health professionals and adoption professionals in adoption-competent practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  17. The epidemiological and histological trend of bladder cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Rafiemanesh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: According to this study the trend of ASIR of bladder cancer in Iran is rising, so it is necessary to conduct further researches in future to provide accurate information on the cancer and investigate related risk factors and implement prevention programs in Iran.

  18. Trends in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere: Recent progress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2013), s. 3924-3935 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792; GA MŠk LD12070 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Long-term trends * upper atmosphere * ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50341/abstract

  19. Cost trend analysis of initial cancer treatment in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Yun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the high cost of initial cancer care, that is, care in the first year after diagnosis, limited information is available for specific categories of cancer-related costs, especially costs for specific services. This study purposed to identify causes of change in cancer treatment costs over time and to perform trend analyses of the percentage of cancer patients who had received a specific treatment type and the mean cost of care for patients who had received that treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of trends in initial treatment costs focused on cancer-related surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and treatments other than active treatments. For each cancer-specific trend, slopes were calculated for regression models with 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of patients diagnosed in 2007 showed that the National Health Insurance (NHI system paid, on average, $10,780 for initial care of a gastric cancer patient and $10,681 for initial care of a lung cancer patient, which were inflation-adjusted increases of $6,234 and $5,522, respectively, over the 1996 care costs. During the same interval, the mean NHI payment for initial care for the five specific cancers increased significantly (p<0.05. Hospitalization costs comprised the largest portion of payments for all cancers. During 1996-2007, the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy significantly increased in all cancer types (p<0.05. In 2007, NHI payments for initial care for these five cancers exceeded $12 billion, and gastric and lung cancers accounted for the largest share. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to the growing number of NHI beneficiaries with cancer, treatment costs and the percentage of patients who undergo treatment are growing. Therefore, the NHI must accurately predict the economic burden of new chemotherapy agents and radiation therapies and may need to develop programs for stratifying patients according to their potential benefit

  20. Selected trends in breast cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Mardiak, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of malignant tumors in women and so poses a serious social and economic problem. Aims: By analysing the trends of the basic indicators of breast cancer descriptive epidemiology in Slovakia, the prospective development was predicted, providing the missing information needed to assess the impact of intervention programmes. Results: The age-standardised incidence of breast cancer in Slovakia shows a strongly rising trend by an annual percentage change value of 2.2%, whereby in respect of mortality, after a previous significant decrease in values recorded in the period 2000-2009, stabilisation is registered once again with an annual percentage change of 3.4% (without statistical significance). Conclusion: Adverse trends in the development of breast cancer mortality in Slovakia underline the importance of establishing and monitoring the efficacy of intervention steps as part of organised screening. (author)

  1. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding: Progress and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarized recent progress in metal superplasticity and the application of Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB or SPF/Welding in typical structures. Various aerospace components such as three dimensional lattice structures made by SPF/DB have been demonstrated. In addition, some newly developed technologies, such as melt droplet spreading/thermo-mechanical forming (MDS/TMF, were also included. Finally, the future potential of SPF/DB technology was predicted.

  2. Time trends in axilla management among early breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondos, Adam; Jansen, Lina; Heil, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined time trends in axilla management among patients with early breast cancer in European clinical settings. Material and methods EUROCANPlatform partners, including population-based and cancer center-specific registries, provided routinely available clinical cancer registry data...... for a comparative study of axillary management trends among patients with first non-metastatic breast cancer who were not selected for neoadjuvant therapy during the last decade. We used an additional short questionnaire to compare clinical care patterns in 2014. Results Patients treated in cancer centers were...... younger than population-based registry populations. Tumor size and lymph node status distributions varied little between settings or over time. In 2003, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) use varied between 26% and 81% for pT1 tumors, and between 2% and 68% for pT2 tumors. By 2010, SLNB use increased to 79...

  3. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  4. Temporal trends and regional variations in gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Peru, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Azañedo, Diego; Huarez, Bertha; Rodríguez-Lema, Belén

    2016-01-01

    To estimate and analyze the evolution of mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Peru and its regions between 2005-2014. We performed a nationwide secondary analysis of Peru's Health Ministry registry of deaths during the period 2005-2014, with a focus on regional differences. Deaths registered with codes C15 to C25 (malignant neoplasms of digestive organs) from the ICD-10 were included. Calculation of age-standarized mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) due to GI cancer per 100,000 habitants were also performed. Data of 67,527 deaths from GI cancers was analyzed, 35,055 (51.91%) were women. In 2005, the number of GI cancer deaths was 6,484, for 2014, 7,532 cases were recorded. The GI cancer age-standarized mortality rates at the country level showed a decrease of 12.70% between 2005-2014. Stomach cancer presented the highest age-standarized mortality rate despite showing a downward trend in the last years, equal for gallbladder, liver and biliary tract, and esophagus cancer. Colorectal, small intestine and anus cancer show a progressive increase. In 2014, Callao (48.8), Huancavelica (48.5), La Libertad (39.6), Lambayeque (40.5) and Huanuco (38.9) had the highest rates. The three types of GI cancers with the highest rates of YLL in 2014 were stomach cancer (118.51), followed by liver and biliary tract cancer (58.68) and colorectal (44.86). GI cancer mortality in Peru is high and a priority issue in regions like Huancavelica, Huanuco, Callao, La Libertad and Lambayeque. Stomach cancer remains the most frequent GI cancer, but with a downward trend in the study period.

  5. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  6. Changing Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Patthi, Basavaraj; Goud, Venkatesh; Reddy, Somanath; Garg, Anshul; Singla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the highly prevalent cancers worldwide and a leading cause of mortality in certain regions like South-Central Asia. It is a major public health problem. Late diagnosis, high mortality rates and morbidity are characteristics of the disease worldwide. For control of oral cancer an idea of the coverage of the same in the various regions is necessary. The estimated incidence, mortality and 5-year survival due to lip, oral cavity cancer in world is 3, 00, 373(2.1%), 1, 45, 328(1.8%) and 7, 02, 149(2.2%) respectively according to data of GLOBOCAN 2012. A changing trend in incidence and prevalence of oral cancer has been observed with more women and youngsters being affected by oral cancer. PMID:28804673

  7. Expression of OATP family members in hormone-related cancers: potential markers of progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Pressler

    Full Text Available The organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP family of transporters has been implicated in prostate cancer disease progression probably by transporting hormones or drugs. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the expression, frequency, and relevance of OATPs as a biomarker in hormone-dependent cancers. We completed a study examining SLCO1B3, SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 mRNA expression in 381 primary, independent patient samples representing 21 cancers and normal tissues. From a separate cohort, protein expression of OATP1B3 was examined in prostate, colon, and bladder tissue. Based on expression frequency, SLCO2B1 was lower in liver cancer (P = 0.04 which also trended lower with decreasing differentiation (P = 0.004 and lower magnitude in pancreatic cancer (P = 0.05. SLCO2B1 also had a higher frequency in thyroid cancer (67% than normal (0% and expression increased with stage (P = 0.04. SLCO1B3 was expressed in 52% of cancerous prostate samples and increased SLCO1B3 expression trended with higher Gleason score (P = 0.03. SLCO1B3 expression was also higher in testicular cancer (P = 0.02. SLCO1B1 expression was lower in liver cancer (P = 0.04 which trended lower with liver cancer grade (P = 0.0004 and higher with colon cancer grade (P = 0.05. Protein expression of OATP1B3 was examined in normal and cancerous prostate, colon, and bladder tissue samples from an independent cohort. The results were similar to the transcription data, but showed distinct localization. OATPs correlate to differentiation in certain hormone-dependent cancers, thus may be useful as biomarkers for assessing clinical treatment and stage of disease.

  8. Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Zeinab; Salehiniya, Hamid; Amoori, Neda; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.

  9. Triumph or tragedy: progress in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ERENLER, Ayşe Şebnem; GEÇKİL, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is probably the number one research area among all human endeavors, receiving the largest portion of science funding in most countries. This is because cancer remains one of the oldest conundrums among all human maladies. Although we now have a greater understanding of the biological and molecular basis of cancer, its diagnosis and therapy still pose great challenges. In this review, our aim is not to establish a comprehensive understanding of cancer, which is essentially impossible, b...

  10. Prevalence and trends in breast cancer in Lagos state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the trends in the prevalence of breast cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 1000 subjects was taken from a population consisting of women between the ages of 15 and 60 years spread across the 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Fifty questionnaires were distributed in each LGA.

  11. Selected trends in lung cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Berzinec, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The lung cancer is still among the dominant malignant tumors despite declining trend of incidence, especially in men, and also its adverse prognosis remains. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the development of long-term trends in incidence and mortality and to produce a prospective estimate of prevalence and overall burden of lung cancer in the population in the Slovak Republic. Results: A significant drop of incidence of the disease in men has been seen in Slovakia since 1988 by a mean annual percentage change of -2.16%, whereby mortality is declining a little faster (by an annual percentage change of -2.87%). Adverse trend has been registered in both indicators in case of lung cancer in women, with incidence rising since 2001 by 5.31% annually and mortality rising by 1.3% for the whole monitored period. Conclusion: The adverse rising trend in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in women in the Slovak Republic, as well as the slower decline in incidence and mortality in men compared with some countries of Western Europe, will have an impact in future also on total costs for management of this disease. (author)

  12. Aberrant Chromatin Modification as a Mechanism of Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hongwu

    2004-01-01

    .... However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that aberrant chromatin modification plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression...

  13. Targeting the extracellular matrix to disrupt cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freja Albjerg Venning

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multi-step process, with each step involving intricate cross-talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM. Many ECM proteins are significantly de-regulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  14. Trends in incidence, survival and mortality of childhood and adolescent cancer in Austria, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E; Hackl, Monika; Mann, Georg; Urban, Christian; Woehrer, Adelheid; Slavc, Irene; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    This is the first study on trends in cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children and adolescents in Austria. The aim was to assess to what extent progress against childhood and adolescent cancer has been made in Austria since the 1990s and to complement the childhood and adolescent cancer trends for Central Europe. All malignant neoplasms and non-malignant tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in patients aged less than 20 years and diagnosed between 1994 and 2011 (N=5425) were derived from the Austrian National Cancer Registry (ANCR). Incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Observed survival rates were calculated based on follow-up until December 31st 2013. Childhood cancer remained stable with 182 cases per million in 2011, but rose among girls by 1.4% (95% CI: .1, 3.6) annually due to an increase of non-malignant CNS tumours and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Adolescent cancer rose by 1.5% (95% CI: .4, 2.6) annually, from 182 cases per million in 1994-269 in 2011, especially leukaemia, CNS tumours (including non-malignant types) and epithelial tumours. Five-year survival improved by 5-7% reaching 86% for both groups (p<.05). Mortality declined by -2.4% (95% CI: -3.7, -1.2) and -2.0% (95% CI: -4.6, .5), respectively, especially for childhood leukaemia. Progress is demonstrated by improved survival and declined mortality most likely related to improved diagnostic techniques, more effective therapeutic regimes, supportive care and a central advisory function of experts in the Austrian paediatric oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cancer communication science funding trends, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Galica, Kasia; Blake, Kelly D; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-12-01

    Since 2000, the field of health communication has grown tremendously, owing largely to research funding by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This study provides an overview of cancer communication science funding trends in the past decade. We conducted an analysis of communication-related grant applications submitted to the NCI in fiscal years 2000-2012. Using 103 keywords related to health communication, data were extracted from the Portfolio Management Application, a grants management application used at NCI. Automated coding described key grant characteristics such as mechanism and review study section. Manual coding determined funding across the cancer control continuum, by cancer site, and by cancer risk factors. A total of 3307 unique grant applications met initial inclusion criteria; 1013 of these were funded over the 12-year period. The top funded grant mechanisms were the R01, R21, and R03. Applications were largely investigator-initiated proposals as opposed to responses to particular funding opportunity announcements. Among funded communication research, the top risk factor being studied was tobacco, and across the cancer control continuum, cancer prevention was the most common stage investigated. NCI support of cancer communication research has been an important source of growth for health communication science over the last 12 years. The analysis' findings describe NCI's priorities in cancer communication science and suggest areas for future investments.

  16. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  17. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    % growth in the same period, with two consecutive years of decline between 2012 and 2014. This steady upward trend of publication output from developing countries shows that researchers are becoming increasingly aware of the values of evidence-based research, without which would limit funding opportunities and restrict international collaborations, as well as partnerships.Advances in Modern Oncology Research is an Open Access journal aimed at increasing the accessibility of peer-reviewed information among researchers worldwide. The journal emphasizes on equal opportunity in scientific publishing, and is committed towards bridging the existing knowledge gap in cancer research between developed and developing countries. AMOR is keen to highlight the current challenges and opportunities of cancer research in developing countries, and the creation of a special issue dedicated to this subject is especially relevant and urgent to the broad community of cancer researchers because:(i It provides a much-needed platform to clinicians and researchers from developing countries to share important region-specific data, statistics, observations, and findings with the international community. This will not only improve the visibility of researchers from developing countries, but also enrich existing medical literature with updated information on the progress of cancer research in the developing world.(ii It gives clinicians, researchers, and policy makers from developed nations the opportunity to assess the existing and projected capability of developing countries in coping with the disease burden of cancer. Moreover, it is expected to equip stakeholders with key data and information to better manage vital resources, i.e. the allocation of funding and creation of knowledge transfer programs, moving forward.It takes collective efforts to address the escalating threat of cancer mortality and morbidity in the developing world. In order to introduce effective long-term solutions, it is

  18. Progress in cancer genetics: lessons from pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goggins, M.; Kern, S. E.; Offerhaus, J. A.; Hruban, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    In the near future advances in the molecular basis of cancer are expected to facilitate cancer diagnosis, to rationalize treatment, to facilitate screening, and to identify individuals requiring cancer prevention strategies. The literature was reviewed concerning the genetic alterations that

  19. Serum Thyroglobulin Doubling Time in Progressive Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, R.M.; Jentzen, W.; Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A.; Gorges, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor marker doubling time (DT) has been proposed as a prognostic marker for various types of cancer. The present study analyzed the DT of the thyroid-specific tumor marker thyroglobulin (Tg), focusing on patients with progressive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: A total of

  20. Nuclear scanning microprobe: state of the art, applications and progress trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The physical principles of nuclear scanning microprobe are considered. The analysis of state of the art of the microprobe setup from point of view of its spatial resolution and sensitivity of microanalysis techniques is given. The regions of nuclear microprobe applications are reviewed. The ways of spatial resolution and data acquisition system improvement under consideration of microprobe setup progress trends are considered. (authors)

  1. Vitamin D, inflammation, and colorectal cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harten-Gerritsen, van Suzanne; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a

  2. Updating trends in cutaneous cancers in south-east Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoda, Isabelle; Quatresooz, Pascale; Fumal, Isabelle; Nikkels, Arjen F; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gerald E

    2004-07-01

    From data collected in a dermatopathology laboratory, the ratios between the numbers of specific cancers represent good markers for identifying any epidemiological shift in their prevalence and incidence among the reference population. The objective of the present study was to assess the ratios of the annual incidence of skin cancers in the Mosan region and Ardennes of Belgium over the past 6 years, and to compare the data with previous similar evaluations. A total of 7,640 skin cancers were collected and compared with regard to age and gender. Changes in time show that the trend of the increase in incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) is more impressive than that of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The age distribution of BCC and SCC confirms the increasing risk with ageing. By contrast, there is a steady decrease over the past decade in the mean age for MM, teenagers and young adults now form an expanding proportion of MM patients. There is an ongoing trend in diagnosing an increased number of skin cancers in our laboratory. This trend is particularly obvious for MM affecting young adults.

  3. Incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Ron; Kapiev, Andronik; Poluksht, Natan; Halevy, Ariel; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide. The incidence trends and mortality rates of gastric cancer in Israel have not been studied in depth. The aim of our study was to try and investigate the aforementioned issues in Israel in different ethnic groups. This retrospective study is based on the data of The Israel National Cancer Registry and The Central Bureau of Statistics. Published data from these two institutes were collected, summarized, and analyzed in this study. Around 650 new cases of gastric cancer are diagnosed yearly in Israel. While we noticed a decline during the period 1990-2007 in the incidence in the Jewish population (13.6-8.9 and 6.75-5.42 cases per 100,000 in Jewish men and women, respectively), an increase in the Arab population was noticed (7.7-10.2 and 3.7-4.2 cases per 100,000 in men and women, respectively). Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 cases of gastric cancer decreased significantly, from 7.21 in 1990 to 5.46 in 2007, in the total population. The 5-year relative survival showed a slight increase for both men and women. There is a difference in the incidence and outcome of gastric cancer between the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. The grim prognosis of gastric cancer patients in Israel is probably due to the advanced stage at which gastric cancer is diagnosed in Israel.

  4. Current status and progress of pancreatic cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Quan-Jun; Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2015-07-14

    Cancer is currently one of the most important public health problems in the world. Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. As in most other countries, the health burden of pancreatic cancer in China is increasing, with annual mortality rates almost equal to incidence rates. The increasing trend of pancreatic cancer incidence is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Annual diagnoses and deaths of pancreatic cancer in China are now beyond the number of cases in the United States. GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that cases in China account for 19.45% (65727/337872) of all newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 19.27% (63662/330391) of all deaths from pancreatic cancer worldwide. The population's growing socioeconomic status contributes to the rapid increase of China's proportional contribution to global rates. Here, we present an overview of control programs for pancreatic cancer in China focusing on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe key epidemiological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences between China and developed countries. Facts including no nationwide screening program for pancreatic cancer, delay in early detection resulting in a late stage at presentation, lack of awareness of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population, and low investment compared with other cancer types by government have led to backwardness in China's pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we suggest measures to improve health outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients in China.

  5. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wilson, Torrence M. [Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Federspiel, Mark J. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Morris, John C., E-mail: davis.brian@mayo.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-11-19

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  6. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  7. Metabolic cooperation between cancer and non-cancerous stromal cells is pivotal in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Coelho, Filipa; Gouveia-Fernandes, Sofia; Serpa, Jacinta

    2018-02-01

    The way cancer cells adapt to microenvironment is crucial for the success of carcinogenesis, and metabolic fitness is essential for a cancer cell to survive and proliferate in a certain organ/tissue. The metabolic remodeling in a tumor niche is endured not only by cancer cells but also by non-cancerous cells that share the same microenvironment. For this reason, tumor cells and stromal cells constitute a complex network of signal and organic compound transfer that supports cellular viability and proliferation. The intensive dual-address cooperation of all components of a tumor sustains disease progression and metastasis. Herein, we will detail the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer-associated adipocytes, and inflammatory cells, mainly monocytes/macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages), in the remodeling and metabolic adaptation of tumors.

  8. Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer.

  9. Growth and progression of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushio, K.; Hirota, T.

    1988-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the natural history of colorectal carcinoma, now that small polypoid lesions of the large intestine can be detected effectively by radiology and endoscopy. The problems of this histo- and morphogenesis of colorectal cancer have, however, remained unsettled because the observation of the sequential change of a lesion with time by follow-up radiology and/or endoscopy is impossible once its malignancy is proved. Clinically the retrospective review of radiographic findings in overlooked cases is the only means to evaluate the natural history of colorectal cancer. This paper attempts to estimate the growth rate of colorectal cancer, based on a retrospective review of radiographic findings of overlooked cases, and analyses of the radiographic features of small polypoid lesions which may develop into advanced cancers

  10. Patterns of breast cancer mortality trends in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Joana; Severo, Milton; Vilela, Sofia; Fonseca, Sérgio; Fontes, Filipa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lunet, Nuno

    2013-06-01

    To identify patterns of variation in breast cancer mortality in Europe (1980-2010), using a model-based approach. Mortality data were obtained from the World Health Organization database and mixed models were used to describe the time trends in the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR). Model-based clustering was used to identify clusters of countries with homogeneous variation in ASMR. Three patterns were identified. Patterns 1 and 2 are characterized by stable or slightly increasing trends in ASMR in the first half of the period analysed, and a clear decline is observed thereafter; in pattern 1 the median of the ASMR is higher, and the highest rates were achieved sooner. Pattern 3 is characterised by a rapid increase in mortality until 1999, declining slowly thereafter. This study provides a general model for the description and interpretation of the variation in breast cancer mortality in Europe, based in three main patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in Media Reports of Celebrities' Breast Cancer Treatment Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Michael S; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2016-09-01

    Although the increasing use of bilateral mastectomies is multifaceted, one source of influence may be the media, including coverage of celebrity breast cancer treatment. We examined trends in media reporting that might impact decision making among women with breast cancer. We performed searches of two comprehensive online databases for articles from major U.S. print publications mentioning celebrities and terms related to the word "breast" and terms related to cancer treatment. Automated analysis using custom-created dictionaries was used to determine word frequencies over time. An analysis of net media tone was conducted using Lexicoder Sentiment Dictionaries. Celebrity breast cancer media reports significantly increased since 2004 (p celebrity had bilateral mastectomies than unilateral mastectomy or breast conservation (44.8 vs 26.1 %, p celebrities undergoing bilateral mastectomy for cancer had no mention of genetics, family history, or risk. Media reports of celebrity breast cancer present a bias toward bilateral mastectomies in both frequency and tone. This may sway public opinion, particularly when factors such as risk and genetics are excluded. Surgeons need to work with the media to improve cancer reporting and identify methods to better educate patients prior to surgical consultations.

  12. Cancer burden trends in Umbria region using a joinpoint regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Michele Masanotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer is an important tool to control and evaluate the outcomes of primary and secondary prevention, the effectiveness of health care and, in general, all cancer control activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The aim of the this paper is to analyze the cancer mortality in the Umbria region from 1978 to 2009 and incidence from 1994-2008. Sex and site-specific trends for standardized rates were analyzed by "joinpoint regression", using the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER software. RESULTS. Applying the jointpoint analyses by sex and cancer site, to incidence spanning from 1994 to 2008 and mortality from 1978 to 2009 for all sites, both in males and females, a significant joinpoint for mortality was found; moreover the trend shape was similar and the joinpoint years were very close. In males standardized rate significantly increased up to 1989 by 1.23% per year and significantly decreased thereafter by -1.31%; among females the mortality rate increased in average of 0.78% (not significant per year till 1988 and afterward significantly decreased by -0.92% per year. Incidence rate showed different trends among sexes. In males was practically constant over the period studied (not significant increase 0.14% per year, in females significantly increased by 1.49% per year up to 2001 and afterward slowly decreased (-0.71% n.s. estimated annual percent change − EAPC. CONCLUSIONS. For all sites combined trends for mortality decreased since late '80s, both in males and females; such behaviour is in line with national and European Union data. This work shows that, even compared to health systems that invest more resources, the Umbria public health system achieved good health outcomes.

  13. Heparan Sulfate and Heparanase as Modulators of Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica M. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is defined as a cancer originating in tissues of the breast, frequently in ducts and lobules. During the last 30 years, studies to understand the biology and to treat breast tumor improved patients’ survival rates. These studies have focused on genetic components involved in tumor progression and on tumor microenvironment. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs are involved in cell signaling, adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and growth factors storage. As a central molecule, HSPG regulates cell behavior and tumor progression. HS accompanied by its glycosaminoglycan counterparts regulates tissue homeostasis and cancer development. These molecules present opposite effects according to tumor type or cancer model. Studies in this area may contribute to unveil glycosaminoglycan activities on cell dynamics during breast cancer exploring these polysaccharides as antitumor agents. Heparanase is a potent tumor modulator due to its protumorigenic, proangiogenic, and prometastatic activities. Several lines of evidence indicate that heparanase is upregulated in all human sarcomas and carcinomas. Heparanase seems to be related to several aspects regulating the potential of breast cancer metastasis. Due to its multiple roles, heparanase is seen as a target in cancer treatment. We will describe recent findings on the function of HSPGs and heparanase in breast cancer behavior and progression.

  14. Time-Trend in Epidemiological and Pathological Features of Schistosoma-Associated Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAGHLOUL, M.S.; EL-BARADIE, M.; NAZMY, M.; NOUH, A.; MONEER, M.; YOUNIS, A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the different emerging trends in the features of bladder cancer along 17 years. Patients and Methods: During a 17-year period (1988- 2004), 5071 epithelial bladder cancer patients underwent radical cystectomy at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Egypt. The time was divided into 3 time periods to detect changes of the clinico pathologic features of patients in these periods. Results: There was a significant progressive increase in the patients' age with time and decrease in squamous/ transitional ratio, with transient increase in male predominance during the 2nd time period. Moreover, there was a decrease in the well differentiated (grade 1) tumor (p<0.001) and an increase in the frequency of pelvic nodal involvement (p<0.001). Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients were significantly older than those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (p<0.001). Progressive increase of age with time was evident in TCC, SCC and adenocarcinoma patients. Male to female ratio changed significantly in TCC and SCC. Conclusion: Time trend was confirmed with relative decrease in frequency of SCC and increase of TCC with changes in their pathological details. The differences between their characteristics and that of the Western countries are decreasing.

  15. Current trends in the management of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit R; Campbell, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of bladder cancer etiology, diagnosis, and management for WOC nurses. Bladder cancer incidence continues to rise yearly in the United States, and patients with bladder cancer comprise some of the most challenging cases in urologic oncology. Nurses are involved with all aspects of the processes of care for the patient with bladder cancer, from initial diagnosis and treatment to postsurgical care and follow-up. For nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, treatment includes transurethral resection followed by intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy to prevent recurrence or progression. Radical cystectomy along with chemotherapy protocols provides a survival advantage for muscle invasive bladder cancer, although the timing of chemotherapy remains controversial. Numerous factors are considered when determining the type of urinary diversion used at the time of radical cystectomy, but patient, family, surgeon, and nursing input are essential for preserving an optimal health-related quality of life and reducing morbidity. Patients with metastatic bladder cancer are generally treated with a cisplatin-based chemotherapy but continue to have a poor prognosis. Newer therapies involving novel molecular-targeted agents provide hope for the future for patients with metastatic disease.

  16. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  17. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Steven I; Wirth, Lori J; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet-derived gr...

  18. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  19. Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; Malvezzi, Matteo; Rosso, Tiziana; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; Chatenoud, Liliane; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two Opposing Effects (Yin and Yang) Determine Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Xu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we introduce a new vision of cancer describing opposing effects that control progression. Cancer is a paradigm of opposing of "Yin" and "Yang," with Yin being the effect to promote cancer and Yang that to maintain the normal state. This Yin Yang hypothesis has been used to select Yin and Yang genes to develop multigene signatures for determining prognosis in lung and breast cancer. Most of the Yin genes are involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, whereas most Yang genes are involved in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Yin and Yang pathways have been identified in breast cancer and compounds that can inhibit the Yin pathways or activate the Yang pathways have been examined, suggesting a new promising targeting therapy for cancer. We are building a Yin Yang model to represent the dynamic change of Yin and Yang genes and pathways.

  1. Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Newburger, D. E.

    2013-04-08

    Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma.

  2. Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Newburger, D. E.; Kashef-Haghighi, D.; Weng, Z.; Salari, R.; Sweeney, R. T.; Brunner, A. L.; Zhu, S. X.; Guo, X.; Varma, S.; Troxell, M. L.; West, R. B.; Batzoglou, S.; Sidow, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma.

  3. Cancer incidence in eastern Morocco: cancer patterns and incidence trends, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Ouarzane, Meryem; Boulouiz, Redouane; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2017-08-29

    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 7872 incident cases of cancer were registered in Eastern Morocco. Among these incident cases 5220 cases were women and 2652 were men, with a female to male ratio of 1.97. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years for males and 52 for females and 94% of the patients aged over 30 years. For both sexes combined and for all cancer sites, breast cancer was the commonest followed by cervix uteri, colon-rectum, lung, nasopharynx, and stomach cancers. The most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed respectively by cervix uteri cancer, colon-rectum cancer, ovary cancer, and stomach cancer. In men, the lung cancer ranked first, followed respectively by colon-rectum cancer, nasopharynx cancer, prostate cancer, and stomach cancer. For most cancers, crude incidence rates (CR) have increased significantly. The CR for all cancers combined has increased from 56.6 to 80.3 per 100,000 females and from 32.3 to 42.6 per 100,000 males during the study period. Patients profile analysis showed that 79% of cancer patients were from urban areas, 83% were unemployed and 85% had no health insurance. The distribution of cancers in Eastern Morocco is different from those observed in other regions of Morocco. Unlike most countries, women were much more affected with cancer than men in Eastern Morocco. More importantly, the rates of many cancers are rising. Therefore, our data justify the need to develop effective programs for cancer control and prevention in

  4. Geographic Variations and Time Trends in Cancer Treatments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason C; Chang, Sheng-Mao; Lu, Christine Y

    2017-08-02

    Targeted therapies have become important treatment options for cancer care in many countries. This study aimed to examine recent trends in utilization of antineoplastic drugs, particularly the use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer, by geographic region in Taiwan (northern, midwestern, southern, and eastern regions and the outer islands). This was a retrospective observational study of antineoplastic agents using 2009-2012 quarterly claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Yearly market shares by prescription volume and costs for targeted therapies among total antineoplastic agents by region were estimated. We used multivariate regression model and ANOVA to examine variations in utilization of targeted therapies between geographic regions and used ARIMA models to estimate longitudinal trends. Population-adjusted use and costs of antineoplastic drugs (including targeted therapies) were highest in the southern region of Taiwan and lowest in the outer islands. We found a 4-fold difference in use of antineoplastic drugs and a 49-fold difference in use of targeted therapies between regions if the outer islands were included. There were minimal differences in use of antineoplastic drugs between other regions with about a 2-fold difference in use of targeted therapies. Without considering the outer islands, the market share by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies increased almost 2-fold (1.84-1.90) and 1.5-fold (1.26-1.61) respectively between 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, region was not significantly associated with use of antineoplastic agents or use of targeted therapies after adjusting for confounders. Region was associated with costs of antineoplastic agents but it was not associated with costs of targeted therapies after confounding adjustments. Use of antineoplastic drugs overall and use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer varied somewhat between regions in Taiwan; use was notably low in the outer

  5. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD; Joyce Niland, PhD; Anna ter Veer, MS; Tanios Bekaii-Saab, MD; Lily Lai, MD; Joshua E. Meyer, MD; Steven J. Nurkin, MD, MS; Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH; John M. Skibber, MD, FACS; Al B. Benson, MD; Martin R. Weiser, MD; Christopher H. Crane, MD; Karyn A. Goodman, MD, MS

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been rapidly incorporated into clinical practice because of its technological advantages over 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT). We characterized trends in IMRT utilization in trimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network cancer centers between 2005 and 2011. Methods and materials: Using the prospective National Comprehensive Cancer Network Colorectal Cancer Database, ...

  6. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  7. Stress and its molecular consequences in cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Surman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress, caused by psychological, physiological and physical factors has an adverse impact on human body homeostasis. There are two kind of stress: short-term and chronic. Cancer patients usually live under chronic stress, caused by diagnosis-related strong emotional experience and depression, resulting from various difficulties associated with disease progression and treatment. At the molecular level, stress factors induce production and secretion of stress-related hormones, such as catecholamines, glucocorticoids and dopamine (as a part of adaptational body response, which influence both normal and transformed cells through their specific receptors. The particular effects exerted by these molecules on cancer cells have been also observed in in vitro cultures and include changes in proliferation, apoptosis susceptibility and migration/invasion potential. As a result, it has been suggested that stress hormones may be responsible for progression of malignancy and thus accelerate the metastasis formation in cancer patients. However, the clinical data on correlation between stress and the patients survival, as well as the molecular analysis of stress hormone receptors expression and action in cancer cell, have not yet provided an unequivocal answer. For this reason, extensive studies, on molecular and clinical level are needed to fully determine stress impact on cancerprogression and on the effectiveness of anti-cancer treatment. Nowadays, it seems reasonable that the personalization of anti-cancer therapy should also focus on mental state of cancer patients, and provide them with psychological tools or techniques for stress management.

  8. Cancer progression: is inhibin alpha from Venus or Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Emma M A; Mellor, Sally L; Risbridger, Gail P

    2004-10-01

    The inhibin field has been perplexed by the information that inhibin alpha is a tumour suppressor in mice yet is elevated in women with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we have consistently observed a down-regulation or loss of inhibin alpha in prostate cancer patient samples and cell lines. However, our latest data have prompted us to re-evaluate the role of inhibin alpha in prostate and other cancers. Using the analogy of TGF-beta as a springboard for our hypothesis, we offer a unifying model whereby the previously conflicting observations in mice, men and women can be explained. We propose that initially inhibin alpha is tumour-suppressive and is expressed in benign and early-stage primary cancers. Tumour-suppressive inhibin alpha is then silenced as the tumour progresses but is reactivated as a pro-metastatic factor in advanced, aggressive cancers.

  9. Clinical Cancer Advances 2018: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymach, John; Krilov, Lada; Alberg, Anthony; Baxter, Nancy; Chang, Susan Marina; Corcoran, Ryan; Dale, William; DeMichele, Angela; Magid Diefenbach, Catherine S; Dreicer, Robert; Epstein, Andrew S; Gillison, Maura L; Graham, David L; Jones, Joshua; Ko, Andrew H; Lopez, Ana Maria; Maki, Robert G; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Schilsky, Richard L; Sznol, Mario; Westin, Shannon Neville; Burstein, Harold

    2018-04-01

    research investment to accelerate the discovery of the next generation of cancer treatments. Another major trend in this year's report is progress in precision medicine approaches to treat cancer. Although precision medicine offers promise to people with cancer and their families, that promise is only as good as our ability to make these treatments available to all patients. My presidential theme, "Delivering Discoveries: Expanding the Reach of Precision Medicine," focuses on tackling this formidable challenge so that new targeted therapies are accessible to anyone who faces a cancer diagnosis. By improving access to high-quality care, harnessing big data on patient outcomes from across the globe, and pursuing innovative clinical trials, I am optimistic that we will speed the delivery of these most promising treatments to more patients. Sincerely, Bruce E. Johnson, FASCO ASCO President, 2017 to 2018.

  10. Childhood cancer survival in Switzerland (1976-2013): Time-trends and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Belle, Fabiën N; Grotzer, Michael A; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors. Overall, 5-year survival improved significantly, from 64% in 1976-1983 to 88% in 2004-2013. ARR over the whole period was 4% for all diagnostic groups, greatest for Hodgkin lymphomas (8%), ependymomas (6%), Burkitt's lymphomas (6%) and germ cell tumours (6%). Children treated in hospitals without specialised paediatric cancer centre for leukaemia (HR 12.9), lymphoma (HR 5.0) and neuroblastoma (HR 3.7) were at higher risk of death. In French-speaking Switzerland, risk of death was lower for lymphoma (HR 0.6), CNS tumours (HR 0.7) and neuroblastoma (HR 0.5). Children with migration background had a higher risk of death from all tumours except bone tumours. Childhood cancer survival significantly improved from 1976 to 2013, but there is room for further improvement. Survival rates varied by type of clinical treatment, language region and nationality. All paediatric cancer patients should be referred to a specialised paediatric cancer centre. Further research is needed to intervene and completely eliminate inequalities in survival. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Stromal Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Damien A.; Buchanan, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer development and progression is the result of complex interactions between epithelia cells and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, in a series of dynamic process amenable to regulation by hormones. Whilst androgen action through the androgen receptor (AR) is a well-established component of prostate cancer biology, it has been becoming increasingly apparent that changes in AR signalling in the surrounding stroma can dramatically influence tumour cell behavior. This is reflected in the consistent finding of a strong association between stromal AR expression and patient outcomes. In this review, we explore the relationship between AR signalling in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and prostate cancer cells in the primary site, and detail the known functions, actions, and mechanisms of fibroblast AR signaling. We conclude with an evidence-based summary of how androgen action in stroma dramatically influences disease progression. PMID:28117763

  12. The physics of cancer: The role of epigenetics and chromosome conformation in cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimark, Oleg B.; Nikitiuk, Aleksandr S. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UrB RAS, Perm, 614013 (Russian Federation); Baudement, Marie-Odile; Forné, Thierry [Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier UMR 5535, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, Montpellier cedex 5, 34293 France (France); Lesne, Annick, E-mail: annick.lesne@igmm.cnrs.fr [Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier UMR 5535, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, Montpellier cedex 5, 34293 France (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée UMR 7600, CNRS, UPMC, Sorbonne Universités, 4 place Jussieu, Paris cedex 5, 75252 France (France)

    2016-08-02

    Cancer progression is generally described in terms of accumulated genetic alterations and ensuing changes in cell properties. However, intermediary modifications are involved in the establishment of cancer cell phenotypes, at different levels of nuclear organization: DNA damages and their structural consequences, epigenetic modifications and their impact on chromatin architecture, changes in chromosome 3D organization. We review some of these alterations with a focus on their physical aspects. The challenge is to understand the multiscale interplay between generic physical mechanisms and specific biological factors in cancer cells. We argue that such an interdisciplinary perspective offers a novel viewpoint on cancer progression, early diagnosis and possibly therapeutic targets.

  13. New Trends in Cancer Therapy: Targeting Ion Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Arcangeli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression and activity of different channel types mark and regulate specific stages of cancer establishment and progression. Blocking channel activity impairs the growth of some tumors, both in vitro and in vivo, which opens a new field for pharmaceutical research. However, ion channel blockers may produce serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias. For instance, Kv11.1 (hERG1 channels are aberrantly expressed in several human cancers, in which they control different aspects of the neoplastic cell behaviour. hERG1 blockers tend to inhibit cancer growth. However they also retard the cardiac repolarization, thus lengthening the electrocardiographic QT interval, which can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Several possibilities exist to produce less harmful compounds, such as developing specific drugs that bind hERG1 channels in the open state or disassemble the ion channel/integrin complex which appears to be crucial in certain stages of neoplastic progression. The potential approaches to improve the efficacy and safety of ion channel targeting in oncology include: (1 targeting specific conformational channel states; (2 finding ever more specific inhibitors, including peptide toxins, for channel subtypes mainly expressed in well-identified tumors; (3 using specific ligands to convey traceable or cytotoxic compounds; (4 developing channel blocking antibodies; (5 designing new molecular tools to decrease channel expression in selected cancer types. Similar concepts apply to ion transporters such as the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+/H+ exchanger. Pharmacological targeting of these transporters is also currently being considered in anti-neoplastic therapy.

  14. Complexity of cancer protease biology: Cathepsin K expression and function in cancer progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbovšek, Urška; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Lah, Tamara T.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases, including lysosomal cathepsins, are functionally involved in many processes in cancer progression from its initiation to invasion and metastatic spread. Only recently, cathepsin K (CatK), the cysteine protease originally reported as a collagenolytic protease produced by osteoclasts,

  15. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-01-01

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  16. Increased fear of progression in cancer patients with recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Shin, Yong-Wook; Oh, Do-Youn; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the fear of progression (FoP) in cancer patients and the discriminant ability of the Fear of Progression Questionnaire (FoP-Q) against the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), while also examining relationships between FoP, satisfaction outcomes and supportive needs. The FoP-Q and HADS were administered to 112 cancer patients in Korea during June and July 2006. The FoP-Q totals and subscales, and the HADS scores were compared across three groups (patients with recurrence, patients with metastases and controls experiencing neither). Comparison of the FoP-Q total score to HADS anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D) scores showed higher FoP in the recurrence group compared to the control group (P=.009). Subscale score comparisons revealed a heightened "affective reaction" (P=.003) to cancer progression and fear of "loss of autonomy" (P=.011) in recurrence patients. FoP-Q score showed a moderate association with HADS-A (r=.54, P=.000) and a significant association with treatment satisfaction (r=-.26, P=.007), medical staff and communication (r=-.31, P=.001), and supportive needs (r=.41, P=.000). The importance of providing supportive interventions tailored to the specific emotional concerns of cancer patients, assessed via appropriate, disease-specific instruments, and the need to pay special attention to the concerns of recurrence patients are suggested. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of evaluation on ecological carrying capacity: The progress and trend of methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Xu, Y.; Liu, T. J.; Ye, J. M.; Pan, B. L.; Chu, C.; Peng, Z. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ecological carrying capacity (ECC) has been regarded as an important reference to indicate the level of regional sustainable development since the very beginning of twenty-first century. By a brief review of the main progress in ECC evaluation methodologies in recent five years, this paper systematically discusses the features and differences of these methods and expounds the current states and future development trend of ECC methodology. The result shows that further exploration in terms of the dynamic, comprehensive and intelligent assessment technologies needs to be provided in order to form a unified and scientific ECC methodology system and to produce a reliable basis for environmental-economic decision-makings.

  18. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  19. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  20. The tumor macroenvironment and systemic regulation of breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Zafira; Tracy, Kristin; McAllister, Sandra S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide and is the most common cause of death for women between 35 and 50 years of age. Women with breast cancer are at risk of developing metastases for their entire lifetime and, despite local and systemic therapies, approximately 30% of breast cancer patients will relapse (Jemal et al., 2010). Nearly all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastatic disease, even though metastasis is considered to be an inefficient process. In some cases, tumor cells disseminate from primary sites at an early stage, but remain indolent for protracted periods of time before becoming overt, life-threatening tumors. Little is known about the mechanisms that cause these indolent tumors to grow into malignant disease. Because of this gap in our understanding, we are unable to predict which breast cancer patients are likely to experience disease relapse or develop metastases years after treatment of their primary tumor. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signals involved in the exit of tumor cells from dormancy would not only allow for more accurate selection of patients that would benefit from systemic therapy, but could also lead to the development of more targeted therapies to inhibit the signals that promote disease progression. In this review, we address the systemic, or "macroenvironmental", contribution to tumor initiation and progression and what is known about how a pro-tumorigenic systemic environment is established.

  1. Surgical treatment for progressive prostate cancer: A clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Veliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its existing standards, the treatment of patients with progressive prostate cancer (PC remains a matter of debate. Ensuring that the patients have good quality of life is also relevant. The paper describes a clinical case of a patient with progressive PC after hormone therapy, brachytherapy, salvage prostatectomy, enucleation of the testicular parenchyma, and salvage lymphadenectomy. A phallic prosthesis and an artificial urinary sphincter have been implanted to improve quality of life. The results of preoperative examination and the technological features of surgical interventions are given.

  2. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Ka-Wing Cheung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  3. Epidemiologic contributions to recent cancer trends among HIV-infected people in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Hilary A; Shiels, Meredith S; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2014-03-27

    HIV-infected people have elevated risk for some cancers. Changing incidence of these cancers over time may reflect changes in three factors: HIV population demographic structure (e.g. age distribution), general population (background) cancer rates, and HIV-associated relative risks. We assessed the contributions of these factors to time trends for 10 cancers during 1996-2010. Population-based registry linkage study. We applied Poisson models to data from the U.S. HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study to estimate annual percentage changes (APCs) in incidence rates of AIDS-defining cancers [ADCs: Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and cervical cancer] and seven non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs). We evaluated HIV-infected cancer trends with and without adjustment for demographics, trends in background rates, and trends in standardized incidence ratios (SIRs, to capture relative risk). Cancer rates among HIV-infected people rose over time for anal (APC 3.8%), liver (8.5%), and prostate (9.8%) cancers, but declined for Kaposi sarcoma (1996-2000: -29.3%; 2000-2010: -7.8%), NHL (1996-2003: -15.7%; 2003-2010: -5.5%), cervical cancer (-11.1%), Hodgkin lymphoma (-4.0%), and lung cancer (-2.8%). Breast and colorectal cancer incidence did not change over time. Based on comparison to adjusted models, changing demographics contributed to trends for Kaposi sarcoma and breast, colorectal, liver, lung, and prostate cancers (all P cancers. SIRs declined for ADCs, Hodgkin lymphoma (APC -3.2%), and lung cancer (-4.4%). Demographic shifts influenced several cancer trends among HIV-infected individuals. Falling relative risks largely explained ADC declines, while background incidence contributed to some NADC trends.

  4. Androgen receptor variation affects prostate cancer progression and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Edel; Sissung, Tristan M; Price, Douglas K; Chau, Cindy H; Figg, William D

    2016-12-01

    Significant therapeutic progress has been made in treating prostate cancer in recent years. Drugs such as enzalutamide, abiraterone, and cabazitaxel have expanded the treatment armamentarium, although it is not completely clear which of these drugs are the most-effective option for individual patients. Moreover, such advances have been tempered by the development of therapeutic resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature pertaining to the biochemical effects of AR variants and their consequences on prostate cancer therapies at both the molecular level and in clinical treatment. We address how these AR splice variants and mutations affect tumor progression and therapeutic resistance and discuss potential novel therapeutic strategies under development. It is hoped that these therapies can be administered with increasing precision as tumor genotyping methods become more sophisticated, thereby lending clinicians a better understanding of the underlying biology of prostate tumors in individual patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Kuo, Min-Liang

    2008-11-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of secreted, matrix-associated proteins encoded by immediate early genes that play various roles in angiogenesis and tumor growth. CCN family proteins share uniform modular structure which mediates various cellular functions such as regulation of cell division, chemotaxis, apoptosis, adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, neoplastic transformation, and ion transport. Recently, CTGF expression has been shown to be associated with tumor development and progression. There is growing body of evidence that CTGF may regulate cancer cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and anoikis. In this review, we will highlight the influence of CTGF expression on the biological behavior and progression of various cancer cells, as well as its regulation on various types of protein signals and their mechanisms.

  6. Latest discoveries and trends in translational cancer research: highlights of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, William C S

    2008-08-01

    The Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is the world's largest and most comprehensive gathering of cancer researchers. At the 2008 AACR Annual Meeting, innovative research approaches, novel technologies, potentially life-saving therapies in the pipeline, late-breaking clinical trial findings, and new approaches to cancer prevention were presented by top scientists. Reflecting the global state of cancer research with an eye toward future trends, several areas of great science and discovery in the cancer field were shared in this report, which include cancer biomarkers, the role of microRNAs in cancer research, cancer stem cells, tumor microenvironment, targeted therapy, and cancer prevention. This article presents an overview of hot topics discussed at the 2008 AACR Annual Meeting and recapitulates some scientific sessions geared toward new technologies, recent progress, and current challenges reported by cancer researchers. For those who did not attend the meeting, this report may serve as a highlight of this important international cancer research meeting.

  7. Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ayuna; Tsunoda, Makoto; Konuma, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Nagy, Tamas; Glushka, John; Tayyari, Fariba; McSkimming, Daniel; Kannan, Natarajan; Tojo, Arinobu; Edison, Arthur S; Ito, Takahiro

    2017-05-25

    Reprogrammed cellular metabolism is a common characteristic observed in various cancers. However, whether metabolic changes directly regulate cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here we show that BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans and in mouse models of CML. BCAT1 is upregulated during progression of CML and promotes BCAA production in leukaemia cells by aminating the branched-chain keto acids. Blocking BCAT1 gene expression or enzymatic activity induces cellular differentiation and impairs the propagation of blast crisis CML both in vitro and in vivo. Stable-isotope tracer experiments combined with nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic analysis demonstrate the intracellular production of BCAAs by BCAT1. Direct supplementation with BCAAs ameliorates the defects caused by BCAT1 knockdown, indicating that BCAT1 exerts its oncogenic function through BCAA production in blast crisis CML cells. Importantly, BCAT1 expression not only is activated in human blast crisis CML and de novo acute myeloid leukaemia, but also predicts disease outcome in patients. As an upstream regulator of BCAT1 expression, we identified Musashi2 (MSI2), an oncogenic RNA binding protein that is required for blast crisis CML. MSI2 is physically associated with the BCAT1 transcript and positively regulates its protein expression in leukaemia. Taken together, this work reveals that altered BCAA metabolism activated through the MSI2-BCAT1 axis drives cancer progression in myeloid leukaemia.

  8. The Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinn B. Rankin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Recent studies have revealed a central role of AXL signaling in tumor proliferation, survival, stem cell phenotype, metastasis, and resistance to cancer therapy. Moreover, AXL is expressed within cellular components of the tumor microenvironment where AXL signaling contributes to the immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotypes. A variety of AXL inhibitors have been developed and are efficacious in preclinical studies. These agents offer new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of advanced disease. Here we review the literature that has illuminated the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which AXL signaling promotes tumor progression and we will discuss the therapeutic potential of AXL inhibition for cancer therapy.

  9. Involvement of COUP-TFs in Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudot, Antoine; Le Dily, François; Pakdel, Farzad, E-mail: farzad.pakdel@univ-rennes1.fr [Molecular and Cellular Interactions, UMR CNRS 6026, IFR 140 GFSA, University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-02-18

    The orphan receptors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that play distinct and critical roles in vertebrate organogenesis, as demonstrated by loss-of-function COUP-TFI and/or COUP-TFII mutant mice. Although COUP-TFs are expressed in a wide range of tissues in adults, little is known about their functions at later stages of development or in organism homeostasis. COUP-TFs are expressed in cancer cell lines of various origins and increasing studies suggest they play roles in cell fate determination and, potentially, in cancer progression. Nevertheless, the exact roles of COUP-TFs in these processes remain unclear and even controversial. In this review, we report both in vitro and in vivo data describing known and suspected actions of COUP-TFs that suggest that these factors are involved in modification of the phenotype of cancer cells, notably of epithelial origin.

  10. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC. Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  11. KITENIN is associated with tumor progression in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ho-Seong; Park, Young-Lan; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hee; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Chung, Ik-Joo; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Joo, Young-Eun

    2010-09-01

    KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN) promotes tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis in colon, bladder, head and neck cancer. The aims of current study were to evaluate whether KITENIN affects tumor cell behavior in human gastric cancer cell line and to document the expression of KITENIN in a well-defined series of gastric tumors, including complete long-term follow-up, with special reference to patient prognosis. To evaluate the impact of KITENIN knockdown on behavior of a human gastric cancer cell line, AGS, migration, invasion and proliferation assays using small-interfering RNA were performed. The expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) target genes and AP-1 transcriptional activity were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and luciferase reporter assay. The expression of KITENIN and AP-1 target genes by RT-PCR and Western blotting or immunohistochemistry was also investigated in human gastric cancer tissues. The knockdown of KITENIN suppressed tumor cell migration, invasion and proliferation in AGS cells. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and CD44 was reduced by knockdown of KITENIN in AGS. AP-1 transcriptional activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of KITENIN in AGS cells. KITENIN expression was significantly increased in human cancer tissues at RNA and protein levels. Expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, COX-2 and CD44 were significantly increased in human gastric cancer tissues. Immunostaining of KITENIN was predominantly identified in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Expression of KITENIN was significantly associated with tumor size, Lauren classification, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and poor survival. These results indicate that KITENIN plays an important role in human gastric cancer progression by AP-1 activation.

  12. Colorectal cancer mortality trends in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Osella, Alberto Rubén; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Niclis, Camila; Diaz, María del Pilar

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide for men and women, and one of the most commonly diagnosed in Córdoba, Argentina. The aim of this work was to provide an up-to-date approach to descriptive epidemiology of colorectal cancer in Córdoba throughout the estimation of mortality trends in the period 1986-2006, using Joinpoint and age-period-cohort (APC) models. Age-standardized (world population) mortality rates (ASMR), overall and truncated (35-64 years), were calculated and Joinpoint regression performed to compute the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC). Poisson sequential models were fitted to estimate the effect of age (11 age groups), period (1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000 or 2001-2006) and cohort (13 ten-years cohorts overlapping each other by five-years) on colorectal cancer mortality rates. ASMR showed an overall significant decrease (EAPC -0.9 95%CI: -1.7, -0.2) for women, being more noticeable from 1996 onwards (EAPC -2.1 95%CI: -4.0, -0.1). Age-effect showed an important rise in both sexes, but more evident in males. Birth cohort- and period effects reflected increasing and decreasing tendencies for men and women, respectively. Differences in mortality rates were found according to sex and could be related to age-period-cohort effects linked to the ageing process, health care and lifestyle. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific age-, period- and cohort-related factors.

  13. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  14. Tumor-Derived Exosomes and Their Role in Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Theresa L

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells actively produce, release, and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth. Mechanisms through which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. These exosomes are information carriers, conveying molecular and genetic messages from tumor cells to normal or other abnormal cells residing at close or distant sites. Tumor-derived exosomes are found in all body fluids. Upon contact with target cells, they alter phenotypic and functional attributes of recipients, reprogramming them into active contributors to angiogenesis, thrombosis, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Exosomes produced by tumors carry cargos that in part mimic contents of parent cells and are of potential interest as noninvasive biomarkers of cancer. Their role in inhibiting the host antitumor responses and in mediating drug resistance is important for cancer therapy. Tumor-derived exosomes may interfere with cancer immunotherapy, but they also could serve as adjuvants and antigenic components of antitumor vaccines. Their biological roles in cancer development or progression as well as cancer therapy suggest that tumor-derived exosomes are critical components of oncogenic transformation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Eadaoin

    2012-02-01

    The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman\\'s correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

  16. The role of S100 genes in breast cancer progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Eadaoin

    2011-06-01

    The S100 gene family encode low molecular weight proteins implicated in cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the expression of four S100 genes in one cohort of patients with breast cancer and 16 S100 genes in a second cohort. In both cohorts, the expression of S100A8 and S1009 mRNA level was elevated in high-grade compared to low-grade tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative compared to estrogen receptor-positive tumors. None of the S100 transcripts investigated were significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Notably, multiple S100 genes, including S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100A14 were upregulated in basal-type breast cancers compared to non-basal types. Using Spearman\\'s correlation analysis, several S100 transcripts correlated significantly with each other, the strongest correlation has been found between S100A8 and S100A9 (r = 0.889, P < 0.001, n = 295). Of the 16 S100 transcripts investigated, only S100A11 and S100A14 were significantly associated with patient outcome. Indeed, these two transcripts predicted outcome in the cohort of patients that did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy. Based on our findings, we conclude that the different S100 genes play varying roles in breast cancer progression. Specific S100 genes are potential targets for the treatment of basal-type breast cancers.

  17. If you 'watch and wait', prostate cancer may progress dramatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, R. R.; Schulsinger, A.; Vongtama, V.; Grant, P.; Shin, K. H.; Huben, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Observation has been proposed as an option for localized prostate cancer. However, most series reporting on 'watch and wait include patients treated by TUR or hormones which may affect results. We retrospectively reviewed the natural history of truly untreated prostate cancer and report the outcome for these patients. Materials and Methods: From 1976 to 1992, 34 patients of median age 70 yrs (range 56-88) with biopsy proven localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate refused therapy. All had negative bone scan and none underwent TUR or hormone treatment. No patient was lost to follow-up (median 76 months). Failure patterns and survival were analyzed. Results: At diagnosis 27 patients had palpable nodules (T 2 ) of which 13 were well differentiated and 14 moderately differentiated. Seven had moderately differentiated T 3 lesions. Mild prostatitis was reported in 16 T 2 and 6 T 3 patients. Within 36 months, local progression requiring therapy occurred in all T 3 , all T 2 moderate and (5(13)) T 2 well differentiated patients. Systemic progression occurred in (6(7)) T 3 , (9(14)) T 2 (mod) and (3(13)) T 2 (well) patients. Overall 59% are alive, 26% succumbed to prostate carcinoma and 15% to other causes. Conclusion: Observation results in a high rate of local progression requiring intervention (77%) and excessive systemic disease development (52%) for patients with clinically palpable disease. Perhaps this strategy is viable for earlier stage lesions detected by PSA but it must be tested in a rigorous fashion before accepted

  18. Role of ADAMs in cancer formation and progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) comprise a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. One of their best-established roles is the release of biologically important ligands, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin. Because these ligands have been implicated in the formation and progression of tumors, it might be expected that the specific ADAMs involved in their release would also be involved in malignancy. Consistent with this hypothesis, emerging data from model systems suggest that ADAMs, such as ADAM-9, ADAM-12, ADAM-15, and ADAM-17, are causally involved in tumor formation\\/progression. In human cancer, specific ADAMs are up-regulated, with levels generally correlating with parameters of tumor progression and poor outcome. In preclinical models, selective ADAM inhibitors against ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 have been shown to synergize with existing therapies in decreasing tumor growth. The ADAMs are thus a new family of potential targets for the treatment of cancer, especially malignancies that are dependent on human epidermal growth factor receptor ligands or tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  19. Geriatric cancer trends in the Middle-East: Findings from Lebanese cancer projections until 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Fady Gh; Kattan, Joseph; Kourie, Hampig R; El Rassy, Elie; Assi, Tarek; Adib, Salim M

    2018-03-01

    By 2020, 70% of all cancers will occur in patients aged 65years and older, causing an increase in related morbidity, mortality, and cost. This study projects cancer trends in the elderly population in Lebanon, a country experiencing accelerating aging trends. Findings will guide future policy decisions regarding geriatric oncology in Lebanon and the surrounding Arab world. Cancer incidence rates were derived for men and women 65years and above, divided into three age groups: 65-69years, 70-74years, and 75years and above. Raw data were obtained from the National Cancer Registry reports 2003-2010. The eight consecutive year data were used to project the incidence until 2025 using a logarithmic model. The Average Annual Percent Change in incidence rates was calculated to determine whether it would significantly increase, decrease, or remain stable over time. Incidence rates are projected to increase significantly in all age groups of both genders until 2025. In men, the fastest rise is expected in prostate cancer, followed by bladder, lung, colorectal, and NHL. In women, the rise will be fastest in breast, followed by colorectal, lung, NHL, and ovary. Projected rates increase faster in the "younger" age group 65-69 compared to the "oldest" ≥75, both in men and women. Only kidney and liver cancers continue to rise significantly after 75. Cancer incidence is projected to increase in individuals between 65 and 74years of age. Lebanese and Middle Eastern physicians must implement adapted therapeutic strategies in the management of the increasing caseload among frail, elderly patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Blue Light Cystoscopy with Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) on Progression of Bladder Cancer - A New Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Cookson, Michael; Witjes, J Alfred; Stenzl, Arnulf; Grossman, H Barton

    2016-04-27

    Background: The International Bladder Cancer Group (IBCG) recently proposed a new definition of disease progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), including change in T-stage, change to T2 or higher or change from low to high grade. Objective: To establish whether blue light cystoscopy with hexaminolevulinate (HAL) impacts the rate of progression and time to progression using the revised definition. Methods: An earlier long-term follow-up of a controlled Phase III study reported outcomes following blue light cystoscopy with HAL (255 patients) or white light (WL) cystoscopy (261 patients) in NMIBC patients. The data was re-analysed according to the new definition. Results: In the original analysis, after 4.5 years (median), eight HAL and 16 WL patients were deemed to have progressed (transition from NMIBC to muscle invasive bladder cancer, (T2-4)). According to the new definition, additional patients in both groups were found to have progressed: 31 (12.2%) HAL vs 46 (17.6%) WL ( p  = 0.085) with four (1.6%) HAL and 11 (4.2%) WL patients progressing from Ta to CIS. Time to progression was longer in the HAL group ( p  = 0.05). Conclusions: Applying the new IBCG definition there was a trend towards a lower rate of progression in HAL patients, particularly in those progressing from Ta to CIS. Time to progression was significantly prolonged. This suggests that patients should receive blue light cystoscopy with HAL rather than WL at resection. Adoption of the new definition could allow more patients at risk of progression to be treated appropriately earlier.

  1. Endometrial Cancer Trends by Race and Histology in the USA: Projecting the Number of New Cases from 2015 to 2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Charles; Meza, Rafael; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Cote, Michele L

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study is to explore incidence and incidence-based mortality trends for endometrial cancer in the USA and project future incident cases, accounting for differences by race and histological subtype. Data on age-adjusted and age-specific incidence and mortality rates of endometrial cancer were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries. Trends in rates were analyzed using Joinpoint regression, and average annual percent change (AAPC) in recent years (2006-2011) was computed for histological subtypes by race. Age, histological, and race-specific rates were applied to US Census Bureau population census estimates to project new cases from 2015 to 2040, accounting for observed AAPC trends, which were progressively attenuated for the future years. The annual number of cases is projected to increase substantially from 2015 to 2040 across all racial groups. Considerable variation in incidence and mortality trends was observed both between and within racial groups when considering histology. As the US population undergoes demographic changes, incidence of endometrial cancer is projected to rise. The increase will occur in all racial groups, but larger increases will be seen in aggressive histology subtypes that disproportionately affect black women.

  2. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  3. Bladder cancer exosomes contain EDIL-3/Del1 and facilitate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Carla J; Olsen, Jayme; Yin, Peng-Nien; Wu, Chia-Hao; Ting, Huei-Ju; Hagen, Fred K; Scosyrev, Emelian; Messing, Edward M; Lee, Yi-Fen

    2014-08-01

    High grade bladder cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how exosomes may affect bladder cancer progression could reveal novel therapeutic targets. Exosomes derived from human bladder cancer cell lines and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer were assessed for the ability to promote cancer progression in standard assays. Exosomes purified from the high grade bladder cancer cell line TCC-SUP and the nonmalignant urothelial cell line SV-HUC were submitted for mass spectrometry analysis. EDIL-3 was identified and selected for further analysis. Western blot was done to determine EDIL-3 levels in urinary exosomes from patients with high grade bladder cancer. shRNA gene knockdown and recombinant EDIL-3 were applied to study EDIL-3 function. Exosomes isolated from high grade bladder cancer cells and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer promoted angiogenesis and migration of bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells. We silenced EDIL-3 expression and found that shEDIL-3 exosomes did not facilitate angiogenesis, and urothelial and endothelial cell migration. Moreover, exosomes purified from the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer contained significantly higher EDIL-3 levels than exosomes from the urine of healthy controls. EDIL-3 activated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling while blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling abrogated this EDIL-3 induced bladder cell migration. Exosomes derived from the urine of patients with bladder cancer contains bioactive molecules such as EDIL-3. Identifying these components and their associated oncogenic pathways could lead to novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Worldwide trends in surgical techniques in the treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Seesing, M. F J; Ruurda, J. P.; Boone, J.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide trends in surgical techniques for esophageal cancer surgery by comparing it to our survey from 2007. In addition, new questions were added for gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. An international survey on surgery of esophageal and GEJ cancer

  5. Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    cells and in transformed ovarian cells affected by obesity that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Obesity, Ovarian...5 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations...that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. We also aim to identify secreted factors from adipose tissue that promote ovarian cancer

  6. Trends in intensity modulated radiation therapy use for locally advanced rectal cancer at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold, MD, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Although most patients with stage II-III rectal cancer at queried National Cancer Institute–designated cancer centers between 2005 and 2011 received 3-dimensional CRT, significant and increasing numbers received IMRT. IMRT utilization is highly variable among institutions and not uniform among sociodemographic groups but may be more consistently embraced in specific clinical settings. Given this trend, comparative-effectiveness research is needed to evaluate the benefits of IMRT for rectal cancer.

  7. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Zhang, Chang-Le; Meng, Xiang-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN), which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical patients and animal experiments. Thus, STAT3 in tumor

  8. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  9. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  10. If you 'watch and wait,' prostate cancer may progress dramatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Ron R.; Schulsinger, Alan; Vongtama, Vitune; Grant, Pat; Shin, Kyu H.; Huben, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Observation has been proposed as an option for localized prostate cancer. However, most series reporting on 'watch and wait' include patients treated by TUR or hormones that may affect results. We retrospectively reviewed the natural history of truly untreated prostate cancer and report the outcome for these patients. Methods and Materials: From 1976 to 1992, 34 patients of median age 70 years (range 56-88) with biopsy proven localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate refused therapy. All had negative bone scan and none underwent TUR or hormone treatment. No patient was lost to follow-up (median 76 months). Failure patterns and survival were analyzed. Results: At diagnosis 27 patients had palpable nodules (T2), of which 13 were well differentiated and 14 moderately differentiated. Seven had moderately differentiated T3 lesions. Mild prostatitis including nocturia, hesistancy, and urgency were reported in 16 T2 and 6 T3 patients. Within 36 months, local progression requiring therapy occurred in all T3, all T2 moderate and 5 of 13 T2 well-differentiated patients. Systemic progression occurred in 6 of 7 T3, 9 of 14 T2 (mod), and 2 of 13 T2 (well) patients. Overall 59% are alive, 26% succumbed to prostate carcinoma and 15% to other causes. Conclusion: Observation results in a high rate of local progression requiring intervention (77%) and excessive systemic disease development (50%) for patients with clinically palpable disease. Perhaps this strategy is viable for earlier stage lesions detected by PSA but it must be tested in a rigorous fashion before accepted

  11. Desmoglein 3: A Help or a Hindrance in Cancer Progression?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Louise [Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Blizard Building, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Liverpool, Institute of Translational Medicine, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Wan, Hong, E-mail: h.wan@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Institute of Dentistry, Blizard Building, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-26

    Desmoglein 3 is one of seven desmosomal cadherins that mediate cell-cell adhesion in desmosomes. Desmosomes are the intercellular junctional complexes that anchor the intermediate filaments of adjacent cells and confer strong cell adhesion thus are essential in the maintenance of tissue architecture and structural integrity. Like adherens junctions, desmosomes function as tumour suppressors and are down regulated in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. However, recently several studies have shown that various desmosomal components, including desmoglein 3, are up-regulated in cancer with increased levels of expression correlating with the clinical stage of malignancy, implicating their potentiality to serve as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Furthermore, in vitro studies have demonstrated that overexpression of desmoglein 3 in cancer cell lines activates several signal pathways that have an impact on cell morphology, adhesion and locomotion. These additional signalling roles of desmoglein 3 may not be associated to its adhesive function in desmosomes but rather function outside of the junctions, acting as a key regulator in the control of actin based cellular processes. This review will discuss recent advances which support the role of desmoglein 3 in cancer progression.

  12. Tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression and treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaorong; Cao, Haixia; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2015-11-10

    Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100 nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways. Recently, exosomes are demonstrated to have a close relationship with tumor development and metastasis. Exosomes influence therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, composition, and function of exosomes. The mechanism on how tumor-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression and clinical treatment failure is also described, with special focus on their potential applications in cancer therapy.

  13. Tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression and treatment failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways. Recently, exosomes are demonstrated to have a close relationship with tumor development and metastasis. Exosomes influence therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, composition, and function of exosomes. The mechanism on how tumor-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression and clinical treatment failure is also described, with special focus on their potential applications in cancer therapy. PMID:26452221

  14. Desmoglein 3: A Help or a Hindrance in Cancer Progression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Louise; Wan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Desmoglein 3 is one of seven desmosomal cadherins that mediate cell-cell adhesion in desmosomes. Desmosomes are the intercellular junctional complexes that anchor the intermediate filaments of adjacent cells and confer strong cell adhesion thus are essential in the maintenance of tissue architecture and structural integrity. Like adherens junctions, desmosomes function as tumour suppressors and are down regulated in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. However, recently several studies have shown that various desmosomal components, including desmoglein 3, are up-regulated in cancer with increased levels of expression correlating with the clinical stage of malignancy, implicating their potentiality to serve as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Furthermore, in vitro studies have demonstrated that overexpression of desmoglein 3 in cancer cell lines activates several signal pathways that have an impact on cell morphology, adhesion and locomotion. These additional signalling roles of desmoglein 3 may not be associated to its adhesive function in desmosomes but rather function outside of the junctions, acting as a key regulator in the control of actin based cellular processes. This review will discuss recent advances which support the role of desmoglein 3 in cancer progression

  15. Incidence Trend and Epidemiology of Common Cancers in the Center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Rajaei-Behbahani, Narjes; Khani, Yousef; Hosseini, Sayedehafagh; Pournamdar, Zahra; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Soltani, Shahin; Hosseini, Seyedeh Akram; Khazaei, Salman; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2015-07-13

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran and many other parts of the world. The cancer incidence is different in various countries and in country provinces. Geographical differences in the cancer incidence lead to be important to conduct an epidemiological study of the disease. This study aimed to investigate cancer epidemiology and trend in the province of Qom, located in center of Iran. This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out based on re-analysis cancer registry report and the disease management center of health ministry from 2004 to 2008 in the province of Qom. To describe incidence time trends, we carried out join point regression analysis using the software Join point Regression Program, Version 4.1.1.1. There were 3,029 registered cases of cancer during 5 years studied. Sex ratio was 1.32 (male to female). Considering the frequency and mean standardized incidence, the most common cancer in women were breast, skin, colorectal, stomach, and esophagus, respectively while in men the most common cancers included skin, stomach, colorectal, bladder, and prostate, respectively. There was an increasing and significant trend, according to the annual percentage change (APC) equal to 8.08% (CI: 5.1-11.1) for all site cancer in women. The incidence trend of all cancers was increasing in this area. Hence, planning for identifying risk factors and performing programs for dealing with the disease are essential.

  16. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: A proposed model

    OpenAIRE

    Argaman, M; Gidron, Y; Ariad, S

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1β. Elevated cerebral IL-1β increased ca...

  17. Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0080 TITLE: Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER GRANT11489...institutional, NIH-funded study of genetic and epigenetic alterations of pre-invasive DCIS that did or did not progress to invasive breast cancer , with an

  18. Recent progress in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise. Trends and research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Matsui, T.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to identify recent research achievements, current trends in research, remaining gaps of knowledge and priority areas of future research in the field of non-auditory health effects of noise, recent research progress was reviewed. A search was performed in PubMed (search terms “noise AND

  19. THE ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIA IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Roberts

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer has expanded to include defects in mitochondrial genomics and biogenesis, apoptotic signaling and mitochondrial dynamics. This review will focus on the role of mitochondria and their influence on cancer initiation, progression and treatment in the lung.

  20. BAF57 Modulation of Androgen Receptor Action and Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Link, Kevin A

    2007-01-01

    Given the requirement of the androgen receptor (AR) activation pathway for prostate cancer growth and progression, it is necessary to identify alternative means of targeting this pathway for the treatment of prostate cancer...

  1. BAF57 Modulation of Androgen Receptor Action and Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Link, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Given the requirement of the AR activation pathway for prostate cancer growth and progression, it is necessary to identify alternative means of targeting this pathway for the treatment of prostate cancer...

  2. Does colon cancer ever metastasize to bone first? a temporal analysis of colorectal cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Eira S; Fetzer, David T; Barron, Bruce J; Joseph, Usha A; Gayed, Isis W; Wan, David Q

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that colorectal cancer does not frequently metastasize to bone. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish whether colorectal cancer ever bypasses other organs and metastasizes directly to bone and whether the presence of lung lesions is superior to liver as a better predictor of the likelihood and timing of bone metastasis. We performed a retrospective analysis on patients with a clinical diagnosis of colon cancer referred for staging using whole-body 18 F-FDG PET and CT or PET/CT. We combined PET and CT reports from 252 individuals with information concerning patient history, other imaging modalities, and treatments to analyze disease progression. No patient had isolated osseous metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and none developed isolated bone metastasis without other organ involvement during our survey period. It took significantly longer for colorectal cancer patients to develop metastasis to the lungs (23.3 months) or to bone (21.2 months) than to the liver (9.8 months). Conclusion: Metastasis only to bone without other organ involvement in colorectal cancer patients is extremely rare, perhaps more rare than we previously thought. Our findings suggest that resistant metastasis to the lungs predicts potential disease progression to bone in the colorectal cancer population better than liver metastasis does

  3. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  5. Trends in cancer mortality in Spain: the influence of the financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Josep; Palència, Laia; Gotsens, Mercè; Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Bartoll, Xavier; Borrell, Carme

    2018-02-13

    To determine if the onset of the economic crisis in Spain affected cancer mortality and mortality trends. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study based on all cancer-related deaths and on specific types of cancer (lung, colon, breast and prostate) in Spain between 2000 and 2013. We computed age-standardised mortality rates in men and women, and fit mixed Poisson models to analyse the effect of the crisis on cancer mortality and trends therein. After the onset of the economic crisis, cancer mortality continued to decline, but with a significant slowing of the yearly rate of decline (men: RR = 0.987, 95%CI = 0.985-0.990, before the crisis, and RR = 0.993, 95%CI = 0.991-0.996, afterwards; women: RR = 0.990, 95%CI = 0.988-0.993, before, and RR = 1.002, 95%CI = 0.998-1.006, afterwards). In men, lung cancer mortality was reduced, continuing the trend observed in the pre-crisis period; the trend in colon cancer mortality did not change significantly and continued to increase; and the yearly decline in prostate cancer mortality slowed significantly. In women, lung cancer mortality continued to increase each year, as before the crisis; colon cancer continued to decease; and the previous yearly downward trend in breast cancer mortality slowed down following the onset of the crisis. Since the onset of the economic crisis in Spain the rate of decline in cancer mortality has slowed significantly, and this situation could be exacerbated by the current austerity measures in healthcare. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Colon Cancer Progression by the Colon Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Award  Number:    W81XWH-­14-­1-­0235   TITLE:      Control of Colon Cancer Progression by the Colon Microbiome PRINCIPAL  INVESTIGATOR:    Frank  J... Microbiome Table  of  Contents   Page   1. Introduction………………………………………………………….4 2. Keywords…………………………………………………………….5 3. Accomplishments………..…………………………………………5

  7. [Trend of cancer mortality in Hebei province, 1973-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Li, D J; Shi, J; Zhang, Y C; Guo, T T; He, Y T

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.

  8. Trends in cardiovascular diseases and cancer mortality in 45 countries from five continents (1980-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Fábio; Gouvinhas, Cláudia; Fontes, Filipa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer are worldwide main causes of death with mortality trends varying across countries with different levels of economic development. We analysed trends in CVD and cancer mortality for 37 European countries, five high-income non-European countries and four leading emerging economies (BRICS) using data from the World Health Organization database for the period 1980-2010. In high-income countries, CVD mortality trends are characterized by steep declines over the last decades, while a downward trend in cancer mortality started more recently and was less pronounced. This resulted in the gradual convergence of the CVD and cancer mortality rates, and the latter are already higher in some countries. The absolute number of CVD deaths decreased in most settings, while cancer deaths increased in nearly all countries. Among the BRICS, China and South Africa share a similar pattern of no meaningful variation in both CVD and cancer age-standardized mortality rates and an increase in the overall number of deaths by these causes. Brazil presents trends similar to those of high-income countries, except for the still increasing number of CVD deaths. The substantial decreases in CVD mortality over the last decades have overcome the impact of the growth and ageing of populations in the overall number of deaths, while stabilization in the number of cancer deaths was observed only in some of the high-income countries. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Metabolomics in cancer biomarker discovery: current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Emily G; Barbas, Coral

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most devastating human diseases that causes a vast number of mortalities worldwide each year. Cancer research is one of the largest fields in the life sciences and despite many astounding breakthroughs and contributions over the past few decades, there is still a considerable amount to unveil on the function of cancer. It is well known that cancer metabolism differs from that of normal tissue and an important hypothesis published in the 1950s by Otto Warburg proposed that cancer cells rely on anaerobic metabolism as the source for energy, even under physiological oxygen levels. Following this, cancer central carbon metabolism has been researched extensively and beyond respiration, cancer has been found to involve a wide range of metabolic processes, and many more are still to be unveiled. Studying cancer through metabolomics could reveal new biomarkers for cancer that could be useful for its future prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in the life sciences since it is a relatively fast and accurate technique that can be applied with either a particular focus or in a global manner to reveal new knowledge about biological systems. There have been many examples of its application to reveal potential biomarkers in different cancers that have employed a range of different analytical platforms. In this review, approaches in metabolomics that have been employed in cancer biomarker discovery are discussed and some of the most noteworthy research in the field is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Kalra, N.; Shukla, Y.; Mehrotra, S.; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploidy DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79), moderate (36), and severe (12) dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS)” (57) along with controls (69), in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploidy. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity.

  11. APRIL is overexpressed in cancer: link with tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreaux, Jérôme; Veyrune, Jean-Luc; De Vos, John; Klein, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    BAFF and APRIL share two receptors – TACI and BCMA – and BAFF binds to a third receptor, BAFF-R. Increased expression of BAFF and APRIL is noted in hematological malignancies. BAFF and APRIL are essential for the survival of normal and malignant B lymphocytes, and altered expression of BAFF or APRIL or of their receptors (BCMA, TACI, or BAFF-R) have been reported in various B-cell malignancies including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. We compared the expression of BAFF, APRIL, TACI and BAFF-R gene expression in 40 human tumor types – brain, epithelial, lymphoid, germ cells – to that of their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database. We found significant overexpression of TACI in multiple myeloma and thyroid carcinoma and an association between TACI expression and prognosis in lymphoma. Furthermore, BAFF and APRIL are overexpressed in many cancers and we show that APRIL expression is associated with tumor progression. We also found overexpression of at least one proteoglycan with heparan sulfate chains (HS), which are coreceptors for APRIL and TACI, in tumors where APRIL is either overexpressed or is a prognostic factor. APRIL could induce survival or proliferation directly through HS proteoglycans. Taken together, these data suggest that APRIL is a potential prognostic factor for a large array of malignancies

  12. Current Trends in Numerical Simulation for Parallel Engineering Environments New Directions and Work-in-Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinitis, C; Schulz, M

    2006-01-01

    In today's world, the use of parallel programming and architectures is essential for simulating practical problems in engineering and related disciplines. Remarkable progress in CPU architecture, system scalability, and interconnect technology continues to provide new opportunities, as well as new challenges for both system architects and software developers. These trends are paralleled by progress in parallel algorithms, simulation techniques, and software integration from multiple disciplines. ParSim brings together researchers from both application disciplines and computer science and aims at fostering closer cooperation between these fields. Since its successful introduction in 2002, ParSim has established itself as an integral part of the EuroPVM/MPI conference series. In contrast to traditional conferences, emphasis is put on the presentation of up-to-date results with a short turn-around time. This offers a unique opportunity to present new aspects in this dynamic field and discuss them with a wide, interdisciplinary audience. The EuroPVM/MPI conference series, as one of the prime events in parallel computation, serves as an ideal surrounding for ParSim. This combination enables the participants to present and discuss their work within the scope of both the session and the host conference. This year, eleven papers from authors in nine countries were submitted to ParSim, and we selected five of them. They cover a wide range of different application fields including gas flow simulations, thermo-mechanical processes in nuclear waste storage, and cosmological simulations. At the same time, the selected contributions also address the computer science side of their codes and discuss different parallelization strategies, programming models and languages, as well as the use nonblocking collective operations in MPI. We are confident that this provides an attractive program and that ParSim will be an informal setting for lively discussions and for fostering new

  13. Trends in gynecologic cancer among elderly women in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ør Knudsen, Anja; Schledermann, Doris; Nyvang, Gitte-Bettina

    2016-01-01

    (cancer of the cervix uteri), C54 (corpus uteri cancer), C56 (ovarian cancer) and C57 (Fallopian tube cancer). Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data are delivered from......Background The aim of this analysis was to describe trends in incidence, mortality, prevalence, and survival in Danish women with gynecologic cancer from 1980-2012 comparing women aged 70 years or more with younger women. Material and methods Gynecologic cancers included were ICD-10 codes C53...... the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. Results For cervical cancer the incidence decreased among women aged less than 70 years and remained stable among the elderly. The mortality rates were clearly separated by age...

  14. Effect of Proton Beam on Cancer Progressive and Metastatic Enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Nam, K. S.; Oh, Y. H.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Jang, J. S.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proton beam on enzymes for promotion/progression of carcinogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumor cells to clarify proton beam-specific biological effects. The changes of cancer chemopreventive enzymes in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells irradiated with proton beams were tested by measuring the activities of quinine reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), glutathione (GSH) levels, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also examined the effect of proton beam on the ODC activity and expression of COX-2 in human breast cancer cell. We then assessed the metastatic capabilities of HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells irradiated with proton beam by measuring the invasiveness of cells through Matrigel-coated membrane and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. QR activity of irradiated HT-29 cells was slightly increased. Proton irradiation at dose of 32 Gy in HT-29 cells increased GST activity by 1.23-fold. In addition GSH levels in HT-29 cells was significantly increased 1.23- (p<0.05), 1.32- (p<0.01) and 1.34-fold (p<0.01) with the proton irradiation at doses of 8, 16 and 32 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that colon cancer chemopreventive activity was increased with the proton irradiation by increasing QR and GST activities and GSH levels and inhibiting ODC activity. Proton ion irradiation decreased the invasiveness of TPA-treated HT-29 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane. Proton ion irradiation pretreatment decreased TPA-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. Further studies are necessary to investigate if these findings could be translated to in vivo situations

  15. Syndecans as modulators and potential pharmacological targets in cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina eBarbouri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM components form a dynamic network of key importance for cell function and properties. Key macromolecules in this interplay are syndecans (SDCs, a family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. Specifically, heparan sulfate (HS chains with their different sulfation pattern have the ability to interact with growth factors and their receptors in tumor microenvironment, promoting the activation of different signaling cascades that regulate tumor cell behavior. The affinity of HS chains with ligands is altered during malignant conditions because of the modification of chain sequence/sulfation pattern. Furthermore, matrix degradation enzymes derived from the tumor itself or the tumor microenvironment, like heparanase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, ADAM as well as ADΑMTS are involved in the cleavage of SDCs ectodomain at the HS and protein core level, respectively. Such released soluble syndecans shed syndecans in the extracellular matrix interact in an autocrine or paracrine manner with the tumor or/and stromal cells. Shed syndecans, upon binding to several matrix effectors, such as growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, have the ability to act as competitive inhibitors for membrane PGs, and modulate the inflammatory microenvironment of cancer cells. It is notable that syndecans and their soluble counterparts may affect either the behavior of cancer cells and/or their microenvironment during cancer progression. The importance of these molecules has been highlighted since HSPGs have been proposed as prognostic markers of solid tumors and hematopoietic malignancies. Going a step further down the line, the multi-actions of syndecans in many levels make them appealing as potential pharmacological targets, either by targeting directly the tumor or indirectly the adjacent stroma.

  16. MORTALITY TRENDS FOR MOST COMMON TYPES OF CANCER IN SILESIA VOIVODESHIP IN SHORT TERM PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of morbidity and mortality of cancers rapidly increase in the world and so it is in case of Poland and Silesia Voivodeship. Therefore an attempt is made to assess this phenomenon in projection scale within Silesia Voivodeship. Materials and methods: The time-trends analysis of the six most common types of cancer have been selected: stomach, colorectal, pancreas and lung (among both genders, prostate (among males and breast (among females. For the period 1990–2008 age standardized mortality rates have been determined. Time-trends in mortality with employment of joinpoint regression have been estimated and depending on trends linear or log-linear regression models were used which set up the base for short-term projection. Results: For the year 2018 projection values of mortality rates among males will drop (with the exception of lung and colorectal cancers. For prostate cancer – the values will be increasing. Among females stomach mortality rates will drop, but again lung cancer mortality rate will double in comparison to data for 1990. Conclusions: 1. The prognostic number of death to 2018 year concern all studied cancer increasing, for exept stomach cancer. 2. Especially will be increasing cancer mortality standardized rates for lung cancer among females and prostate and colorectal cancers among males.

  17. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  19. The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, R. P.; Richel, O.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Prins, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anal cancer incidence is gradually increasing. The cause of this increase is not exactly known. This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the trend in time of anal cancer incidence and to find an explanation for the supposed increase. The TRIP database and PubMed were searched for

  20. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); C.S. Wong (Chia Siong); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); X. Sim (Xueling); C.S. Tan (Chuen Seng); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H.M. Verkooijen (Helena)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aims Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort

  1. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  2. EZH2 in Cancer Progression and Potential Application in Cancer Therapy: A Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Sin Yan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2, a histone methyltransferase, catalyzes tri-methylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3 to regulate gene expression through epigenetic machinery. EZH2 functions as a double-facet molecule in regulation of gene expression via repression or activation mechanisms, depending on the different cellular contexts. EZH2 interacts with both histone and non-histone proteins to modulate diverse physiological functions including cancer progression and malignancy. In this review article, we focused on the updated information regarding microRNAs (miRNAs and long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs in regulation of EZH2, the oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles of EZH2 in cancer progression and malignancy, as well as current pre-clinical and clinical trials of EZH2 inhibitors.

  3. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...

  4. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  5. Prostate cancer progression and mortality: a review of diet and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisch, Sam F; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Chan, June M; Stampfer, Meir J; Kenfield, Stacey A

    2017-06-01

    To review and summarize evidence on the role of diet and lifestyle factors and prostate cancer progression, with a specific focus on habits after diagnosis and the risk of subsequent disease recurrence, progression, or death. Given the well-documented heterogeneity of prostate cancer and the long survivorship of the majority of diagnoses, our goal was to summarize and describe modifiable risk factors for clinically relevant prostate cancer. We focused where possible on epidemiologic studies of post-diagnostic habits and prostate cancer progression, defined as recurrence (e.g., PSA risk, secondary treatment), metastasis, or death. Where data were limited, we also describe evidence on risk factors and indicators of prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis. A variety of dietary and lifestyle factors appear to affect prostate cancer progression. Several generally widely recommended lifestyle factors such as not smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight, and regular vigorous physical exercise also appear to affect prostate cancer progression. Several dietary factors, such as tomato sauce/lycopene, cruciferous vegetables, healthy sources of vegetable fats, and coffee, may also have a role in reducing risk of prostate cancer progression. Diet and lifestyle factors, in particular exercise and smoking cessation, may reduce the risk of prostate cancer progression and death. These promising findings warrant further investigation, as their overall impact might be large.

  6. Trends in compensation for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco, Ann; Demers, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer. We used data from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997-2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010. Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data. Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health care providers is needed to ensure that people

  7. Incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Iva; Šekerija, Mario; Šimunović, Iva; Zgaga, Lina; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir; Kovačević, Dujo; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To estimate the incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry. The number of deaths from gastric and colorectal cancers was obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to describe changes in trends by sex. Results Gastric cancer incidence rates declined steadily during the study period, with estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of -3.2% for men and -2.8% for women. Mortality rates in men decreased, with EAPC of -5.0% from 1988-1995 and -2.5% from 1995-2008. Mortality rates in women decreased, with EAPC of -3.2% throughout the study period. For colorectal cancer in men, joinpoint analysis revealed increasing trends of both incidence (EAPC 2.9%) and mortality (EAPC 2.1%).In women, the increase in incidence was not significant, but mortality in the last 15 years showed a significant increase of 1.1%. Conclusion The incidence and mortality trends of gastric cancer in Croatia are similar to other European countries, while the still increasing colorectal cancer mortality calls for more efficient prevention and treatment. PMID:22522990

  8. Rural-Urban Differences in Cancer Incidence and Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, Whitney E; James, Aimee S; Jenkins, Wiley D; Izadi, Sonya R; Fogleman, Amanda J; Steward, David E; Colditz, Graham A; Brard, Laurent

    2017-07-27

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates in the US are declining, but this decrease may not be observed in rural areas where residents are more likely to live in poverty, smoke, and forego cancer screening. However, there is limited research exploring national rural-urban differences in cancer incidence and trends. We analyzed data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries' public use dataset, which includes population-based cancer incidence data from 46 states. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates, rate ratios, and annual percentage change (APC) for: all cancers combined; selected individual cancers; and cancers associated with tobacco use and human papillomavirus (HPV). Rural-urban comparisons were made by demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic characteristics for 2009 to 2013. Trends were analyzed for 1995 to 2013. Combined cancers incidence rates were generally higher in urban populations, except for the South, though the urban decline in incidence rate was greater than in rural populations (10.2% vs. 4.8%, respectively). Rural cancer disparities included higher rates of tobacco associated, HPV associated, lung and bronchus, cervical , and colorectal cancers across most population groups. Further, HPV-associated cancer incidence rates increased in rural areas (APC=0.724, purban areas. Cancer rates associated with modifiable risks - tobacco, HPV, and some preventive screening modalities (e.g. colorectal and cervical cancers) - were higher in rural compared to urban populations. Population-based, clinical, and/or policy strategies and interventions that address these modifiable risk factors could help reduce cancer disparities experienced in rural populations. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Exosomes as Novel microRNA-Delivery Vehicles to Modulate Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0548 TITLE: Exosomes as Novel microRNA-Delivery Vehicles to Modulate Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exosomes as Novel microRNA-Delivery Vehicles to Modulate Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...In this exploratory award, we are investigating the functional significance of exosomal miRNAs in prostate cancer . We are characterizing the miRNA

  10. An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    targeting of critical androgen receptor -604 coregulator interactions in prostate cancer . Nature communications 4, 1923, 605 doi:10.1038/ncomms2912 (2013...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0474 TITLE: An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2017 4. Title An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  11. Glaucoma progression detection by retinal nerve fiber layer measurement using scanning laser polarimetry: event and trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Gil; Sung, Kyung Rim; Cho, Jung Woo; Kang, Sung Yong; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Na, Jung Hwa; Lee, Youngrok; Kook, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the use of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, GDx VCC) to measure the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in order to evaluate the progression of glaucoma. Test-retest measurement variability was determined in 47 glaucomatous eyes. One eye each from 152 glaucomatous patients with at least 4 years of follow-up was enrolled. Visual field (VF) loss progression was determined by both event analysis (EA, Humphrey guided progression analysis) and trend analysis (TA, linear regression analysis of the visual field index). SLP progression was defined as a reduction of RNFL exceeding the predetermined repeatability coefficient in three consecutive exams, as compared to the baseline measure (EA). The slope of RNFL thickness change over time was determined by linear regression analysis (TA). Twenty-two eyes (14.5%) progressed according to the VF EA, 16 (10.5%) by VF TA, 37 (24.3%) by SLP EA and 19 (12.5%) by SLP TA. Agreement between VF and SLP progression was poor in both EA and TA (VF EA vs. SLP EA, k = 0.110; VF TA vs. SLP TA, k = 0.129). The mean (±standard deviation) progression rate of RNFL thickness as measured by SLP TA did not significantly differ between VF EA progressors and non-progressors (-0.224 ± 0.148 µm/yr vs. -0.218 ± 0.151 µm/yr, p = 0.874). SLP TA and EA showed similar levels of sensitivity when VF progression was considered as the reference standard. RNFL thickness as measurement by SLP was shown to be capable of detecting glaucoma progression. Both EA and TA of SLP showed poor agreement with VF outcomes in detecting glaucoma progression.

  12. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokukin, M E; Sokolov, I; Guz, N V; Woodworth, C D

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation. (paper)

  13. Progress of radiolabelled bombesin in diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yan; Zhao Jihua

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that high expression of bombesin exist in the face of many kind of tumors such as prostate cancer, so bombesin and its receptor can be used as target in radionuclide receptor imaging and targeted therapy of tumor, and become the focus of prostate cancer research. This article reviews the progress of radiolabelled bombesin in prostate cancer imaging and therapy. (authors)

  14. Trends in Cancer Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Nathalie Vieira; de Souza Reis, Rejane; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Pinto Oliveira, Julio; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups. To identify significant changes in the trends, we performed joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates per million were 54 deaths in those aged 15-19 years, 61 deaths in those aged 20-24 years, and 88 deaths in those aged 25-29 years. Leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system (CNS) tumors occurred at high rates in all age groups. Rates of cervical cancer were highest in those aged 25-29 years. There were significant increases in mortality trends in the North and Northeast regions for all tumor groups, especially CNS tumors. A small decrease in the mortality rate from lymphomas was observed in the South and Southeast regions. Mortality in Brazilian AYA was slightly higher than in other studies conducted throughout the world. When separated by tumor type, Brazil presents a specific pattern, with high mortality from cervical cancer.

  15. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Design Population based cohort study. Setting England. Population More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Main outcome measures Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. Results One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Conclusions Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. PMID:29540358

  16. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakou, Aimilia; Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-03-14

    To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Population based cohort study. England. More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico: 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rizo-Ríos

    2015-04-01

    Discussion: In Mexico, cancer is a major public health problem. Although mortality is an indicator of the access and effectiveness of medical care, it is necessary to create population-based cancer registries to have basic information in the planning and quality assessment of medical services such as prevention, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as to develop strategies to allocate resources and necessities to fulfil the population's demand for medical assistance.

  18. Global trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alexandre; Jayram, Gautam; Drazer, Michael; Eggener, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on testicular cancer have focused primarily on European countries. Global incidence and mortality have been less thoroughly evaluated. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the most recent global age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for testicular cancer and to use these values to estimate a region's health care quality. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in 172 countries by using the GLOBOCAN 2008 database, reflecting the annual rate of cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 men. These data were evaluated on a regional level to compare incidence and mortality rates. Global plots of these values were constructed to better visualize geographic distributions. Finally, the ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated as a method to assess each region's proficiency in diagnosing and effectively treating testicular cancer. ASIR and ASMR were analyzed by region, and each region's ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated. Testicular cancer ASIR is highest in Western Europe (7.8%), Northern Europe (6.7%), and Australia (6.5%). Asia and Africa had the lowest incidence (ASMR was highest in Central America (0.7%), western Asia (0.6%), and Central and Eastern Europe (0.6%). Mortality was lowest in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia (0.1-0.2%). The ASIR-ASMR ratio was highest in Australia (65.0%) and lowest in western Africa (1.0%). National reporting systems varied by country, and data quality may have fluctuated between regions. Testicular cancer incidence remains highest in developed nations with primarily Caucasian populations. Variable ASIR-ASMR ratios suggest markedly different geographic-specific reporting mechanisms, access to care, and treatment capabilities. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of death-certificate errors on cancer mortality trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Hoel, D.G.; Carter, R.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-06-01

    Over the past few years, several reports have suggested a recent increase in cancer mortality based on death-certificate diagnoses. To explore the effect of death-certificate errors on temporal trends in cancer mortality rates, we analyzed the data from the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation's autopsy program in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This series includes 5886 autopsies conducted between 1961 and 1987. Our analyses were focused on lymphoma, cancer of the breast, neoplasms of the brain, multiple myeloma, and melanoma (172 cases, total) because of concern over reports of their increased mortality. These 172 autopsy cases were referred to as Cancers of Interest. A significant increase in detection rates was observed for these Cancers of Interest primarily due to a large rise in mortality between 1976 and 1987. For the remaining cancers excluding stomach and lung (defined as Other), the pattern was similar to that seen for Cancers of Interest, but the fluctuation over time was not statistically significant. Confirmation rates generally increased with time except for Cancers of Interest. As a measure of bias in mortality rates due to death-certification errors and as a method to quantify under- or overestimation of death-certificate-based mortality rates,an adjustment factor (confirmation rate divided by detection rate) was calculated. The higher the adjustment factor, the greater the need to compensate for underreporting. For Cancers of Interest the adjustment factor decreased dramatically over time, but it did not change significantly for Other cancers. When the adjustment factors for Cancers of Interest and Other were compared, a statistically significant difference was found. For Cancers of Interest, a significant interaction between type of cancer and period was seen. Our findings indicate that considerable care must be shown when interpreting temporal trends in cancer vital statistics. (author)

  20. Interstitial fluid flow in cancer: implications for disease progression and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Jennifer M; Shieh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    As cancer progresses, a dynamic microenvironment develops that creates and responds to cellular and biophysical cues. Increased intratumoral pressure and corresponding increases in interstitial flow from the tumor bulk to the healthy stroma is an observational hallmark of progressing cancers. Until recently, the role of interstitial flow was thought to be mostly passive in the transport and dissemination of cancer cells to metastatic sites. With research spanning the past decade, we have seen that interstitial flow has a promigratory effect on cancer cell invasion in multiple cancer types. This invasion is one mechanism by which cancers can resist therapeutics and recur, but the role of interstitial flow in cancer therapy is limited to the understanding of transport of therapeutics. Here we outline the current understanding of the role of interstitial flow in cancer and the tumor microenvironment through cancer progression and therapy. We also discuss the current role of fluid flow in the treatment of cancer, including drug transport and therapeutic strategies. By stating the current understanding of interstitial flow in cancer progression, we can begin exploring its role in therapeutic failure and treatment resistance

  1. Time Trends in Breast Cancer Among Indian Women Population: An Analysis of Population Based Cancer Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Meesha; Vaitheeswaran, K; Satishkumar, K; Das, Priyanka; Stephen, S; Nandakumar, A

    2015-12-01

    The trends observed in cancer breast among Indian women are an indication of effect of changing lifestyle in population. To draw an appropriate inference regarding the trends of a particular type of cancer in a country, it is imperative to glance at the reliable data collected by Population Based Cancer Registries over a period of time. To give an insight of changing trends of breast cancer which have taken place over a period of time among women in Cancer Registries of India. Breast Cancer trends for invasive breast cancer in women in Indian Registries have varied during the selected period. Occurrence of breast cancers has also shown geographical variation in India. This data was collected by means of a 'Standard Core Proforma' designed by NCRP conforming to the data fields as suggested by International norms. The Proforma was filled by trained Registry workers based on interview/ hospital medical records/ supplementing data by inputs from treating surgeons/radiation oncologists/involved physicians/pathologists. The contents of the Proforma are entered into specifically created software and transmitted electronically to the coordinating center at Bangalore. The registries contributing to more number of years of data are called as older registries, while other recently established registries are called newer registries. While there has been an increase recorded in breast cancer in most of the registries, some of them have recorded an insignificant increase. Comparison of Age Adjusted Rates (AARs) among Indian Registries has been carried out after which trends observed in populations covered by Indian Registries are depicted. A variation in broad age groups of females and the proneness of females developing breast cancer over the period 1982 to 2010 has been shown. Comparisons of Indian registries with International counterparts have also been carried out. There are marked changes in incidence rates of cancer breast which have occurred in respective registries in a

  2. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Lope, Virginia; Vidal, Enrique; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9 th and 10 th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  3. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasarín M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII. All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003. Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer.

  4. Common variants in immune and DNA repair genes and risk for human papillomavirus persistence and progression to cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia S; Bratti, M Concepcion; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D; Porras, Carolina; González, Paula; Sherman, Mark E; Wacholder, Sholom; Lan, Z Elizabeth; Schiffman, Mark; Chanock, Stephen J; Hildesheim, Allan

    2009-01-01

    We examined host genetic factors to identify those more common in individuals whose human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were most likely to persist and progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer. We genotyped 92 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 49 candidate immune response and DNA repair genes obtained from 469 women with CIN3 or cancer, 390 women with persistent HPV infections (median duration, 25 months), and 452 random control subjects from the 10,049-woman Guanacaste Costa Rica Natural History Study. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of SNP and haplotypes in women with CIN3 or cancer and HPV persistence, compared with random control subjects. A SNP in the Fanconi anemia complementation group A gene (FANCA) (G501S) was associated with increased risk of CIN3 or cancer. The AG and GG genotypes had a 1.3-fold (95% CI, 0.95-1.8-fold) and 1.7-fold (95% CI, 1.1-2.6-fold) increased risk for CIN3 or cancer, respectively (P(trend) = .008; referent, AA). The FANCA haplotype that included G501S also conferred increased risk of CIN3 or cancer, as did a different haplotype that included 2 other FANCA SNPs (G809A and T266A). A SNP in the innate immune gene IRF3 (S427T) was associated with increased risk for HPV persistence (P(trend) = .009). Our results require replication but support the role of FANCA variants in cervical cancer susceptibility and of IRF3 in HPV persistence.

  5. Roles of stromal microenvironment in colon cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketo, Makoto Mark

    2012-05-01

    Although our understanding of epithelial cancer cells has advanced significantly, our understanding of the cancer microenvironment is still fragmentary. In contrast to our intuitive impression that our body always suppresses cancer growth, recent pieces of evidence show that cancer often exploits our body reactions to expand, invade local tissues and metastasize to distant organs. Accordingly, investigations of such body reactions in the tumour microenvironment should help us to design novel therapeutic strategies that can be combined with the traditional therapeutics targeted at the cancer cells themselves. In this article, I am going to review our recent efforts in search of novel therapeutic strategies against colon cancer using mouse models.

  6. Time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality in China, 1991?2009: an age-period-cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengmeng; Wan, Xia; Wang, Yanhong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors. This study aimed to compare the long-term trends in mortality rates of esophageal and gastric cancers in China to provide evidence for cancer prevention and control. Mortality data were derived from 103 continuous points of the Disease Surveillance Points system during 1991?2009, stratified by gender and urban-rural locations. Age-period-cohort models were used to disentangle the time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality. Th...

  7. Genes Involved in Oxidation and Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platz, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    .... Using incidence-density sampling, we selected 524 men matched on age, race, and pathological stage and grade who had not progressed by the date of the matched case's progression. Noncancer tissue...

  8. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  9. Prevalence and Trends in Breast Cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Research shows that life time risk of this disease nearly tripled within 50 years as 1 in ... Unites States of America. is 85 % while it is a dismal 10% in Nigeria. Olopade ... seen, however, that breast cancer deaths rates higher than other types of .... bad economy and other social factors are responsible for prevalence diseases.

  10. Endogenous glutamine decrease is associated with pancreatic cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Cecilia; Riganti, Chiara; Borgogno, Sammy Ferri; Curto, Roberta; Curcio, Claudia; Catanzaro, Valeria; Digilio, Giuseppe; Padovan, Sergio; Puccinelli, Maria Paola; Isabello, Monica; Aime, Silvio; Cappello, Paola; Novelli, Francesco

    2017-11-10

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is becoming the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The mortality is very high, which emphasizes the need to identify biomarkers for early detection. As glutamine metabolism alteration is a feature of PDAC, its in vivo evaluation may provide a useful tool for biomarker identification. Our aim was to identify a handy method to evaluate blood glutamine consumption in mouse models of PDAC. We quantified the in vitro glutamine uptake by Mass Spectrometry (MS) in tumor cell supernatants and showed that it was higher in PDAC compared to non-PDAC tumor and pancreatic control human cells. The increased glutamine uptake was paralleled by higher activity of most glutamine pathway-related enzymes supporting nucleotide and ATP production. Free glutamine blood levels were evaluated in orthotopic and spontaneous mouse models of PDAC and other pancreatic-related disorders by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and/or MS. Notably we observed a reduction of blood glutamine as much as the tumor progressed from pancreatic intraepithelial lesions to invasive PDAC, but was not related to chronic pancreatitis-associated inflammation or diabetes. In parallel the increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were observed. By contrast blood glutamine levels were stable in non-tumor bearing mice. These findings demonstrated that glutamine uptake is measurable both in vitro and in vivo . The higher in vitro avidity of PDAC cells corresponded to a lower blood glutamine level as soon as the tumor mass grew. The reduction in circulating glutamine represents a novel tool exploitable to implement other diagnostic or prognostic PDAC biomarkers.

  11. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  12. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Mu?aj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. Materials and methodology: This retrospective research s...

  13. Bladder cancer mortality trends and patterns in Córdoba, Argentina (1986-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Osella, Alberto Ruben; Diaz, Maria Del Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Bladder cancer is common worldwide and the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Argentina. To describe bladder cancer mortality trends in Córdoba (1986-2006), considering the effect of age, period, and cohort, and to estimate the effect of arsenic exposure on bladder cancer, and its interaction with sex, while controlling by smoking habits and space and time variation of the rates. A joinpoint regression was performed to compute the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) of the age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) in an adult population from Córdoba, Argentina. A Poisson model was fitted to estimate the effect of age, period, and cohort. The influence of gender, tobacco smoking (using lung cancer ASMR as surrogate), and arsenic in drinking water was examined using a hierarchical model. A favorable trend (1986-2006) in bladder cancer ASMR in both sexes was found: EAPC of -2.54 in men and -1.69 in women. There was a decreasing trend in relative risk (RR) for cohorts born in 1931 or after. The multilevel model showed an increasing risk for each increase in lung cancer ASMR unit (RR = 1.001) and a biological interaction between sex and arsenic exposure. RR was higher among men exposed to increasing As-exposure categories (RR male low exposure 3.14, RR male intermediate exposure 4.03, RR male high exposure 4.71 versus female low exposure). A non-random space-time distribution of the rates was observed. There has been a decreasing trend in ASMR for bladder cancer in Córdoba. This study confirms that bladder cancer is associated with age, gender, smoking habit, and exposure to arsenic. Moreover, an effect measure modification between exposure to arsenic and sex was found.

  14. Trends in colorectal cancer survival in northern Denmark: 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Mette; Jepsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) is less favourable in Denmark than in neighbouring countries. To improve cancer treatment in Denmark, a National Cancer Plan was proposed in 2000. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in CRC survival and mortality...... for age and gender. A total of 19,515 CRC patients were identified and linked with the Central Office of Civil Registration to ascertain survival through January 2005. Results: From 1985 to 2004, 1-year and 5-year survival improved both for patients with colon and rectal cancer. From 1995-1999 to 2000......-2004, overall 1-year survival of 65% for colon cancer did not improve, and some age groups experienced a decreasing 1-year survival probability. For rectal cancer, overall 1-year survival increased from 71% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2000-2004. Using 1985-1989 as reference period, 30-day mortality did not decrease...

  15. Trends in breast cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeanette D; Cold, Søren; Holck Nielsen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    over time in all age groups, but patients aged 70 years or more had a poorer relative survival than those aged less than 70 years. In 2012, 58 521 persons (all ages) were alive in Denmark after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusion Poorer survival of Danish breast cancer patients over the age of 70......Background Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. The aim of the present analysis is to describe trends in incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in Denmark from 1980...... to 2012 focusing on age, comparing persons aged 70 years or more with those aged less than 70 years. Material and methods Cancer of the breast was defined as ICD-10 code C50. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival...

  16. Angiogenesis in prostate cancer : onset, progression and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; Mischi, M.; Scheepens, W.; Rosette, de la J.J.M.C.H.; Wijkstra, H.

    2012-01-01

    Today, angiogenesis is known to play a key role in cancer growth and development. Emerging cancer treatments are based on the suppression of angiogenesis, and modern imaging techniques investigate changes in the microvasculature that are caused by angiogenesis. As for other forms of cancers,

  17. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in esophageal cancer mortality in China during 1987-2009: age, period and birth cohort analyzes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pi; Li, Ke

    2012-04-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumors in China. The aim of this study was to provide the representative and comprehensive informations about the long-term mortality trends of this disease in China between 1987 and 2009, using joinpoint regression and generalized additive models (GAMs). Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), overall and truncated (35-64 years), were calculated using the direct calculation method, and joinpoint regression was performed to obtain the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC). GAMs were fitted to study the effects of age, period and birth cohort on mortality trends. ASMR exhibited an overall remarked decline for rural females (EAPC=-2.3 95%CI: -3.3, -1.2), urban males (EAPC=-1.8 95%CI: -2.6, -1.0) and urban females (EAPC=-3.7 95%CI: -4.9, -2.4), but a small drop observed was not statistically significant for rural males (EAPC=-0.9 95%CI: -2.0, 0.3). The declines in ASMR were more noticeable for urban residents in recent years. Among all the residents, age effect showed an progressively increasing trend, whereas cohort effect declined steadily after the year corresponding to the maximum risk value. Period effect seemed to remain substantially unchanged throughout the years. Although variations in mortality rates were observed according to sex and area, the overall decreasing trends in esophageal cancer mortality were found in most Chinese people, aside from rural males. The findings could correspond to the changes in age- and cohort-related factors in the population. Further study is required to understand these potential factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer in adolescents: Incidences and trends during 1995-2009 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Chen, Chao-Chun; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Lin, Li-Yih

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe cancer incidence rates and trends specifically for adolescents aged 15-19 years during 1995-2009 in Taiwan. The incidence counts and census data were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. During the 15-year study period, 4122 adolescents were diagnosed with cancer. The overall incidence rate was 155.2 per million person-years. Other epithelial tumors were the most frequently diagnosed cancer group (23.7%), followed by leukemias (18.0%) and lymphomas (13.9%). When compared to rates in Western countries, a significantly low rate of lymphomas was found. Moreover, rates of the subtypes of melanomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas being 1/10- and 4-times rates in Western countries were the most striking variations. During 1995-2009, the overall rate of adolescent cancer did not significantly change. However, the most significant upward and declining trends in incidence rates were found for male germ cell neoplasms (annual percent change, APC, 6.4%) and hepatic tumors (APC, -11.1%), respectively. Further investigation and enhancement of the public discourse of possible lifestyle and environmental risk factors associated with increasing trends of certain adolescent cancers should be carried out in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systemic Chemotherapy for Progression of Brain Metastases in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagla Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related mortality in men and women. Approximately 15% of lung cancers are small cell type. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstay treatments. Currently, the standard chemotherapy regimen includes platinum/etoposide. For extensive small cell lung cancer, irinotecan and cisplatin have also been used. Patients with relapsed small cell lung cancer have a very poor prognosis, and the morbidity increases with brain metastases. Approximately 10%–14% of small cell lung cancer patients exhibit brain metastases at the time of diagnosis, which increases to 50%–80% as the disease progresses. Mean survival with brain metastases is reported to be less than six months, thus calling for improved regimens. Here we present a case series of patients treated with irinotecan for progressive brain metastases in small cell lung cancer, which serves as a reminder of the role of systemic chemotherapy in this setting.

  1. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  2. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  3. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  4. Trends in Female Breast Cancer by Age Group in the Chiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Trends in Female Breast Cancer by Age Group in the Chiang Mai Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. PMID:28612595

  6. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  7. Association Between Breast Cancer Disease Progression and Workplace Productivity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wesley; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Perkins, Julia Jane; Sison, Steve; Smith, Greg; Snider, Julia Thornton; Wu, Yanyu; Philipson, Tomas J

    2017-02-01

    Determine workplace productivity losses attributable to breast cancer progression. Longitudinal analysis linking 2005 to 2012 medical and pharmacy claims and workplace absence data in the US patients were commercially insured women aged 18 to 64 diagnosed with breast cancer. Productivity was measured as employment status and total quarterly workplace hours missed, and valued using average US wages. Six thousand four hundred and nine women were included. Breast cancer progression was associated with a lower probability of employment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, P work was $24,166 for non-metastatic and $30,666 for metastatic patients. Thus, progression to metastatic disease is associated with an additional $6500 in lost work time (P < 0.05), or 14% of average US wages. Breast cancer progression leads to diminished likelihood of employment, increased workplace hours missed, and increased cost burden.

  8. Trend of oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality in Brazil in the period of 2002 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Lillia Magali Estrada; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the trend of oral and pharyngeal cancer mortality rates in the period of 2002 to 2013 in Brazil according to sex, anatomical site, and macroregion of the country. METHODS The mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The trend of the rates standardized by sex and age was calculated using the Prais-Winsten estimation, and we obtained the annual percentage change and the respective 95% confidence intervals, analyzed according to sex, macroregion, and anatomical site. RESULTS The average coefficient of oral cancer mortality was 1.87 per 100,000 inhabitants and it remained stable during the study period. The coefficient of pharyngeal cancer mortality was 2.04 per 100,000 inhabitants and it presented an annual percentage change of -2.6%. Approximately eight in every 10 deaths occurred among men. There was an increase in the rates of oral cancer in the Northeast region (annual percentage change of 6.9%) and a decrease in the Southeast region (annual percentage change of -2.9%). Pharyngeal cancer mortality decreased in the Southeast and South regions with annual percentage change of -4.8% and -5.1% respectively. Cancer mortality for tonsil, other major salivary glands, hypopharynx, and other and unspecified parts of mouth and pharynx showed a decreasing trend while the other sites presented stability. CONCLUSIONS Pharyngeal cancer mortality decreased in the period of 2002 to 2013. Oral cancer increased only in the Northeast region. Mortality for tonsil cancer, other major salivary glands, hypopharynx, and other and ill-defined sites in the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx decreased. PMID:29412371

  9. A stochastic model for identifying differential gene pair co-expression patterns in prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of gene differential co-expression patterns between cancer stages is a newly developing method to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Most researches of this subject lack an algorithm useful for performing a statistical significance assessment involving cancer progression. Lacking this specific algorithm is apparently absent in identifying precise gene pairs correlating to cancer progression. Results In this investigation we studied gene pair co-expression change by using a stochastic process model for approximating the underlying dynamic procedure of the co-expression change during cancer progression. Also, we presented a novel analytical method named 'Stochastic process model for Identifying differentially co-expressed Gene pair' (SIG method. This method has been applied to two well known prostate cancer data sets: hormone sensitive versus hormone resistant, and healthy versus cancerous. From these data sets, 428,582 gene pairs and 303,992 gene pairs were identified respectively. Afterwards, we used two different current statistical methods to the same data sets, which were developed to identify gene pair differential co-expression and did not consider cancer progression in algorithm. We then compared these results from three different perspectives: progression analysis, gene pair identification effectiveness analysis, and pathway enrichment analysis. Statistical methods were used to quantify the quality and performance of these different perspectives. They included: Re-identification Scale (RS and Progression Score (PS in progression analysis, True Positive Rate (TPR in gene pair analysis, and Pathway Enrichment Score (PES in pathway analysis. Our results show small values of RS and large values of PS, TPR, and PES; thus, suggesting that gene pairs identified by the SIG method are highly correlated with cancer progression, and highly enriched in disease-specific pathways. From

  10. Comparative Longterm Mortality Trends in Cancer vs. Ischemic Heart Disease in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, David; Pericchi, Luis R; Mattei, Hernando; Zevallos, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    Although contemporary mortality data are important for health assessment and planning purposes, their availability lag several years. Statistical projection techniques can be employed to obtain current estimates. This study aimed to assess annual trends of mortality in Puerto Rico due to cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD), and to predict shorterm and longterm cancer and IHD mortality figures. Age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 population projections with a 50% interval probability were calculated utilizing a Bayesian statistical approach of Age-Period-Cohort dynamic model. Multiple cause-of-death annual files for years 1994-2010 for Puerto Rico were used to calculate shortterm (2011-2012) predictions. Longterm (2013-2022) predictions were based on quinquennial data. We also calculated gender differences in rates (men-women) for each study period. Mortality rates for women were similar for cancer and IHD in the 1994-1998 period, but changed substantially in the projected 2018-2022 period. Cancer mortality rates declined gradually overtime, and the gender difference remained constant throughout the historical and projected trends. A consistent declining trend for IHD historical annual mortality rate was observed for both genders, with a substantial changepoint around 2004-2005 for men. The initial gender difference of 33% (80/100,00 vs. 60/100,000) in mortality rates observed between cancer and IHD in the 1994-1998 period increased to 300% (60/100,000 vs. 20/100,000) for the 2018-2022 period. The APC projection model accurately projects shortterm and longterm mortality trends for cancer and IHD in this population: The steady historical and projected cancer mortality rates contrasts with the substantial decline in IHD mortality rates, especially in men.

  11. Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Peter D; Hoover, Robert N; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-11-01

    The use of cellular telephones has grown explosively during the past two decades, and there are now more than 279 million wireless subscribers in the United States. If cellular phone use causes brain cancer, as some suggest, the potential public health implications could be considerable. One might expect the effects of such a prevalent exposure to be reflected in general population incidence rates, unless the induction period is very long or confined to very long-term users. To address this issue, we examined temporal trends in brain cancer incidence rates in the United States, using data collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Log-linear models were used to estimate the annual percent change in rates among whites. With the exception of the 20-29-year age group, the trends for 1992-2006 were downward or flat. Among those aged 20-29 years, there was a statistically significant increasing trend between 1992 and 2006 among females but not among males. The recent trend in 20-29-year-old women was driven by a rising incidence of frontal lobe cancers. No increases were apparent for temporal or parietal lobe cancers, or cancers of the cerebellum, which involve the parts of the brain that would be more highly exposed to radiofrequency radiation from cellular phones. Frontal lobe cancer rates also rose among 20-29-year-old males, but the increase began earlier than among females and before cell phone use was highly prevalent. Overall, these incidence data do not provide support to the view that cellular phone use causes brain cancer.

  12. The utility of Google Trends data to examine interest in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, M; Toor, A; Cavazos-Rehg, P; Jeffe, D B; McQueen, A; Eberth, J; Davidson, N O

    2015-06-08

    We examined the utility of January 2004 to April 2014 Google Trends data from information searches for cancer screenings and preparations as a complement to population screening data, which are traditionally estimated through costly population-level surveys. State-level data across the USA. Persons who searched for terms related to cancer screening using Google, and persons who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). (1) State-level Google Trends data, providing relative search volume (RSV) data scaled to the highest search proportion per week (RSV100) for search terms over time since 2004 and across different geographical locations. (2) RSV of new screening tests, free/low-cost screening for breast and colorectal cancer, and new preparations for colonoscopy (Prepopik). (3) State-level breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer screening rates. Correlations between Google Trends and BRFSS data ranged from 0.55 for ever having had a colonoscopy to 0.14 for having a Pap smear within the past 3 years. Free/low-cost mammography and colonoscopy showed higher RSV during their respective cancer awareness months. RSV for Miralax remained stable, while interest in Prepopik increased over time. RSV for lung cancer screening, virtual colonoscopy and three-dimensional mammography was low. Google Trends data provides enormous scientific possibilities, but are not a suitable substitute for, but may complement, traditional data collection and analysis about cancer screening and related interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Trends in presentation, management and survival of patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer in a Southeast Asian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo Pathy, Nirmala; Verkooijen, Helena Marieke; Tan, Ern-Yu; Miao, Hui; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Brand, Judith S.; Dent, Rebecca A.; See, Mee-Hoong; Subramaniam, ShriDevi; Chan, Patrick; Lee, Soo-Chin; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2015-01-01

    Up to 25% of breast cancer patients in Asia present with de novo metastatic disease. We examined the survival trends of Asian patients with metastatic breast cancer over fifteen years. The impact of changes in patient's demography, tumor characteristics, tumor burden, and treatment on survival trend

  14. Ethnic and socioeconomic trends in breast cancer incidence in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson June

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer incidence varies between social groups, but differences have not been thoroughly examined in New Zealand. The objectives of this study are to determine whether trends in breast cancer incidence varied by ethnicity and socioeconomic position between 1981 and 2004 in New Zealand, and to assess possible risk factor explanations. Methods Five cohorts of the entire New Zealand population for 1981-86, 1986-1991, 1991-1996, 1996-2001, and 2001-2004 were created, and probabilistically linked to cancer registry records, allowing direct determination of ethnic and socioeconomic trends in breast cancer incidence. Results Breast cancer rates increased across all ethnic and socioeconomic groups between 1981 and 2004. Māori women consistently had the highest age standardised rates, and the difference between Māori and European/Other women increased from 7% in 1981-6 to 24% in 2001-4. Pacific and Asian women had consistently lower rates of breast cancer than European/Other women over the time period studied (12% and 28% lower respectively when pooled over time, although young Pacific women had slightly higher incidence rates than young European/other women. A gradient between high and low income women was evident, with high income women having breast cancer rates approximately 10% higher and this difference did not change significantly over time. Conclusions Differences in breast cancer incidence between European and Pacific women and between socioeconomic groups are explicable in terms of known risk factors. However no straightforward explanation for the relatively high incidence amongst Māori is apparent. Further research to explore high Māori breast cancer rates may contribute to reducing the burden of breast cancer amongst Māori women, as well as improving our understanding of the aetiology of breast cancer.

  15. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  16. An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin C; Mitchell, Janeil M; Jeon, Heedo D; Vasilottos, Nektarios; Grogan, Raymon H; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis

    2018-05-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a reported increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries. We previously reported an increase in thyroid cancer incidence across continents between 1973 and 2002. Here, we provide an update on the international trends in thyroid cancer between 2003 and 2007. We examined thyroid cancer incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) database for the period between 1973 and 2007 from 24 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, and report on the time trends as well as the distribution by histologic type and gender worldwide. The incidence of thyroid cancer increased during the period from 1998-2002 to 2003-2007 in the majority of populations examined, with the highest rates observed among women, most notably in Israel and the United States SEER registry, at over 14 per 100,000 people. This update suggests that incidence is rising in a similar fashion across all regions of the world. The histologic and gender distributions in the updated CI5 are consistent with the previous report. Our analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world.

  17. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia.

  18. International testicular cancer incidence trends: generational transitions in 38 countries 1900-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaor, Ariana; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Laversanne, Mathieu; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bray, Freddie

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in testicular cancer incidence have marked the second half of the last century. While these secular rises, observed mainly in countries attaining the highest levels of human development, appear to have attenuated in the last decade, rates continue to increase in countries transiting toward high developmental levels. The purpose of our study was to provide a comprehensive analysis and presentation of the cohort-specific trends in testicular cancer incidence rates in 38 countries worldwide. We used an augmented version of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to analyze testicular cancer incidence in men aged 15-54 in 38 countries, via age-period-cohort analysis. In many European countries, the USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, there is a continuation of the increasing risk among successive generations, yet rates are attenuating in male cohorts born since the 1970s in several Northern European countries, in contrast to the steeply increasing trends in recent cohorts in Southern Europe. Incidence rates have also been increasing in the populations traditionally at rather low risk, such as in the Philippines, Singapore, China, and Costa Rica. The attenuation of testicular cancer risk in younger generations (in the most developed countries) alongside concomitant increases (in countries undergoing developmental change) is indicative of a global transition in the risk of testicular cancer. While identifying the underlying causes remains a major challenge, increasing awareness and adapting national healthcare systems to accommodate a growing burden of testicular cancer may prevent future avoidable deaths in young men.

  19. Present trends in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.; Iskandrani, A.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths all over the world. As most patients present with advanced disease, major efforts have been made in the treatment of such disease with systemic chemotherapy. Several new agents and new combinations of chemotherapy have been developed recently. This article reviews the randomized clinical trials investigating chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in relapse or progressive disease while being treated and in elderly patients. Therapies that incorporate new biological agents to target specific defects in lung cancer are also discussed. Several clinical trials have demonstrated improvement in overall survival as well as quality of life with presently available chemotherapy treatment of advanced NSCLC. Better options are available for the elderly as well as those having relapse after first line chemotherapy. Despite all this progress the 5-year survival rate still remains at a dismal 14%. New therapies with good results are still desired. (author)

  20. MicroRNA-384 inhibits the progression of breast cancer by targeting ACVR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxia; Zhang, Zheying; Wang, Jianqiang

    2018-04-20

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in females worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of all breast cancer cases and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes. Moreover, the treatment for breast cancer, especially for TNBC, remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in many types of cancers. In the present study, the expression of miR-384 was explored in GSE58606 and in fresh breast cancer tissues by qPCR. The results showed that miR-384 was decreased in breast cancer, especially in TNBC. The results of MTT, colony formation, soft agar, Transwell migration, wound healing and the tumorigenesis assay demonstranted that overexpression of miR-384 inhibited the proliferation and migration of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo; knockdown of miR-384 enhanced the proliferation and migration of breast cancer. In addition, luciferase assay showed that Activin A receptor type 1 (ACVR1) was a direct target of miR-384 and is involved in the inhibitory effects of miR-384 on breast cancer progression. Furthermore, this study indicated that ACVR1 activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer. In conclusion, our findings revealed functional and mechanistic links between miR-384 and ACVR1 in the progression of breast cancer. miR-384 not only plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer, but has promise as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer especially for TNBC.

  1. Trends in the incidence of cancer in the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokunonga, E; Borok, M Z; Chirenje, Z M; Nyakabau, A M; Parkin, D M

    2013-08-01

    Incidence rates of different cancers have been calculated for the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe for a 20-year period (1991-2010) coinciding with continuing social and lifestyle changes, and the peak, and subsequent wane, of the HIV-AIDS epidemic. The overall risk of cancer increased during the period in both sexes, with rates of cervix and prostate cancers showing particularly dramatic increases (3.3% and 6.4% annually, respectively). By 2004, prostate cancer had become the most common cancer of men. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus, formerly the most common cancer of men, has remained relatively constant, whereas rates of breast and cervix cancers, the most common malignancies of women, have shown significant increases (4.9% and 3.3% annually, respectively). The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma increased to a maximum around 1998-2000 and then declined in all age groups, and in both sexes The incidence of squamous cell cancers of the conjunctiva is relatively high, with temporal trends similar to those of Kaposi sarcoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the fifth most common cancer of men and fourth of women, showed a steady increase in incidence throughout the period (6.7-6.9% annually), although rates in young adults (15-39) have decreased since 2001. Cancer control in Zimbabwe, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, involves meeting the challenge of emerging cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (large bowel, breast and prostate), while the incidence of cancers associated with poverty and infection (liver, cervix and esophagus) shows little decline, and the residual burden of the AIDS-associated cancers remains significant. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  2. Trends in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Moran; Ilana, Kaplan; Avraham, Sharon Pelles; Binenbaum, Yoav; Bachar, Gideon; Billan, Salem; Zaarura, Suliman; Czerninski, Rakefet; Bar-Tov, Matan; Maly, Alexander; Akrish, Sharon; Gil, Ziv

    2016-04-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal cancer (SCC) is well established. The annual incidence of oropharyngeal SCC in Israel is considerably lower than that in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of HPV-related oropharyngeal SCC in Israel. The cohort included patients with oropharyngeal SCC who were treated during 1999 to 2011 in Israel. HPV typing was carried out using reverse hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Of the 74 patients analyzed, 25 (33.7%) had detectable HPV DNA. Patients in the HPV-positive group tended to be younger, with a higher rate of nodal metastases, and no history of smoking (p Israel as approximately 3-fold lower than in Western countries. Low exposure to HPV-16, a lower rate of transformation, to cancer or protective genetic factors may contribute to the lower rate of oropharyngeal SCC in Israel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E274-E278, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Global pattern of trends in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere: Recent progress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, 14-15 (2009), s. 1514-1528 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC205/07/J052; GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : long-term trends * ionosphere * mesosphere * thermosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13646826

  4. A review of recent progress in trends in the upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 163, SI (2017), s. 2-13 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : long-term trends * carbon dioxide * ionosphere * thermosphere and mesosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682617300044

  5. Progress on Poverty? New Estimates of Historical Trends Using an Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Fox, Liana; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau’s recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families’ expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM’s 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a posttax/posttransfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time. PMID:27352076

  6. Progress on Poverty? New Estimates of Historical Trends Using an Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Fox, Liana; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau's recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families' expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM's 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a post-tax/post-transfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time.

  7. Trends in breast cancer incidence among women with type-2 diabetes in British general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Peeters, Paul J H L; de Groot, Mark C H

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To quantify breast cancer incidence in women with type-2 diabetes and assess age-standardized trends in invasive breast cancer incidence over time and by age groups. Methods: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the British general practice database (Clinical Practice Research...... Datalink) using data from 1989 to 2012. All adult women prescribed anti-hyperglycemic medication were selected and matched (1:1) on age and clinical practice to a reference cohort without diabetes. Results: During approximately 1.6 million person years (py), 2371 breast cancer cases were diagnosed...... that observed in the reference cohort (148, 95%CI:141-156); with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.01 (95%CI:0.94-1.08, p. >. 0.05). Conclusions: Currently, around 2880 women with type-2 diabetes are diagnosed with breast cancer per year in the United Kingdom. However, breast cancer incidence remained stable...

  8. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chow, Khuan-Yew; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968–2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC) and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC) cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC) in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993–2012, APC = 1.9%, pSingapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence. PMID:26720001

  9. Cancers of the Brain and CNS: Global Patterns and Trends in Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mortazavi, S A R; Paknahad, M

    2018-03-01

    Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled "Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence" provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The paper authored by Miranda-Filho et al. not only addresses a challenging issue, it can be considered as a good contribution in the field of brain and CNS cancers. However, our correspondence addresses a basic shortcoming of this paper about the role of electromagnetic fields and cancers and provides evidence showing that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), at least at high levels and long durations, can increases the risk of cancer.

  10. Trends in social security benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer from 2006 to 2013 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Cascaes, Andreia Morales

    2018-01-01

    to analyze the trends in the concession of social security sick pay for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, from 2006 to 2013, in Brazil. time series study using data of workers insured by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (INSS); Prais-Winsten generalized linear regressions were used to calculate the annual percentage change (APC). social security benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer presented significant increase (APC=9.0%; 95%CI 1.4; 17.4); benefits for other parts of the mouth, nasopharynx, oropharynx, floor of mouth and palate have also shown significant increase; the areas of trade (5.5%) and manufacturing (5.2%) were the most prevalent activities; there was a high proportion of fields in blank in the information systems (average of 72.9%). trends in occupational benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer showed significant increase.

  11. NCOA5 is correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiao-He; Huang, Du-Ping; Luo, Rong-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptor coactivator 5 (NCOA5) is known to modulate ERα-mediated transcription and has been found to be involved in the progression of several malignancies. However, the potential correlation between NCOA5 and clinical outcome in patients with luminal breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that NCOA5 was significantly up-regulated in luminal breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues both in validated cohort and TCGA cohort. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high NOCA5 expression had significantly lower overall survival (P = 0.021). Cox regression analysis indicated that the high NOCA5 expression was independent high risk factor as well as old age (>60) and HER-2 expression (P = 0.039; P = 0.003; P = 0.005; respectively). This study provides new insights and evidences that NOCA5 over-expression was significantly correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer. However, the precise cellular mechanisms for NOCA5 in luminal breast cancer need to be further explored. - Highlights: • NCOA5 is significantly over-expressed in human luminal breast cancer tissues. • NOCA5 was involved in the progression of luminal breast cancer. • NCOA5 can predict the progression of luminal breast cancer.

  12. Endoradiotherapy in cancer treatment--basic concepts and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Frederic; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2009-12-25

    Endoradiotherapy represents an alternative therapeutic method in cancer treatment with advantageous features compared to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Intelligent dose delivery concepts using small drugs, peptides or antibodies as radionuclide carriers enable the verification of a selective accumulation in the tumour lesion and to reduce radiation toxicity for the peripheral organs. The development of endoradiotherapeutic agents, especially chelator-conjugated biomolecules, for example ibritumomab tiuxetan or DOTATOC, gains importance due to the stable complexation of versatile radiometals, such as (90)Y or (177)Lu. The rational design of novel target binding sides and their grafting into a drug scaffold is a highly promising strategy, which may promote further implication in endoradiotherapy. This review highlights the basic concepts of endoradiotherapy and discusses the potential of targeted therapy and the properties of energy-rich particles emitted by radionuclides for tumour therapy.

  13. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 22, 3323–3329. [115] Tiffany NM, Wersinger EM, Garzotto M, and Beer TM (2004). Imatinib mesylate and zoledronic...Inhibition of Akt pathways EC Nelson et al 335 Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases addition, some Asian forms of fermented soy, such as miso, nattou and

  14. Long-term exposure to hypoxia inhibits tumor progression of lung cancer in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lunyin; Hales, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has been identified as a major negative factor for tumor progression in clinical observations and in animal studies. However, the precise role of hypoxia in tumor progression has not been fully explained. In this study, we extensively investigated the effect of long-term exposure to hypoxia on tumor progression in vivo. Rats bearing transplanted tumors consisting of A549 human lung cancer cells (lung cancer tumor) were exposed to hypoxia for different durations and different levels of oxygen. The tumor growth and metastasis were evaluated. We also treated A549 lung cancer cells (A549 cells) with chronic hypoxia and then implanted the hypoxia-pretreated cancer cells into mice. The effect of exposure to hypoxia on metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was also investigated. We found that long-term exposure to hypoxia a) significantly inhibited lung cancer tumor growth in xenograft and orthotopic models in rats, b) significantly reduced lymphatic metastasis of the lung cancer in rats and decreased lung metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice, c) reduced lung cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro, d) decreased growth of the tumors from hypoxia-pretreated A549 cells, e) decreased Na + -K + ATPase α1 expression in hypoxic lung cancer tumors, and f) increased expression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1α and HIF2α) but decreased microvessel density in the lung cancer tumors. In contrast to lung cancer, the growth of tumor from HCT116 human colon cancer cells (colon cancer tumor) was a) significantly enhanced in the same hypoxia conditions, accompanied by b) no significant change in expression of Na + -K + ATPase α1, c) increased HIF1α expression (no HIF2α was detected) and d) increased microvessel density in the tumor tissues. This study demonstrated that long-term exposure to hypoxia repressed tumor progression of the lung cancer from A549 cells and that decreased expression of Na + -K + ATPase was involved in hypoxic

  15. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Methods Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Po...

  16. Role of Diet Modulation and AMPK in Ovarian Cancer Progression and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    and ovarian cancer. Recently some studies have suggested that low - fat dietary pattern may reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer. High energy and...energy metabolism using nature of diet (high vs low energy) focusing on AMPK as a central energy regulator in ovarian cancer progression using a...used in research (7.2% fat ; 61.6% carbohydrate ; 20.5% proteins). The nutritionally balanced HED consisted of 60% kilocalories from fat (35.7

  17. Cycling Towards Progress: Ribociclib, CDK 4/6 inhibitor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Laura; Bardia, Aditya

    2018-04-23

    Ribociclib is an orally active, highly selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6. It is the second CDK 4/6 inhibitor approved for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The addition of ribociclib to an aromatase inhibitor has resulted in marked improvements in progression-free survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Genomic analyses of breast cancer progression reveal distinct routes of metastasis emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Our data provide support for both linear and parallel progression towards metastasis. We report for the first time evidence of metastasis-to-metastasis seeding in breast cancer. Our results point to three distinct routes of metastasis emergence. This may have profound...... clinical implications and provides substantial novel molecular insights into the timing and mutational evolution of breast cancer metastasis....

  19. Sex differences in lung cancer survival: long-term trends using population-based cancer registry data in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Morishima, Toshitaka; Miyashiro, Isao; Nakayama, Tomio

    2017-09-01

    Several studies of sex differences in lung cancer survival have been reported. However, large-size population-based studies based on long-term observation are scarce. We investigated long-term trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data from Osaka, Japan. We analyzed 79 330 cases from the Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) diagnosed between 1975 and 2007. We calculated 5-year relative survival in the six periods (1975-1980, 1981-1986, 1987-1992, 1993-1997, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007). To estimate the trends in sex differences in lung cancer survival throughout the study period, we applied a multivariate excess hazard model to control for confounders. The proportion of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 5-year relative relative survival have increased for both sexes. Sex differences in lung cancer survival have widened over the period, especially in ADC and since the late 1990s. The excess hazard ratio of death within 5 years for males was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.16-1.21), adjusting for period at diagnosis, histologic type, stage, age group and treatment. We reported that females have better prognosis in lung cancer than males and the sex differences in lung cancer survival have become wider in Osaka, Japan. This can be partly explained by the sex differences in the proportions of histologic type and stage. Further studies considering other factors that influence sex differences in lung cancer survival are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Quo natas, Danio?—Recent Progress in Modeling Cancer in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kirchberger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, zebrafish has proven to be a powerful model in cancer research. Zebrafish form tumors that histologically and genetically resemble human cancers. The live imaging and cost-effective compound screening possible with zebrafish especially complement classic mouse cancer models. Here, we report recent progress in the field, including genetically engineered zebrafish cancer models, xenotransplantation of human cancer cells into zebrafish, promising approaches toward live investigation of the tumor microenvironment, and identification of therapeutic strategies by performing compound screens on zebrafish cancer models. Given the recent advances in genome editing, personalized zebrafish cancer models are now a realistic possibility. In addition, ongoing automation will soon allow high-throughput compound screening using zebrafish cancer models to be part of preclinical precision medicine approaches.

  1. Update of research on the role of EZH2 in cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Liang Shen,1 Jing Cui,2 Shumei Liang,3 Yingxin Pang,1 Peishu Liu11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jinan Stomatologic Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Accumulating evidence shows that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (E2H2 is upregulated in a broad range of cancer types, such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, and colon cancer. Therefore, inhibiting EZH2 expression may be a promising strategy for anticancer therapy. This review focuses on the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying EZH2 regulation that are involved in cancer progression. Also, it introduces two EZH2 inhibitors that target EZH2 and could be potentially applied in the treatment of cancer in the future.Keywords: EZH2, PRC2, cancer

  2. Epidemiology and trend of common cancers in Iran (2004-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, N; Aghajani, M; Asgarian, F S; Jazayeri, M

    2017-09-01

    Cancer is one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide. It includes approximately 13% of death cases. This study aimed to investigate the incidence trend of common cancers in Iran during 2004-2008 to improve reporting distribution the disease. This was a retrospective study. The study population was all cases of cancer diagnosed in Iran during 2004-2008. The crude incidence rate of cancers was calculated per 100 000 people by age groups and sex. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated using direct standardisation and the world standard population. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 17) and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. In this study, a total of 301 055 cases of cancer were diagnosed. ASRs were 60.51 and 84.51 in women and men respectively. Most common cancers in men were skin (ASR = 18.85), stomach (15.02), bladder (ASR = 11.25), prostate (ASR = 8.93) and colorectal (ASR = 8.29). Most common cancers in women were breast (ASR = 18.24), skin (ASR = 12.01), colorectal (ASR = 7.75), stomach (ASR = 7.05) and haematocyte (ASR = 4.01). A significant increase was observed in the incidence of cancers in the country. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening, early diagnosis and treatment in early stages of cancers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trends in the Incidence of Cervical Cancer in Jordan, 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan and assess its trend in over a 14-year period (2000–2013. Methods. This descriptive study was based on secondary analysis of cervical cancer data that are registered in the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR. Results. A total of 591 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer in Jordan during the period 2000–2013. The age at diagnosis ranged between 15 and 97 years, with a median of 50 years. The average age standardized rate (ASR was 2.0/100,000 women. The incidence of cervical cancer started to decrease after 2006 but it remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Over the 14-year period, ASR for cervical cancer decreased by 28.6% from 2.1 per 100,000 women in 2000 to 1.5 per 100,000 women in 2013. About 46.5% of the cases were of squamous cell carcinoma morphology. Early cancer constituted about 60% of the cases, regional cases constituted 9.6%, and distant metastatic cases constituted 10.7%. Conclusions. The incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan is low compared to regional estimates and remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Implementation of screening measures could lead to better case finding, early diagnosis, and prevention of cervical cancer.

  4. Annual Trends of Gastrointestinal Cancers Mortality in Iran During 1990-2015; NASBOD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Delavari, Farnaz; Sauvaget, Catherine; Rezaee, Negar; Delavari, Alireza; Kompani, Farzad; Rezaei, Nazila; Sheidaei, Ali; Modirian, Mitra; Haghshenas, Rosa; Chegini, Maryam; Gohari, Kimiya; Zokaiee, Hossein; Farzadfar, Farshad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are among the most common cancers in Iran. This study aimed to measure annual trends in mortality rates from GI cancers in Iran between 1990 and 2015. This study was part of an ongoing study termed the 'National and Subnational Burden of Diseases' study in Iran. Data used in this study was obtained from the Iranian Death Registration System (1995 to 2010) and from 2 major cemeteries in Tehran (1995 to 2010) and Isfahan (2007 to 2010). All-cause mortality rates were estimated using the spatio-temporal model and the Gaussian process regression model. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) per 100 000 person-years was calculated using data from Iran and the standard world population for comparison. Among GI cancers, gastric cancer represented the leading cause of mortality followed by cancers of the esophagus, liver, and colorectal cancers with the ASMR of 20.5, 5.8, 4.4, and 4.0 per 100 000 persons-years, respectively, between 1990 and 2015. While a decreasing trend occurred in mortality of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers, particularly in the recent decade, we recorded an upward pattern and steady rise in mortality rates from liver, pancreatic, and gallbladder cancers during the study period. The ASMR of all studied causes were enhanced by advancing age and were found to be more prominent in adults aged 50 or older. Among all age-groups, higher death rates were detected in males versus females for all studied cancers except for gallbladder and biliary tract cancers. Gastric cancer mortality is still high and death rates from several other GI cancers are increasing in the nation. Interventions for cancer prevention, early detection, and access to high quality cancer treatment services are needed to reduce GI cancer burden and death rates in Iran and in the region. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http

  5. Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; McCallister, Chelsea; Schafer, Zachary T

    2016-10-13

    Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we discuss some of the accumulating evidence suggesting a role for antioxidant activity in facilitating tumor progression.

  6. Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Hawk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS. While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we discuss some of the accumulating evidence suggesting a role for antioxidant activity in facilitating tumor progression.

  7. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  8. The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Jennifer L.; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed

  9. Trends in incidence of lung cancer in Croatia from 2001 to 2013: gender and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroglavić, Katarina Josipa; Polić Vižintin, Marina; Tripković, Ingrid; Šekerija, Mario; Kukulj, Suzana

    2017-10-31

    To provide an overview of the lung cancer incidence trends in the City of Zagreb (Zagreb), Split-Dalmatia County (SDC), and Croatia in the period from 2001 to 2013. Incidence data were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry. For calculating incidence rates per 100 000 population, we used population estimates for the period 2001-2013 from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Age-standardized rates of lung cancer incidence were calculated by the direct standardization method using the European Standard Population. To describe incidence trends, we used joinpoint regression analysis. Joinpoint analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in lung cancer incidence in men in all regions, with an annual percentage change (APC) of -2.2% for Croatia, 1.9% for Zagreb, and -2.0% for SDC. In women, joinpoint analysis showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence for Croatia, with APC of 1.4%, a statistically significant increase of 1.0% for Zagreb, and no significant change in trend for SDC. In both genders, joinpoint analysis showed a significant decrease in age-standardized incidence rates of lung cancer, with APC of -1.3% for Croatia, -1.1% for Zagreb, and -1.6% for SDC. There was an increase in female lung cancer incidence rate and a decrease in male lung cancer incidence rate in Croatia in 2001-20013 period, with similar patterns observed in all the investigated regions. These results highlight the importance of smoking prevention and cessation policies, especially among women and young people.

  10. Gender trends of urology manuscript authors in the United States: a 35-year progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dana A; Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2012-01-01

    The presence of women in urology has gradually increased in the last 35 years with an accelerated rate in the last decade. We evaluated manuscript authorship trends by gender. Manuscript authorship is a metric that has been used as a marker of academic productivity. We hypothesized that the number of first and last author publications by women has increased proportionately to the number of women in the field during the last 35 years. We performed a bibliometric study to examine authorship gender in The Journal of Urology® and Urology®. We reviewed all original articles published from American institutions in 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2009. Of the 8,313 articles reviewed 5,461 were from American institutions, including 97.5% for which we determined author gender. There were 767 articles with female authors, including 440 first and 327 last authors. First and last female authorship increased from 2.7% of all authors in 1979 to 26.5% in 2009 (test for trend p authorship rate surpasses the rate of growth of women in urology, which increased from 0.24% in 1975 to 6.2% in 2008. Based on authorship gender analysis women urologists produce manuscripts at a rate that exceeds their number in the field. Findings show that women in urology are productive, active members of the academic community. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selected trends in colorectal cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Spanik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In worldwide estimates for the year 2012, the Slovak Republic had the highest value of age-standardised incidence, but real data on a national level have only been available up to 2008. Aims: Colorectal cancer is one of the more preventable malignant tumors, whereby organised screening with adequate participation of the population in risk leads to a significant drop in both incidence and mortality. The aim of the submitted paper is to predict the development of selected indicators of descriptive epidemiology of this disease prospectively. Results: In recent years, a significant growth in the incidence of the disease has been witnessed in Slovakia, rising by 2.3% annually in men and 1.4% in women. Mortality in men is falling substantially by -1% annually, and in women it is -1.6%. Conclusion: The drop in mortality is manifesting later and to a lesser degree in Slovakia than in those countries with long-term organised screening in place. (author)

  12. Incidence trends of human papillomavirus-related head and neck cancer in Taiwan, 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tzer-Zen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies suggested that human papillomavirus (HPV) is an emerging risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC), particularly for oropharyngeal cancer. Studies from the West showed a rising trend of HPV-related HNC despite a decrease of the overall HNC incidence. In contrast, the overall HNC incidence in Taiwan has continued to rise. It is not clear whether the incidence trends of HPV-related HNC in Taiwan have a similar pattern to those from countries with an overall decreasing incidence of HNC. This study examined the incidence trends of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated HNC in Taiwan using data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Our results showed that the incidence trends of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated HNC in Taiwan both rose during 1995-2009. The incidence of HPV-related HNC (1.3 per 100,000 in 1995 to 3.3 in 2009, annual percentage change (APC) = 6.9, p Taiwan has continued to increase, the most rapid rise is in the HPV-related HNC. This suggests that similar to the Western world, HPV-related HNC is becoming an important public health issue in Taiwan. © 2014 UICC.

  13. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, pemphysema in CT screening for lung cancer.

  14. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, Miriam; Gidron, Yori; Ariad, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). IL-1beta was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1beta. Elevated cerebral IL-1beta increased cancer metastasis in animals. Inescapable shock was associated with systemic elevations of IL-1beta and peripheral IL-1beta was associated with escape from apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed. Future studies need to identify the role of additional factors in this PNI pathway.

  15. Histone Demethylase RBP2 Is Critical for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis.

  16. Trends in colorectal cancer survival in northern Denmark: 1985-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, L H; Nørgaard, M; Jepsen, P; Jacobsen, J; Christensen, M M; Gandrup, P; Madsen, M R; Laurberg, S; Wogelius, P; Sørensen, H T

    2007-03-01

    The prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) is less favourable in Denmark than in neighbouring countries. To improve cancer treatment in Denmark, a National Cancer Plan was proposed in 2000. We conducted this population-based study to monitor recent trends in CRC survival and mortality in four Danish counties. We used hospital discharge registry data for the period January 1985-March 2004 in the counties of north Jutland, Ringkjøbing, Viborg and Aarhus. We computed crude survival and used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to compare mortality over time, adjusted for age and gender. A total of 19,515 CRC patients were identified and linked with the Central Office of Civil Registration to ascertain survival through January 2005. From 1985 to 2004, 1-year and 5-year survival improved both for patients with colon and rectal cancer. From 1995-1999 to 2000-2004, overall 1-year survival of 65% for colon cancer did not improve, and some age groups experienced a decreasing 1-year survival probability. For rectal cancer, overall 1-year survival increased from 71% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2000-2004. Using 1985-1989 as reference period, 30-day mortality did not decrease after implementation of the National Cancer Plan in 2000, neither for patients with colon nor rectal cancer. However, 1-year mortality for patients with rectal cancer did decline after its implementation. Survival and mortality from colon and rectal cancer improved before the National Cancer Plan was proposed; after its implementation, however, improvement has been observed for rectal cancer only.

  17. Complex role for the immune system in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Kristin S; Francis, Amanda A; Murray, Nicole R

    2014-08-28

    The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the current literature describing the role of the immune response in the progressive development of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the mechanisms that drive recruitment and activation of immune cells at the tumor site, and our current understanding of the function of the immune cell types at the tumor. Recent clinical and preclinical data are reviewed, detailing the involvement of the immune response in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, including the role of specific cytokines and implications for disease outcome. Acute pancreatitis is characterized by a predominantly innate immune response, while chronic pancreatitis elicits an immune response that involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and often results in profound systemic immune-suppression. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked immune dysfunction driven by immunosuppressive cell types, tumor-promoting immune cells, and defective or absent inflammatory cells. Recent studies reveal that immune cells interact with cancer stem cells and tumor stromal cells, and these interactions have an impact on development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Finally, current PDAC therapies are reviewed and the potential for harnessing the actions of the immune response to assist in targeting pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy is discussed.

  18. Tight junctions: a barrier to the initiation and progression of breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression.

  19. Selective expression of long non-coding RNAs in a breast cancer cell progression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kirsten M; Tye, Coralee E; Page, Natalie A; Fritz, Andrew J; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2018-02-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are acknowledged as regulators of cancer biology and pathology. Our goal was to perform a stringent profiling of breast cancer cell lines that represent disease progression. We used the MCF-10 series, which includes the normal-like MCF-10A, HRAS-transformed MCF-10AT1 (pre-malignant), and MCF-10CA1a (malignant) cells, to perform transcriptome wide sequencing. From these data, we have identified 346 lncRNAs with dysregulated expression across the progression series. By comparing lncRNAs from these datasets to those from an additional set of cell lines that represent different disease stages and subtypes, MCF-7 (early stage, luminal), and MDA-MB-231 (late stage, basal), 61 lncRNAs that are associated with breast cancer progression were identified. Querying breast cancer patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we selected a lncRNA, IGF-like family member 2 antisense RNA 1 (IGFL2-AS1), of potential clinical relevance for functional characterization. Among the 61 lncRNAs, IGFL2-AS1 was the most significantly decreased. Our results indicate that this lncRNA plays a role in downregulating its nearest neighbor, IGFL1, and affects migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the lncRNAs we identified provide a valuable resource to mechanistically and clinically understand the contribution of lncRNAs in breast cancer progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  1. The dual role of asporin in breast cancer progression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Kharaishvili, G.; Kořínková, G.; Oždian, T.; Suchankova-Kleplova, T.; Soukup, T.; Křupka, M.; Galandáková, A.; Džubák, P.; Janikova, M.; Navrátil, J.; Kahounová, Z.; Souček, Karel; Bouchal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 32 (2016), s. 52045-52060 ISSN 1949-2553 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : epithelial-mesenchymal transition * repeat protein family * prostate- cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  2. Analysis of breast cancer progression using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    technology being aggressively pursued by researchers, ... public microarray breast cancer dataset which has expression levels of genes in normal samples as well as in three ..... suggests that treatment decisions may benefit by taking account ...

  3. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Christopher P

    2006-01-01

    ... enhancer region, which is primarily stimulated by androgens. We have shown that gastrin-releasing peptide prostate cancer cells have their growth in soft agar inhibited by the specific Src inhibitor AZD0530...

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-4 and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    difference between the two FGFR-4 variants? Achondroplasia ( dwarfism ) is caused by a similar mutation in FGFR-3 (Gly380 to Arg380). Increased FGFR-3...US men, with approximately 230,000 new cases and 29,000 deaths in 2004 [1]. Prostate cancer deaths are a result of metastatic disease and treatment of...such metastatic disease is one of the major therapeutic challenges in prostate cancer treatment . Many studies have been focused on identification of

  5. Exosomes in Tumor Microenvironment Influence Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlert, Christoph; Kalluri, Raghu

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin with a size of 50 – 100 nm. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donar cell to recipient cells. Many different cell types including immune cells, mesenchymal cells and cancer cells release exosomes. There is emerging evidence that cancer-derived exosomes contribute to the recruitment and reprogramming of constituents associated with tumor environment. Here, we discuss different mechani...

  6. Prognosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: difference between primary and progressive tumours and implications for therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Hollander, M.P.; Rhijn, B.W. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in prognosis between progressive and primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1986 to 2000, 74 patients with progressive muscle-invasive bladder cancer were identified. Eighty-nine patients with primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  7. Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer Incidence Trends by Subsite in the United States: Changing Gender Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Morris Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate oral cavity and pharynx cancer (OCPC patterns by gender. Methods. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data for 71,446 cases diagnosed during 1975–2008 to classify OCPC by anatomic subsite as potentially HPV-related or not, with oral tongue cancer considered a separate category. Results. Total OCPC rates among men were 2–4 times those among women. Among whites, total OCPC rates rose in the younger age groups due to substantial increases in successive birth cohorts for HPV-related cancers, more rapid among men than women, and oral tongue cancers, more rapid among women than men. Among blacks, total OCPC rates declined among cohorts born since 1930 reflecting the strong downward trends for HPV-unrelated sites. Among Hispanics and Asians, HPV-unrelated cancer rates generally declined, and oral tongue cancer rates appeared to be converging among young men and women. Conclusions. Decreases in total OCPC incidence reflect reductions in smoking and alcohol drinking. Rising HPV-related cancers among white men may reflect changing sexual practices. Reasons for the increasing young oral tongue cancer rates are unknown, but the narrowing of the gender differences provides a clue.

  8. Temporal trends in management and outcomes of testicular cancer: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveridge, Michael J; Siemens, D Robert; Brennan, Kelly; Izard, Jason P; Karim, Safiya; An, Howard; Mackillop, William J; Booth, Christopher M

    2018-04-16

    Treatment guidelines for early-stage testicular cancer have increasingly recommended de-escalation of therapy with surveillance strategies. This study was designed to describe temporal trends in routine clinical practice and to determine whether de-escalation of therapy is associated with inferior survival in the general population. The Ontario Cancer Registry was linked to electronic records of treatment to identify all patients diagnosed with testicular cancer treated with orchiectomy in Ontario during 2000-2010. Treatment after orchiectomy was classified as radiotherapy (RT), retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), chemotherapy, or none. Surveillance was defined as no identified treatment within 90 days of orchiectomy. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were measured from the date of orchiectomy. The study population included 1564 and 1086 cases of seminomas and nonseminoma germ cell tumors (NSGCTs), respectively. Among patients with seminomas, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with no treatment within 90 days of orchiectomy (from 56% to 84%; P testicular cancer in routine practice since 2000. Long-term survival in routine practice is excellent and has not decreased with the uptake of surveillance strategies. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  9. Progress and development trends of the research on public acceptance for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Fang Chao; Cao Jianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Scientists keep doing the research on public acceptance for nuclear power during tbe period of 30 years from TMI to Fukushima nuclear accidents. In this paper, the research methods on public acceptance for nuclear power are reviewed. The theoretical basis of the research methods (including social investigation and structural equation model), their essence of social psychology as well as the research methods for public nuclear power at different phases are respectively introduced. The current methods are divided into three stages according to the starting time and depth of the research, and their significance for the current research is discussed. Finally, it takes a close look at the trends of the research methods on public acceptance for nuclear power. (authors)

  10. Expression of the Y-Encoded TSPY is Associated with Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available TSPY is a Y-encoded gene that is expressed in normal testicular germ cells and various cancer types including germ cell tumor, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and prostate cancer. Currently, the correlation between TSPY expression and oncogenic development has not been established, particularly in somatic cancers. To establish such correlation, we analyzed the expression of TSPY, in reference to its interactive oncoprotein, EEF1A, tumor biomarker, AMACR, and normal basal cell biomarker, p63, in 41 cases of clinical prostate cancers (CPCa, 17 cases of latent prostate cancers (LPCa, and 19 cases of non-cancerous prostate (control by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that TSPY was detected more frequently (78% in the clinical prostate cancer specimens than those of latent prostate cancer (47% and control (50%. In the latent cancer group, the levels of TSPY expression could be correlated with increasing Gleason grades. TSPY expression was detected in seven out of nine high-grade latent cancer samples (Gleason 7 and more. The expression of the TSPY binding partner EEF1A was detectable in all prostate specimens, but the levels were higher in cancer cells in clinical and latent prostate cancer specimens than normal prostatic cells. These observations suggest that expressions of TSPY and its binding partner EEF1A are associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer.

  11. Trends in kidney cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Joergensen, Simon Moeller; Jensen, Niels Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to elucidate incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of kidney cancer in elderly persons compared with younger persons in Denmark. Material and methods Cancer of the kidney was defined as ICD-10 code DC 64. Data derived from the NORDCAN database...... of patients diagnosed with kidney cancer over the age of 70 years has decreased from 43% in 1980 to 32% in 2012 in men and remained almost constant in women, around 50%. Incidence rates were at least five times higher in men aged 70 years more but there was no particular trend with time. In men aged less than......-year relative survival increased steadily over time for all age groups but the survival was lower for patients aged 70 years or more than for younger patients. The prevalence increased three times from 1559 patients being alive after kidney cancer in1980 to 4713 in 2012. Conclusion A challenge in managing...

  12. The Progress of T Cell Immunity Related to Prognosis in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Shen, Duo; Mulmi Shrestha, Sachin; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Junyi; Yin, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy all over the world, and the factors that can affect progress and prognosis of the gastric cancer patients are various, such as TNM stages, invasive depth, and lymph node metastasis ratio. T cell immunity is important component of human immunity system and immunity responding to tumor and dysfunction or imbalance of T cell immunity will lead to serious outcomes for body. T cell immunity includes many different types of cells, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, memory cell, and so on, and each of them has special function on antitumor response or tumor immune escape which is revealed in lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and so on. But its correlation with gastric cancer is not clear. Our review was preformed to explore the relationship between the progress and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) and T cell immunity. According to recent researches, T cell immunity may have an important role in the progress and prognosis of GCs, but its function is affected by location, category, related molecule, and interaction between the cells, and some effects still are controversial. More researches are needed to clarify this correlation.

  13. The WSB1 gene is involved in pancreatic cancer progression.

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    Cendrine Archange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer cells generate metastases because they can survive the stress imposed by the new environment of the host tissue. To mimic this process, pancreatic cancer cells which are not stressed in standard culture conditions are injected into nude mice. Because they develop xenografts, they should have developed adequate stress response. Characterizing that response might provide new strategies to interfere with pancreatic cancer metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1, Mia-PaCa2, Capan-1, Capan-2 and BxPC3, we used Affymetrix DNA microarrays to compare the expressions of 22.000 genes in vitro and in the corresponding xenografts. We identified 228 genes overexpressed in xenografts and characterized the implication of one of them, WSB1, in the control of apoptosis and cell proliferation. WSB1 generates 3 alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct protein isoforms. In xenografts and in human pancreatic tumors, global expression of WSB1 mRNA is modestly increased whereas isoform 3 is strongly overexpressed and isoforms 1 and 2 are down-regulated. Treating Mia-PaCa2 cells with stress-inducing agents induced similar changes. Whereas retrovirus-forced expression of WSB1 isoforms 1 and 2 promoted cell growth and sensitized the cells to gemcitabine- and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, WSB1 isoform 3 expression reduced cell proliferation and enhanced resistance to apoptosis, showing that stress-induced modulation of WSB1 alternative splicing increases resistance to apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data on WSB1 regulation support the hypothesis that activation of stress-response mechanisms helps cancer cells establishing metastases and suggest relevance to cancer development of other genes overexpressed in xenografts.

  14. Time trends of cancer mortality among elderly in Italy, 1970–2008: an observational study

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    Bidoli Ettore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of the Italian population will unavoidably lead to a growing number of persons diagnosed and living with cancer. A comprehensive description of the burden of cancer mortality among Italian elderly (65-84 years of age in the last four decades has not been carried out yet. Cancer mortality rates were used to describe time trends between 1970-2008. Methods Mortality counts, provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics, were grouped according to data availability: in quinquennia from 1970-74 through 1995-99, and in 2000-03 and 2006-08 groups. Age-standardized rates (world population were computed by calendar periods while annual percent changes (APCs were computed for elderly and middle aged (35-64 years people for the period 1995-2008. Results The number of cancer deaths in elderly nearly doubled between 1970-74 (31,400 deaths/year in men, and 24,000 in women and 2006-08 (63,000 deaths/year in men, and 42,000 in women. Overall cancer mortality rates peaked during the quinquennia 1985-89 and 1990-94 (about 1,500/100,000 in men and 680 in women and declined thereafter. Throughout 1995-2008 cancer mortality rates decreased by -1.6%/year in men and -0.9%/year in women. These decreases were mainly driven by cancers of the stomach, bladder, prostate, and lung (APC = -3.3%, -2.7%, -2.5%, -2.2%, respectively in men, and by cancers of the stomach, bladder, and breast (APC = -3.5%, -1.9%, -1.1%, respectively in women. Conversely, increases in mortality rates between 1995 and 2008 were recorded for lung cancer (APC = +0.6% in women, cutaneous melanoma (APC = +1.7% in men, and pancreatic cancer (APC = +0.6% in men and +0.9% in women. Conclusions Overall favorable trends in cancer mortality were observed among Italian elderly between 1995 and 2008. Early diagnosis, improved efficacy of anti-cancer treatments and management of comorbidities are the most likely explanations of these positive

  15. [Fear of progression in parents of children with cancer: adaptation of the Fear of Progression Questionnaire and correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepper, F; Abel, K; Herschbach, P; Christiansen, H; Mehnert, A; Martini, J

    2015-05-01

    Fear of Progression (FoP), the fear of further disease progression, is one of the most common psychological strains of chronically ill patients and can also be found in healthy partners of cancer patients. Parents of children with cancer are also at risk of developing distinct fears that may persist after medical treatment. This study aimed to assess FoP in parents of children with cancer and to investigate relationships between FoP in parents of children with cancer and disease- and treatment-related issues, the child's current medical condition and parents' quality of life. In this study 76 parents (51 mothers, 25 fathers) whose children were in inpatient treatment or follow-up care were surveyed. The short form of the FoP Questionnaire was adapted by rephrasing the items for the parental perspective (FoP-Q-SF/PR). The FoP-Q-SF/PR is a short questionnaire with adequate psychometric properties (e. g. Cronbach's α=0.90) and satisfying results in terms of construct validity. Significant correlations with FoP are found for the child's current medical condition (r=0.35), time since diagnosis (r=- 0.30), parents' capacity to cope with disease-related fears (r=- 0.45) and parents' quality of life (r=- 0.55). A cut-off value of 46 points is recommended. The FoP-Q-SF/PR offers a feasible and sensitive battery to assess disease-related fears. For clinicians, evaluation of individual results can provide insight into specific problem areas for parents of children with cancer. The questionnaire is thus well suited for use in psychosocial care of families within the field of paediatric oncology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Incidence, Trends and Ethnic Differences of Oropharyngeal, Anal and Cervical Cancers: Singapore, 1968-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O Lam

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several Western countries have reported an increase in oropharyngeal and anal cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV. Trends in HPV-associated cancers in Asia have not been as well described. We describe the epidemiology of potentially HPV-related cancers reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968-2012. Analysis included 998 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC, 183 anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC and 8,019 invasive cervical cancer (ICC cases. Additionally, 368 anal non-squamous cell carcinoma (ANSCC and 2,018 non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinoma (non-OP HNC cases were included as comparators. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR were determined by gender and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay and Indian. Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate annual percentage change (APC in incidence. OPSCC incidence increased in both genders (men 1993-2012, APC = 1.9%, p<0.001; women 1968-2012, APC = 2.0%, p = 0.01 and was 5 times higher in men than women. In contrast, non-OP HNC incidence declined between 1968-2012 among men (APC = -1.6%, p<0.001 and women (APC = -0.4%, p = 0.06. ASCC and ANSCC were rare (ASR = 0.2 and 0.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively and did not change significantly over time except for increasing ANSCCs in men (APC = 2.8%, p<0.001. ICC was the most common HPV-associated cancer (ASR = 19.9 per 100,000 person-years but declined significantly between 1968-2012 (APC = -2.4%. Incidence of each cancer varied across ethnicities. Similar to trends in Western countries, OPSCC incidence increased in recent years, while non-OP HNC decreased. ICC remains the most common HPV-related cancer in Singapore, but Pap screening programs have led to consistently decreasing incidence.

  17. Historical Trends in the Use of Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Cancers: 1973-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jairam, Vikram; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Yu, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. Methods: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. Results: RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. Conclusions: The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT

  18. Changing Trends of Skin Cancer: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study in Malwa Region of Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sonal Tina; Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1(st) December 2013 to 30(th) November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (phistory of prolonged exposure to sunlight. Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate use of pesticides is recommended.

  19. Historical Trends in the Use of Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Cancers: 1973-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Vikram [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Roberts, Kenneth B. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. Methods: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. Results: RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. Conclusions: The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT.

  20. Historical trends in the use of radiation therapy for pediatric cancers: 1973-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Vikram; Roberts, Kenneth B; Yu, James B

    2013-03-01

    This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer Development, Progression, and Therapy: An Epigenetic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sibaji; Horn, Garrick; Moulton, Kimberly; Oza, Anuja; Byler, Shannon; Kokolus, Shannon; Longacre, McKenna

    2013-01-01

    Carcinogenesis involves uncontrolled cell growth, which follows the activation of oncogenes and/or the deactivation of tumor suppression genes. Metastasis requires down-regulation of cell adhesion receptors necessary for tissue-specific, cell–cell attachment, as well as up-regulation of receptors that enhance cell motility. Epigenetic changes, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and DNA hydroxymethylation, can modify these characteristics. Targets for these epigenetic changes include signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and autophagy, as well as microRNA. We propose that predisposed normal cells convert to cancer progenitor cells that, after growing, undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This process, which is partially under epigenetic control, can create a metastatic form of both progenitor and full-fledged cancer cells, after which metastasis to a distant location may occur. Identification of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms has provided potential therapeutic avenues. In particular, epigenetic drugs appear to potentiate the action of traditional therapeutics, often by demethylating and re-expressing tumor suppressor genes to inhibit tumorigenesis. Epigenetic drugs may inhibit both the formation and growth of cancer progenitor cells, thus reducing the recurrence of cancer. Adopting epigenetic alteration as a new hallmark of cancer is a logical and necessary step that will further encourage the development of novel epigenetic biomarkers and therapeutics. PMID:24152442

  2. Cancer Development, Progression, and Therapy: An Epigenetic Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Longacre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis involves uncontrolled cell growth, which follows the activation of oncogenes and/or the deactivation of tumor suppression genes. Metastasis requires down-regulation of cell adhesion receptors necessary for tissue-specific, cell–cell attachment, as well as up-regulation of receptors that enhance cell motility. Epigenetic changes, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and DNA hydroxymethylation, can modify these characteristics. Targets for these epigenetic changes include signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and autophagy, as well as microRNA. We propose that predisposed normal cells convert to cancer progenitor cells that, after growing, undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This process, which is partially under epigenetic control, can create a metastatic form of both progenitor and full-fledged cancer cells, after which metastasis to a distant location may occur. Identification of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms has provided potential therapeutic avenues. In particular, epigenetic drugs appear to potentiate the action of traditional therapeutics, often by demethylating and re-expressing tumor suppressor genes to inhibit tumorigenesis. Epigenetic drugs may inhibit both the formation and growth of cancer progenitor cells, thus reducing the recurrence of cancer. Adopting epigenetic alteration as a new hallmark of cancer is a logical and necessary step that will further encourage the development of novel epigenetic biomarkers and therapeutics.

  3. [Trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer in Murcia Region (Spain) from 1984 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Navarro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To study the trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer. We selected incident cases of thyroid cancer occurring in the Region of Murcia (Spain) in 1984-2008. The variables gathered were age, sex, date of diagnosis, and morphology. We calculated incidence rates and the annual percentage of change using Bayesian age-period-cohort models. During the study period, 1414 cases were diagnosed, representing an increase in adjusted rates from 2.9/100000 in 1984-1988 to 7.3 in 2004-2008. The incidence was 3.5 times higher in women than in men and the most frequent morphology was papillary carcinoma (67.7%). An increasing trend was found in both genders; these increments were more pronounced in papillary carcinoma. In women, the incidence increased with age, calendar year, and in those born in 1945-1963. The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma increased four-fold in women. Thyroid cancer used to be a rare cancer but has become an emerging tumor. The greatest changes were found in papillary thyroid cancer, including a gradual increase in the proportion of microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Autophagy regulated by miRNAs in colorectal cancer progression and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fesler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The catabolic process of autophagy is an essential cellular function that allows for the breakdown and recycling of cellular macromolecules. In recent years, the impact of epigenetic regulation of autophagy by noncoding miRNAs has been recognized in human cancer. In colorectal cancer, autophagy plays critical roles in cancer progression as well as resistance to chemotherapy, and recent evidence demonstrates that miRNAs are directly involved in mediating these functions. In this review, we focus on the recent advancements in the field of miRNA regulation of autophagy in colorectal cancer.

  5. Incidence and mortality of lung cancer: global trends and association with socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lao, Xiang Qian; Ho, Kin-Fai; Goggins, William B; Tse, Shelly L A

    2017-10-30

    We examined the correlation between lung cancer incidence/mortality and country-specific socioeconomic development, and evaluated its most recent global trends. We retrieved its age-standardized incidence rates from the GLOBOCAN database, and temporal patterns were assessed from global databases. We employed simple linear regression analysis to evaluate their correlations with Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. The average annual percent changes (AAPC) of the trends were evaluated from join-point regression analysis. Country-specific HDI was strongly correlated with age-standardized incidence (r = 0.70) and mortality (r = 0.67), and to a lesser extent GDP (r = 0.24 to 0.55). Among men, 22 and 30 (out of 38 and 36) countries showed declining incidence and mortality trends, respectively; whilst among women, 19 and 16 countries showed increasing incidence and mortality trends, respectively. Among men, the AAPCs ranged from -2.8 to -0.6 (incidence) and -3.6 to -1.1 (mortality) in countries with declining trend, whereas among women the AAPC range was 0.4 to 8.9 (incidence) and 1 to 4.4 (mortality) in countries with increasing trend. Among women, Brazil, Spain and Cyprus had the greatest incidence increase, and all countries in Western, Southern and Eastern Europe reported increasing mortality. These findings highlighted the need for targeted preventive measures.

  6. [Research progress and trend analysis of biology and chemistry of Taxus medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Huo, Li

    2012-07-01

    Taxus is the source plant of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursor, analogs and derivatives, which has been studying for decades. There are many endemic Taxus species in China, which have been studied in the field of multiple disciplines. Based on the recent studies of the researchers, this review comments on the study of Taxus biology and chemistry. The bibliometric method is used to quantify the global scientific production of Taxus-related research, and identify patterns and tendencies of Taxus-related articles. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Taxus and their endophytic fungi. Systems biology and various omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades.

  7. Stem Cell Plasticity and Niche Dynamics in Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Noemi; Gatenby, Robert A; Anderson, Alexander R A

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to initiate and drive tumor growth and recurrence due to their self-renewal ability. If correct, this hypothesis implies that successful therapy must focus primarily on eradication of this CSC fraction. However, recent evidence suggests stemness is niche dependent and may represent one of many phenotypic states that can be accessed by many cancer genotypes when presented with specific environmental cues. A better understanding of the relationship of stemness to niche-related phenotypic plasticity could lead to alternative treatment strategies. Here, we investigate the role of environmental context in the expression of stem-like cell properties through in-silico simulation of ductal carcinoma. We develop a two-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum cellular automata model to describe the single-cell scale dynamics of multicellular tissue formation. Through a suite of simulations, we investigate interactions between a phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cell population and a dynamic environment. We generate homeostatic ductal structures that consist of a mixture of stem and differentiated cells governed by both intracellular and environmental dynamics. We demonstrate that a wide spectrum of tumor-like histologies can result from these structures by varying microenvironmental parameters. Niche driven phenotypic plasticity offers a simple first-principle explanation for the diverse ductal structures observed in histological sections from breast cancer. Conventional models of carcinogenesis largely focus on mutational events. We demonstrate that variations in the environmental niche can produce intraductal cancers independent of genetic changes in the resident cells. Therapies targeting the microenvironmental niche may offer an alternative cancer prevention strategy.

  8. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Oxidative Stress Interplay: Implications in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Jelena; Trivanović, Drenka; Mojsilović, Slavko; Santibanez, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and oxidative stress/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) both have pivotal roles in health and disease. In this review we are analyzing the interplay between TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. They have contradictory roles in cancer progression since both can have antitumor effects, through the induction of cell death, senescence and cell cycle arrest, and protumor effects by contributing to cancer cell spreading, proliferation, survival, and metastasis. TGF-β can control ROS production directly or by downregulating antioxidative systems. Meanwhile, ROS can influence TGF-β signaling and increase its expression as well as its activation from the latent complex. This way, both are building a strong interplay which can be taken as an advantage by cancer cells in order to increment their malignancy. In addition, both TGF-β and ROS are able to induce cell senescence, which in one way protects damaged cells from neoplastic transformation but also may collaborate in cancer progression. The mutual collaboration of TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis is highly complex, and, due to their differential roles in tumor progression, careful consideration should be taken when thinking of combinatorial targeting in cancer therapies. PMID:26078812

  9. Local Progression among Men with Conservatively Treated Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the Transatlantic Prostate Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James A.; Kattan, Michael W.; Fearn, Paul; Fisher, Gabrielle; Berney, Daniel M.; Oliver, Tim; Foster, Christopher S.; Møller, Henrik; Reuter, Victor; Cuzick, Jack; Scardino, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer treated without curative intent are at risk of complications from local tumor growth. We investigated rates of local progression and need for local therapy among such men. Methods Men diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1990–1996 were identified from cancer registries throughout the United Kingdom. Inclusion criteria were age ≤76 yr at diagnosis, PSA level ≤100 ng/ml, and, within 6 mo after diagnosis, no radiation therapy, radical prostatectomy, evidence of metastatic disease, or death. Local progression was defined as increase in clinical stage from T1/2 to T3/T4 disease, T3 to T4 disease, and/or need for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to relieve symptoms >6 mo after cancer diagnosis. Results The study included 2333 men with median follow-up of 85 mo (range: 6–174). Diagnosis was by TURP in 1255 men (54%), needle biopsy in 1039 (45%), and unspecified in 39 (2%). Only 29% were treated with hormonal therapy within 6 mo of diagnosis. Local progression occurred in 335 men, including 212 undergoing TURP. Factors most predictive of local progression on multivariable analysis were PSA at diagnosis and Gleason score of the diagnostic tissue (detrimental), and early hormonal therapy (protective). We present a nomogram that predicts the likelihood of local progression within 120 mo after diagnosis. Conclusions Men with clinically detected localized prostate cancer managed without curative intent have an approximately 15% risk for local progression within 10 yr of diagnosis. Among those with progression, the need for treatment is common, even among men diagnosed by TURP. When counseling men who are candidates for management without curative intent, the likelihood of symptoms from local progression must be considered. PMID:17544572

  10. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: Inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer progression: reciprocal tumor–microenvironment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Baruch, A

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of breast cancer development and progression suggests that the process is influenced by intrinsic properties of the tumor cells, as well as by microenvironmental factors. Indeed, in breast carcinoma, an intensive interplay exists between the tumor cells on one hand, and inflammatory cells/cytokines/chemokines on the other. The purpose of the present review is to outline the reciprocal interactions that exist between these different elements, and to shed light on their potential involvement in breast cancer development and progression

  11. Trends in spread of the particle therapy of cancers to areal bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuyuki; Aoki, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the rate of cancer death accounts for 30%, now there are 8 facilities having the cancer particle therapy (PT) which is promising due to its highly effective, short term, non-surgical, not always expensive treatment, and local areas have tended to construct such facility for their people. This special article describes trends in the title concerning the areal intention for setting up the therapeutic bases, global trend of PT, research and development in manufacturers of PT equipments, and response of health insurer to the trend. The article contains following 15 topics presented by 15 authors or groups of the academia, official and company institutes, prefectural officers, manufacturers and an insurer, and by Editorial. Topics are: Significance and future view of PT in cancer treatment; Present state of construction of PT facilities in various areas; Fifteen year-results of PT in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and its effort to spread the therapy; Gumma University's 21st century program COE (Center of Excellence), Medical and Biological Studies with Accelerator Technology; Project for constructing Fukui Prefectural Proton PT Center; The role of Proton PT Center in southern Tohoku area as the first private facility; PT center by Foundation of Medipolis Medical Research Institute in southern Kyushu area; Global trend of PT; Spread of PT and the role of health insurance in it/Mitsui-Sumitomo's health insurance, Kirameki, the contribution to general public; Mitsubishi Electric Corp.'s effort to spread PT equipments; Toshiba's effort; Hitachi's effort; Sumitomo Heavy Industries' effort; Effort by Chiyoda Technol Corp. and Still River Systems to develop the next generation superconducting PT equipment; and Overview by Editorial/Complicated trend in invitation and construction of PT facilities. (K.T.)

  12. Rising trends of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Baron, J H

    2010-10-01

    The risk of dying from gastric cancer appears to have increased among consecutive generations born during the 19th century. To follow the time trends of hospitalization for gastric cancer and test whether they confirm such increase. Inpatient records of the last two centuries from four hospitals in Scotland and three US hospitals were analysed. Proportional rates of hospitalization for gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were calculated during consecutive 5-year periods. The data from all seven cities revealed strikingly similar patterns. No hospital admissions for gastric cancer or peptic ulcer were recorded prior to 1800. Hospital admissions for gastric cancer increased in an exponential fashion throughout the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. In a majority of cities, the rise in hospitalization for gastric cancer preceded a similar rise in hospitalization for gastric ulcer. Hospitalization for these two latter diagnoses clearly preceded hospitalization for duodenal ulcer by 20-40 years. The occurrence of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer markedly increased during the 19th century. Improvements in hygiene may have resulted in the decline of infections by other gastrointestinal organisms that had previously kept concomitant infection by Helicobacter pylori suppressed. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. New insights into survival trend analyses in cancer population-based studies: the SUDCAN methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhry, Zoé; Bossard, Nadine; Remontet, Laurent; Iwaz, Jean; Roche, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the SUDCAN study was to compare, for 15 cancer sites, the trends in net survival and excess mortality rates from cancer 5 years after diagnosis between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland). The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. The study period ranged from 6 (Portugal, 2000-2005) to 18 years (Switzerland, 1989-2007). Trend analyses were carried out separately for each country and cancer site; the number of cases ranged from 1500 to 104 000 cases. We developed an original flexible excess rate modelling strategy that accounts for the continuous effects of age, year of diagnosis, time since diagnosis and their interactions. Nineteen models were constructed; they differed in the modelling of the effect of the year of diagnosis in terms of linearity, proportionality and interaction with age. The final model was chosen according to the Akaike Information Criterion. The fit was assessed graphically by comparing model estimates versus nonparametric (Pohar-Perme) net survival estimates. Out of the 90 analyses carried out, the effect of the year of diagnosis on the excess mortality rate depended on age in 61 and was nonproportional in 64; it was nonlinear in 27 out of the 75 analyses where this effect was considered. The model fit was overall satisfactory. We analysed successfully 15 cancer sites in six countries. The refined methodology proved necessary for detailed trend analyses. It is hoped that three-dimensional parametric modelling will be used more widely in net survival trend studies as it has major advantages over stratified analyses.

  14. Enhanced Heme Function and Mitochondrial Respiration Promote the Progression of Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M.; Sullivan, Laura A.; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  15. Dietary folate deficiency blocks prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistulfi, Gaia; Foster, Barbara A; Karasik, Ellen; Gillard, Bryan; Miecznikowski, Jeff; Dhiman, Vineet K; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2011-11-01

    Dietary folate is essential in all tissues to maintain several metabolite pools and cellular proliferation. Prostate cells, due to specific metabolic characteristics, have increased folate demand to support proliferation and prevent genetic and epigenetic damage. Although several studies have found that dietary folate interventions can affect colon cancer biology in rodent models, its impact on prostate is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary folate manipulation, possibly being of primary importance for prostate epithelial cell metabolism, could significantly affect prostate cancer progression. Strikingly, mild dietary folate depletion arrested prostate cancer progression in 25 of 26 transgenic adenoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, in which tumorigenesis is prostate-specific and characteristically aggressive. The significant effect on prostate cancer growth was characterized by size, grade, proliferation, and apoptosis analyses. Folate supplementation had a mild, nonsignificant, beneficial effect on grade. In addition, characterization of folate pools (correlated with serum), metabolite pools (polyamines and nucleotides), genetic and epigenetic damage, and expression of key biosynthetic enzymes in prostate tissue revealed interesting correlations with tumor progression. These findings indicate that prostate cancer is highly sensitive to folate manipulation and suggest that antifolates, paired with current therapeutic strategies, might significantly improve treatment of prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men.

  16. Quantitative PET Imaging with Novel HER3 Targeted Peptides Selected by Phage Display to Predict Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Independent Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Benjamin Larimer, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital Boston...3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2016 – 31 July 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Quantitative PET Imaging with Novel HER3...Targeted Peptides Selected by Phage Display to Predict Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0447 5c

  17. Exogenous fatty acid binding protein 4 promotes human prostate cancer cell progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Hisanori; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Oha, Mina; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Izumi, Keisuke

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that obesity is associated with malignant grade and mortality in prostate cancer. Several adipokines have been implicated as putative mediating factors between obesity and prostate cancer. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), a member of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein multigene family, was recently identified as a novel adipokine. Although FABP4 is released from adipocytes and mean circulating concentrations of FABP4 are linked with obesity, effects of exogenous FABP4 on prostate cancer progression are unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of exogenous FABP4 on human prostate cancer cell progression. FABP4 treatment promoted serum-induced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro. Furthermore, oleic acid promoted prostate cancer cell invasion only if FABP4 was present in the medium. These promoting effects were reduced by FABP4 inhibitor, which inhibits FABP4 binding to fatty acids. Immunostaining for FABP4 showed that exogenous FABP4 was taken up into DU145 cells in three-dimensional culture. In mice, treatment with FABP4 inhibitor reduced the subcutaneous growth and lung metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the number of apoptotic cells, positive for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, was increased in subcutaneous tumors of FABP4 inhibitor-treated mice, as compared with control mice. These results suggest that exogenous FABP4 might promote human prostate cancer cell progression by binding with fatty acids. Additionally, exogenous FABP4 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, independently of binding to fatty acids. Thus, FABP4 might be a key molecule to understand the mechanisms underlying the obesity-prostate cancer progression link. © 2014 UICC.

  18. Citation classics in neuro-oncology: assessment of historical trends and scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mansouri, Alireza; Juraschka, Kyle; Taslimi, Shervin; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2017-09-01

    Citation classics represent the highest cited works in a field and are often regarded as the most influential literature. Analyzing thematic trends in citation classics across eras enables recognition of important historical advances within a field. We present the first analysis of the citation classics in neuro-oncology. The Web of Science database was searched using terms relevant to "neuro-oncology." Articles with >400 citations were identified and the top 100 cited articles were evaluated. The top 100 neuro-oncology citation classics consisted of 43 clinical studies (17 retrospective, 10 prospective, 16 randomized trials), 43 laboratory investigations, 8 reviews/meta-analyses, and 6 guidelines/consensus statements. Articles were classified into 4 themes: 13 pertained to tumor classification, 37 to tumor pathogenesis/clinical presentation, 6 to imaging, 44 to therapy (15 chemotherapy, 10 radiotherapy, 5 surgery, 14 new agents). Gliomas were the most common tumor type examined, with 70 articles. There was a significant increase in the number of citation classics in the late 1990s, which was paralleled by an increase in studies examining tumor pathogenesis, chemotherapy, and new agents along with laboratory and randomized studies. The majority of citation classics in neuro-oncology are related to gliomas and pertain to tumor pathogenesis and treatment. The rise in citation classics in recent years investigating tumor biology, new treatment agents, and chemotherapeutics may reflect increasing scientific interest in nonsurgical treatments for CNS tumors and the need for fundamental investigations into disease processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Divergent estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer trends and etiologic heterogeneity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Rosenberg, Philip S; Petito, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    -period-cohort models to estimate age-specific EAPCs, cohort rate ratios and projections for future time periods (2011-2018). In Denmark, the overall rate of ER-positive cancers rose between 1993 and 2010 by 3.0% per year (95% CI: 2.8-3.3% per year), whereas the overall rate of ER-negative cancers fell by 2.1% per year...... (95% CI: -2.5 to -1.6% per year). The ER-positive rate increased fastest among postmenopausal women and the ER-negative rate decreased fastest among premenopausal women, reflecting that cohorts born after 1944 were at relatively higher risk of ER-positive tumors and lower risk of ER-negative tumors......Long-term breast cancer trends in incidence in the United States (US) show rising estrogen receptor (ER)-positive rates and falling ER-negative rates. We hypothesized that these divergent trends reflect etiologic heterogeneity and that comparable trends should be observed in other countries...

  20. Clonal expansion and linear genome evolution through breast cancer progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer necessita......Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer...... progression from one breast cancer patient, including two different regions of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), primary tumor and an asynchronous metastasis. We identify a remarkable landscape of somatic mutations, retained throughout breast cancer progression and with new mutational events emerging at each...

  1. Time trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, Outi; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Pukkala, Eero; Syvänen, Kari; Boström, Peter J

    2018-02-20

    To describe the trends and occupational variation in the incidence of testicular cancer in the Nordic countries utilising national cancer registries, NORDCAN (NORDCAN project/database presents the incidence, mortality, prevalence and survival from >50 cancers in the Nordic countries) and NOCCA (Nordic Occupational Cancer) databases. We obtained the incidence data of testicular cancer for 5-year periods from 1960-1964 to 2000-2014 and for 5-year age-groups from the NORDCAN database. Morphological data on incident cases of seminoma and non-seminoma were obtained from national cancer registries. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASR) were calculated per 100 000 person-years (World Standard). Regression analysis was used to evaluate the annual change in the incidence of testicular cancer in each of the Nordic countries. The risk of testicular cancer in different professions was described based on NOCCA information and expressed as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). During 2010-2014 the ASR for testicular cancer varied from 11.3 in Norway to 5.8 in Finland. Until 1998, the incidence was highest in Denmark. There has not been an increase in Denmark and Iceland since the 1990s, whilst the incidence is still strongly increasing in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. There were no remarkable changes in the ratio of seminoma and non-seminoma incidences during the past 50 years. There was no increase in the incidences in children and those of pension age. The highest significant excess risks of testicular seminoma were found in physicians (SIR 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99), artistic workers (SIR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-1.99) and religious workers etc. (SIR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56). The lowest SIRs of testicular seminoma were seen amongst cooks and stewards (SIR 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-0.98), and forestry workers (SIR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.86). The occupational category of administrators was the only one with a significantly elevated SIR for testicular non-seminoma (SIR 1.21, 95

  2. Targeted Cancer Therapy: Vital Oncogenes and a New Molecular Genetic Paradigm for Cancer Initiation Progression and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rudolph E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis. PMID:27649156

  3. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  4. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Thorsten; Wissenbach, Ulrich; Grobholz, Rainer; Flockerzi, Veit

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is a Ca 2+ selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6 alleles in healthy control individuals and prostate cancer patients

  5. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Thorsten; Wissenbach, Ulrich; Grobholz, Rainer; Flockerzi, Veit

    2009-10-26

    The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is a Ca(2+) selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6 alleles in healthy control individuals and prostate cancer patients

  6. TRPV6 alleles do not influence prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flockerzi Veit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6 is a Ca2+ selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. Methods Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. Results We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. Conclusion Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6

  7. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Activin pathway enhances colorectal cancer stem cell self-renew and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Xu, Chengxiong; Sun, Bo; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-10-28

    Activin belongs to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super family of growth and differentiation factors and activin pathway participated in broad range of cell process. Studies elaborated activin pathway maintain pluripotency in human stem cells and suggest that the function of activin/nodal signaling in self-renew would be conserved across embryonic and adult stem cells. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of activin signaling pathway in regulation of cancer stem cells as a potential target for cancer therapy in clinical trials. A population of colorectal cancer cells was selected by the treatment of activin A. This population of cell possessed stem cell character with sphere formation ability. We demonstrated activin pathway enhanced the colorectal cancer stem cells self-renew and contribute to colorectal cancer progression in vivo. Targeting activin pathway potentially provide effective strategy for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MicroRNAs to Pathways in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Probasin-Cre) [38]. Analysis of resulting mice showed that deletion of Dgcr8 did not influence early epithelial hyperplasia , but severely disrupted further...dysplasia (Fig 3A). Hyperplasia was defined as tubules showing epithelial cell expansion often bridging across the lumen, whereby cells appeared... epithelial cells showed a defect in expansion of the basal epithelial , a failure to overcome Akt induced senescence, and an associated block in progression

  10. Estrogen receptor signaling in prostate cancer: Implications for carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkhoff, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression. Recent experimental and clinical data were reviewed to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms how estrogens and their receptors may affect prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the most prevalent ER in the human prostate, while the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is restricted to basal cells of the prostatic epithelium and stromal cells. In high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the ERα is up-regulated and most likely mediates carcinogenic effects of estradiol as demonstrated in animal models. The partial loss of the ERβ in HGPIN indicates that the ERβ acts as a tumor suppressor. The tumor promoting function of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, a major driver of prostate carcinogenesis, is triggered by the ERα and repressed by the ERβ. The ERβ is generally retained in hormone naïve and metastatic prostate cancer, but is partially lost in castration resistant disease. The progressive emergence of the ERα and ERα-regulated genes (eg, progesterone receptor (PR), PS2, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and NEAT1) during prostate cancer progression and hormone refractory disease suggests that these tumors can bypass the AR by using estrogens and progestins for their growth. In addition, nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways mediated by orphan receptors (eg, GPR30 and ERRα) has also been implicated in prostate cancer progression. Increasing evidences demonstrate that local estrogen signaling mechanisms are required for prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Despite the recent progress in this research topic, the translation of the current information into potential therapeutic applications remains highly challenging and clearly warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Metformin blocks progression of obesity-activated thyroid cancer in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongwon; Kim, Won Gu; Zhao, Li; Enomoto, Keisuke; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2016-06-07

    Compelling epidemiologic evidence indicates that obesity is associated with a high risk of human malignancies, including thyroid cancer. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet (HFD) effectively induces the obese phenotype in a mouse model of aggressive follicular thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice). We showed that HFD promotes cancer progression through aberrant activation of the leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway. HFD-promoted thyroid cancer progression allowed us to test other molecular targets for therapeutic opportunity for obesity-induced thyroid cancer. Metformin is a widely used drug to treat patients with type II diabetes. It has been shown to reduce incidences of neoplastic diseases and cancer mortality in type II diabetes patients. The present study aimed to test whether metformin could be a therapeutic for obesity-activated thyroid cancer. ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice were fed HFD together with metformin or vehicle-only, as controls, for 20 weeks. While HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice had shorter survival than LFD-treated mice, metformin had no effects on the survival of HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice. Remarkably, metformin markedly decreased occurrence of capsular invasion and completely blocked vascular invasion and anaplasia in HFD-ThrbPV/PVPten+/-mice without affecting thyroid tumor growth. The impeded cancer progression was due to the inhibitory effect of metformin on STAT3-ERK-vimentin and fibronectin-integrin signaling to decrease tumor cell invasion and de-differentiation. The present studies provide additional molecular evidence to support the link between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. Importantly, our findings suggest that metformin could be used as an adjuvant in combination with antiproliferative modalities to improve the outcome of patients with obesity-activated thyroid cancer.

  12. Lysine methyltransferase SMYD2 promotes triple negative breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Xiaoyan; Zhou, Julie Xia; Calvet, James P; Godwin, Andrew K; Jensen, Roy A; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-02-27

    We identified SMYD2, a SMYD (SET and MYND domain) family protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a novel breast cancer oncogene. SMYD2 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer cell lines and in breast tumor tissues. Silencing of SMYD2 by RNAi in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines or inhibition of SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. SMYD2 executes this activity via methylation and activation of its novel non-histone substrates, including STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased TNBC cell proliferation and survival. There are cross-talk and synergistic effects among SMYD2, STAT3, and NF-κB in TNBC cells, in that STAT3 can contribute to the modification of NF-κB p65 subunit post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, whereas the p65 subunit of NF-κB can also contribute to the modification of STAT3 post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, leading to methylation and activation of STAT3 and p65 in these cells. The expression of SMYD2 can be upregulated by IL-6-STAT3 and TNFα-NF-κB signaling, which integrates epigenetic regulation to inflammation in TNBC development. In addition, we have identified a novel SMYD2 transcriptional target gene, PTPN13, which links SMYD2 to other known breast cancer associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling via PTPN13 mediated phosphorylation.

  13. Association between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancer: Progress and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Cai, Sanjun; Ma, Yanlei

    2018-01-01

    The initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) involves genetic and epigenetic alterations influenced by dietary and environmental factors. Increasing evidence has linked the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer. More recently, Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), an opportunistic commensal anaerobe in the oral cavity, has been associated with CRC. Several research teams have reported an overabundance of Fn in human CRC and have elucidated the possible mechanisms by which Fn is involved in colorectal carcinogenesis in vitro and in mouse models. However, the mechanisms by which Fn promotes colorectal carcinogenesis remain unclear. To provide new perspectives for early diagnosis, the identification of high risk populations and treatment for colorectal cancer, this review will summarize the relative research progresses regarding the relationship between Fn and colorectal cancer. PMID:29760804

  14. Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity - United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Thomas, Cheryll C; Henley, S Jane; Massetti, Greta M; Galuska, Deborah A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Puckett, Mary; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-10-03

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site. Because screening for colorectal cancer can reduce colorectal cancer incidence through detection of precancerous polyps before they become cancerous, trends with and without colorectal cancer were analyzed. In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of a cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates for overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005-2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20-74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence

  15. Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2)-Induced Inflammation in Initiation, Progression, and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Kapil, E-mail: kmehta@mdanderson.org; Han, Amy [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is among the deadliest cancers, with a median survival of six months. It is generally believed that infiltrating PC arises through the progression of early grade pancreatic intraepithelial lesions (PanINs). In one model of the disease, the K-ras mutation is an early molecular event during progression of pancreatic cancer; it is followed by the accumulation of additional genetic abnormalities. This model has been supported by animal studies in which activated K-ras and p53 mutations produced metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. According to this model, oncogenic K-ras induces PanIN formation but fails to promote the invasive stage. However, when these mice are subjected to caerulein treatment, which induces a chronic pancreatitis-like state and inflammatory response, PanINs rapidly progress to invasive carcinoma. These results are consistent with epidemiologic studies showing that patients with chronic pancreatitis have a much higher risk of developing PC. In line with these observations, recent studies have revealed elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory protein tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in early PanINs, and its expression increases even more as the disease progresses. In this review we discuss the implications of increased TG2 expression in initiation, progression, and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

  16. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  17. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle

  18. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Song, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs), and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer

  19. A Critical Review on the Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Cancer Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Marnie; Baker, Kristi; Postovit, Lynne M; Field, Catherine J

    2017-08-17

    Globally, there were 14.1 million new cancer diagnoses and 8.2 million cancer deaths in 2012. For many cancers, conventional therapies are limited in their successes and an improved understanding of disease progression is needed in conjunction with exploration of alternative therapies. The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to enhance many cellular responses that reduce cancer cell viability and decrease proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. A small number of studies suggest that DHA improves chemotherapy outcomes in cancer patients. It is readily incorporated into cancer cell membranes and, as a result there has been considerable research regarding cell membrane initiated events. For example, DHA has been shown to mediate the induction of apoptosis/reduction of proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, there is limited research into the effect of DHA on cell cycle regulation in cancer cells and the mechanism(s) by which DHA acts are not fully understood. The purpose of the current review is to provide a critical examination of the literature investigating the ability of DHA to stall progression during different cell cycle phases in cancer cells, as well as the consequences that these changes may have on tumour growth, independently and in conjunction with chemotherapy.

  20. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y K; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P Y; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L M

    2017-02-10

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression.

  1. [Trends in the mortality of liver cancer in Qidong, China: an analysis of fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-guo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-hui; Chen, Yong-sheng; Ding, Lu-lu; Lu, Jian-hua; Zhu, Yuan-rong

    2012-07-01

    To describe and analyze the charecteristics and trends of liver cancer mortality during the past fifty years in Qidong, China. Retrospective mortality survey was conducted to get the data on liver cancer death in the period of 1958-1971, and the data from 1972 to 2007 were obtained from the records of cancer registration in Qidong. The crude mortality rate (CR) of liver cancer, and age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR) were calculated and analyzed. The total percent changes (PC) and annual percent changes (APC) were used for evaluating the increasing trends of the mortality. The sex-specific rate, age-specific rate, truncated rate of the age group 35 - 64, cumulative rate of the age group 0-74, cumulative risk, period-rate, and the rate for age-birth cohort were compared. The natural death rate in Qidong residents for the past five-decade period experienced a wave interval of 8.62‰ in 1958 down to 5.37‰ in 1979, and up to 7.75‰ in 2007. The mortality rate for all-site cancers was increased from 56.69 per 100, 000 to 234.97 per 100, 000. The mortality rate of liver cancer, being 20.45 per 100, 100 in 1958 was increased to 49.04 per 100, 000 in 1972, and up to 69.29 per 100, 000 in 2007. According to the registration data of 1972 - 2007, the death from liver cancer was accounted for 34.88% of all deaths due to cancers, with a CR of 58.86 per 100, 000, CASR of 38.36 per 100, 000, and WASR, 49.37 Per 100, 000 in Qidong. The truncated rate for the age group 35 - 64 was 117.08 per 100, 000, and the cumulative rate for the age group 0-74 and the cumulative risk were 5.15% and 5.02%, respectively. The CRs for males was 90.52 per 100, 000 and for females was 27.93 per 100, 000, with a sex ratio of 3.24:1. For the period of 1972 - 2007, the PC for CR was 49.71%, and APC was +1.41%, showing an increasing variation tendency. The APCs for CASR and WASR, however, were decreasing, with a percentage of -1.11%, and -0

  2. Frequent Loss of Cystatin E/M Expression Implicated in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pulukuri, Sai Murali Krishna; Gorantla, Bharathi; Knost, James A.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2009-01-01

    Cystatin E/M (CST6) is a natural inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Recent studies have shown that experimental manipulation of CST6 expression alters the metastatic behavior of human breast cancer cells. However, the association of CST6 with prostate cancer invasion and progression is remains unclear. Here, we show that CST6 is robustly expressed in normal human prostate epithelium while its expression is downregulated in metastatic prostate cell lines and prostate tumor tissues. Tre...

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Video in Advance Care Planning for Progressive Pancreas and Hepatobiliary Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Chen, Ling Y.; Gary, Kristen A.; Li, Yuelin; Agre, Patricia; Levin, Tomer T.; Reidy, Diane L.; Meng, Raymond D.; Segal, Neil H.; Yu, Kenneth H.; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important advance directive (AD) topic in patients with progressive cancer; however such discussions are challenging. Objective This study investigates whether video educational information about CPR engenders broader advance care planning (ACP) discourse. Methods Patients with progressive pancreas or hepatobiliary cancer were randomized to an educational CPR video or a similar CPR narrative. The primary end-point was the difference in ACP documentation one month posttest between arms. Secondary end-points included study impressions; pre- and post-intervention knowledge of and preferences for CPR and mechanical ventilation; and longitudinal patient outcomes. Results Fifty-six subjects were consented and analyzed. Rates of ACP documentation (either formal ADs or documented discussions) were 40% in the video arm (12/30) compared to 15% in the narrative arm (4/26), OR=3.6 [95% CI: 0.9–18.0], p=0.07. Post-intervention knowledge was higher in both arms. Posttest, preferences for CPR had changed in the video arm but not in the narrative arm. Preferences regarding mechanical ventilation did not change in either arm. The majority of subjects in both arms reported the information as helpful and comfortable to discuss, and they recommended it to others. More deaths occurred in the video arm compared to the narrative arm, and more subjects died in hospice settings in the video arm. Conclusions This pilot randomized trial addressing downstream ACP effects of video versus narrative decision tools demonstrated a trend towards more ACP documentation in video subjects. This trend, as well as other video effects, is the subject of ongoing study. PMID:23725233

  4. Cancer incidence rates and trends among children and adolescents in Piedmont, 1967-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaevska, Elena; Manasievska, Milena; Alessi, Daniela; Mosso, Maria Luisa; Magnani, Corrado; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pastore, Guido; Fagioli, Franca; Merletti, Franco; Maule, Milena

    2017-01-01

    In the past, increases in childhood cancer incidence were reported in Europe and North America. The aim of this study is to show updated patterns of temporal behavior using data of the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP), a region with approximately 4.5 million inhabitants in North-West Italy. CCRP has been recording incident cases in children (0-14 years) since 1967 and in adolescents (15-19) since 2000. Time trends were estimated as annual percent change (APC) over the 1976-2011 period for children, and over 2000-2011 for both children and adolescents. CCRP registered 5020 incident cases from 1967 to 2011. Incidence rates were 157 per million person-years for children (1967-2011) and 282 for adolescents (2000-2011). From 1976-2011, increasing trends were observed in children for all neoplasms (APC 1.1, 95%CI: 0.8; 1.5) and for both embryonal and non-embryonal tumors: 1.1%, (0.5; 1.6) and 1.2%, (0.7; 1.6), respectively. Increases were observed in several tumor types, including leukemia, lymphoma, central nervous system tumors and neuroblastoma. In 2000-2011, incidence rates showed mostly non statistically significant variations and large variability. The observation of trends over a long period shows that the incidence of most tumors has increased, and this is only partially explained by diagnostic changes. Large rate variability hampers interpretation of trend patterns in short periods. Given that no satisfying explanation for the increases observed in the past was ever found, efforts must be made to understand and interpret this peculiar and still ununderstood pattern of childhood cancer incidence.

  5. Cancer incidence rates and trends among children and adolescents in Piedmont, 1967-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Isaevska

    Full Text Available In the past, increases in childhood cancer incidence were reported in Europe and North America. The aim of this study is to show updated patterns of temporal behavior using data of the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP, a region with approximately 4.5 million inhabitants in North-West Italy. CCRP has been recording incident cases in children (0-14 years since 1967 and in adolescents (15-19 since 2000. Time trends were estimated as annual percent change (APC over the 1976-2011 period for children, and over 2000-2011 for both children and adolescents. CCRP registered 5020 incident cases from 1967 to 2011. Incidence rates were 157 per million person-years for children (1967-2011 and 282 for adolescents (2000-2011. From 1976-2011, increasing trends were observed in children for all neoplasms (APC 1.1, 95%CI: 0.8; 1.5 and for both embryonal and non-embryonal tumors: 1.1%, (0.5; 1.6 and 1.2%, (0.7; 1.6, respectively. Increases were observed in several tumor types, including leukemia, lymphoma, central nervous system tumors and neuroblastoma. In 2000-2011, incidence rates showed mostly non statistically significant variations and large variability. The observation of trends over a long period shows that the incidence of most tumors has increased, and this is only partially explained by diagnostic changes. Large rate variability hampers interpretation of trend patterns in short periods. Given that no satisfying explanation for the increases observed in the past was ever found, efforts must be made to understand and interpret this peculiar and still ununderstood pattern of childhood cancer incidence.

  6. Role of body composition and metabolic profile in Barrett's oesophagus and progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Cheung, Wui Hang; Fini, Lucia; Keane, Margaret G; Theis, Belinda; Haidry, Rehan; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Lovat, Laurence; Batterham, Rachel L; Banks, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for Barrett's oesophagus (BE) on the basis of body composition, metabolic pathways, adipokines and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as their role in cancer progression. In patients with and without BE at gastroscopy, data on MS, BMI, waist/hip ratio for abdominal obesity (AO) and body fat percentage by bioimpedance were obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid, serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured. The homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Histological findings for BE were correlated with the above parameters. Risk factors for BE identified using univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 250 patients and 224 controls (F/M: 189/285, mean age 58.08±15.51 years) were enroled. In the BE and control groups, 39.6 versus 31.3% were overweight, 32 versus 22.8% were obese, 75.6 versus 51.3% had AO, and 28.1 versus 18.9% were metabolically obese, respectively. AO [odds ratio (OR) 3.08], increased body fat percentage (OR 2.29), and higher BMI (overweight: OR 2.04; obese: OR 2.26) were significantly associated with BE. A positive trend was found in Normal Weight Obese Syndrome (OR 1.69). MS was associated with BE (overweight: OR 3.05; obese: OR 5.2; AO: OR 8.08). Insulin levels (P=0.05) and HOMA-IR (Pbody composition.

  7. NFIX as a Master Regulator for Lung Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor I. A. Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available About 40% of lung cancer cases globally are diagnosed at the advanced stage. Lung cancer has a high mortality and overall survival in stage I disease is only 70%. This study was aimed at finding a candidate of transcription regulator that initiates the mechanism for metastasis by integrating computational and functional studies. The genes involved in lung cancer were retrieved using in silico software. 10 kb promoter sequences upstream were scanned for the master regulator. Transient transfection of shRNA NFIXs were conducted against A549 and NCI-H1299 cell lines. qRT-PCR and functional assays for cell proliferation, migration and invasion were carried out to validate the involvement of NFIX in metastasis. Genome-wide gene expression microarray using a HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip Kit was performed to identify differentially expressed genes and construct a new regulatory network. The in silico analysis identified NFIX as a master regulator and is strongly associated with 17 genes involved in the migration and invasion pathways including IL6ST, TIMP1 and ITGB1. Silencing of NFIX showed reduced expression of IL6ST, TIMP1 and ITGB1 as well as the cellular proliferation, migration and invasion processes. The data was integrated with the in silico analyses to find the differentially expressed genes. Microarray analysis showed that 18 genes were expressed differentially in both cell lines after statistical analyses integration between t-test, LIMMA and ANOVA with Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment at p-value < 0.05. A transcriptional regulatory network was created using all 18 genes, the existing regulated genes including the new genes PTCH1, NFAT5 and GGCX that were found highly associated with NFIX, the master regulator of metastasis. This study suggests that NFIX is a promising target for therapeutic intervention that is expected to inhibit metastatic recurrence and improve survival rate.

  8. UG311, An Oncofetal Marker Lost with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    resulted in neonatal lethality and further exacerbation of the dwarfism to about 30% of control size [28]. By contrast, the overexpression of GH or IGF-1...inhibitory as retinoic acid (RA) treatment initiates rapid degradation of IGFBP-2 and an increased synthesis of IGF-2 [127]. As RA promotes cell growth both...upregulation of IGFBP-2 mRNA in response to low dose androgen treatment in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. It is not clear 19 whether this is

  9. Hypoxia and Prx1 in Malignant Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    promoter composition of human prx1 gene and identified EpRE elements and Nrf2 as critical regulatory component of its up- regulation in prostate cancer...nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm in the rat kidney (42). The presence of Prx1 in the nucleolus of hepatic parenchymal cells has also been shown in the...Gpx; KO, knock-out; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase. THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY VOL. 282, NO. 30, pp. 22011–22022, July 27, 2007 © 2007 by The

  10. Deregulation of HOX B13 expression in urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, L; Cantile, M; Scognamiglio, G; Perdonà, S; La Mantia, E; Cerrone, M; Gigantino, V; Cillo, C; Caraglia, M; Pignata, S; Facchini, G; Botti, G; Chieffi, S; Chieffi, P; Franco, R

    2013-02-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy in industrialized countries. More than 90% of bladder cancer originates in the transitional cells. Bladder transitional cancer prognosis is, according to the most recent definition related to the level of tumor infiltration, characterized by two main phenotypes, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (NMIBC) and Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (MIBC). The genetic profile and the clinical course of the two subtypes are completely different, however among NMIBC the prognosis is not completely predictable, since 20% of the cases experience a relapse, even in the form of MIBC. It has recently been reported that the chromosomal region 12q13-15, containing crucial cancer genes such as MDM2, CDK4, GLI and an entire cluster of HOX genes, is amplified in bladder cancer. HOX genes codify for transcriptionl factor, involved in embryonal development and cancer progression, with main nuclear expression. Particularly it was also described the strong involvement of HOX B13 in several tumors of urogenital system. In this study we have been investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX B13 expression in bladder cancer evolution and progression, evaluating its ability to discriminate between NMIBC and MBCI phenotypes. Cytoplasmic HOX B13 delocalization significantly relates with muscle invasion (p 0.004). In addition in the series of NMIBC nuclear HOX B13 expression loss is significantly associated to shorter disease free survival (p-value=0.038) defining a potential prognostic role. Overexpression of HOX B13 in more aggressive phenotype is also demonstrate at gene level by quantitative RT-PCR. The de-regulation and delocalization of HOX B13 in urinary bladder cancer supports again the important role of HOX genes in tumor evolution and represents a starting point to establish an integrated analysis, in which HOX genes represent important prognostic and predictive markers for bladder

  11. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  12. International variation in lung cancer mortality rates and trends among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-06-01

    There is no recent comprehensive global analysis of lung cancer mortality in women. We describe contemporary mortality rates and trends among women globally. We used the World Health Organization's Cancer Mortality Database covering 65 populations on six continents to calculate age-standardized (1960 Segi world standard) lung cancer death rates during 2006 to 2010 and annual percent change in rates for available years from 1985 to 2011 and for the most recent five data years by population and age group (30-49 and 50-74 years). Lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) among young women (30-49 years) during 2006 to 2010 ranged from 0.7 in Costa Rica to 14.8 in Hungary. Rates among young women were stable or declining in 47 of 52 populations examined. Rates among women 50 to 74 years ranged from 8.8 in Georgia and Egypt to 120.0 in Scotland. In both age groups, rates were highest in parts of Europe (Scotland, Hungary, Denmark) and North America and lowest in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Rates in older women were increasing for more than half (36/64) of populations examined, including most countries in Southern, Eastern, and Western Europe and South America. Although widespread reductions in lung cancer in young women provide evidence of tobacco control success, rates continue to increase among older women in many countries. More concentrated efforts to initiate or expand tobacco control programs in these countries globally will be required to attenuate the future lung cancer burden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1025-36. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Oxidative stress: development and progression of breast cancer:review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Salmaninejad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Enormous advancement has been made over the last decades in understanding the biology of breast cancer. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms regulating progression, gaining of invasive and metastatic phenotypes, and therapeutic resistance are still not completely understood. Oxidative stress initiate by disbalance in redox status of body. In this case, increase of free radicals in body cause tissue damage. One of the significant species of free radicals is reactive oxygen species (ROS that produced by various metabolic pathways, comprising aerobic metabolism in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They play a serious role in cellular physiology and pathophysiology likewise beginning and evolution of numerous types of cancers. ROS overproduction is deleterious to cells, and considered key-factors for the development of numerous diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Cancer cells are commonly submitted to upper ROS levels that further incite malignant phenotype through motivation to preserved proliferation, angiogenesis, death evasion, invasiveness, and metastasis. ROS impress various signaling pathways, comprising mitogenic pathways and growth factors, and also controls numerous cellular processes, containing cell proliferation, thus stimulates the undisciplined growth of cells which inspires the development of tumors and initiates the progression of carcinogenesis. The importance of ROS on breast cancer development and etiology is being increasingly clarified. Nevertheless, fewer consideration has been given to the progress of redox system-targeted strategies for breast cancer treatment. Augmented oxidative stress caused by reactive species can diminish the body’s antioxidant defense against angiogenesis and metastasis in cancer cells. These processes are core factors in the development of cancer. Bimolecular reactions cause

  14. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Balaban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression.

  15. Targeting epigenetics for the treatment of prostate cancer: recent progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianqing; Wang, Chenguang; Kelly, Wm Kevin

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetic aberrations contribute to prostate cancer carcinogenesis and disease progression. Efforts have been made to target DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in prostate cancer and other solid tumors but have not had the success that was seen in the hematologic malignancies. Oral, less toxic, and more specific agents are being developed in solid tumors including prostate cancer. Combinations of epigenetic agents alone or with a targeted agent such as androgen receptor signaling inhibitors are promising approaches and will be discussed further. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases: The Gene Expression Signatures of Head and Neck Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Shinji [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei, E-mail: yasusei@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral Molecular Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-8-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2014-02-13

    Extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by promoting motility, invasion and angiogenesis. Studies have shown that MMP expression is increased in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), one of the most common cancers in the world, and contributes to poor outcome. In this review, we examine the expression pattern of MMPs in HNSCC by microarray datasets and summarize the current knowledge of MMPs, specifically MMP-1, -3, -7 -10, -12, -13, 14 and -19, that are highly expressed in HNSCCs and involved cancer invasion and angiogenesis.

  17. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enrollment Trends and Disparity Among Patients With Lung Cancer in National Clinical Trials, 1990 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Herbert H.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Wong, Melisa L.; Cheng, Perry; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Sargent, Daniel J.; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Chen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Redman, Mary W.; Manola, Judith B.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Adjei, Alex A.; Gandara, David; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Under-representation of elderly, women, and racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer in clinical trials is of national concern. The goal of this study was to characterize enrollment trends and disparities by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in lung cancer trials. Methods We analyzed data for 23,006 National Cancer Institute cooperative group lung cancer trial participants and 578,476 patients with lung cancer from the SEER registry from 1990 to 2012. The enrollment disparity difference (EDD) and enrollment disparity ratio (EDR) were calculated on the basis of the proportion of each subgroup in the trial population and the US lung cancer population. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in the subgroup proportions in each population were compared over time. Results Enrollment disparity for patients ≥ 70 years of age with non–small-cell lung cancer improved from 1990 to 2012 (test of parallelism, P = .020), with a remaining EDD of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.25) and EDR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.51 to 1.82) in 2010 to 2012. No improvement was seen for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), with an APC of 0.20 (P = .714) among trial participants, despite a rising proportion of elderly patients with SCLC in the US population (APC, 0.32; P = .020). Enrollment disparity for women with lung cancer improved overall, with the gap closing by 2012 (EDD, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.00 to 0.06]; EDR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16]). Enrollment disparities persisted without significant improvement for elderly women, blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Conclusion Under-representation in lung cancer trials improved significantly from 1990 to 2012 for elderly patients with non–small-cell lung cancer and for women, but ongoing efforts to improve the enrollment of elderly patients with SCLC and minorities are needed. Our study highlights the importance of addressing enrollment disparities by demographic and disease subgroups to better target under-represented groups of

  19. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...... in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health...

  20. Clinical Significance of HER-2 Splice Variants in Breast Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2 occurs in 20–30% of breast cancers and confers survival and proliferative advantages on the tumour cells making HER-2 an ideal therapeutic target for drugs like Herceptin. Continued delineation of tumour biology has identified splice variants of HER-2, with contrasting roles in tumour cell biology. For example, the splice variant 16HER-2 (results from exon 16 skipping increases transformation of cancer cells and is associated with treatment resistance; conversely, Herstatin (results from intron 8 retention and p100 (results from intron 15 retention inhibit tumour cell proliferation. This review focuses on the potential clinical implications of the expression and coexistence of HER-2 splice variants in cancer cells in relation to breast cancer progression and drug resistance. “Individualised” strategies currently guide breast cancer management; in accordance, HER-2 splice variants may prove valuable as future prognostic and predictive factors, as well as potential therapeutic targets.

  1. Zebrafish as a model to assess cancer heterogeneity, progression and relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jessica S.; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Clonal evolution is the process by which genetic and epigenetic diversity is created within malignant tumor cells. This process culminates in a heterogeneous tumor, consisting of multiple subpopulations of cancer cells that often do not contain the same underlying mutations. Continuous selective pressure permits outgrowth of clones that harbor lesions that are capable of enhancing disease progression, including those that contribute to therapy resistance, metastasis and relapse. Clonal evolution and the resulting intratumoral heterogeneity pose a substantial challenge to biomarker identification, personalized cancer therapies and the discovery of underlying driver mutations in cancer. The purpose of this Review is to highlight the unique strengths of zebrafish cancer models in assessing the roles that intratumoral heterogeneity and clonal evolution play in cancer, including transgenesis, imaging technologies, high-throughput cell transplantation approaches and in vivo single-cell functional assays. PMID:24973745

  2. NatHER: protocol for systematic evaluation of trends in survival among patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Eli J; Morris, Anne; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Hurvitz, Sara; Beattie, Mary S; Kalesan, Bindu

    2015-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer and is historically associated with poor outcomes compared with HER2-negative MBC. Since 1998, four drugs have been globally approved for the targeted treatment of HER2-positive MBC. Additional advances in patient care-such as improved breast cancer screening, HER2 testing, and supportive care-have also occurred. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether there has been a cumulative change in survival over time in patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer based on results from interventional clinical trials (ICTs) and observational studies and to compare outcomes across these types of studies. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be performed. Two investigators will independently assess each abstract for inclusion. English language reports of ICTs and observational studies that include patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer from 1987 onwards will be considered. The primary outcome of interest is overall survival; secondary outcomes include progression-free survival and safety. Data on clinical outcomes, as well as on study design, study population, treatment/intervention, methodological quality, and outcomes, will be extracted using a structured codebook developed by the authors for this study. Standard and cumulative random effects meta-analysis will be performed to derive pooled risk estimates, both overall and by study design, controlling for covariates such as aggregate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, treatment/intervention, and study characteristics. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated using the I(2) statistic. Differences in risk estimates by quality characteristics will be performed using meta-regression. This study will evaluate current and evolving trends in survival associated with

  3. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Trends in lung cancer in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Charlotte; Schytte, Tine; Holmskov, Karin

    2016-01-01

    1980. Due to the poor survival, similar trends were seen in mortality rates. Over the period, the one-year relative survival rates almost doubled in patients aged 70 years or more, but still only 25% of the patients aged 80-89 years survived their lung cancer for one year. Conclusion The incidence...... and methods Lung cancer was defined as ICD-10 codes C33-34. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death...... Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. Results In 2012, about 50% of lung cancers were diagnosed among persons aged 70 years or more. For men and women older than 75 years the incidence rates have been increasing and for those aged 80-84 years, the rates have doubled since...

  5. Dual Roles of RNF2 in Melanoma Progression | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic regulators have emerged as critical factors governing the biology of cancer. Here, in the context of melanoma, we show that RNF2 is prognostic, exhibiting progression-correlated expression in human melanocytic neoplasms. Through a series of complementary gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mouse and human systems, we establish that RNF2 is oncogenic and prometastatic.

  6. Proteomic biomarkers for overall and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    To determine if the level of apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-α trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin (TT), connective-tissue activating protein 3 (CTAP3), serum amyloid A1, β-2 microglobulin (B2M) might have impact on overall and progression-free survival for ovarian cancer...

  7. Proteomic biomarkers for overall and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    To determine if the level of apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-a trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin (TT), connective-tissue activating protein 3 (CTAP3), serum amyloid A1, ß-2 microglobulin (B2M) might have impact on overall and progression-free survival for ovarian cancer...

  8. WAVE3 is a Biomarker for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    insure reproducibility of the results. f) Repeat tasks a to e for the specimens with questionable results. Completed. See below Task 7: A BC TMA...miRs 570, 542, 103, 107 and 302, all of which have been found to be deregulated during cancer progression and metastasis [26,33,39–44], therefore

  9. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Persad, R.; Brausi, M.; Buckley, R.; Witjes, J.A.; Palou, J.; Bohle, A.; Kamat, A.M.; Colombel, M.; Soloway, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A

  10. Long-Term Trends in Hematological and Nutritional Status After Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, You-Jin; Jun, Kyong-Hwa; Chin, Hyung-Min

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated long-term trends in hematological and nutritional parameters after gastrectomy for gastric cancer and evaluated the influence of the reconstruction type on these trends. The medical records of 558 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy with standard lymph node dissection for stage I gastric cancer between January 2006 and December 2013 were reviewed. The hematological and nutritional parameters evaluated included hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B 12 , total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and calcium. The patients were followed up for 6 months postoperatively and then annually until death, cancer recurrence, or follow-up loss. In the long term, ferritin and triglyceride gradually decreased after gastrectomy, while the other parameters decreased slightly or were stable. In the comparisons according to reconstruction type, the Roux-en-Y group had the lowest levels of hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol beginning 6 months postoperatively compared with the Billroth I and II groups. However, only ferritin and vitamin B 12 had significant differences in the 5-year cumulative incidences of deficiency/reduction according to the reconstruction type, whereas albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and calcium did not. Although malabsorption and malnutrition are common in patients after a gastrectomy, most nutritional parameters were stable or decreased slightly in the long-term and were not markedly influenced by the reconstruction type or extent of gastrectomy. Therefore, for more accurate nutritional assessment after gastrectomy, multidirectional monitoring should be considered rather than simply measuring biochemical parameters.

  11. Molecular Features of Subtype-Specific Progression from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lesurf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer consists of at least five main molecular “intrinsic” subtypes that are reflected in both pre-invasive and invasive disease. Although previous studies have suggested that many of the molecular features of invasive breast cancer are established early, it is unclear what mechanisms drive progression and whether the mechanisms of progression are dependent or independent of subtype. We have generated mRNA, miRNA, and DNA copy-number profiles from a total of 59 in situ lesions and 85 invasive tumors in order to comprehensively identify those genes, signaling pathways, processes, and cell types that are involved in breast cancer progression. Our work provides evidence that there are molecular features associated with disease progression that are unique to the intrinsic subtypes. We additionally establish subtype-specific signatures that are able to identify a small proportion of pre-invasive tumors with expression profiles that resemble invasive carcinoma, indicating a higher likelihood of future disease progression.

  12. Role of the immune system in pancreatic cancer progression and immune modulating treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideras, K; Braat, H; Kwekkeboom, J; van Eijck, C H; Peppelenbosch, M P; Sleijfer, S; Bruno, M

    2014-05-01

    Traditional chemotherapeutics have largely failed to date to produce significant improvements in pancreatic cancer survival. One of the reasons for the resilience of pancreatic cancer towards intensive treatment is that the cancer is capable of high jacking the immune system: during disease progression the immune system is converted from a system that attacks tumor cells into a support structure for the cancer, exerting trophic actions on the cancer cells. This turn-around of immune system action is achieved through mobilization and activation of regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, all of which suppress CD8 T cells and NK cells. This immune suppression occurs both through the expression of tolerance-inducing cell surface molecules, such as PD-L1, as well as through the production of "tolerogenic" cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. Based on the accumulating insight into the importance of the immune system for the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients multiple new immunotherapeutic approaches against pancreatic cancer are being currently tested in clinical trials. In this review we give an overview of both the immune escaping mechanisms of pancreatic cancer as well as the new immune related therapeutic strategies currently being tested in pancreatic cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Forno

    Full Text Available Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the "stemness" marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease.

  14. Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forno, Irene; Ferrero, Stefano; Russo, Maria Veronica; Gazzano, Giacomo; Giangiobbe, Sara; Montanari, Emanuele; Del Nero, Alberto; Rocco, Bernardo; Albo, Giancarlo; Languino, Lucia R; Altieri, Dario C; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s) that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the "stemness" marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease.

  15. White Adipose Tissue Cells Are Recruited by Experimental Tumors and Promote Cancer Progression in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Daquinag, Alexes; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Simmons, Paul J.; March, Keith L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2010-01-01

    The connection between obesity and accelerated cancer progression has been established, but the mediating mechanisms are not well understood. We have shown that stromal cells from white adipose tissue (WAT) cooperate with the endothelium to promote blood vessel formation through the secretion of soluble trophic factors. Here, we hypothesize that WAT directly mediates cancer progression by serving as a source of cells that migrate to tumors and promote neovascularization. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the recruitment of WAT-derived cells by tumors and the effect of their engraftment on tumor growth by integrating a transgenic mouse strain engineered for expansion of traceable cells with established allograft and xenograft cancer models. Our studies show that entry of adipose stromal and endothelial cells into systemic circulation leads to their homing to and engraftment into tumor stroma and vasculature, respectively. We show that recruitment of adipose stromal cells by tumors is sufficient to promote tumor growth. Finally, we show that migration of stromal and vascular progenitor cells from WAT grafts to tumors is also associated with acceleration of cancer progression. These results provide a biological insight for the clinical association between obesity and cancer, thus outlining potential avenues for preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19491274

  16. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  17. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuen-Seng

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269 in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in

  18. Identification of metastasis driver genes by massive parallel sequencing of successive steps of breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Cancer results from alterations at essential genomic sites and is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Identification of driver genes of metastatic progression is essential, as metastases, not primary tumors, are fatal. To gain insight into the mutational......-synonymous to synonymous mutations, a surprisingly large number of cancer driver genes, ranging between 3 and 145, were estimated to confer a selective advantage in the studied primary tumors. We report a substantial amount of metastasis specific mutations and a number of novel putative metastasis driver genes. Most...... notable are the DCC, ABCA13, TIAM2, CREBBP, BCL6B and ZNF185 genes, mainly mutated exclusively in metastases and highly likely driver genes of metastatic progression. We find different genes and pathways to be affected at different steps of malignant progression. The Adherens junction pathway is affected...

  19. Abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Castellano, Daniel; Daugaard, Gedske

    2014-01-01

    , development of sustained side-effects, or abiraterone acetate becoming available in the respective country. The primary outcome was the number of adverse events arising during study treatment and within 30 days of discontinuation. Efficacy measures (time to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] progression and time......BACKGROUND: In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final...... analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, early...

  20. Trends in kidney cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azawi, Nessn H; Joergensen, Simon Moeller; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Clark, Peter E; Lund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of kidney cancer in elderly persons compared with younger persons in Denmark. Cancer of the kidney was defined as ICD-10 code DC 64. Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. The proportion of patients diagnosed with kidney cancer over the age of 70 years has decreased from 43% in 1980 to 32% in 2012 in men and remained almost constant in women, around 50%. Incidence rates were at least five times higher in men aged 70 years more but there was no particular trend with time. In men aged less than 70 years, the incidence rates started increasing around 2000. The incidence rates were lower in women but with a similar pattern as in men. Mortality rates remained stable over time in persons aged 70 years or more while they decreased with time in younger women. Both the one- and the five-year relative survival increased steadily over time for all age groups but the survival was lower for patients aged 70 years or more than for younger patients. The prevalence increased three times from 1559 patients being alive after kidney cancer in 1980 to 4713 in 2012. A challenge in managing kidney cancer in the elderly is to establish interdisciplinary collaborations between different specialties, such as surgeons, clinical oncologists, and geriatricians to be able to deliver the best possible care in the future.

  1. Prostate cancer in Denmark 1978-2009 - trends in incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Brasso, Klaus; Martinussen, Nick

    2013-01-01

    with localised disease. Conclusion. The observed increase in PC incidence during the period 1993-2009 in Denmark may be attributed primarily to increasing unsystematic use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. The mortality rates remained stable during the same period suggesting that there is not yet any......Abstract Background. The incidence of prostate cancer (PC) has increased during the last 15 years in Denmark, whereas the mortality has remained largely unchanged. This register study aimed to investigate the trends in PC incidence and mortality in Denmark 1978-2009 with special focus on the recent......-year calendar periods (1978-2007) and a two-year calendar period (2008-2009). Trends in incidence rates were estimated for specific age groups, birth cohorts, and clinical stage. Results. The age-standardised incidence rate of PC increased from 29.2 per 100 000 person-years in 1978-1982 to 76.2 per 100 000...

  2. Changes in gene expression and cellular architecture in an ovarian cancer progression model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Creekmore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Early stage disease often remains undetected due the lack of symptoms and reliable biomarkers. The identification of early genetic changes could provide insights into novel signaling pathways that may be exploited for early detection and treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE cells were used to identify stage-dependent changes in gene expression levels and signal transduction pathways by mouse whole genome microarray analyses and gene ontology. These cells have undergone spontaneous transformation in cell culture and transitioned from non-tumorigenic to intermediate and aggressive, malignant phenotypes. Significantly changed genes were overrepresented in a number of pathways, most notably the cytoskeleton functional category. Concurrent with gene expression changes, the cytoskeletal architecture became progressively disorganized, resulting in aberrant expression or subcellular distribution of key cytoskeletal regulatory proteins (focal adhesion kinase, α-actinin, and vinculin. The cytoskeletal disorganization was accompanied by altered patterns of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation as well as changed expression and subcellular localization of integral signaling intermediates APC and PKCβII. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies have identified genes that are aberrantly expressed during MOSE cell neoplastic progression. We show that early stage dysregulation of actin microfilaments is followed by progressive disorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments at later stages. These stage-specific, step-wise changes provide further insights into the time and spatial sequence of events that lead to the fully transformed state since these changes are also observed in aggressive human ovarian cancer cell lines independent of their histological type. Moreover, our studies support a link between aberrant cytoskeleton

  3. Research progress of hydroxychloroquine and autophagy inhibitors on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting-Ting; Yu, Xiao-Xu; Yan, Li-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Tao

    2017-02-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the analog of chloroquine, augments the effect of chemotherapies and radiotherapy on various tumors identified in the current clinical trials. Meanwhile, the toxicity of HCQ retinopathy raises concern worldwide. Thus, the potent autophagy inhibitors are urgently needed. A systematic review was related to 'hydroxychloroquine' or 'chloroquine' with 'clinical trials,' 'retinopathy' and 'new autophagy inhibitors.' This led to many cross-references involving HCQ, and these data have been incorporated into the following study. Many preclinical studies indicate that the combination of HCQ with chemotherapies or radiotherapies may enhance the effect of anticancer, providing base for launching cancer clinical trials involving HCQ. The new and more sensitive diagnostic techniques report a prevalence of HCQ retinopathy up to 7.5%. Lys05, SAR405, verteporfin, VATG-027, mefloquine and spautin-1 may be potent autophagy inhibitors. Additional mechanistic studies of HCQ in preclinical models are still required in order to answer these questions whether HCQ actually inhibits autophagy in non-selective tumors and whether the extent of inhibition would be sufficient to alter chemotherapy or radiotherapy sensitivity.

  4. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [ 18F ]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([ 18F ]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [ 18F ]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [ 18F ]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging

  5. Characteristic Trend Analysis of Cancer Patients Hospitalized in Shanxi Tumor Hospital for the First Time during 2001 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Li; Wang, Yan; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To observe and analyze the characteristic trend of cancer patients hospitalized for the first time in Shanxi Tumor Hospital from 2001 to 2010, clinical data including case number, age, gender, and frequency of different tumor occurrences were collected and statistically analyzed. (i) From 2001 to 2010, the number of cancer patients hospitalized for the first time increased by 1.3-fold; (ii) The patient overall average age also increased from 51.8 to 54.4, for males from 55.5 to 58.7 and females from 48.4 to 51.1, respectively. (iii) Male patients accounted for 43-48% and females accounted for 52-57% of the total. The percentage of female patients was higher than that of male patients in every year and showed an upward trend over the years, while that of the males showed a downward trend (χ2 =7.031, p=0.008); (iv) Among the top 6 most common cancers, lung, cervical, esophageal, colorectal and breast cancers tended to increase over the years (ppatients hospitalized for the first time during the past 10 years increased year by year, and was higher for female than male; (ii) the average age of patients increased year after year and was greater for male than female; (iii) the number of patients with lung cancer, cervical cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer increased over years.

  6. Trends in cancer of the head and neck in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) comprises a variety of malignant tumors. Due to the rarity of each individual malignant entity, knowledge of epidemiological changes and trends over time may be derived from data compiled in regional and national registries. This study...... analyzed the development in incidence rates and mortality in elderly HNSCC patients in Denmark between 1980 and 2012 with specific attention to compliance to radiotherapy, the main treatment modality of HNSCC in Denmark. Material and methods HNSCC consisting of more than 25 patients per year over the age...... to treatment between younger and older patient groups. Results HNSCC was predominant in younger patients. Only 17% were older than 70 years. The median age was 60 years. Generally, incidence rates rose for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx between 1980 and 2012 and stabilized for laryngeal cancer...

  7. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    the Danish incidence trends during 1997-2011 when cervical screening coverage was high. Incidences of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were also assessed, with the latest part of the study period coinciding with introduction of free-of-charge human......PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...

  8. Possible Involvement of Insulin Resistance in the Progression of Cancer Cachexia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Tomoyasu; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem among cancer patients, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers. In severe cases, malnutrition can progress to cachexia, a specific form of malnutrition characterized by loss of lean body mass and muscle wasting. Although this muscle wasting might be a product of enhanced protein degradation, the precise mechanisms of cancer cachexia are not fully elucidated. Based on basic and clinical research, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance have been postulated to be associated with cancer cachexia. Since insulin in the skeletal muscle inhibits protein degradation and promotes protein synthesis, insulin resistance could be a possible cause of cancer cachexia. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of insulin resistance in the development of cancer cachexia in tumor-bearing mice. The signaling protein in the insulin cascade was attenuated in the skeletal muscle and hypothalamus from tumor-bearing mice. We identified Chrysanthemum morifolium RAMAT., known as Kikuka, as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligand. Treatment with Kikuka attenuates the skeletal muscle changes in tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest that this natural PPARγ activator might be an attractive candidate for the treatment of cancer cachexia. In the symposium, we presented the PPARγ activator-induced improvement of cancer cachexia.

  9. MR Differentiation of Lung Cancer from Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Patients with Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lim, Young; Koo, Jung Wan

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the potential of MR to distinguish lung cancer from progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. The study consisted of 9 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer and 26 PMFs in 17 patients. All the patients had radiologic evidence of pneumoconiosis. T1-weighted FLASH images were obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 minutes after injection of Gd-DTPA. T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were obtained. The imaging findings were evaluated for enhancement time curve, contrast uptake equivalent (CE), and enhancement factor (EF). On T1WI, there was no significant signal intensity difference between lung cancer and PMF. On T2WI, all lung cancer showed high signal intensity, as opposed to all PMFs which showed low signal intensity except for one PMF. Only one PMF showed high signal intensity on T2WI. For the dynamic contrast study, lung cancer showed faster and slightly stronger enhancement than PMFs. For a delayed image, most of the lung cancers (78%) showed washout, as opposed to a plateau in most of PMFs (73%) (p=0.0153). However, no difference was detected between the EFmax of lung cancer and PMFs (p=0.349). MR is potentially a useful tool in distinguishing lung cancer from PMFs in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis

  10. Oral cancer in Cali, Colombia: a population-based analysis of incidence and mortality trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Ordóñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Materials and methods. Age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR and mortality (ASMR rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH respectively. Annual percentage change (APC was used to measure the changes in rates over time. Results. 1 637 new cases of oral cancer were registered in the CPCR and the mean age upon diagnosis was 60 years. The ASIR decreased from 1962-2007 in men APC= 1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6 and women APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4.The ASMR decreased from 1984-2001 only in men, APC=2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5. Conclusions. There was a significant decrease in the incidence and mortality rates for OC in Cali, Colombia. The type of tumor associated to these changes was the squamous cell carcinoma

  11. [Oral cancer in Cali, Colombia: a population-based analysis of incidence and mortality trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Dora; Aragón, Natalia; García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC) in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH) respectively. Annual percentage change (APC) was used to measure the changes in rates over time. 1637 new cases of oral cancer were registered in the CPCR and the mean age upon diagnosis was 60 years. The ASIR decreased from 1962-2007 in men APC= 1.3 (IC95%:-2.0; -0.6) and women APC= -1.0 (IC95%: -1.7; -0.4).The ASMR decreased from 1984-2001 only in men, APC=2.8 (IC95%: -4.1; -1.5). There was a significant decrease in the incidence and mortality rates for OC in Cali, Colombia. The type of tumor associated to these changes was the squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Increasing trends in kidney cancer over the last 2 decades in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Sultan S; Alkhateeb, Jawaher M; Alrashidi, Eman A

    2015-06-01

    To examine the trends of kidney cancer over the last 2 decades in a subset of a Saudi Arabian population.   We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care center including all adult patients with primary kidney cancer who presented and were managed between 1990 and 2010. The time period was split into 4 quartiles, and variables tested and compared using chi-square, T-test, and Kaplan-Meier curves for survival.   The total was 215 patients with a mean age of 57.8 years. There was an increase in the number of kidney cancer cases over the last 2 decades. There was no significant difference in the mode of presentation or stage distribution between quartiles. A significant change was observed in the management towards minimally invasive and nephron-sparing surgeries (p less than 0.001). There was no change in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival over the last 20 years.   There have been an increasing number of kidney cancer patients over the last 2 decades with no observed migration towards more incidental and low stage tumors as compared with developed countries.

  13. HAART slows progression to anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katrina C; Chan, Keith J; Chiu, Connie G; Montaner, Julio S G; Coldman, Andy J; Cescon, Angela; Au-Yeung, Christopher G; Wiseman, Sam M; Hogg, Robert S; Press, Natasha M

    2015-01-28

    Antiretrovirals do not prevent anal intraepithelial neoplasia. However, the influence of antiretrovirals in the natural history of invasive anal cancer is less clear. The objective is to investigate the impact of antiretrovirals in the time to the development of anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM. A retrospective analysis of cases of anal cancer in a cohort of HIV-positive MSM receiving antiretrovirals between 1988 and 2008. Time from first CD4 cell count or HIV RNA viral load test to anal cancer diagnosis was analysed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves. Anal cancer cases treated in the era prior to HAART (cancer cases (n = 37) were compared with a cohort of 1654 HIV-positive MSM on antiretrovirals. Antiretrovirals were started in the pre-HAART era by 70% of cancer cases, and median CD4 cell count nadir was 70 cells/μl (10-130). Time to development of anal cancer was shorter for cases treated during the pre-HAART era [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 3.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.48-6.24, P = 0.002], with a CD4 cell count nadir less than 100 cells/μl (AHR 2.21, 95% CI 1.06-4.62, P = 0.035) and longer duration of CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/μl (AHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.58, P = 0.002). Results show that severe immunosuppression and starting therapy pre-HAART are associated with an increased risk of anal cancer. HIV-positive MSM initiating antiretrovirals during the HAART era (1996-2008) had a longer time to the development of anal cancer than those treated pre-HAART. Our results suggest that early use of HAART may delay progression to anal cancer.

  14. The wound inflammatory response exacerbates growth of pre-neoplastic cells and progression to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio, Nicole; Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Ward, Laura Chloe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long-standing association between wound healing and cancer, with cancer often described as a "wound that does not heal". However, little is known about how wounding, such as following surgery, biopsy collection or ulceration, might impact on cancer progression. Here, we use a transluce...

  15. Modern trends in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Pre targeting strategies for the treatment of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcquarrie, S.A.; Xiao, Z.; Mercer, J. R.; Suresh, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    A review of published data on some of the problems associated in treating cancer using radioimmunotherapy is presented. Potential improvements for this type of therapy using pretargeting strategies are discussed and preliminary results on a novel multistep regimen to treat human ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using ovarian cancer are presented. A pretargeting strategy using a biotinylated, anti-CA 125 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to attract biotinylated long-circulating liposomes to the surface of CA 125-expressing ovarian cancer cells, was employed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent labels were used to establish the biodistribution patterns in NIH:OVCAR-3 (CA-125 positive) and SK-OV-3 (CA-125 negative) human ovarian cancer cells. Shedding kinetics of the pretargeted stage were measured using 125 I labeled MAbs. No significant internalization of the MAb used in the pretargeting step was observed by 4 hrs. The antibody was gradually internalized starting at 6 hrs, and most of the labelled MAb was detected in cytoplasm by 24 hrs. Shedding and exocytosis of the antigen-MAb complex was not significant for up to 6-hours following administration of the iodinated MAb. Biotinylated liposomes were shown to specifically target the biotinylated MAb/streptavidin complex on the cell surface. It has been demonstrated that by a three-step pretargeting approach, biotinylated liposomes can be specifically delivered to cells pretargeted with biotinylated MAb/SAv complex. The slow internalization and shedding properties of the two MAbs are ideal for multistep pretargeting methods. A successful multistep linkage was established with the biotinylated MAb B27.1, streptavidin and biotinylated liposomes to OVCAR-3 cells, but not to SK-OV-3 cells

  16. Inhibition of androgen receptor by decoy molecules delays progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Kyung Myung

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR is a member of the steroid receptor family and a therapeutic target for all stages of prostate cancer. AR is activated by ligand binding within its C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD. Here we show that overexpression of the AR NTD to generate decoy molecules inhibited both the growth and progression of prostate cancer in castrated hosts. Specifically, it was shown that lentivirus delivery of decoys delayed hormonal progression in castrated hosts as indicated by increased doubling time of tumor volume, prolonged time to achieve pre-castrate levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA and PSA nadir. These clinical parameters are indicative of delayed hormonal progression and improved therapeutic response and prognosis. Decoys reduced the expression of androgen-regulated genes that correlated with reduced in situ interaction of the AR with androgen response elements. Decoys did not reduce levels of AR protein or prevent nuclear localization of the AR. Nor did decoys interact directly with the AR. Thus decoys did not inhibit AR transactivation by a dominant negative mechanism. This work provides evidence that the AR NTD plays an important role in the hormonal progression of prostate cancer and supports the development of AR antagonists that target the AR NTD.

  17. TGF-β in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Tao, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Bing; Sun, Jian; Tian, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal malignant tumor with characterised rapid progression, invasiveness and resistance to radiochemotherapy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a dual role in both pro-tumorigenic and tumor suppressive of pancreatic cancer, depending on tumor stage and microenvironment. TGF-β signaling components alteration are common in pancreatic cancer, and its leading role in tumor formation and metastases has received increased attention. Many therapies have investigated to target TGF-β signaling in the preclinical and clinical setting. In this review, we highlight the dual roles of TGF-β and touch upon the perspectives on therapeutic target of TGF-β signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  18. Prognostic factors for progression-free and overall survival in advanced biliary tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridgewater, J; Lopes, A; Wasan, H

    2016-01-01

    independently with outcome. This score was validated externally by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis using the independent international dataset. RESULTS: A total of 410 patients were included from the ABC-02 study and 753 from the international dataset. An overall survival (OS) and progression......BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancer is an uncommon cancer with a poor outcome. We assembled data from the National Cancer Research Institute (UK) ABC-02 study and 10 international studies to determine prognostic outcome characteristics for patients with advanced disease. METHODS: Multivariable...... biliary tract cancer derived from the ABC-02 study that are validated in an international dataset. Although these findings establish the benchmark for the prognostic evaluation of patients with ABC and confirm the value of longheld clinical observations, the ability of the model to correctly predict...

  19. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Pristina. The main important factors included in this study are: age, sex and risk factors that altogether have considerable influence in incidence of pancreatic cancer. The imaging diagnostics are performed with the use of 2D ECHO Phillips, MSCT Sensation 64 and 6 and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens that are situated in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK. The statistic data were obtained from NIPH of Kosovo and Agency of Statistics of Kosovo. Out of the total number of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the mortality in all age groups was higher at male patients-61.6 % of cases (n=223) with the highest number found at 51-60 years age group. The 38.4 % (n= 139) were female patients with the highest incidence frequency at F 61-70 years age group. The F/M ratio is 1:1.6. The "plane" nicotine users were found at 34 % (n=123) while the joined, nicotine/alcohol addiction was detected at 26 % (n= 94). The 18.5% (n=67) have had established diagnose of the diabetes mellitus tip II and 9.6 % (n=35) have undergone the medical treatment of the gastroduodenal peptic ulcerations. The total number of deaths is 310 (85.6%) and there are only 52 patients (14.4%) still alive. The mortality rate of the pancreatic cancer in Kosovo was 17.2 in 100.000 residents while the morbidity rate was 2.8 in 100.000 residents. This retrospective research study intends to present the role of the risk factor, that

  20. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. Materials and methodology: This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Pristina. The main important factors included in this study are: age, sex and risk factors that altogether have considerable influence in incidence of pancreatic cancer. The imaging diagnostics are performed with the use of 2D ECHO Phillips, MSCT Sensation 64 and 6 and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens that are situated in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK. The statistic data were obtained from NIPH of Kosovo and Agency of Statistics of Kosovo. Results: Out of the total number of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the mortality in all age groups was higher at male patients–61.6 % of cases (n=223) with the highest number found at 51–60 years age group. The 38.4 % (n= 139) were female patients with the highest incidence frequency at F 61–70 years age group. The F/M ratio is 1:1.6. The “plane” nicotine users were found at 34 % (n=123) while the joined, nicotine/alcohol addiction was detected at 26 % (n= 94). The 18.5% (n=67) have had established diagnose of the diabetes mellitus tip II and 9.6 % (n=35) have undergone the medical treatment of the gastroduodenal peptic ulcerations. The total number of deaths is 310 (85.6%) and there are only 52 patients (14.4%) still alive. The mortality rate of the pancreatic cancer in Kosovo was 17.2 in 100.000 residents while the morbidity rate was 2.8 in 100.000 residents. Discussion and conclusion: This

  1. Validating a proxy for disease progression in metastatic cancer patients using prescribing and dispensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vikram; Adelstein, Barbara-Ann; Schaffer, Andrea; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Dobbins, Timothy; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2017-10-01

    Routine data collections are used increasingly to examine outcomes of real-world cancer drug use. These datasets lack clinical details about important endpoints such as disease progression. To validate a proxy for disease progression in metastatic cancer patients using prescribing and dispensing claims. We used data from a cohort study of patients undergoing chemotherapy who provided informed consent to the collection of cancer-treatment data from medical records and linkage to pharmaceutical claims. We derived proxy decision rules based on changes to drug treatment in prescription histories (n = 36 patients) and validated the proxy in prescribing data (n = 62 patients). We adapted the decision rules and validated the proxy in dispensing data (n = 109). Our gold standard was disease progression ascertained in patient medical records. Individual progression episodes were the unit of analysis for sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) calculations and specificity and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were calculated at the patient level. The sensitivity of our proxy in prescribing data was 74.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 55.6-86.6%) and PPV 61.2% (95% CI, 45.0-75.3%); specificity and NPV were 87.8% (95% CI, 73.8-95.9%) and 100% (95% CI, 90.3-100%), respectively. In dispensing data, the sensitivity of our proxy was 64% (95% CI, 55.0-77.0%) and PPV 56.0% (95% CI, 43.0-69.0%); specificity and NPV were 81% (95% CI, 70.05-89.0%) and 91.0% (95% CI, 82.0-97.0%), respectively. Our proxy overestimated episodes of disease progression. The proxy's performance is likely to improve if the date of prescribing is used instead of date of dispensing in claims data and by incorporating medical service claims (such as imaging prior to drug changes) in the algorithm. Our proxy is not sufficiently robust for use in real world comparative effectiveness research for cancer medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Expression and functional role of orphan receptor GPR158 in prostate cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Patel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC.

  3. Evidence for widespread dysregulation of circadian clock progression in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod Shilts

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous daily rhythms in mammalian physiology are guided by progression of the circadian clock. In mice, systemic disruption of the clock can promote tumor growth. In vitro, multiple oncogenes can disrupt the clock. However, due to the difficulties of studying circadian rhythms in solid tissues in humans, whether the clock is disrupted within human tumors has remained unknown. We sought to determine the state of the circadian clock in human cancer using publicly available transcriptome data. We developed a method, called the clock correlation distance (CCD, to infer circadian clock progression in a group of samples based on the co-expression of 12 clock genes. Our method can be applied to modestly sized datasets in which samples are not labeled with time of day and coverage of the circadian cycle is incomplete. We used the method to define a signature of clock gene co-expression in healthy mouse organs, then validated the signature in healthy human tissues. By then comparing human tumor and non-tumor samples from twenty datasets of a range of cancer types, we discovered that clock gene co-expression in tumors is consistently perturbed. Subsequent analysis of data from clock gene knockouts in mice suggested that perturbed clock gene co-expression in human cancer is not caused solely by the inactivation of clock genes. Furthermore, focusing on lung cancer, we found that human lung tumors showed systematic changes in expression in a large set of genes previously inferred to be rhythmic in healthy lung. Our findings suggest that clock progression is dysregulated in many solid human cancers and that this dysregulation could have broad effects on circadian physiology within tumors. In addition, our approach opens the door to using publicly available data to infer circadian clock progression in a multitude of human phenotypes.

  4. Radiotherapy for local progression in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Yuzo; Akakura, Koichiro; Akimoto, Susumu; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Ito, Haruo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of radiotherapy on the local progression of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. From 1986 to 1995, 38 patients were diagnosed with local progression without distant progression after hormonal therapy at Chiba University Hospital. Eleven cases were treated with irradiation for local progression. External beam irradiation was delivered to the prostate at a dose of 50-66.6 Gy. In patients treated with radiotherapy, the duration from initial treatment to local recurrence was 6-80 months (mean±SD: 33.9±22.9 months). The follow-up period after irradiation was 7-64 months (mean±SD: 25.4±18.8 months). Three and 5 year cause-specific survival rates from radiotherapy were 46.2 and 23.1%, respectively. Radiotherapy had a marked effect on symptoms associated with local progression and no patients suffered from the symptoms after the radiotherapy. Complications of radiotherapy were limited. In patients with hormone refractory local progression without distant progression, low morbidity, low mortality radiotherapy offers a variable therapy to other palliative treatments because radiotherapy is able to control local symptoms for a long period of time. (author)

  5. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  6. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-03-10

    Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Pokemon expression and its correlation with the progression and prognosis of the disease. DNA microarray analysis of MCF-7 cells that overexpress Pokemon was used to identify Pokemon target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to determine how Pokemon regulates survivin expression, a target gene. Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in 158 (86.8%) of 182 breast cancer tissues, and its expression was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.0148) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0014). Pokemon expression led to worse overall (n = 175, P = 0.01) and disease-related (n = 79, P = 0.0134) patient survival. DNA microarray analyses revealed that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, Pokemon regulates the expression of at least 121 genes involved in several signaling and metabolic pathways, including anti-apoptotic survivin. In clinical specimens, Pokemon and survivin expression were highly correlated (n = 49, r = 0.6799, P Pokemon induces survivin expression by binding to the GT boxes in its promoter. Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of this malignancy.

  7. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junyi; Jiao, Li; Xu, Chuanliang; Yu, Yongwei; Zhang, Zhensheng; Chang, Zheng; Deng, Zhen; Sun, Yinghao

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer

  8. Bmi-1 expression modulates non-small cell lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dan; Ye, Yunlin; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Jinglong; Kuang, Bohua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiumin; Zu, Lidong; Xiao, Gang; Hao, Mingang; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the role of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is responsible for multiple cancer progression. However, Bmi-1 in controlling gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development is not well explored. Here we report that the Bmi-1 level is highly increased in primary NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues and required for lung tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that Bmi-1 level is lower in matched involved lymph node cancerous tissues than the respective primary NSCLC tissues. We find that Bmi-1 does not affect cell cycle and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines as it does not affect the expression of p16/p19, Pten, AKT and P-AKT. Mechanistic analyses note that reduction of Bmi-1 expression inversely regulates invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using genome microarray assays, we find that RNAi-mediated silence of Bmi-1 modulates some important molecular genetics or signaling pathways, potentially associated with NSCLC development. Taken together, our findings disclose for the first time that Bmi-1 level accumulates strongly in early stage and then declines in late stage, which is potentially important for NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis during progression. PMID:25880371

  9. Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L Groner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women. In 1971, only 40% of women diagnosed with breast cancer would live another 10 years. Today, nearly 80% of women reach that significant milestone in most developed countries. This dramatic change has afforded breast cancer patients many productive years and a better quality of life. Progress resulted largely from advances in the understanding of the molecular details of the disease and their translation into innovative, rationally designed therapies. These developments are founded on the revolution in molecular and cellular biology, an entirely new array of methods and technologies, the enthusiasm, optimism, and diligence of scientists and clinicians, and the considerable funding efforts from public and private sources. We were lucky to be able to spend our productive years in a period of scientific upheaval in which methods and concepts were revolutionized and that allowed us to contribute, within the global scientific community, to the progress in basic science and clinical practice.

  10. Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Bernd L; Hynes, Nancy E

    2016-09-01

    Cancer research has become a global enterprise, and the number of researchers, as well as the cost for their activities, has skyrocketed. The budget for the National Cancer Institute of the United States National Institutes of Health alone was US$5.2 billion in 2015. Since most of the research is funded by public money, it is perfectly legitimate to ask if these large expenses are worth it. In this brief commentary, we recapitulate some of the breakthroughs that mark the history of breast cancer research over the past decades and emphasize the resulting benefits for afflicted women. In 1971, only 40% of women diagnosed with breast cancer would live another 10 years. Today, nearly 80% of women reach that significant milestone in most developed countries. This dramatic change has afforded breast cancer patients many productive years and a better quality of life. Progress resulted largely from advances in the understanding of the molecular details of the disease and their translation into innovative, rationally designed therapies. These developments are founded on the revolution in molecular and cellular biology, an entirely new array of methods and technologies, the enthusiasm, optimism, and diligence of scientists and clinicians, and the considerable funding efforts from public and private sources. We were lucky to be able to spend our productive years in a period of scientific upheaval in which methods and concepts were revolutionized and that allowed us to contribute, within the global scientific community, to the progress in basic science and clinical practice.

  11. Adipocytes and Macrophages Interplay in the Orchestration of Tumor Microenvironment: New Implications in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Corrêa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been known as one of the main keys to the establishment and progression of cancers. Chronic low-grade inflammation is also a strategic condition that underlies the causes and development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Moreover, obesity has been largely related to poor prognosis of tumors by modulating tumor microenvironment with secretion of several inflammatory mediators by tumor-associated adipocytes (TAAs, which can modulate and recruit tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlay and link inflammation, obesity, and cancer is crucial to identify potential targets that interfere with this important route. Knowledge about the exact role of each component of the tumor microenvironment is not yet fully understood, but the new insights in literature highlight the essential role of adipocytes and macrophages interplay as key factor to determine the fate of cancer progression. In this review article, we focus on the functions of adipocytes and macrophages orchestrating cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to inflammatory modulation in tumor microenvironment, which will be crucial to cancer establishment. We also emphasized the mechanisms by which the tumor promotes itself by recruiting and polarizing macrophages, discussing the role of adipocytes in this process. In addition, we discuss here the newest possible anticancer therapeutic treatments aiming to retard the development of the tumor based on what is known about cancer, adipocyte, and macrophage polarization.

  12. National Trends and Predictors of Locally Advanced Penile Cancer in the United States (1998-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipollini, Juan; Chaing, Sharon; Peyton, Charles C; Sharma, Pranav; Kidd, Laura C; Giuliano, Anna R; Johnstone, Peter A; Spiess, Philippe E

    2017-08-12

    We analyzed the trends in presentation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis and determined the socioeconomic predictors for locally advanced (cT3-cT4) disease in the United States. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with clinically nonmetastatic penile SCC and staging available from 1998 to 2012. Temporal trends per tumor stage were evaluated, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors for advanced presentation during the study period. A total of 5767 patients with stage ≤ T1-T2 (n = 5423) and T3-T4 (n = 344) disease were identified. Increasing trends were noted in all stages of penile SCC with a greater proportion of advanced cases over time (P = .001). Significant predictors of advanced presentation were age > 55 years, the presence of comorbidities, and Medicaid or no insurance (P guide targeted interventions in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer classification through filtering progressive transductive support vector machine based on gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinguo; Chen, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Traditional supervised classifiers neglect a large amount of data which not have sufficient follow-up information, only work with labeled data. Consequently, the small sample size limits the advancement of design appropriate classifier. In this paper, a transductive learning method which combined with the filtering strategy in transductive framework and progressive labeling strategy is addressed. The progressive labeling strategy does not need to consider the distribution of labeled samples to evaluate the distribution of unlabeled samples, can effective solve the problem of evaluate the proportion of positive and negative samples in work set. Our experiment result demonstrate that the proposed technique have great potential in cancer prediction based on gene expression.

  14. Heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation state is associated with cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKatsogiannou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that control stress-induced survival is critical to explain how tumors frequently resist to treatment and to improve current anti-cancer therapies. Cancer cells are able to cope with stress and escape drug toxicity by regulating heat shock proteins (Hsps expression and function. Hsp27 (HSPB1, a member of the small Hsp family, represents one of the key players of many signaling pathways contributing to tumorigenicity, treatment resistance and apoptosis inhibition. Hsp27 is overexpressed in many types of cancer and its functions are regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Protein phosphorylation is the most widespread signaling mechanism in eukaryotic cells, and it is involved in all fundamental cellular processes. Aberrant phosphorylation of Hsp27 has been associated with several diseases such as cancer but the molecular mechanisms by which it is implicated in cancer development and progression remain undefined. This review focuses on the role of phosphorylation in Hsp27 functions in cancer cells and its potential usefulness as therapeutic target in cancer.

  15. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer progression via regulation of β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yunpeng; Jia, Zhuomin; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Chaofei; Yao, Yuanxin

    2017-07-01

    Bladder cancer has a considerable morbidity and mortality impact with particularly poor prognosis. Curcumin has been recently noticed as a polyphenolic compound separated from turmeric to regulate tumor progression. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells is not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on the bladder cancer as well as possible mechanisms of curcumin. The expression of β-catenin was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis in a series of bladder cancer tissues. In addition, bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin on cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The migration and invasion capacity of T24 and 5637 cells were measured by transwell assay. The effects of curcumin on expression levels of β-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker were determined by western blotting. The β-catenin expression was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer tissues when compared with corresponding peri-tumor tissues. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells, and curcumin reduced the migration and invasive ability of T24 and 5637 cells via regulating β-catenin expression and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Curcumin may be a new drug for bladder cancer.

  16. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  17. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  18. Mapping cancer cell metabolism with 13 C flux analysis: Recent progress and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Scott Duckwall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reprogramming of energy metabolism is emerging as an important molecular hallmark of cancer cells. Recent discoveries linking specific metabolic alterations to cancer development have strengthened the idea that altered metabolism is more than a side effect of malignant transformation, but may in fact be a functional driver of tumor growth and progression in some cancers. As a result, dysregulated metabolic pathways have become attractive targets for cancer therapeutics. This review highlights the application of 13 C metabolic flux analysis (MFA to map the flow of carbon through intracellular biochemical pathways of cancer cells. We summarize several recent applications of MFA that have identified novel biosynthetic pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation and shed light on the role of specific oncogenes in regulating these pathways. Through such studies, it has become apparent that the metabolic phenotypes of cancer cells are not as homogeneous as once thought, but instead depend strongly on the molecular alterations and environmental factors at play in each case.

  19. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tian-Li; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Li, Yue; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan; Ge, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy

  20. The Progress of T Cell Immunity Related to Prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Wei; Duo Shen; Sachin Mulmi Shrestha; Juan Liu; Junyi Zhang; Ying Yin

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy all over the world, and the factors that can affect progress and prognosis of the gastric cancer patients are various, such as TNM stages, invasive depth, and lymph node metastasis ratio. T cell immunity is important component of human immunity system and immunity responding to tumor and dysfunction or imbalance of T cell immunity will lead to serious outcomes for body. T cell immunity includes many different types of cells, CD4+ T cell, CD8+...

  1. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  2. Trends in mouth cancer incidence in Mumbai, India (1995-2009): An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Rajaraman, Preetha; Koyande, Shravani; Parikh, Purvish M; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Dhillon, Preet K; Dikshit, Rajesh P

    2016-06-01

    Despite tobacco control and health promotion efforts, the incidence rates of mouth cancer are increasing across most regions in India. Analysing the influence of age, time period and birth cohort on these secular trends can point towards underlying factors and help identify high-risk populations for improved cancer control programmes. We evaluated secular changes in mouth cancer incidence among men and women aged 25-74 years in Mumbai between 1995 and 2009 by calculating age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates (ASR). We estimated the age-adjusted linear trend for annual percent change (EAPC) using the drift parameter, and conducted an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to quantify recent time trends and to evaluate the significance of birth cohort and calendar period effects. Over the 15-year period, age-standardized incidence rates of mouth cancer in men in Mumbai increased by 2.7% annually (95% CI:1.9 to 3.4), pMumbai cancer registry indicate a significant linear increase of mouth cancer incidence from 1995 to 2009 in men, which was driven by younger men aged 25-49 years, and a non-significant upward trend in similarly aged younger women. Health promotion efforts should more effectively target younger cohorts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. FOXA1 promotes tumor progression in prostate cancer and represents a novel hallmark of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Josefine; Montani, Matteo; Wild, Peter; Beer, Marc; Huber, Fabian; Hermanns, Thomas; Müntener, Michael; Kristiansen, Glen

    2012-02-01

    Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) modulates the transactivation of steroid hormone receptors and thus may influence tumor growth and hormone responsiveness in prostate cancer. We therefore investigated the correlation of FOXA1 expression with clinical parameters, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival, and hormone receptor expression in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients at different disease stages. FOXA1 expression did not differ significantly between benign glands from the peripheral zone and primary peripheral zone prostate carcinomas. However, FOXA1 was overexpressed in metastases and particularly in castration-resistant cases, but was expressed at lower levels in both normal and neoplastic transitional zone tissues. FOXA1 levels correlated with higher pT stages and Gleason scores, as well as with androgen (AR) and estrogen receptor expression. Moreover, FOXA1 overexpression was associated with faster biochemical disease progression, which was pronounced in patients with low AR levels. Finally, siRNA-based knockdown of FOXA1 induced decreased cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, in vitro tumorigenicity was inducible by ARs only in the presence of FOXA1, substantiating a functional cooperation between FOXA1 and AR. In conclusion, FOXA1 expression is associated with tumor progression, dedifferentiation of prostate cancer cells, and poorer prognosis, as well as with cellular proliferation and migration and with AR signaling. These findings suggest FOXA1 overexpression as a novel mechanism inducing castration resistance in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. International patterns and trends in testicular cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, B; Chen, J; Devesa, S S; Bray, F; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates of testicular cancer in Northern European and North American countries have been widely reported, whereas rates in other populations, such as Eastern Europe, Central/South America, Asia, and Africa, have been less frequently evaluated. We examined testicular cancer incidence rates overall and by histologic type by calendar time and birth cohort for selected global populations 1973-2007. Age-standardized incidence rates over succeeding 5-year periods were calculated from volumes 4-9 of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume 10) database. Annual percent change over the 35-year period was calculated using weighted least squares regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were performed and observed rates and fitted rate ratios presented by birth cohort. Incidence rates of testicular cancer increased between 1973-1977 and 2003-2007 in most populations evaluated worldwide. Of note, incidence rates in Eastern European countries rose rapidly and approached rates in Northern European countries. Rates in Central and South America also increased and are now intermediate to the high rates among men of European ancestry and low rates among men of Asian or African descent. Some heterogeneity in the trends in seminoma and nonseminoma were observed in Denmark, the United Kingdom, and among US whites, particularly in recent generations, with rapid and uniform increases in the incidence of both histologic types in Slovakia. Reasons for the rising incidence rates among European and American populations remain unexplained; however, changing distributions in the prevalence of risk factors for testicular cancer cannot be ruled out. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Global Incidence and Mortality for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Temporal Patterns and Trends in 36 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Goggins, William B; Wang, Harry H X; Fung, Franklin D H; Leung, Colette; Wong, Samuel Y S; Ng, Chi Fai; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, but its specific geographic patterns and temporal trends are under-researched. To test the hypotheses that PCa incidence is higher and PCa mortality is lower in countries with higher socioeconomic development, and that temporal trends for PCa incidence have increased while mortality has decreased over time. Data on age-standardized incidence and mortality rates in 2012 were retrieved from the GLOBOCAN database. Temporal patterns were assessed for 36 countries using data obtained from Cancer incidence in five continents volumes I-X and the World Health Organization mortality database. Correlations between incidence or mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators (human development index [HDI] and gross domestic product [GDP]) were evaluated. The average annual percent change in PCa incidence and mortality in the most recent 10 yr according to join-point regression. Reported PCa incidence rates varied more than 25-fold worldwide in 2012, with the highest incidence rates observed in Micronesia/Polynesia, the USA, and European countries. Mortality rates paralleled the incidence rates except for Africa, where PCa mortality rates were the highest. Countries with higher HDI (r=0.58) and per capita GDP (r=0.62) reported greater incidence rates. According to the most recent 10-yr temporal data available, most countries experienced increases in incidence, with sharp rises in incidence rates in Asia and Northern and Western Europe. A substantial reduction in mortality rates was reported in most countries, except in some Asian countries and Eastern Europe, where mortality increased. Data in regional registries could be underestimated. PCa incidence has increased while PCa mortality has decreased in most countries. The reported incidence was higher in countries with higher socioeconomic development. The incidence of prostate cancer has shown high variations geographically and over time, with smaller

  6. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...... tract was defined as ICD-10 codes C67.9, D09.0, D41.4. Data were derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause...

  7. Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: Rapid incidence increase among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Jensen, Allan; Mortensen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Caucasian populations worldwide, and incidence rates are increasing. However, NMSC data are not routinely collected by cancer registries, but Denmark has extensive registration of NMSC in two nationwide population-based registries. We...... assessed incidence trends of NMSC in Denmark from 1978 to 2007. Data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Registry of Pathology. For both genders, age-specific incidence rates and overall incidence rates, age...

  8. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Tumor Expression and Lethal Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Thomas U; Tchrakian, Nairi; Wilson, Kathryn M; Lis, Rosina; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Giovannucci, Edward; Mucci, Lorelei A; Finn, Stephen; Shui, Irene M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression. We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study. We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009. Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease. On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0). Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.

  9. A male patient with acromegaly and breast cancer: treating acromegaly to control tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leporati, Paola; Fonte, Rodolfo; Martinis, Luca de; Zambelli, Alberto; Magri, Flavia; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who was diagnosed with acromegaly (IGF-1 770 ng/ml) and breast cancer. Four years before he suffered from a colon-rectal cancer. Pituitary surgery and octreotide-LAR treatment failed to control acromegaly. Normalization of IGF-1 (97 ng/ml) was obtained with pegvisomant therapy. Four years after breast cancer surgery, 2 pulmonary metastases were detected at chest CT. The patient was started on anastrozole, but, contrary to medical advice, he stopped pegvisomant treatment (IGF-I 453 ng/ml). Four months later, chest CT revealed an increase in size of the metastatic lesion of the left lung. The patient was shifted from anastrozole to tamoxifen and was restarted on pegvisomant, with normalization of serum IGF-1 levels (90 ng/ml). Four months later, a reduction in size of the metastatic lesion of the left lung was detected by CT. Subsequent CT scans throughout a 24-month follow-up showed a further reduction in size and then a stabilization of the metastasis. This is the first report of a male patient with acromegaly and breast cancer. The clinical course of breast cancer was closely related to the metabolic control of acromegaly. The rapid progression of metastatic lesion was temporally related to stopping pegvisomant treatment and paralleled a rise in serum IGF-1 levels. Normalization of IGF-1 after re-starting pegvisomant impressively reduced the progression of metastatic breast lesions. Control of acromegaly is mandatory in acromegalic patients with cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1400-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Plac8 Links Oncogenic Mutations to Regulation of Autophagy and Is Critical to Pancreatic Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan Kinsey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in p53 and RAS potently cooperate in oncogenic transformation, and correspondingly, these genetic alterations frequently coexist in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA and other human cancers. Previously, we identified a set of genes synergistically activated by combined RAS and p53 mutations as frequent downstream mediators of tumorigenesis. Here, we show that the synergistically activated gene Plac8 is critical for pancreatic cancer growth. Silencing of Plac8 in cell lines suppresses tumor formation by blocking autophagy, a process essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis in PDA, and genetic inactivation in an engineered mouse model inhibits PDA progression. We show that Plac8 is a critical regulator of the autophagic machinery, localizing to the lysosomal compartment and facilitating lysosome-autophagosome fusion. Plac8 thus provides a mechanistic link between primary oncogenic mutations and the induction of autophagy, a central mechanism of metabolic reprogramming, during PDA progression.

  11. The neurotensin receptor-1 pathway contributes to human ductal breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Sandra; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Alifano, Marco; Souazé, Frédérique; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Chaouat, Marc; Lavaur, Anne; Hugol, Danielle; Gespach, Christian; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The neurotensin (NTS) and its specific high affinity G protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor (NTSR1), are considered to be a good candidate for one of the factors implicated in neoplastic progression. In breast cancer cells, functionally expressed NT1 receptor coordinates a series of transforming functions including cellular migration and invasion. we investigated the expression of NTS and NTSR1 in normal human breast tissue and in invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDCs) by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. NTS is expressed and up-regulated by estrogen in normal epithelial breast cells. NTS is also found expressed in the ductal and invasive components of IDCs. The high expression of NTSR1 is associated with the SBR grade, the size of the tumor, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes. Furthermore, the NTSR1 high expression is an independent factor of prognosis associated with the death of patients. these data support the activation of neurotensinergic deleterious pathways in breast cancer progression.

  12. The role of miRNA regulation in cancer progression and drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Tejal

    RNAs in the context of cancer biology, drug resistance and disease progression. The first project described in Chapter 6 addresses the problem of tamoxifen resistance, an anti-estrogen drug that is generally highly effective in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancers. The underlying molecular mechanisms...... to the disease transformation. In summary, this thesis focuses on regulatory role of miRNAs in drug resistance and disease progression. The findings provide hints toward various biologically and perhaps therapeutically relevant gene regulatory events. This thesis demonstrates the right choice of data analysis...... for the acquired resistance to tamoxifen are not very well understood. Therefore, with the aid of miRNA and gene expression profiles for MCF7/S0.5 (tamoxifen sensitive) and three MCF7/S0.5 derived tamoxifen resistant cell lines, we obtained several miRNA-mediated regulatory events in the tamoxifen resistant cell...

  13. Deficient expression of DNA repair enzymes in early progression to sporadic colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancers often arise within an area of cells (e.g. an epithelial patch) that is predisposed to the development of cancer, i.e. a "field of cancerization" or "field defect." Sporadic colon cancer is characterized by an elevated mutation rate and genomic instability. If a field defect were deficient in DNA repair, DNA damages would tend to escape repair and give rise to carcinogenic mutations. Purpose To determine whether reduced expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf (pairing partner of Ercc1) are early steps in progression to colon cancer. Results Tissue biopsies were taken during colonoscopies of 77 patients at 4 different risk levels for colon cancer, including 19 patients who had never had colonic neoplasia (who served as controls). In addition, 158 tissue samples were taken from tissues near or within colon cancers removed by resection and 16 tissue samples were taken near tubulovillous adenomas (TVAs) removed by resection. 568 triplicate tissue sections (a total of 1,704 tissue sections) from these tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for 4 DNA repair proteins. Substantially reduced protein expression of Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf occurred in field defects of up to 10 cm longitudinally distant from colon cancers or TVAs and within colon cancers. Expression of another DNA repair protein, Ku86, was infrequently reduced in these areas. When Pms2, Ercc1 or Xpf were reduced in protein expression, then either one or both of the other two proteins most often had reduced protein expression as well. The mean inner colon circumferences, from 32 resections, of the ascending, transverse and descending/sigmoid areas were measured as 6.6 cm, 5.8 cm and 6.3 cm, respectively. When combined with other measurements in the literature, this indicates the approximate mean number of colonic crypts in humans is 10 million. Conclusions The substantial deficiencies in protein expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf in about 1 million

  14. Integrating text mining, data mining, and network analysis for identifying genetic breast cancer trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurca, Gabriela; Addam, Omar; Aksac, Alper; Gao, Shang; Özyer, Tansel; Demetrick, Douglas; Alhajj, Reda

    2016-04-26

    Breast cancer is a serious disease which affects many women and may lead to death. It has received considerable attention from the research community. Thus, biomedical researchers aim to find genetic biomarkers indicative of the disease. Novel biomarkers can be elucidated from the existing literature. However, the vast amount of scientific publications on breast cancer make this a daunting task. This paper presents a framework which investigates existing literature data for informative discoveries. It integrates text mining and social network analysis in order to identify new potential biomarkers for breast cancer. We utilized PubMed for the testing. We investigated gene-gene interactions, as well as novel interactions such as gene-year, gene-country, and abstract-country to find out how the discoveries varied over time and how overlapping/diverse are the discoveries and the interest of various research groups in different countries. Interesting trends have been identified and discussed, e.g., different genes are highlighted in relationship to different countries though the various genes were found to share functionality. Some text analysis based results have been validated against results from other tools that predict gene-gene relations and gene functions.

  15. NCI Funding Trends and Priorities in Physical Activity and Energy Balance Research Among Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Tesauro, Gina; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Elena, Joanne W; Ross, Sharon A; O'Connell, Mary; Bowles, Heather R; Greenberg, Deborah; Nebeling, Linda

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a healthy lifestyle consisting of physical activity, healthy diet, and weight control is associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality after cancer. However, these behavioral interventions are not widely adopted in practice or community settings. Integrating heath behavior change interventions into standard survivorship care for the growing number of cancer survivors requires an understanding of the current state of the science and a coordinated scientific agenda for the future with focused attention in several priority areas. To facilitate this goal, this paper presents trends over the past decade of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) research portfolio, fiscal year 2004 to 2014, by funding mechanism, research focus, research design and methodology, primary study exposures and outcomes, and study team expertise and composition. These data inform a prioritized research agenda for the next decade focused on demonstrating value and feasibility and creating desire for health behavior change interventions at multiple levels including the survivor, clinician, and healthcare payer to facilitate the development and implementation of appropriately targeted, adaptive, effective, and sustainable programs for all survivors. Published by Oxford University Press (2015). This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Temporal Trends and Future Prediction of Breast Cancer Incidence Across Age Groups in Trivandrum, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aleyamma; George, Preethi Sara; Arjunan, Asha; Augustine, Paul; Kalavathy, Mc; Padmakumari, G; Mathew, Beela Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing breast cancer (BC) incidence rates have been reported from India; causal factors for this increased incidence are not understood and diagnosis is mostly in advanced stages. Trivandrum exhibits the highest BC incidence rates in India. This study aimed to estimate trends in incidence by age from 2005- 2014, to predict rates through 2020 and to assess the stage at diagnosis of BC in Trivandrum. BC cases were obtained from the Population Based Cancer Registry, Trivandrum. Distribution of stage at diagnosis and incidence rates of BC [Age-specific (ASpR), crude (CR) and age-standardized (ASR)] are described and employed with a joinpoint regression model to estimate average annual percent changes (AAPC) and a Bayesian model to estimate predictive rates. BC accounts for 31% (2681/8737) of all female cancers in Trivandrum. Thirty-five percent (944/2681) are 60 years and overall CR is 80 (ASR: 57) for 2019- 20. BC, mostly diagnosed in advanced stages, is rising rapidly in South India with large increases likely in the future; particularly among post-menopausal women. This increase might be due to aging and/or changes in lifestyle factors. Reasons for the increased incidence and late stage diagnosis need to be studied.

  17. α2-adrenergic blockade mimics the enhancing effect of chronic stress on breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Donald M.; Sung, Ha Yeon; Yang, Gyu Sik; David, John M.; Ma, Jeffrey C.Y.; Cole, Steve W.; Sloan, Erica K.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in preclinical mouse models of breast cancer have shown that chronic restraint stress can enhance disease progression by increasing catecholamine levels and subsequent signaling of β-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines also signal α-adrenergic receptors, and greater α-adrenergic signaling has been shown to promote breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, antagonism of α-adrenergic receptors can result in elevated catecholamine levels, which may increase β-adrenergic signaling, because pre-synaptic α2-adrenergic receptors mediate an autoinhibition of sympathetic transmission. Given these findings, we examined the effect of α-adrenergic blockade on breast cancer progression under non-stress and stress conditions (chronic restraint) in an orthotopic mouse model with MDA-MB-231HM cells. Chronic restraint increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to distant tissues as expected, and non-selective α-adrenergic blockade by phentolamine significantly inhibited those effects. However, under non-stress conditions, phentolamine increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis. Sympatho-neural gene expression for catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes was elevated by phentolamine under non-stress conditions, and the non-selective β-blocker propranolol inhibited the effect of phentolamine on breast cancer progression. Selective α2-adrenergic blockade by efaroxan also increased primary tumor size and distant metastasis under non-stress conditions, but selective α1-adrenergic blockade by prazosin did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that α2-adrenergic signaling can act through an autoreceptor mechanism to inhibit sympathetic catecholamine release and, thus, modulate established effects of β-adrenergic signaling on tumor progression-relevant biology. PMID:25462899

  18. Lysyl oxidase enzymatic function increases stiffness to drive colorectal cancer progression through FAK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, A-M; Bird, D; Lang, G

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular, matrix-modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) has recently been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, in particular to the stages of invasion and metastasis. In this report, we use cell lines expressing a catalytically inactive mutant form of LOX to show that catalytic a...... for patients with metastatic CRC.Oncogene advance online publication, 28 May 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.202....

  19. Understanding and Targeting Tumor Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer to Inhibit Tumor Progression and Castration Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cancer-secreted chemokine to attract Cxcr2-expressing MDSCs and, correspondingly, pharmacological inhibition of Cxcr2 impeded tumor progression...impact of pharmacological inhibition of Cxcl5 and Cxcr2 on MDSCs using the transwell migration assay 26 . First, anti-Cxcl5 neutralizing antibody...and MRI . (B) Generation of the CPPSML chimera model. (C) Fluorescence microscopy and H&E image of snap frozen prostate tumor from chimera showing that

  20. An investigation of the apparent breast cancer epidemic in France: screening and incidence trends in birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Methods Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had experienced different levels of screening intensity. Results There was an 8-fold increase in the number of mammography machines operating in France between 1980 and 2000. Opportunistic and organised screening increased over time. In comparison to age-matched cohorts born 15 years earlier, recent cohorts had adjusted incidence proportion over 11 years that were 76% higher [95% confidence limits (CL 67%, 85%] for women aged 50 to 64 years and 23% higher [95% CL 15%, 31%] for women aged 65 to 79 years. Given that mortality did not change correspondingly, this increase in adjusted 11 year incidence proportion was considered as an estimate of overdiagnosis. Conclusions Breast cancer may be overdiagnosed because screening increases diagnosis of slowly progressing non-life threatening cancer and increases misdiagnosis among women without progressive cancer. We suggest that these effects could largely explain the reported

  1. An investigation of the apparent breast cancer epidemic in France: screening and incidence trends in birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Bernard; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Kaplan, Robert M; Olsen, Jørn; Greenland, Sander

    2011-09-21

    Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had experienced different levels of screening intensity. There was an 8-fold increase in the number of mammography machines operating in France between 1980 and 2000. Opportunistic and organised screening increased over time. In comparison to age-matched cohorts born 15 years earlier, recent cohorts had adjusted incidence proportion over 11 years that were 76% higher [95% confidence limits (CL) 67%, 85%] for women aged 50 to 64 years and 23% higher [95% CL 15%, 31%] for women aged 65 to 79 years. Given that mortality did not change correspondingly, this increase in adjusted 11 year incidence proportion was considered as an estimate of overdiagnosis. Breast cancer may be overdiagnosed because screening increases diagnosis of slowly progressing non-life threatening cancer and increases misdiagnosis among women without progressive cancer. We suggest that these effects could largely explain the reported "epidemic" of breast cancer in France. Better predictive classification of

  2. Increase in breast cancer incidence among older women in Mumbai: 30-year trends and predictions to 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P; Yeole, B B; Nagrani, Rajini; Dhillon, P; Badwe, R; Bray, Freddie

    2012-08-01

    Increasing trends in the incidence of breast cancer have been observed in India, including Mumbai. These have likely stemmed from an increasing adoption of lifestyle factors more akin to those commonly observed in westernized countries. Analyses of breast cancer trends and corresponding estimation of the future burden are necessary to better plan rationale cancer control programmes within the country. We used data from the population-based Mumbai Cancer Registry to study time trends in breast cancer incidence rates 1976-2005 and stratified them according to younger (25-49) and older age group (50-74). Age-period-cohort models were fitted and the net drift used as a measure of the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC). Age-period-cohort models and population projections were used to predict the age-adjusted rates and number of breast cancer cases circa 2025. Breast cancer incidence increased significantly among older women over three decades (EAPC = 1.6%; 95% CI 1.1-2.0), while lesser but significant 1% increase in incidence among younger women was observed (EAPC = 1.0; 95% CI 0.2-1.8). Non-linear period and cohort effects were observed; a trends-based model predicted a close-to-doubling of incident cases by 2025 from 1300 mean cases per annum in 2001-2005 to over 2500 cases in 2021-2025. The incidence of breast cancer has increased in Mumbai during last two to three decades, with increases greater among older women. The number of breast cancer cases is predicted to double to over 2500 cases, the vast majority affecting older women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer Incidence Trend in the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Area, from 1999 to 2014: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Ha, Mina; Hur, Jong-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2018-05-17

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) occurred in the Republic of Korea on 7 December 2007. We aimed to describe the cancer incidence trend in Taean County before and after the oil spill. Five major cancers and leukemia were analyzed. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Center. We compared the standardized incidence rates in Taean with those observed nationwide and selected three coastal areas. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to examine the trends in the average annual percent change and perform comparisons. The incidence rate of prostate cancer increased from 2007 to 2009 at an annual average of 39.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): -25.9, 161.8), 13.5% (95% CI: 11.7, 15.4), and 15.6% (95% CI: 11.9, 19.5), respectively, in Taean, nationwide, and in the coastal areas. The incidence of leukemia among women increased at an annual average of 9.5% (95% CI: -26.6, 63.4) in Taean and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) nationwide; the rate decreased by 1.9% (95% CI: -12.8, 10.4) in the coastal areas. The trends between Taean County and the coastal areas differed only for prostate cancer ( p = 0.0004). The incidence of prostate cancer among Taean County residents has increased since the HSOS.

  4. Lung Cancer Mortality Trends in China from 1988 to 2013: New Challenges and Opportunities for the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As lung cancer has shown a continuously increasing trend in many countries, it is essential to stay abreast of lung cancer mortality information and take informed actions with a theoretical basis derived from appropriate and practical statistical methods. Methods: Age-specific rates were collected by gender and region (urban/rural and analysed with descriptive methods and age-period-cohort models to estimate the trends in lung cancer mortality in China from 1988 to 2013. Results: Descriptive analysis revealed that the age-specific mortality rates of lung cancer in rural residents increased markedly over the last three decades, and there was no obvious increase in urban residents. APC analysis showed that the lung cancer mortality rates significantly increased with age (20–84, rose slightly with the time period, and decreased with the cohort, except for the rural cohorts born during the early years (1909–1928. The trends in the patterns of the period and cohort effects showed marked disparities between the urban and rural residents. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality remains serious and is likely to continue to rise in China. Some known measures are suggested to be decisive factors in mitigating lung cancer, such as environmental conservation, medical security, and tobacco control, which should be implemented more vigorously over the long term in China, especially in rural areas.

  5. Chromosomal imbalance in the progression of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, Karsten; Wiuf, Carsten; Jensen, Klaus Møller-Ernst; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms with invasion of the lamina propria (stage T1) or high grade of dysplasia are at 'high risk' of progression to life-threatening cancer. However, the individual course is difficult to predict. Chromosomal instability (CI) is associated with high tumor stage and grade, and possibly with the risk of progression. To investigate the relationship between CI and subsequent disease progression, we performed a case-control-study of 125 patients with 'high-risk' non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms, 67 with later disease progression, and 58 with no progression. Selection criteria were conservative (non-radical) resections and full prospective clinical follow-up (> 5 years). We investigated primary lesions in 59, and recurrent lesions in 66 cases. We used Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mapping 10 K and 50 K SNP microarrays to evaluate genome wide chromosomal imbalance (loss-of-heterozygosity and DNA copy number changes) in 48 representative tumors. DNA copy number changes of 15 key instability regions were further investigated using QPCR in 101 tumors (including 25 tumors also analysed on 50 K SNP microarrays). Chromosomal instability did not predict any higher risk of subsequent progression. Stage T1 and high-grade tumors had generally more unstable genomes than tumors of lower stage and grade (mostly non-primary tumors following a 'high-risk' tumor). However, about 25% of the 'high-risk' tumors had very few alterations. This was independent of subsequent progression. Recurrent lesions represent underlying field disease. A separate analysis of these lesions did neither reflect any difference in the risk of progression. Of specific chromosomal alterations, a possible association between loss of chromosome 8p11 and the risk of progression was found. However, the predictive value was limited by the heterogeneity of the changes. Chromosomal instability (CI) was associated with 'high risk' tumors

  6. PBX1 Genomic Pioneer Function Drives ERα Signaling Underlying Progression in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Luca; Ballantyne, Elizabeth B.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lupien, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Altered transcriptional programs are a hallmark of diseases, yet how these are established is still ill-defined. PBX1 is a TALE homeodomain protein involved in the development of different types of cancers. The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is central to the development of two-thirds of all breast cancers. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 acts as a pioneer factor and is essential for the ERα-mediated transcriptional response driving aggressive tumors in breast cancer. Indeed, PBX1 expression correlates with ERα in primary breast tumors, and breast cancer cells depleted of PBX1 no longer proliferate following estrogen stimulation. Profiling PBX1 recruitment and chromatin accessibility across the genome of breast cancer cells through ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq reveals that PBX1 is loaded and promotes chromatin openness at specific genomic locations through its capacity to read specific epigenetic signatures. Accordingly, PBX1 guides ERα recruitment to a specific subset of sites. Expression profiling studies demonstrate that PBX1 controls over 70% of the estrogen response. More importantly, the PBX1-dependent transcriptional program is associated with poor-outcome in breast cancer patients. Correspondingly, PBX1 expression alone can discriminate a priori the outcome in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. These features are markedly different from the previously characterized ERα-associated pioneer factor FoxA1. Indeed, PBX1 is the only pioneer factor identified to date that discriminates outcome such as metastasis in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. Together our results reveal that PBX1 is a novel pioneer factor defining aggressive ERα-positive breast tumors, as it guides ERα genomic activity to unique genomic regions promoting a transcriptional program favorable to breast cancer progression. PMID:22125492

  7. Complex of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in Colon Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascio, Sandra; Finn, Olivera J.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that CIN85, an 85 KDa protein known to be involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis through its interaction with Cbl, associates with MUC1 in tumor cells. MUC1/CIN85 complex also regulates migration and invasion of tumor cells in vitro. Here, we examined specifically human colon carcinoma tissue microarrays (TMA) by immunohistochemistry for the expression of MUC1 and CIN85 and their potential role in cancer progression and metastasis. We detected a significant increase in expression of both MUC1 and CIN85 associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. We further investigated if Cbl could also be present in the MUC1/CIN85 complex. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that Cbl co-localized both with CIN85 and with MUC1 in a human colon cancer cell line. To begin to investigate the in vivo relevance of MUC1 overexpression and association with CIN85 and Cbl in cancer development and progression, we used human MUC1 transgenic mice that express MUC1 on the colonic epithelial cells, treated with azoxymethane to initiate and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. MUC1.Tg mice showed higher tumor incidence and decreased survival when compared with wild-type mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, the association of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl was detected in colon tissues of AOM/DSS-treated MUC1 transgenic mice. MUC1/CIN85/Cbl complex appears to contribute to promotion and progression of colon cancer and thus increased expression of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in early stage colon cancer might be predictive of poor prognosis

  8. Turning the tide against cancer through sustained medical innovation: the pathway to progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy; Abrahams, Edward; Barker, Anna; Buetow, Ken; Burkholder, Randy; Dalton, William S; Foti, Margaret; Frueh, Felix; Gaynor, Richard B; Kean, Marcia; Khan, Zeba; Lessor, Tracy; Lichtenfeld, J Leonard; Mendelsohn, John; van't Veer, Laura

    2014-03-01

    An ever-expanding understanding of the molecular basis of the more than 200 unique diseases collectively called cancer, combined with efforts to apply these insights to clinical care, is forming the foundation of an era of personalized medicine that promises to improve cancer treatment. At the same time, these extraordinary opportunities are occurring in an environment of intense pressure to contain rising healthcare costs. This environment presents a challenge to oncology research and clinical care, because both are becoming progressively more complex and expensive, and because the current tools to measure the cost and value of advances in care (e.g., comparative effectiveness research, cost-effectiveness analysis, and health technology assessments) are not optimized for an ecosystem moving toward personalized, patient-centered care. Reconciling this tension will be essential to maintaining progress in a cost-constrained environment, especially because emerging innovations in science (e.g., increasing identification of molecular biomarkers) and in clinical process (implementation of a learning healthcare system) hold potential to dramatically improve patient care, and may ultimately help address the burden of rising costs. For example, the rapid pace of innovation taking place within oncology calls for increased capability to integrate clinical research and care to enable continuous learning, so that lessons learned from each patient treated can inform clinical decision making for the next patient. Recognizing the need to define the policies required for sustained innovation in cancer research and care in an era of cost containment, the stakeholder community must engage in an ongoing dialogue and identify areas for collaboration. This article reflects and seeks to amplify the ongoing robust discussion and diverse perspectives brought to this issue by multiple stakeholders within the cancer community, and to consider how to frame the research and regulatory

  9. Complex of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in Colon Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascio, Sandra, E-mail: sac131@pitt.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1040 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Fondazione Ri.Med, via Bandiera, Palermo 90133 (Italy); Finn, Olivera J., E-mail: sac131@pitt.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1040 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We previously reported that CIN85, an 85 KDa protein known to be involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis through its interaction with Cbl, associates with MUC1 in tumor cells. MUC1/CIN85 complex also regulates migration and invasion of tumor cells in vitro. Here, we examined specifically human colon carcinoma tissue microarrays (TMA) by immunohistochemistry for the expression of MUC1 and CIN85 and their potential role in cancer progression and metastasis. We detected a significant increase in expression of both MUC1 and CIN85 associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. We further investigated if Cbl could also be present in the MUC1/CIN85 complex. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that Cbl co-localized both with CIN85 and with MUC1 in a human colon cancer cell line. To begin to investigate the in vivo relevance of MUC1 overexpression and association with CIN85 and Cbl in cancer development and progression, we used human MUC1 transgenic mice that express MUC1 on the colonic epithelial cells, treated with azoxymethane to initiate and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. MUC1.Tg mice showed higher tumor incidence and decreased survival when compared with wild-type mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, the association of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl was detected in colon tissues of AOM/DSS-treated MUC1 transgenic mice. MUC1/CIN85/Cbl complex appears to contribute to promotion and progression of colon cancer and thus increased expression of MUC1, CIN85 and Cbl in early stage colon cancer might be predictive of poor prognosis.

  10. Ovarian function’s role during cancer cachexia progression in the female mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Hardee, Justin P.; LaVoie, Holly A.; Murphy, E. Angela

    2017-01-01

    Cachexia is a debilitating condition that occurs with chronic disease, including cancer; our research has shown that some regulation of cancer cachexia progression is affected by sex differences. The ApcMin/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; IL-6 signaling and hypogonadism are associated with cachexia severity in the male. This relationship in the female warrants further investigation, as we have shown that the ability of IL-6 to induce cachexia differs between the sexes. Since ovarian reproductive function relies on a complex system of endocrine signaling to affect whole body homeostasis, we examined the relationship between ovarian reproductive function and progression of cancer cachexia in the female ApcMin/+ mouse. Our study of ovarian reproductive function in female ApcMin/+ mice showed disease-related cessation of estrous cycling (acyclicity) in 38% of mice. Acyclicity, including morphological and functional losses and enhanced muscle inflammatory gene expression, was associated with severe cachexia. Interestingly, ovariectomy rescued body weight and muscle mass and function but increased muscle sensitivity to systemic IL-6 overexpression. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a relationship between ovarian reproductive function and cachexia progression in female ApcMin/+ mice. PMID:28292759

  11. Ovarian function's role during cancer cachexia progression in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L; Hardee, Justin P; LaVoie, Holly A; Murphy, E Angela; Carson, James A

    2017-05-01

    Cachexia is a debilitating condition that occurs with chronic disease, including cancer; our research has shown that some regulation of cancer cachexia progression is affected by sex differences. The Apc Min/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; IL-6 signaling and hypogonadism are associated with cachexia severity in the male. This relationship in the female warrants further investigation, as we have shown that the ability of IL-6 to induce cachexia differs between the sexes. Since ovarian reproductive function relies on a complex system of endocrine signaling to affect whole body homeostasis, we examined the relationship between ovarian reproductive function and progression of cancer cachexia in the female Apc Min/+ mouse. Our study of ovarian reproductive function in female Apc Min/+ mice showed disease-related cessation of estrous cycling (acyclicity) in 38% of mice. Acyclicity, including morphological and functional losses and enhanced muscle inflammatory gene expression, was associated with severe cachexia. Interestingly, ovariectomy rescued body weight and muscle mass and function but increased muscle sensitivity to systemic IL-6 overexpression. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a relationship between ovarian reproductive function and cachexia progression in female Apc Min/+ mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST HALTS PROGRESSION OF PANCREATIC CANCER PRECURSOR LESIONS AND FIBROSIS IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jill P.; Cooper, Timothy K.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Matters, Gail L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved with the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. Methods The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK-receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1mg/ml). Pancreas from mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2 or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Results Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared to controls (p=0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared to vehicle (pitalic>0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Use of CCK-receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high risk subjects, and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment. PMID:25058882

  13. Use of a case-mix approach to study the trends in the incidence of second primary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Boris; Marrer, Emilie; Bara, Simona; Ligier, Karine; Molinié, Florence; Colonna, Marc; Daubisse-Marliac, Laetitia; Trétarre, Brigitte; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Bouvier, Véronique; Troussard, Xavier; Gaiddon, Christian; Klein, Delphine; Velten, Michel; Jégu, Jérémie

    2018-05-01

    To analyze trends in second primary cancer (SPC) incidence by using a case-mix approach to standardize on first cancer site distribution. Cases registered by 13 French cancer registries between 1989 and 2010 and followed-up until June 2013 were included. The person-year approach was used to compute standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of metachronous SPC. Usual SIRs and cancer site-specific weighted SIRs called "case-mix SIRs" (cmSIRs) were estimated by sex and calendar period of first cancer diagnosis. Calendar trends in SIRs and cmSIRs were compared. More than 2.9 million person-years at risk were included. Among males, SIRs dropped from 1.49 to 1.23 between 1989-1994 and 2005-2010, while cmSIRs decreased from 1.40 to 1.27. This difference seems mainly related to a stronger representation of prostate cancers (at lower risk of SPC) and a weaker contribution of bladder and head and neck cancers (at higher risk of SPC) in recent periods of diagnosis. Among females, both SIRs and cmSIRs have remained stable at around 1.22 and 1.21, respectively. The cmSIR is an indicator that is not influenced by changes in first cancer site distribution. Its use should be encouraged to assess second cancer incidence control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  15. The fragile X protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucá, Rossella; Averna, Michele; Zalfa, Francesca; Vecchi, Manuela; Bianchi, Fabrizio; La Fata, Giorgio; Del Nonno, Franca; Nardacci, Roberta; Bianchi, Marco; Nuciforo, Paolo; Munck, Sebastian; Parrella, Paola; Moura, Rute; Signori, Emanuela; Alston, Robert; Kuchnio, Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Piacentini, Mauro; De Strooper, Bart; Achsel, Tilmann; Neri, Giovanni; Neven, Patrick; Evans, D Gareth; Carmeliet, Peter; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Bagni, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is well established in brain, where its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP is almost ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that, in addition to its effects in brain, it may have fundamental roles in other organs. There is evidence that FMRP expression can be linked to cancer. FMR1 mRNA, encoding FMRP, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A decreased risk of cancer has been reported in patients with FXS while a patient-case with FXS showed an unusual decrease of tumour brain invasiveness. However, a role for FMRP in regulating cancer biology, if any, remains unknown. We show here that FMRP and FMR1 mRNA levels correlate with prognostic indicators of aggressive breast cancer, lung metastases probability and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We establish that FMRP overexpression in murine breast primary tumours enhances lung metastasis while its reduction has the opposite effect regulating cell spreading and invasion. FMRP binds mRNAs involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion including E-cadherin and Vimentin mRNAs, hallmarks of EMT and cancer progression. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  16. The Fragile X Protein binds mRNAs involved in cancer progression and modulates metastasis formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucá, Rossella; Averna, Michele; Zalfa, Francesca; Vecchi, Manuela; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Fata, Giorgio La; Del Nonno, Franca; Nardacci, Roberta; Bianchi, Marco; Nuciforo, Paolo; Munck, Sebastian; Parrella, Paola; Moura, Rute; Signori, Emanuela; Alston, Robert; Kuchnio, Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Piacentini, Mauro; De Strooper, Bart; Achsel, Tilmann; Neri, Giovanni; Neven, Patrick; Evans, D Gareth; Carmeliet, Peter; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Bagni, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The role of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is well established in brain, where its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP is almost ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that, in addition to its effects in brain, it may have fundamental roles in other organs. There is evidence that FMRP expression can be linked to cancer. FMR1 mRNA, encoding FMRP, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A decreased risk of cancer has been reported in patients with FXS while a patient-case with FXS showed an unusual decrease of tumour brain invasiveness. However, a role for FMRP in regulating cancer biology, if any, remains unknown. We show here that FMRP and FMR1 mRNA levels correlate with prognostic indicators of aggressive breast cancer, lung metastases probability and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We establish that FMRP overexpression in murine breast primary tumours enhances lung metastasis while its reduction has the opposite effect regulating cell spreading and invasion. FMRP binds mRNAs involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion including E-cadherin and Vimentin mRNAs, hallmarks of EMT and cancer progression. PMID:24092663

  17. The E-cadherin/catenin complex: an important gatekeeper in breast cancer tumorigenesis and malignant progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berx, Geert; Roy, Frans Van

    2001-01-01

    E-cadherin is a cell–cell adhesion protein fulfilling a prominent role in epithelial differentiation. Data from model systems suggest that E-cadherin is a potent invasion/tumor suppressor of breast cancer. Consistent with this role in breast cancer progression, partial or complete loss of E-cadherin expression has been found to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is located on human chromosome 16q22.1, a region frequently affected with loss of heterozygosity in sporadic breast cancer. Invasive lobular breast carcinomas, which are typically completely E-cadherin-negative, often show inactivating mutations in combination with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type CDH1 allele. Mutations were found at early noninvasive stages, thus associating E-cadherin mutations with loss of cell growth control and defining CDH1 as the tumor suppressor for the lobular breast cancer subtype. Ductal breast cancers in general show heterogeneous loss of E-cadherin expression, associated with epigenetic transcriptional downregulation. It is proposed that the microenvironment at the invasive front is transiently downregulating E-cadherin transcription. This can be associated with induction of nonepithelial cadherins

  18. The Multifunctional Protein Kinase C-ε in Cancer Development and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family proteins are important signal transducers and have long been the focus of cancer research. PKCɛ, a member of this family, is overexpressed in most solid tumors and plays critical roles in different processes that lead to cancer development. Studies using cell lines and animal models demonstrated the transforming potential of PKCɛ. While earlier research established the survival functions of PKCɛ, recent studies revealed its role in cell migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. PKCɛ has also been implicated in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may be the underlying mechanism by which it contributes to cell motility. In addition, PKCɛ affects cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions by direct regulation of the cytoskeletal elements. Recent studies have also linked PKCɛ signaling to cancer stem cell functioning. This review focuses on the role of PKCɛ in different processes that lead to cancer development and progression. We also discussed current literatures on the pursuit of PKCɛ as a target for cancer therapy. PMID:24727247

  19. The Multifunctional Protein Kinase C-ε in Cancer Development and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase C (PKC family proteins are important signal transducers and have long been the focus of cancer research. PKCɛ, a member of this family, is overexpressed in most solid tumors and plays critical roles in different processes that lead to cancer development. Studies using cell lines and animal models demonstrated the transforming potential of PKCɛ. While earlier research established the survival functions of PKCɛ, recent studies revealed its role in cell migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. PKCɛ has also been implicated in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, which may be the underlying mechanism by which it contributes to cell motility. In addition, PKCɛ affects cell-extracellular matrix (ECM interactions by direct regulation of the cytoskeletal elements. Recent studies have also linked PKCɛ signaling to cancer stem cell functioning. This review focuses on the role of PKCɛ in different processes that lead to cancer development and progression. We also discussed current literatures on the pursuit of PKCɛ as a target for cancer therapy.

  20. The Multifunctional Protein Kinase C-ε in Cancer Development and Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family proteins are important signal transducers and have long been the focus of cancer research. PKCε, a member of this family, is overexpressed in most solid tumors and plays critical roles in different processes that lead to cancer development. Studies using cell lines and animal models demonstrated the transforming potential of PKCε. While earlier research established the survival functions of PKCε, recent studies revealed its role in cell migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. PKCε has also been implicated in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may be the underlying mechanism by which it contributes to cell motility. In addition, PKCε affects cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions by direct regulation of the cytoskeletal elements. Recent studies have also linked PKCε signaling to cancer stem cell functioning. This review focuses on the role of PKCε in different processes that lead to cancer development and progression. We also discussed current literatures on the pursuit of PKCε as a target for cancer therapy.

  1. The Multifunctional Protein Kinase C-ε in Cancer Development and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Institute for Cancer Research, and Focused on Resources for her Health Education and Research, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family proteins are important signal transducers and have long been the focus of cancer research. PKCε, a member of this family, is overexpressed in most solid tumors and plays critical roles in different processes that lead to cancer development. Studies using cell lines and animal models demonstrated the transforming potential of PKCε. While earlier research established the survival functions of PKCε, recent studies revealed its role in cell migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. PKCε has also been implicated in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may be the underlying mechanism by which it contributes to cell motility. In addition, PKCε affects cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions by direct regulation of the cytoskeletal elements. Recent studies have also linked PKCε signaling to cancer stem cell functioning. This review focuses on the role of PKCε in different processes that lead to cancer development and progression. We also discussed current literatures on the pursuit of PKCε as a target for cancer therapy.

  2. Withaferin A and sulforaphane regulate breast cancer cell cycle progression through epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Kendra J; Paul, Bidisha; Nozell, Susan; Rajbhandari, Rajani; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of combinatorial dietary compounds on the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms involved in breast cancer prevention. The human diet consists of a multitude of components, and there is a need to elucidate how certain compounds interact in collaboration. Withaferin A (WA), found in the Indian winter cherry and documented as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, and sulforaphane (SFN), a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor found in cruciferous vegetables, are two epigenetic modifying compounds that have only recently been studied in conjunction. The use of DNMT and HDAC inhibitors to reverse the malignant expression of certain genes in breast cancer has shown considerable promise. Previously, we found that SFN + WA synergistically promote breast cancer cell death. Herein, we determined that these compounds inhibit cell cycle progression from S to G2 phase in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this unique combination of epigenetic modifying compounds down-regulates the levels of Cyclin D1 and CDK4, and pRB; conversely, the levels of E2F mRNA and tumor suppressor p21 are increased independently of p53. We find these events coincide with an increase in unrestricted histone methylation. We propose SFN + WA-induced breast cancer cell death is attributed, in part, to epigenetic modifications that result in the modulated expression of key genes responsible for the regulation of cancer cell senescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Interactions between Insulin and Androgens in Progression to Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An association between the metabolic syndrome and reduced testosterone levels has been identified, and a specific inverse relationship between insulin and testosterone levels suggests that an important metabolic crosstalk exists between these two hormonal axes; however, the mechanisms by which insulin and androgens may be reciprocally regulated are not well described. Androgen-dependant gene pathways regulate the growth and maintenance of both normal and malignant prostate tissue, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT in patients exploits this dependence when used to treat recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer resulting in tumour regression. A major systemic side effect of ADT includes induction of key features of the metabolic syndrome and the consistent feature of hyperinsulinaemia. Recent studies have specifically identified a correlation between elevated insulin and high-grade PCa and more rapid progression to castrate resistant disease. This paper examines the relationship between insulin and androgens in the context of prostate cancer progression. Prostate cancer patients present a promising cohort for the exploration of insulin stabilising agents as adjunct treatments for hormone deprivation or enhancers of chemosensitivity for treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  4. The Interactions between Insulin and Androgens in Progression to Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Jennifer H.; Lubik, Amy A.; McKenzie, Ian; Pollak, Michael; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2012-01-01

    An association between the metabolic syndrome and reduced testosterone levels has been identified, and a specific inverse relationship between insulin and testosterone levels suggests that an important metabolic crosstalk exists between these two hormonal axes; however, the mechanisms by which insulin and androgens may be reciprocally regulated are not well described. Androgen-dependant gene pathways regulate the growth and maintenance of both normal and malignant prostate tissue, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients exploits this dependence when used to treat recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer resulting in tumour regression. A major systemic side effect of ADT includes induction of key features of the metabolic syndrome and the consistent feature of hyperinsulinaemia. Recent studies have specifically identified a correlation between elevated insulin and high-grade PCa and more rapid progression to castrate resistant disease. This paper examines the relationship between insulin and androgens in the context of prostate cancer progression. Prostate cancer patients present a promising cohort for the exploration of insulin stabilising agents as adjunct treatments for hormone deprivation or enhancers of chemosensitivity for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:22548055

  5. CD147/basigin promotes progression of malignant melanoma and other cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekura, Takuro; Chen, Xiang

    2010-03-01

    CD147/basigin, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin super family, was originally cloned as a carrier of Lewis X carbohydrate antigen. CD147 is strongly related to cancer progression; it is highly expressed by various cancer cells including malignant melanoma (MM) cells and it plays important roles in tumor invasiveness, metastasis, cellular proliferation, and in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, tumor cell glycolysis, and multi-drug resistance (MDR). CD147 on cancer cells induces matrix metalloproteinase expression by neighboring fibroblasts, leading to tumor cell invasion. In a nude mouse model of pulmonary metastasis from MM, the metastatic potential of CD147-expressing MM cells injected into the tail vein is abolished by CD147 silencing. CD147 enhances cellular proliferation and VEGF production by MM cells; it promotes tumor cell glycolysis by facilitating lactate transport in combination with monocarboxylate transporters, resulting in tumor progression. CD147 is responsible for the MDR phenotype via P-glycoprotein expression. These findings strongly suggest CD147 as a possible therapeutic target for overcoming metastasis and MDR, major obstacles to the effective treatment of malignant cancers. 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of differentially expressed proteins during human urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ashfaque A; Chang, Jong W; Oh, Bong R; Yoo, Yung J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative proteome analysis was performed between RT4 (grade-1) and T24 (grade-3) bladder cancer cell lines, in an attempt to identify differentially expressed proteins during bladder cancer progression. Among those relatively abundant proteins, seven spots changed more than two-fold reproducibly and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometry and database search. We found most extensive and reproducible down-regulation of NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase cytoplasmic (IDPc) and peroxiredoxin-II (Prx-II), in poorly differentiated T24 compared to well-differentiated RT4 bladder cancer cell line. Subsequent Western blotting analysis of human biopsy samples from bladder cancer patient revealed significant loss of IDPc and Prx-II in more advance tumor samples, in agreement with data on cell lines. These results suggest that loss of IDPc and Prx-II during tumor development may involve in tumor progression and metastasis. However, additional investigations are needed on large number of human samples to further verify these findings.

  7. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleshner Neil E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025. This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P Conclusion We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding.

  8. Possible roles of insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBPs in initiation and progression of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Du, Li-Li; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dong-Bo; Han, Cun-Zhi; Jing, Jie-Xian; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Xu, Xiao-Qin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of serum insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We determined serum insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBPs levels in 615 colorectal cancer patients and 650 control healthy donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the meantime, their body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured. RESULTS: Serum levels of insulin and IGF-1 as well as IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio in pre-operation patients were significantly elevated, but the level of IGFBP-3 was significantly decreased compared with normal controls and post-operation patients (P 0.05) in the levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 between the patients with and without hepatic as well as distal abdominal metastases. WHR and BMI of colon cancer patients were positively and significantly correlated with the levels of insulin and IGF-1/IGFBP-3. In contrast, WHR and BMI were negatively correlated with IGFBP-3 level. CONCLUSION: The elevation of insulin, IGF-1 as well as IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio and the reduction of IGFBP-3 may be related to the initiation of colorectal cancer, but they are not related to the progression and outcome of the disease. PMID:24587638

  9. Tristetraprolin: A novel target of diallyl disulfide that inhibits the progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ting; Liu, Xiao-Wang; Huang, Xue-Long; Xu, Xiong-Feng; Xie, Wei-Quan; Zhang, Su-Jun; Tu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a volatile component of garlic oil, has various biological properties, including antioxidant, antiangiogenic and anticancer effects. The present study aimed to explore novel targets of DADS that may slow or stop the progression of breast cancer. First, xenograft tumor models were created by subcutaneously injecting MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into nude mice. Subsequently, western blot analysis was performed to investigate the expression of tristetraprolin (TTP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the xenograft tumors, and cell cultures. Tablet cloning, Transwell and wound healing assays revealed that DADS treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. In addition, DADS treatment led to significant downregulation of uPA and MMP-9 protein expression, but significantly upregulated TTP expression in vivo and in vitro . Knocking down TTP expression using small interfering RNA reversed the aforementioned effects of DADS, which suggests TTP is a key target of DADS in inhibiting the progression of breast cancer.

  10. Statin and rottlerin small-molecule inhibitors restrict colon cancer progression and metastasis via MACC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Manisha; Kobelt, Dennis; Walther, Wolfgang; Voss, Cynthia; Smith, Janice; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Dahlmann, Mathias; Radetzki, Silke; Preissner, Robert; von Kries, Jens Peter; Schlag, Peter Michael; Stein, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    MACC1 (Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer 1) is a key driver and prognostic biomarker for cancer progression and metastasis in a large variety of solid tumor types, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no MACC1 inhibitors have been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to target MACC1 expression using a luciferase reporter-based high-throughput screening with the ChemBioNet library of more than 30,000 compounds. The small molecules lovastatin and rottlerin emerged as the most potent MACC1 transcriptional inhibitors. They remarkably inhibited MACC1 promoter activity and expression, resulting in reduced cell motility. Lovastatin impaired the binding of the transcription factors c-Jun and Sp1 to the MACC1 promoter, thereby inhibiting MACC1 transcription. Most importantly, in CRC-xenografted mice, lovastatin and rottlerin restricted MACC1 expression and liver metastasis. This is-to the best of our knowledge-the first identification of inhibitors restricting cancer progression and metastasis via the novel target MACC1. This drug repositioning might be of therapeutic value for CRC patients.

  11. Rrp1b, a new candidate susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P S Crawford

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel candidate metastasis modifier, ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (Rrp1b, was identified through two independent approaches. First, yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and functional assays demonstrated a physical and functional interaction between Rrp1b and the previous identified metastasis modifier Sipa1. In parallel, using mouse and human metastasis gene expression data it was observed that extracellular matrix (ECM genes are common components of metastasis predictive signatures, suggesting that ECM genes are either important markers or causal factors in metastasis. To investigate the relationship between ECM genes and poor prognosis in breast cancer, expression quantitative trait locus analysis of polyoma middle-T transgene-induced mammary tumor was performed. ECM gene expression was found to be consistently associated with Rrp1b expression. In vitro expression of Rrp1b significantly altered ECM gene expression, tumor growth, and dissemination in metastasis assays. Furthermore, a gene signature induced by ectopic expression of Rrp1b in tumor cells predicted survival in a human breast cancer gene expression dataset. Finally, constitutional polymorphism within RRP1B was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression in two independent breast cancer cohorts. These data suggest that RRP1B may be a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  12. Bisphenol A and Hormone-Associated Cancers: Current Progress and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Bao-Jun; Li, Nan; Feng, Li-Min; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Liu, Si-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA), a carbon-based synthetic compound, exhibits hormone-like properties and is present ubiquitously in the environment and in human tissues due to its widespread use and biological accumulation. BPA can mimic estrogen to interact with estrogen receptors α and β, leading to changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, or migration and thereby, contributing to cancer development and progression. At the genetic level, BPA has been shown to be involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways. Moreover, BPA may also interact with other steroid receptors (such as androgen receptor) and plays a role in prostate cancer development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding human exposure to BPA, the endocrine-disrupting effects of BPA, and the role of BPA in hormone-associated cancers of the breast, ovary, and prostate. PMID:25569640

  13. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A

    2017-01-01

    monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide......BACKGROUND: Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA...... treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant...

  14. Targeting the androgen receptor pathway in castration-resistant prostate cancer: progresses and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraldeschi, R; Welti, J; Luo, J; Attard, G; de Bono, JS

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a critical pathway for prostate cancer cells, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the principal treatment for patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease. However, over time, most tumors become resistant to ADT. The view of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has changed dramatically in the last several years. Progress in understanding the disease biology and mechanisms of castration resistance led to significant advancements and to paradigm shift in the treatment. Accumulating evidence showed that prostate cancers develop adaptive mechanisms for maintaining AR signaling to allow for survival and further evolution. The aim of this review is to summarize molecular mechanisms of castration resistance and provide an update in the development of novel agents and strategies to more effectively target the AR signaling pathway. PMID:24837363

  15. N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of silver and gold as novel tools against breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Carmela; Barone, Ines; Iacopetta, Domenico; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Rosano, Camillo; Campana, Antonella; Catalano, Stefania; Longo, Pasquale; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-12-01

    Metal carbenic complexes have received considerable attention in both the catalysis and biological fields for their potential applications in cancer and antimicrobial therapies. A small series of new silver and gold N-heterocyclic carbene complexes has been designed and synthesized. Among the tested complexes, one compound was particularly active in inhibiting anchorage-dependent and -independent breast cancer proliferation, and inducing cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-related process. The antitumor activity was associated to the transcriptional activation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in an Sp1-dependent manner, as evidenced by biological and docking studies. Our results highlight the importance and the versatility of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of gold and silver as useful tools against breast cancer progression.

  16. Bisphenol A and hormone-associated cancers: current progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Bao-Jun; Li, Nan; Feng, Li-Min; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Liu, Si-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a carbon-based synthetic compound, exhibits hormone-like properties and is present ubiquitously in the environment and in human tissues due to its widespread use and biological accumulation. BPA can mimic estrogen to interact with estrogen receptors α and β, leading to changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, or migration and thereby, contributing to cancer development and progression. At the genetic level, BPA has been shown to be involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways. Moreover, BPA may also interact with other steroid receptors (such as androgen receptor) and plays a role in prostate cancer development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding human exposure to BPA, the endocrine-disrupting effects of BPA, and the role of BPA in hormone-associated cancers of the breast, ovary, and prostate.

  17. [KIM-1 and NGAL as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and cancer progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Zofia; Tacik, Aneta; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-04-18

    On the basis of scientific literature, there is growing evidence that KIM-1 and NGAL are interesting and promising biomarkers not only in acute and chronic inflammatory processes but also in oncogenesis. There are a number of studies which investigate their possible use in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of therapy effectiveness. The results of recent research suggests that they may play an important role in standard oncology practice. Simultaneous measurement of KIM-1 and NGAL in urine can play a crucial role in carcinogenesis assessment and cancer progression. In the future, they can become rapid diagnostic indicators, which allow one to determine cancer subtype leading to biopsy replacement and therapy improvement. In the present work, beside biochemical characteristics of KIM-1 and NGAL, we will also discuss their role in the diagnosis and assessment of development of cancer.

  18. KIM-1 and NGAL as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of scientific literature, there is growing evidence that KIM-1 and NGAL are interesting and promising biomarkers not only in acute and chronic inflammatory processes but also in oncogenesis. There are a number of studies which investigate their possible use in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of therapy effectiveness. The results of recent research suggests that they may play an important role in standard oncology practice. Simultaneous measurement of KIM-1 and NGAL in urine can play a crucial role in carcinogenesis assessment and cancer progression. In the future, they can become rapid diagnostic indicators, which allow one to determine cancer subtype leading to biopsy replacement and therapy improvement. In the present work, beside biochemical characteristics of KIM-1 and NGAL, we will also discuss their role in the diagnosis and assessment of development of cancer.

  19. Fibrocytes: A Novel Stromal Cells to Regulate Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy and Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hisatsugu; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2017-12-29

    An adequate blood supply is essential for cancer cells to survive and grow; thus, the concept of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has been applied to cancer therapy, and several drugs are already in clinical use. It has been shown that treatment with those anti-angiogenic drugs improved the response rate and prolonged the survival of patients with various types of cancer; however, it is also true that the effect was mostly limited. Currently, the disappointing clinical results are explained by the existence of intrinsic or acquired resistance to the therapy mediated by both tumor cells and stromal cells. This article reviews the mechanisms of resistance mediated by stromal cells such as endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts and myeloid cells, with an emphasis on fibrocytes, which were recently identified as the cell type responsible for regulating acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. In addition, the other emerging role of fibrocytes as mediator-producing cells in tumor progression is discussed.

  20. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Appel, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pain caused by bone metastases has a severe impact on the quality of life for many patients with cancer. Good translational in vivo models are required to understand the molecular mechanism and develop better treatment. In the current study we evaluated the influence of sex differences...... on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain. Materials and Methods: 4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days. Results: Female mice demonstrated...... a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation...

  1. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei; Kuasne, Hellen; Spencer, Ranyell Matheus; Nakagawa, Wilson Toshihiko; Bezerra, Tiago Santoro; Kupper, Bruna Catin; Takahashi, Renata Maymi; Barros Filho, Mateus; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Lopes, Ademar

    2017-11-13

    Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described. This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Decreased expression of ERβ isoforms was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ERβ isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ERβ was found in polyps at early stages of low-grade dysplasia, followed by T1-T2 and T3-T4 tumours (p colorectal cancer, the loss of expression was an independent predictor of recurrence, and ERβ1 and ERβ5 expression levels were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.002). These findings may provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.

  2. Trends in skin cancer knowledge, sun protection practices and behaviours in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Anna; Boyle, Rhonda; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Gordon, Sandra; McElwee, Gerry; O'Hagan, Art

    2012-06-01

    Sun exposure increases risk of skin cancer, especially melanoma, incidence of which continues to rise. Reported skin cancer knowledge and trends in sun care behaviours are documented in a UK region where there has been 20 years of sun-related health promotion campaigns. In 2000, 2004 and 2008, a 'care in the sun' module was included in the Northern Ireland (NI) Omnibus survey. Randomly selected subjects were asked to complete a sun-related questionnaire and proportions of respondents analysed by demographic and socio-economic factors, with differences tested using z-tests and the chi-squared test. Around 3623 persons responded. Skin cancer knowledge was high (97%). Sun avoidance decreased with time and was lowest among younger age groups and males. Sunscreen use was high (70%), unchanged over 8 years, and more likely among younger age groups, females, those in paid employment, and those with tertiary level education. Use of sunscreen with minimum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 15 (a campaign message) increased from 45% to 70% (P < 0.01). Skin self-examination was infrequent (8%), less common among those aged ≥65 years, males and those with only primary or secondary level education. Messages on sunscreen use have penetrated the population well, but lower use among the unemployed suggests cost as an issue. Lack of sun avoidance in young people, especially men, poses a risk for further skin cancer increases. Low levels of reported skin self-examination in older people, men and those with lower educational attainment identify areas for further action.

  3. Global trends in nanomedicine research on triple negative breast cancer: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Ramon Handerson Gomes; Moralles, Herick Fernando; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool in the clinic to combat several difficult-to-manage diseases, such as cancer, which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs present several limitations such as undesired side effects, low specificity, resistance, and high relapse rates. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is caused by cells that lack specific receptors in their membrane, such as estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PR+) receptors, or by cells that do not express the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2+). This cancer type has poor prognosis, high relapse rates, and no targeted therapies. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the trends of nanotechnology research in TNBC and compare the contribution of research from different regions, institutions, and authors. A search of the studies published between 2012 and 2017, related to nanotechnology and TNBC, with different keyword combinations, was performed in the Scopus database. The keywords found in this search were grouped into four clusters, in which "breast cancer" was the most mentioned (1,133 times) and the word "MCF-7 cell line" is one of the latest hotspots that appeared in the year 2016. A total of 1,932 articles, which were cited 26,450 times, were identified. The USA accounted for 28.36% of the articles and 27.61% of t