WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer treatment interactions

  1. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  2. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J.; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkg...

  3. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment: Development of an Interactive Patient Education Website

    OpenAIRE

    DUNBAR Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. ...

  4. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  5. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  6. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  7. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  8. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  9. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  10. Efficacy and Interaction of Antioxidant Supplements as Adjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasueda, Asuka; Urushima, Hayato; Ito, Toshinori

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a key component in carcinogenesis. Although radiation produces reactive oxygen species, some anticancer agents such as alkylating agents, platinum and antitumor antibiotics exert cytotoxicity by generating free radicals. Nonenzymatic exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols can quench ROS activity. However, whether antioxidants alter antitumor effects during radiotherapy and some types of chemotherapy remains unclear. In the present study, we reviewed antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for cancer patients during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Electronic literature searches were performed to select all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in which antioxidants were administered to cancer patients along with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Articles or abstracts written in English were included. In total, 399 reports received primary screening. Duplicated articles and those meeting the exclusion criteria (not RCT, not human, and no oral administration) were excluded. Finally, 49 reports matching the inclusion criteria were included. It was difficult to determine whether antioxidants affect treatment outcomes or whether antioxidants ameliorate adverse effects induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is desirable to use an evidence-based method to select supplements best suited to cancer patients. Although there are many opinions about risks or benefits of antioxidant supplementation, we could mostly conclude that the harm caused by antioxidant supplementation remains unclear for patients during cancer therapy, except for smokers undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26503419

  11. Clinically significant drug–drug interactions involving opioid analgesics used for pain treatment in patients with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlinska-Lemieszek A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,1 Pål Klepstad,2,3,6 Dagny Faksvåg Haugen2,4,5 1Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, University Hospital of the Lord’s Transfiguration, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2European Palliative Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 4Regional Centre of Excellence for Palliative Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 5Department of Clinical Medicine K1, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 6Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: Opioids are the most frequently used drugs to treat pain in cancer patients. In some patients, however, opioids can cause adverse effects and drug–drug interactions. No advice concerning the combination of opioids and other drugs is given in the current European guidelines. Objective: To identify studies that report clinically significant drug–drug interactions involving opioids used for pain treatment in adult cancer patients. Design and data sources: Systematic review with searches in Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the start of the databases (Embase from 1980 through January 2014. In addition, reference lists of relevant full-text papers were hand-searched. Results: Of 901 retrieved papers, 112 were considered as potentially eligible. After full-text reading, 17 were included in the final analysis, together with 15 papers identified through hand-searching of reference lists. All of the 32 included publications were case reports or case series. Clinical manifestations of drug–drug interactions involving opioids were grouped as follows: 1 sedation and respiratory depression, 2 other central nervous system symptoms, 3 impairment of pain

  12. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Cancer Terms: After Treatment Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/2015 Cure: To fully restore health. This term is sometimes ... five years after treatment. However, the concept of “cure” is difficult to apply to cancer because undetected cancer cells can sometimes remain in ...

  13. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health Insurance? Cancer ... Talk to Your Doctor First. Tagged with: health , miracle claims , scam September 2008 You Might Also Like ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Anal Cancer ... factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. Treatment of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; MABILIA, ANDREA; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  19. Numerical simulations for tumor and cellular immune system interactions in lung cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, M.; Nawrocki, S.; Zubik-Kowal, B.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate a new mathematical model that describes lung cancer regression in patients treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The model is composed of nonlinear integro-differential equations derived from the so-called kinetic theory for active particles and a new sink function is investigated according to clinical data from carcinoma planoepitheliale. The model equations are solved numerically and the data are utilized in order to find their unknown parameters. The results of the numerical experiments show a good correlation between the predicted and clinical data and illustrate that the mathematical model has potential to describe lung cancer regression.

  20. Treatment of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  1. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gmeiner, William H.; Ghosh, Supratim

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to increase the selectivity and potency of chemical, physical, and biological approaches for eliciting cancer cell death while minimizing collateral toxicity to nonmalignant cells. Materials on the nanoscale are increasingly being targeted to cancer cells with great specificity through both active and passive targeting. In this review, we summarize recent literature that has broken new ground in the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment with an emphasis o...

  2. Plasma for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  3. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grains, and a moderate amount of low-fat meat and dairy products. Limit the fat and sugar in your diet. A healthy diet will help your body get better after cancer treatment. It's also important for you to get ...

  4. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used in cancer treatment? What are the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of ... the drugs used in PDT. What are the advantages of laser therapy? Lasers are more precise than ...

  5. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  6. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Age and family history can affect the risk of rectal cancer. Anything ... to flow from the body to a collection bag. After the cancer is removed, the surgeon will ...

  9. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  10. Treatment Success in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  11. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  12. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  13. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Schenberg, Eduardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of canc...

  14. Laser-Neuron Interaction with Femtosecond Beat-Modulated 800-1200 nm Photon Beams, as the Treatment of Brain Cancer Tissue. Laser Neurophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-03-01

    I propose a novel mechanism for the brain cancer tissue treatment: nonlinear interaction of ultrashort pulses of beat-photon, (ω1 -- ω2) , or double-photon, (ω1 +ω2) , beams with the cancer tissue. The multiphoton scattering is described via photon diffusion equation. The open-scull cerebral tissue can be irradiated with the beat-modulated photon pulses with the laser irradiances in the range of a few mW/cm2 , and repetition rate of a few 100s Hz generated in the beat-wave driven free electron laser. V. Stefan, B. I. Cohen, and C. Joshi, Nonlinear Mixing of Electromagnetic Waves in PlasmasScience 27 January 1989: V. Alexander Stefan, Genomic Medical Physics: A New Physics in the Making, (S-U-Press, 2008).} This highly accurate cancer tissue ablation removal may prove to be an efficient method for the treatment of brain cancer. Work supported in part by Nikola Tesla Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  15. Drug interactions in oncology: the impact on cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    Suphat Subongkot

    2011-01-01

    Drug interactions are important in the cancer care setting, the majority of drugs being used for palliative care. Failure to recognise these interactions can lead to either overt toxicity or suboptimal treatment.

  16. Treatment of tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed 52 tongue cancer patients who received definitive treatment at Shiga University Hospital between January 1993 and August 2004. In cases of T1 and early T2 (early T2: ≤3 cm), partial glossectomy was performed. Radical operation followed by reconstructive surgery was performed after pre-operative chemotherapy in cases of advanced T2 (advanced T2: >3 cm), T3 and T4. Post-operative radiation was performed in some cases to prevent local and cervical recurrence. The 5-year survival rates by the Kaplan-Meier method were 92% in stage I, 88% in stage II, 73% in stage III, 55% in stage IV, and 72% overall, respectively. The 5-year survival rates by the size in T2 cases were 90% in early T2 and 46% in advanced T2. Twelve cases were relapsed. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5 cases at the primary site, 6 in the neck), and distant metastasis in 4 patients. Long-term survivors after secondary treatment were 3 of 11 cases with recurrence at the primary site. The results of salvage treatment for recurrent cases were discouraging. Adjuvant chemotherapy and post-operative radiotherapy are recommended for advanced tongue cancer. (author)

  17. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000827.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with pain To use the sharing features on this page, ... health care provider about your options. What Causes Pain The pain from cancer can have a few ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Anal Cancer ... factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  20. Radiation-Induced Cardiac Toxicity After Therapy for Breast Cancer: Interaction Between Treatment Era and Follow-Up Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cardiac toxicity after breast radiotherapy (RT) has been widely described in 'older' RT trials (i.e., using larger fraction sizes, wide RT fields, and orthovoltage energy). The results from more 'modern' RT trials have shown less cardiac toxicity. The comparisons between the 'older' and 'modern' trials are confounded by the longer follow-up time in the 'older' trials. We systematically assessed the effect of treatment era and follow-up duration on the reported rates of cardiac toxicity associated with RT. Methods and Materials: The published data were surveyed using PubMed to identify studies using 'breast cancer,' 'irradiation/radiotherapy,' 'cardiac/heart,' and 'toxicity/morbidity/mortality' in a keyword search. Relevant data were extracted from the identified trials. The trials were defined as 'older' (patient accrual start year before 1980) and 'modern' (patient accrual start year in or after 1980) to segregate the trials and assess the treatment era effect. A 10-year follow-up duration was used as a cutoff to segregate and analyze trials with varying lengths of follow-up. Results: We analyzed 19 published reports of patients treated between 1968 and 2002 (5 randomized controlled trials, 5 single- or multi-institutional studies, and 9 national cancer registry database reviews). In the reviewed trials, all the older trials reported excess cardiac toxicity, typically with a median of >10-15 years of follow-up. However, the vast majority of modern RT trials had shorter median follow-up durations, typically ≤10 years and did not report an excess toxicity risk. The modern studies lacked longer follow-up. Conclusion: Additional follow-up is needed to ensure that modern methods effectively reduce cardiac toxicity. Continued diligence to minimize cardiac exposure remains prudent

  1. Adjuvant Treatment for Ampullary Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Kim; John Chabot; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2011-01-01

    Ampullary cancer is an uncommon tumor and tends to have a better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. However, one half of patients will die from recurrent disease suggesting the need for effective adjuvant therapy. Currently, there is lack of randomized trials to guide the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the largest trial (Abstract #4006) evaluating adjuvant treatment of ampullary cancer was presented.

  2. Adjuvant Treatment for Ampullary Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ampullary cancer is an uncommon tumor and tends to have a better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. However, one half of patients will die from recurrent disease suggesting the need for effective adjuvant therapy. Currently, there is lack of randomized trials to guide the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting, the largest trial (Abstract #4006 evaluating adjuvant treatment of ampullary cancer was presented.

  3. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lessening (palliation) of symptoms associated with an incurable cancer. If cure is unlikely, then potential risks associated with treatment ... plan is modified. However, if the likelihood of cure is significantly greater than the risk ... To detect recurrent cancer and possibly try further treatment, such as an ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  5. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  6. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Liver Cancer » Detailed Guide » Living as a liver cancer ... Lifestyle changes after liver cancer Living as a liver cancer survivor Completing treatment can be both stressful and ...

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  9. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  10. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with comorbiditie

  11. Safe eating during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pasteurized on the container. DO NOT eat raw honey. Eat only heat-treated honey. Avoid sweets that have creamy fillings. Cook Foods ... 2016. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/appetite-loss/nutrition-hp-pdq . Accessed March 20, ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  14. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick ...

  15. Nanopharmaceutical Approach for Enhanced Anti-cancer Activity of Betulinic Acid in Lung-cancer Treatment via Activation of PARP: Interaction with DNA as a Target -Anti-cancer Potential of Nano-betulinic Acid in Lung Cancer-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Das

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the relative efficacies of a derivative of betulinic acid (dBA and its poly (lactide- co-glycolide (PLGA nano-encapsulated form in A549 lung cancer cells in vivo and in co-mutagen [sodium arsenite (SA + benzo]undefined[a]pyrene (BaP]-induced lung cancer in mice in vivo. Methods: dBA was loaded with PLGA nanoparticles by using the standard solvent displacement method. The sizes and morphologies of nano-dBA (NdBA were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their intracellular localization was verified by using confocal microscopy. The binding and interaction of NdBA with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA as a target were analyzed by using conventional circular dichroism (CD and melting temperature (Tm profile data. Apoptotic signalling cascades in vitro and in vivo were studied by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ability of NdBA to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB was also examined. The stage of cell cycle arrest was confirmed by using a fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS data analysis. Results: The average size of the nanoparticles was ~ 110 nm. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the presence of NdBA in the cellular cytoplasm. The bio-physical properties of dBA and NdBA ascertained from the CD and the Tm profiles revealed that NdBA had greater interaction with the target DNA than dBA did. Both dBA and NdBA arrested cell proliferation at G0/G1, NdBA showing the greater effect. NdBA also induced a greater degree of cytotoxicity in A549 cells, but it had an insignificant cytotoxic effect in normal L6 cells. The results of flow cytometric, cytogenetial and histopathological studies in mice revealed that NdBA caused less nuclear condensation and DNA damage than dBA did. TEM images showed the presence of NdBA in brain samples of NdBA fed mice, indicating its ability to cross the BBB. Conclusion: Thus, compared to dBA, NdBA appears to have greater

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  17. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, ... enough information to give patients good advice as far as what sort of treatments they need for ...

  18. Eribulin in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang Swami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Halichondrin B is a complex, natural, polyether macrolide derived from marine sponges. Eribulin is a structurally-simplified, synthetic, macrocyclic ketone analogue of Halichondrin B. Eribulin was approved by United States Food and Drug Administration in 2010 as a third-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer patients who have previously been treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. It has a unique microtubule dynamics inhibitory action. Phase III studies have either been completed or are currently ongoing in breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Phase I and II studies in multiple cancers and various combinations are currently ongoing. This article reviews the available information on eribulin with respect to its clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, metabolism, preclinical studies, and with special focus on clinical trials.

  19. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods and ... toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , wires, or catheters ...

  20. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and x-rays ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. Certain factors ...

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  2. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  3. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around it. Sometimes lymph nodes , half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the cancer, and muscles, tissues , and a nerve in the neck are also removed. Tumor debulking : A surgical procedure in which as much ...

  4. Antimatter cancer treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "The idea that antimatter beams could treat cancer might seem ridiculous. But researchers working at Cerns particle accelerator laboratory in Geneva don't think so. They have just reported a successful first experiment into the biological effects of antiprotons radiation on living cells."

  5. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  6. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Allum, William H; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the ...

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that ... not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos ...

  8. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  10. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  11. Oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: comparative pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Solange; Zimmermann, Stefan; Adjei, Alex A

    2014-09-01

    The development of orally active small molecule inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has led to new treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with activating mutations of the EGFR gene show sensitivity to, and clinical benefit from, treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKls). First generation reversible ATP-competitive EGFR-TKls, gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first, second-line or maintenance therapy. Despite initial benefit, most patients develop resistance within a year, 50-60% of cases being related to the appearance of a T790M gatekeeper mutation. Newer, irreversible EGFR-TKls - afatinib and dacomitinib - covalently bind to and inhibit multiple receptors in the ErbB family (EGFR, HER2 and HER4). These agents have been mainly evaluated for first-line treatment but also in the setting of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKls. Afatinib is the first ErbB family blocker approved for patients with NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations; dacomitinib is in late stage clinical development. Mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors (AZD9291, CO-1686, HM61713) that specifically target the T790M resistance mutation are in early development. The EGFR-TKIs differ in their spectrum of target kinases, reversibility of binding to EGFR receptor, pharmacokinetics and potential for drug-drug interactions, as discussed in this review. For the clinician, these differences are relevant in the setting of polymedicated patients with NSCLC, as well as from the perspective of innovative anticancer drug combination strategies. PMID:25027951

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  13. Unproven methods in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, S P

    1993-07-01

    The nature-based and nontoxic image makes application of unproven methods in oncology attractive in contrast to application of a mechanized scientific medicine. The application frequency of these treatments ranges from 10% to greater than 60%. Increasingly, the promoters try to create a scientific impression through a pseudologic cancer theory, a harmless diagnostic test, and a holistic treatment of every cancer. Of the big variety of unproven methods, which are summarized in 11 groups in this review, the following are discussed: anthroposophic and other mistletoe preparations; homeopathy; Maharishi Ayur-Veda; unproven anticancer diets; orthomolecular medicine, including ascorbic acid; and methods supposedly stimulating unspecific and specific defense mechanisms. In conclusion, physicians should beware of and have knowledge of currently used unproven cancer treatments for epidemiologic, social, economic, and scientific reasons. PMID:8364081

  14. Physical treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trend of physical treatment and its outcome of lung cancer are described together with authors' experience. In locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCC) at stages IIIA and B, radiotherapy, chemotherapy (CT) and their combined therapy (RCT) have been major mainly in US since 1980s. After phase I/II trials of RCT by Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group where 5-year survival with nondisease is shown to be 31% (2003), phase III trial has been performed with results to be reported in 2008. A similar study by West Japan Oncology Group is now in summary. The secondary carcinogenesis not by radiation post RCT has become a problem: 10 years after, reportedly 61% incidence. Concerning the choice and regimen of CT medicals, there are many discussions. In recurrent/advanced NSCC, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) (gefitinib and recently, erlotinib) will be further useful, and molecular target medicals like an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody (bevacizumab) and other novel RTK inhibitors will be also promising. In small cell lung cancer (SCC), efficacy 50% of amrubicin has been reported in a phase II trial recently. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in the extensive cases has been recognized effective also recently. CT studies with a large dose of anti-cancer drugs of SCC are still under progress. Along with the introduction of many molecular target drugs, physical treatment of lung cancer is to be bright in future. (R.T.)

  15. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment. PMID:8066398

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, and, in fact, ... when detected, you know, and when patients get treatment. Okay. So it’s very important, you know, to ...

  17. Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Age and family history can affect the risk of rectal cancer. Anything ... to flow from the body to a collection bag. After the cancer is removed, the surgeon will ...

  18. Discovery – Methotrexate: Chemotherapy Treatment for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 1950s, treatment for the majority of cancers was limited to either surgery or the use of radiation. The discovery of the use of methotrexate in curing a rare cancer marked the first time a cancer had been cured. This led to the development of many of today’s common cancer treatments.

  19. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  20. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile duct cancer is an uncommon ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  1. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research into testicular cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Testicular Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  2. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for anal cancer What’s new in anal cancer research and treatment? Important research into anal cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Anal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  3. What's New in Endometrial Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for endometrial cancer What`s new in endometrial cancer research and treatment? Molecular pathology of endometrial cancer For ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Endometrial Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  4. Development and validation of automatic tools for interactive recurrence analysis in radiation therapy: optimization of treatment algorithms for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is an important part in the evaluation process and clinical quality assurance of treatment concepts. With the example of 9 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer we developed and validated interactive analysis tools to support the evaluation workflow. After an automatic registration of the radiation planning CTs with the follow-up images, the recurrence volumes are segmented manually. Based on these volumes the DVH (dose volume histogram) statistic is calculated, followed by the determination of the dose applied to the region of recurrence and the distance between the boost and recurrence volume. We calculated the percentage of the recurrence volume within the 80%-isodose volume and compared it to the location of the recurrence within the boost volume, boost + 1 cm, boost + 1.5 cm and boost + 2 cm volumes. Recurrence analysis of 9 patients demonstrated that all recurrences except one occurred within the defined GTV/boost volume; one recurrence developed beyond the field border/outfield. With the defined distance volumes in relation to the recurrences, we could show that 7 recurrent lesions were within the 2 cm radius of the primary tumor. Two large recurrences extended beyond the 2 cm, however, this might be due to very rapid growth and/or late detection of the tumor progression. The main goal of using automatic analysis tools is to reduce time and effort conducting clinical analyses. We showed a first approach and use of a semi-automated workflow for recurrence analysis, which will be continuously optimized. In conclusion, despite the limitations of the automatic calculations we contributed to in-house optimization of subsequent study concepts based on an improved and validated target volume definition

  5. Electrochemical treatment of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y.L.; Xue, F.Z.; Ge, B.S.; Zhao, F.R.; Shi, B.; Zhang, W. [China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery

    1997-03-01

    A pilot study of electrochemical treatment (ECT) as a therapy for 386 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer was undertaken. There were 103 stage 2 cases, 89 stage 3a cases, 122 stage 3b cases, and 72 stage 4 cases. Two ECT methods were used. For peripherally located lung cancer, platinum electrodes were inserted transcutaneously into the tumor under x-ray or CT guidance. For central type lung cancer or for those inoperable during thoracotomy, electrodes were inserted intraoperatively directly into the cancer. Voltage was 6--8 V, current was 40--100 mA, and electric charge was 100 coulombs per cm of tumor diameter. The number of electrodes was determined from the size of cancer mass, because the diameter of effective area around each electrode is approximately 3 cm. The short-term (6 months after ECT) results of the 386 lung cancer cases were: complete response (CR), 25.6% (99/386); partial response (PR), 46.4% (179/386); no change (NC), 15.3% (59/386); and progressive disease (PD), 12.7% (49/386). The total effective rate (CR + PR) was 72% (278/386). The 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival rates were 86.3% (333/386), 58.8% (227/386), and 29.5% (114/386), respectively. The main complication was traumatic pneumothorax, with an incidence rate of 14.8% (57/386). These clinical results show that ECT is simple, safe, effective, and minimally traumatic. ECT provides an alternative method for treating lung cancers that are conventionally inoperable, that are not responsive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or that cannot be resected after thoracotomy. Long-term survival rates suggest that ECT warrants further investigation.

  6. Cancer treatment-related bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sue A.; Guise, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone health may be impaired in many patients being treated for cancer. Primary tumors that reside in or form metastases to bone can result in compromised skeletal integrity. It has also been increasingly recognized that patients undergoing therapies for treatment of cancer are at higher risk of bone loss. These include androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer among others. Hypogonadism induced by many of these cancer treatments results...

  7. Communicative skills in treatmenting cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of--and need for-further diagnostic tests, unclear about the management plan and uncertain about the true therapeutic intent of treatment. Additionally, communication difficulties may impede the recruitment of patients to clinical trials, delaying the introduction of efficacious new treatments into clinics

  8. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    chemoprevention are underway. The specific goals of this program are: (1) To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying normal prostate growth and differentiation and elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate oncogenesis. (2) To build on fundamental knowledge to develop effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of prostate cancer. (3) To improve the control of prostate cancer through early detection, chemoprevention, and outreach and education. This new disease-based program is structured to improve interdisciplinary interactions and translational results. Already, through the dynamic leadership of Drs. Cory Abate-Shen and Robert DiPaola, new investigators were attracted to the field, new collaborations engendered, and numerous investigator-initiated trials implemented. Progress in GPCC and the program overall has been outstanding. The Center has success in uniting investigators with broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer in patients and populations at risk. Members wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Studies in cell culture and powerful animal models developed recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and chemoprevention are underway.

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  10. What Happens After Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Copies of Important Medical Records . Help with nutrition and pain Pancreatic cancer often causes weight loss and weakness from poor ... tips for during and after cancer treatment, see Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment: A Guide for Patients and Families . ...

  11. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for kidney cancer? Can I get another cancer after having kidney ...

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... June 24, 2016 The first-person story of a retired educator’s Medicare scam experience – and the FTC ...

  13. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  14. What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for nasopharyngeal cancer What`s new in nasopharyngeal cancer research and treatment? Research into the causes, prevention, and ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  15. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for gallbladder cancer What’s new in gallbladder cancer research and treatment? Research into the causes, diagnosis, and ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  16. What's New in Vulvar Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for vulvar cancer What`s new in vulvar cancer research and treatment? Research is being done to find ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Vulvar Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  17. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for eye cancer What’s new in eye cancer research and treatment? Many medical centers around the world ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Eye Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  18. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical centers throughout the world are ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  19. Facing Forward Series: Life After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  20. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  1. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  2. Treatment concepts of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredell, M; Rordorf, T; Studer, G

    2012-11-01

    The mortality of oral cancer (OC) has shown only moderate improvement over recent decades. Treatment of OC remains mainly surgical with increasing contributions from radio- and chemotherapy. Early diagnosis and adequate management improves patient prognosis whilst lymphatic spread worsens the prognosis significantly. Copious extirpation of the tumour achieving tumour-free margins, as well as the effective removal of affected or suspect lymph nodes are vital steps to ensure long-term survival. Reconstructive ablities have improved to such an extent that many patients can be fully integrated in society after treatment. New modalities such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) ensures selective radiation and significantly contributes to improved quality of life. Photodynamic therapy and other targeted therapy options will play an increasingly important role in the future. PMID:23957099

  3. Depression Treatment Patterns among Elderly with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Findley; Chan Shen; Usha Sambamoorthi

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about cancer treatment patterns among the elderly as depression and cancer in this older population have not been well explored. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature by using data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from years 2000–2005 to examine depression treatment patterns among elderly diagnosed with both cancer and depression. Depression treatments examined include antidepressants with and without psychotherapy. We found that of those with both cance...

  4. Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sundaram Viswanath; Abhishek Pathak; Amul Kapoor; Anvesh Rathore; Bhupendra Nath Kapur

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic proifle of lung cancer has changed greatly over the years; however, methods for diagnosing, screening, and managing lung cancer patients have improved. This is due to our growing understanding of the biology of lung cancer. It is now possible to further deifne lung cancer types beyond small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, new histology-based therapeutic modalities have been developed, and more new lung cancer biomarkers have been uncovered. Therefore, more detailed histological characterization of lung cancer samples is warranted in order to determine the best course of treatment for speciifc patients. This review article describes how these new molecular technologies are shaping the way lung cancer can be treated in future.

  5. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30–31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment.

  6. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Meunier, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an important way. Some patients are confronted with societal discrimination due to slower performance, chronic fatigue or partial inability and these things can adversely affect employment, education, insurance or mortgage opportunities. In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30-31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment. PMID:26217161

  7. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  8. The interaction between informal cancer caregivers and health care professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In order to meet the caregiving challenges, informal caregivers often need a substantial level of interaction with health care professionals (HCPs). This study investigated to which extent the cancer caregivers' needs regarding the interaction with HCPs are met and the associations between...... dissatisfaction with the interaction and socio-demographic and disease-related variables. METHODS: In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, cancer patients with various diagnoses and disease stages were invited to pass on the 'cancer caregiving tasks, consequences and needs questionnaire' (CaTCoN) to up to three...... optimal involvement of the caregivers in the patients' disease, treatment and/or care (30 % were dissatisfied), attention to the caregivers' wellbeing (e.g., 51 % of the caregivers reported that HCPs only sometimes or rarely/never had shown interest in how the caregivers had been feeling), and provision...

  9. Pregnancy after successful cancer treatment: what needs to be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Barbara; Henes, Melanie; Neunhoeffer, Eva; Fehm, Tanja; Huebner, Stephanie; Kanz, Lothar; Marini, Patricia; Mayer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in oncology led to improved treatment results and increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors. Fulfilling the desire to have children is important for many patients after cancer treatment. Consequently, oncologists, gynecologists and obstetricians are seeing more patients who wish to conceive after treatment. The necessary prerequisites that should be considered when supporting a planned pregnancy after cancer treatment are discussed in this article. The possible consequences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the course of pregnancy and the health of the offspring, as well as the interactions between cancer and pregnancy, are reviewed with the focus on childhood cancer, malignant lymphomas, and breast cancer. Despite chemo- or radiotherapy, neither the teratogenic risk nor the risk of adventitious cancers appears to be increased for the offspring of cancer survivors. However, there is a slightly higher risk of miscarriage after chemotherapy. In case of radiation to the uterus, there is a higher risk of premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and increased perinatal mortality. The effect is more pronounced after prepubertal radiation than for postpubertal radiation. The former cancer patient's desire to conceive can nevertheless be supported, given that pregnancy and birth are closely monitored. PMID:22414979

  10. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  11. Metastatic renal cell cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, C N

    2003-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma has been considered to be resistant to chemotherapy, with responses observed in only limited numbers of patients. For this reason, therapeutic options have ranged from no treatment, to immunotherapy with cytokines such as IL-2 and interferon-alpha, chemotherapy alone or in combination with cytokines, and to a variety of new investigational approaches. Interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have led to long-term survival in selected patients. Immunotherapy with cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, new agents, dendritic cell therapy, and allotransplantation offer promise. Novel therapeutic strategies include combining cytokines, and antiangiogenic approaches such as thalidomide and antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Pathologic, cytogenic and molecular studies have proven that renal cell carcinoma is not a single tumor entity. Efforts to improve results also include the identification of prognostic factors, which allow treatment to be better directed towards those patients most likely to benefit. Increasing understanding of cancer biology is beginning to allow for a more targeted approach to the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Adequate positioning of known treatments is essential and many trials of new targeted therapies are underway. PMID:14988745

  12. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  13. Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyoshi Aoyagi; Krista P Terracina; Ali Raza; Hisahiro Matsubara; Kazuaki Takabe

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that half of all patients with cancereventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexiaand a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletalmuscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemicinflammation, negative protein and energy balance, andan involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidioussyndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patientquality of life, but also is associated with poor responsesto chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia isstill largely an underestimated and untreated condition,despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported tobe involved in its development, with a number of cytokinespostulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistentcatabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, includingorexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation ofsymptoms and reduction of the distress of patients andfamilies rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapiesfor the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinaryapproach. Combination therapy with diet modificationand/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceuticalagents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone,ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agentsare reported to have improved survival rates as well asquality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emergingunderstanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia,the current treatment options including multidisciplinarycombination therapies, as well an update on new andongoing clinical trials.

  14. Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declèves, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

  15. Environmental and genetic interactions in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans, depending upon their genetic make-up, differ in their susceptibility to the cancer-causing effects of extrinsic agents. Clinical and laboratory studies on the hereditary disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (AT) show that persons afflicted with this are cancer-prone and unusually sensitive to conventional radiotherapy. Their skin cells, when cultured, are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation, being defective in the enzymatic repair of radiation-induced damange to the genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This molecular finding implicates DNA damage and its imperfect repair as an early step in the induction of human cancer by radiation and other carcinogens. The parents of AT patients are clincally normal but their cultured cells are often moderately radiosensitive. The increased radiosensitivity of cultured cells offers a means of identifying a presumed cancer-prone subpopulation that should avoid undue exposure to certain carcinogens. The radioresponse of cells from patients with other cancer-associated genetic disorders and persons suspected of being genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer has also been measured. Increased cell killing by γ-rays appears in the complex genetic disease, tuberous sclerosis. Cells from cancer-stricken members of a leukemia-prone family are also radiosensitive, as are cells from one patient with radiation-associated breast cancer. These radiobiological data, taken together, strongly suggest that genetic factors can interact with extrinsic agents and thereby play a greater causative role in the development of common cancers in man than previously thought. (L.L.)

  16. Advances in Multidisciplinary Treatment of Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Changlin; Hongqin SUN; Yang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    To summarize the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of rectal cancer and to analyze the existing problems and development prospects. The full text database retrieval system of MEDLINE and the periodicals of CHKD were searched. The words “rectal cancer, diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, analysis” were used as key words for retrieval of literature concerning the values and clinical significance of rectal cancer multidisciplinary treatment from January, 2...

  17. Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville F. Hacker

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ovarian cancer is a common clinical problem and the management of eachpatient must be individualized. Diagnosis is usually based on a progressively rising CA-125titre, and a CT scan of the pelvis and abdomen, together with a chest X-ray should be performed.Although there is no study to support immediate treatment in the asymptomaticpatient, our approach is to commence such patients on Tamoxifen. Chemotherapy isreserved for asymptomatic patients or those who progress on Tamoxifen. The longer thetreatment-free interval of 18-24 months. The choice of non-platinum second or subsequentline chemotherapy is based on many factors including likelihood of benefit, potential toxicity,schedule and convenience to the patient, as well as organ function and residual toxicityfrom prior treatment. Aggressive secondary cytoreductive surgery can significantly prolongsurvival in those with a disease-free interval of 24 months or more and in those in whom allmacroscopic disease can be removed. Radiation therapy to the tumour bed following resectionof localized disease may be beneficial in selected patients. Quality of life issues are particularlyimportant for this group of patients and have not been adequately studies.Communication regarding the objectives of therapy is important, and the multidisciplinaryapproach should include palliative care and psycho-social support, in addition to the moretraditional medical options.

  18. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  20. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  1. Brachytherapy in treatment of vaginal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Kaprin; V. N. Galkin; S. A. Ivanov; V. A. Solodkiy; V. A. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of different types of primary vaginal cancer are highlighted, the role and place of brachytherapy as independent method or combined treatment modality for this pathology is shown in the review. Epidemiological data on incidence of vaginal cancer in Russia are represented, presumptive mechanisms for development of the disease, risk factors, histological types, features of the course, clinical presentation, diagnostic algorithm are described. Treatment...

  2. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  3. Targeting BET bromodomains for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Marie; Gelato, Kathy A; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury; Siegel, Stephan; Haendler, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) subfamily of bromodomain-containing proteins has emerged in the last few years as an exciting, novel target group. BRD4, the best studied BET protein, is implicated in a number of hematological and solid tumors. This is linked to its role in modulating transcription elongation of essential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis such as c-Myc and BCL2. Potent BET inhibitors with promising antitumor efficacy in a number of preclinical cancer models have been identified in recent years. This led to clinical studies focusing mostly on the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma, and first encouraging signs of efficacy have already been reported. Here we discuss the biology of BRD4, its known interaction partners and implication in different tumor types. Further, we summarize the current knowledge on BET bromodomain inhibitors. PMID:26077433

  4. Life-Threatening Disparities: The Treatment of Black and White Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Penner, Louis A.; Eggly, Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Underwood, Willie; Orom, Heather; Albrecht, Terrance L.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer mortality and survival rates are much poorer for Black patients than for White patients. We argue that Black–White treatment disparities are a major reason for these disparities. We examine three specific kinds of Black–White treatment disparities: disparities in information exchange in oncology interactions, disparities in the treatment of breast cancer, and disparities in the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. In the final section, we discuss possible causes of these ...

  5. Neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Semiglazov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available linical trials have shown that the status of the women achieving complete pathomorphological repression (CPR of a tumor is characterized by significantly improved survival as compared to that of those who have not to an equal degree. The achievement of CPR as an intermediate marker for improved survival is chiefly observed in women with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (BC: triple-negative and HER-2-positive. In patients with the latter subtype, addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy doubles the rate of CPR and correlates with higher survival rates. The performed clinical trials have established that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is the most suitable treatment for patients with steroid hormone receptor overexpression. Whether it may be used in combination with targeted (anti-HER-2 therapy for estrogen and HER-2 coexpression is being investigated. Neoadjuvant therapy for suitable BC stages can accelerate the assessment of novel medications through identification of predictive biological markers for response (CPR in particular. Although standard neoadjuvant therapy gives an obvious benefit to patients with CPR, other patients with the so-called residual disease are at high recurrence risk.

  6. Neoadjuvant Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulM.Schneider; HuanXi; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger

    2004-01-01

    Because the conflicting data currently available from the performed randomized trials it is very difficult to provide strict guidelines for the treatment of patients with locoregional advanced esophageal cancers. Surgery however, remains the standard of care for potentially resectable disease. Preoperative chemotherapy is still controversial with two large randomized trials resulting in two different conclusions regarding the survival benefit. Preoperative chemoradiation is also controversial since only one randomized trial showed a clear survival benefit however, the patients treated with surgery alone in this trial had an unusually poor outcome. And the study by Urba et al was not powered enough to show a clear survival benefit for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The results of three metaanalysis of these randomized studies show lower rate of resection, higher rate of R0-resection, more often postoperative mortality and better prognosis for patients with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. As a consequence one may consider offering neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to patients with locallyadvanced disease under the premise that patients have a good performance status and understand the controversies about this therapeutic option. Larger trials with sufficient power to clearly detect survival benefits for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy are necessary before this therapeutic option will be the standard of care.

  7. Olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, E; Jimeno, A

    2016-01-01

    Olaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, is the first FDA-approved drug in its class for patients with ovarian cancer, specifically in a subset of patients with BRCA mutations and prior chemotherapy treatments. PARP inhibitors have had other implications in different solid tumor types including breast, gastric and pancreatic malignancies. In light of the recent FDA approval of olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer, this article aims to outline the mechanisms and implications of the drug. With a favorable adverse event profile and improved outcomes, including progression-free survival, olaparib has demonstrated augmentation to therapeutic options in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26937492

  8. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  9. Interventional Treatments of Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Jill E; Brogan, Shane E

    2016-06-01

    Pain is a significant burden for patients with cancer and is particularly prevalent among those with advanced cancer. Appropriate interventional cancer pain therapies complement conventional pain management by reducing the need for systemic opioid therapy and its associated toxicity; however, these therapies are often underutilized. This article reviews techniques, indications, complications, and outcomes of the most common interventional approaches for the management of cancer-related pain. These approaches include intrathecal drug delivery, vertebral augmentation, neurolysis of the celiac, superior hypogastric and ganglion impar plexus', image-guided tumor ablation, and other less commonly performed but potentially beneficial interventions. PMID:27208713

  10. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  11. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ravaioli; Alessandra Affatato; Cinzia Castellani; Fabrizio Drudi; Lorenzo Gianni; Carlotta Santelmo; Manuela Fantini; Mario Nicolini

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteri...

  12. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Salazar-León, Jonathan; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development. PMID:23144564

  13. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy . Mohs microsurgery . A clinical trial of laser therapy . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical ... nodes in the groin ). External or internal radiation therapy followed by ... clinical trial of laser surgery . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer ...

  15. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the subject

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New ... can have. My role is to deliver radiation therapy in these lung cancer patients. And what radiation therapy is is the ...

  17. Focal adhesion signaling in breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of survival and migratory pathways in cancer cells is essential to better comprehending cancer progression, metastasis formation and drug resistance, thereby benefiting the development of novel anticancer treatments. The overall goal of the work is to better un

  18. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. During ...

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: ...

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According ... to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their conventional ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  2. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  3. What's New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for bone cancer What’s new in bone cancer research and treatment? Research on bone cancer is now ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bone Cancer Research? AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer ...

  4. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  5. Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Rachel A; Anders, Carey K.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of women with metastatic breast cancer will develop brain metastases. Treatment options for these women remain limited, particularly at the time of central nervous system (CNS) relapse following completion of initial CNS-directed therapy. Historically, prior studies have broadly examined systemic treatments for breast cancer brain metastases with mixed, but overall disappointing, results. More recently, studies have increasingly selected patients based on breast cance...

  6. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  7. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  8. Computer model challenges breast cancer treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, M W; Swartzendruber, D E; Bame, P D; Wardwell, R H

    1994-01-01

    The breast cancer treatment failure rate remains unacceptably high. The current breast cancer treatment paradigm, based primarily on Gompertzian kinetics and animal models, advocates short-course, intensive chemotherapy subsequent to tumor debulking, citing drug resistance and host toxicity as the primary reasons for treatment failure. To better understand treatment failure, we have studied breast cancer from the perspective of computer modeling. Our results demonstrate breast cancers grow in an irregular fashion; this differs from the Gompertzian mode of animal models and thus challenges the validity of the current paradigm. Clinical and laboratory data support the concept of irregular growth rather than the common claim that human tumors grow in a Gompertzian fashion. Treatment failure mechanisms for breast cancer appear to differ from those for animal models, and thus treatments optimize on animal models may not be optimal for breast cancer. A failure mechanism consistent with our results involves temporarily dormant tumor cells in anatomical or pharmacological sanctuary, which eventually result in aggressive metastatic disease. PMID:7994590

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  10. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Mingyue; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then...

  11. Treatment Individualization in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, Robin M J M; Beijnen, Jos H; Bernards, René; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been characterized as a genetically heterogeneous disease, with a large diversity in molecular pathogenesis resulting in differential responses to therapy. However, the currently available validated biomarkers KRAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability do not sufficiently cover

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Gallbladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the outer layers as it grows. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk factor does not mean that ...

  14. Treatment Options for Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the outer layers as it grows. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk factor does not mean that ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. When the esophagus and ...

  17. [Novel treatment for prostate cancer targeting prostaglandins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Naoki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    PGE2 is highly expressed in the prostate, associating with prostate cancer progression. Targeting downstream signaling pathways of PGE2 may represent an attractive new strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. We have established a novel prostate cancer xenograft model, KUCaP-2. The expression of EP4, one of PGE2 receptors, was significantly up-regulated during the development of castration resistance. A specific EP4 antagonist, ONO-AE3-208, decelerated castration-resistant growth of KUCaP-2 tumors in vivo. Moreover, ONO-AE3-208 could in vitro inhibit the cell invasion and in vivo suppress the bone metastasis of prostate cancer cells. These results indicated that EP4 is a novel target for the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. PMID:25518348

  18. Antimetabolite Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Malyn May Asuncion; Neidigh, Jonathan W.; Wall, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly and aggressive disease. Less than 1% of diagnosed patients survive 5 years with an average survival time of only 4–8 months. The only option for metastatic pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy where only the antimetabolites gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil are used clinically. Unfortunately, efforts to improve chemotherapy regimens by combining, 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine with other drugs, such as cisplatin or oxaliplatin, have not increased cell killing or improve...

  19. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  20. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  1. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical ... when detected, you know, and when patients get treatment. Okay. So it’s very important, you know, to ...

  2. Anal cancer: current and future treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin JY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Y Chin, Theodore S Hong, Jennifer Y WoDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Anal cancer is a relatively rare malignancy, accounting for approximately 2% of gastrointestinal cancers. Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin remains the standard of care for the treatment of anal cancer. There is currently no proven role for platinum-based induction or adjuvant chemotherapy in anal cancer, even in cases of bulky disease. Multiple trials have shown that radiosensitization with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial over radiation alone, and in particular, efforts to remove or substitute mitomycin from the chemoradiation regimen have been unsuccessful. Because local-regional control remains a challenge in the management of anal cancer, future studies will need to focus on radiation dose-escalation and/or addition of further chemotherapy or targeted agents. Patient selection, eg, with PET-CT or with biomarkers including HPV status, may be necessary to define patients who need more aggressive local treatment, ie, for patients with bulky disease, or to de-escalate treatment in others, ie, patients with early-stage, localized cancer.Keywords: anal cancer, chemoradiation, IMRT

  3. Treatments for esophageal cancer. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common form of cancer worldwide. The treatments for esophageal cancer depend on its etiology. For mucosal cancer, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection are standard, while for locally advanced cancer, esophagectomy remains the mainstay. The three most common techniques for thoracic esophagectomy are the transhiatal approach, the Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (right thoracotomy and laparotomy), and the McKeown technique (right thoracotomy followed by laparotomy and neck incision with cervical anastomosis). Surgery for carcinoma of the cervical esophagus requires an extensive procedure with laryngectomy in many cases. When the tumor is more advanced, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is added. The theoretical advantages of adding chemotherapy to the treatment of esophageal cancer are potential tumor down-staging prior to surgery, as well as targeting micrometastases and, thus, decreasing the risk of distant metastasis. Cisplatin- and 5-fluorouracil-based regimes are used worldwide. Chemoradiotherapy is the standard for unresectable esophageal cancer and could also be considered as an option for resectable tumors. For patients who are medically or technically inoperable, concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be the standard of care. Although neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery or salvage surgery after definitive chemoradiotherapy is a practical treatment; judicious patient selection is crucial. It is important to have a thorough understanding of these therapeutic modalities to assist in this endeavor. (author)

  4. Identification of treatment response with social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Manski, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a formal language for study of treatment response with social interactions, and uses it to obtain new findings on identification of potential outcome distributions. Defining a person's treatment response to be a function of the entire vector of treatments received by the population, I study identification when shape restrictions and distributional assumptions are placed on response functions. An early key result is that the traditional assumption of individualistic treatme...

  5. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26543382

  6. Family interaction and treatment adherence after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R L; Bishop, D S; Matlock, A L; Stranahan, S; Smith, G G; Halar, E M

    1987-08-01

    Caregivers of 60 stroke patients were assessed five months after patient discharge from a stroke care unit to determine the relationship between family function and poststroke treatment adherence. Areas of family interaction which were significantly related to ratings of treatment adherence included problem solving, communication, and affective involvement. Better functioning families were consistently high on signs of treatment adherence. Findings suggest that families with specific dysfunction may not be as capable of helping patients comply with rehabilitation efforts as families who function more effectively. Thorough family assessment to identify which areas of family interaction are most problematic in relation to adherence issues is recommended. PMID:3619615

  7. Impact of cancer and cancer treatment on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Dimou, Petros; Anagnostou, Ioannis; Zeginiadou, Theodosia

    2015-01-01

    While cancer, and especially testicular cancer and Hodgkin's disease, affects male fertility in many ways, the current increase of survival of male cancer patients of reproductive age or earlier has emerged as a new challenge to their subsequent ability to father children. Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can have a transitory as well as a permanent detrimental impact on male fertility. Gonadotoxic effects and the length of time for sperm recovery after radiotherapy depends not only on initial semen quality, but also on gonadal dosage and the delivery method after chemotherapy, on the type of regimens and dosages and on the spermatogenesis phase that each drug impacts. Combination treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will induce more gonadotoxicity than either modality alone. Although efforts to prevent gonadal toxicity in cancer treatment are routinely applied, sperm cryopreservation remains the gold standard to maintain male fertility after cancer survival. Fertility preservation for prepubertal boys presents the greatest problem due to the absence of mature sperm in their gonads. In this area, research efforts are concentrated on cryopreservation of immature gametes and, in particular, techniques for their maturation and proliferation after thawing. PMID:26732148

  8. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The surgeon may use part of the small intestine to make a tube that passes urine through an opening ( stoma ). This is called an ostomy or urostomy . If ... surgeon may also use part of the small intestine to make a new storage pouch ( continent ... the urine through a stoma. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Urethral Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The surgeon may use part of the small intestine to make a tube that passes urine through an opening ( stoma ). This is called an ostomy or urostomy . If ... surgeon may also use part of the small intestine to make a new storage pouch ( continent ... the urine through a stoma. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around it. Sometimes lymph nodes , half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the cancer, and muscles, tissues , and a nerve in the neck are also removed. Tumor debulking : A surgical procedure in which as much ...

  11. Interleukin 12 in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2. ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : interleukin 12 * cancer therapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.151, year: 2011

  12. Targeting mitochondria for cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Cifra, Michal; Jandová, Anna; Kučera, Ondřej; Šrobár, Fedor; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J.; Kobilková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2012), s. 23-36. ISSN 1128-6598 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649; GA ČR GAP102/10/0120 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic fields * Cellular biophysics * Cancer Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2012

  13. Targeting mitochondria for cancer treatment - two types of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Kobilková, Jitka; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Two basic types of cancers were identified – those with the mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells (the Warburg effect) or in fibroblasts supplying energy rich metabolites to a cancer cell with functional mitochondria (the reverse Warburg effect). Inner membrane potential of the functional and dysfunctional mitochondria measured by fluorescent dyes (e.g. by Rhodamine 123) displays low and high values (apparent potential), respectively, which is in contrast to the level of oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction (full function) results in reduced (high) oxidative metabolism, low (high) real membrane potential, a simple layer (two layers) of transported protons around mitochondria, and high (low) damping of microtubule electric polar vibrations. Crucial modifications are caused by ordered water layer (exclusion zone). For the high oxidative metabolism one proton layer is at the mitochondrial membrane and the other at the outer rim of the ordered water layer. High and low damping of electric polar vibrations results in decreased and increased electromagnetic activity in cancer cells with the normal and the reverse Warburg effect, respectively. Due to nonlinear properties the electromagnetic frequency spectra of cancer cells and transformed fibroblasts are shifted in directions corresponding to their power deviations resulting in disturbances of interactions and escape from tissue control. The cancer cells and fibroblasts of the reverse Warburg effect tumors display frequency shifts in mutually opposite directions resulting in early generalization. High oxidative metabolism conditions high aggressiveness. Mitochondrial dysfunction, a gate to malignancy along the cancer transformation pathway, forms a narrow neck which could be convenient for cancer treatment. PMID:25626329

  14. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  15. Neurologic Complications of Cancer and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Giglio, Pierre; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) are very susceptible to cancer and its treatment. The most direct involvement of the nervous system manifests in the development of primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Many cancers exhibit a propensity toward spread to the CNS, and brain metastases are common problems seen in malignancies such as lung, breast, and melanoma. Such spread may involve the brain or spine parenchyma or the subarachnoid space. In the ...

  16. Thulium laser treatment for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Haitao Liu; Shujie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovations in thulium laser techniques have allowed application in the treatment of bladder cancer. Laser en bloc resection of bladder cancer is a transurethral procedure that may offer an alternative to the conventional transurethral resection procedure. We conducted a review of basic thulium laser physics and laser en bloc resection procedures and summarized the current clinical literature with a focus on complications and outcomes. Literature evidence suggests that thulium laser te...

  17. Targeting folate receptor alpha for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Anthony; Bax, Heather J.; Josephs, Debra H; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Pellizzari, Giulia; Fittall, Matthew; Grigoriadis, Anita; Figini, Mariangela; Canevari, Silvana; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2016-01-01

    Promising targeted treatments and immunotherapy strategies in oncology and advancements in our understanding of molecular pathways that underpin cancer development have reignited interest in the tumor-associated antigen Folate Receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein. Its overexpression in tumors such as ovarian, breast and lung cancers, low and restricted distribution in normal tissues, alongside emerging insights into tumor-promoting functi...

  18. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressi...

  19. Keeping Your Sex Life Going Despite Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can affect fertility How cancer treatment can affect sexual desire and response How cancer treatments can affect sexuality and fertility Dealing with sexual problems What treatments are available to help with ...

  20. [Clonidine in the treatment of cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bøje; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Clonidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist with analgetic properties. Due to its side-effects, the drug is administered via the epidural or spinal route. A literature search yielded nine controlled studies on clonidine as a supplemental drug in the epidural or spinal treatment of cancer pain. These...... studies were systematically reviewed to evaluate the evidence of efficacy in patients with cancer pain. CONCLUSION: Despite weak evidence, clonidine may be a useful adjunct in epidural or spinal morphine therapy of cancer pain Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/3...

  1. Rectal cancer treatment: Improving the picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for rectal cancer treatment is currently well defined. Nevertheless, new and promising advances are enriching the portrait. Since the US NIH Consensus in the early 90's some new characters have been added. A bird's-eye view along the last decade shows the main milestones in the development of rectal cancer treatment protocols. New drugs, in combination with radiotherapy are being tested to increase response and tumor control outcomes. However, therapeutic intensity is often associated with toxicity. Thus, innovative strategies are needed to create a better-balanced therapeutic ratio. Molecular targeted therapies and improved technology for delivering radiotherapy respond to the need for accuracy and precision in rectal cancer treatment.

  2. Cancer Treatment-Induced Neurotoxicity: A Focus on Newer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jacqueline B.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity from traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is widely recognized. The adverse effects of newer therapeutics such as biological and immunotherapeutic agents are less familiar and they are also associated with significant neurotoxicity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This review addresses the main toxicities of cancer treatment by symptom with a focus on the newer therapeutics. Recognition of these patterns of toxicity is important as drug discontinuation or dose adjustment may prevent further neurologic injury. Also, knowledge of these toxicities helps to differentiate treatment-related symptoms from progression of cancer or its involvement of the nervous system. PMID:26391778

  3. Treatment outcome of maxillary sinus cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyoung Kang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment in the early stage of maxillary sinus cancer is surgical resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy. However, for locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer, a multimodality treatment approach is strongly recommended to improve the survival rate and quality of life of the patient. We determined the treatment outcomes of induction chemotherapy, concurrent chemoradiation therapy, and surgical resection for locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer. Forty-four patients with locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer, who had been treated between January 1990 and April 2008 at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The objective response rates were 70%, 53%, and 57% in the intra-arterial induction chemotherapy, intravenous induction chemotherapy, and concurrent chemoradiation therapy groups, respectively. The orbital preservation rates were 83%, 100%, and 75% in the intra-arterial induction chemotherapy, intravenous induction chemotherapy, and surgical resection groups, respectively. In seven of nine patients in whom the orbit could be preserved after induction chemotherapy, the primary tumors were removed completely. However, although the orbits were preserved in three patients who underwent surgical resection as a primary treatment, all three cases were confirmed to be incomplete resections. We found that active induction chemotherapy for locally advanced cancer of the maxillary sinus increased the possibility of complete resection with orbital preservation as well as tumor down-staging.

  4. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours.

  5. Maximizing outcomes in genitourinary cancers across the treatment continuum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, John M

    2011-04-01

    Key controversies concerning the management of genitourinary cancers across the treatment continua were discussed at the second annual Interactive Genitourinary Cancer Conference (IGUCC) held in February 2010 in Athens, Greece. Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer among western men and prevention strategies are needed. Trials evaluating 5α-reductase inhibitors have reported beneficial and clinically meaningful results, but uptake remains low for primary prostate cancer prevention. Prostate cancer detection programmes are also important as curative treatments for advanced disease are unavailable. Two large landmark randomized controlled trials reported conflicting results concerning screening efficacy and uncovered high levels of over-diagnosis and potential over-treatment. Tailored management strategies after diagnosis are important and predictive markers that distinguish between aggressive and indolent tumours are needed. The majority of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer are clinically localized. Active surveillance of favourable risk patients may be beneficial in the intermediate term, while an integrated approach of multi-modality therapy in patients with adverse features is recommended. The benefits of new technologies such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and robotic prostatectomy have not been established in prospective randomized trials vs current standards of care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to evolving the management of advanced prostate cancer into a chronic disease paradigm. Docetaxel plus prednisone is the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but the optimal timing of chemotherapy initiation has not been addressed in randomized clinical trials. Retrospective analyses suggest that asymptomatic patients with adverse prognostic factors for survival may also benefit from receiving chemotherapy. Bladder cancer is a common malignancy and the

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Laryngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may work better in patients who have stopped smoking before beginning treatment. External radiation therapy to the thyroid or the pituitary gland may change the way the thyroid gland works. The doctor may test the thyroid gland before and after ...

  7. Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alemany

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of viruses against cancer has been revived during the last two decades. Oncolytic viruses replicate and spread inside tumors, amplifying their cytotoxicity and simultaneously reversing the tumor immune suppression. Among different viruses, recombinant adenoviruses designed to replicate selectively in tumor cells have been clinically tested by intratumoral or systemic administration. Limited efficacy has been associated to poor tumor targeting, intratumoral spread, and virocentric immune responses. A deeper understanding of these three barriers will be required to design more effective oncolytic adenoviruses that, alone or combined with chemotherapy or immunotherapy, may become tools for oncologists.

  8. Myeloid Toxicity of Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtin, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Myelotoxicity is one of the most common treatment-related adverse events for patients receiving systemic antineoplastic therapy or radiotherapy to bone marrow–producing regions. Myeloid cytopenias, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia, are the most common manifestations of treatment-related myelotoxicity and one of the most common reasons for dose modifications, dose delays, or discontinuation of therapy, potentially limiting therapeutic benefit. Risk factors for myelotoxicity ...

  9. Radiotherapic treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients under treatment exclusively by radiations are studied when a linear accelerator is used as a source, and 6.000 rad are supplied into the tumour area. The survival of the patients is observed during 12 months, using local control criteria, metastases evaluations as well as patients' tolerance to this kind of treatment. The results are consider good is compared with those found in the specialized literature

  10. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monica; Millan; Sandra; Merino; Aleidis; Caro; Francesc; Feliu; Jordi; Escuder; Tani; Francesch

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approxi-mately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients(> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are underrepresented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population.

  11. Inflammation and cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, contributing factors, and treatment implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Julienne E.; Lamkin, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Guided by basic research on neuro-immune interactions, a growing body of research has examined the hypothesis that cancer-related fatigue is driven by activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine network. In this review, we examine the current state of the evidence linking inflammation and cancer-related fatigue, drawin...

  12. Contemporary state of laryngeal cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of laryngeal cancer treatment is outlined on the basis of an analysis of morbidity and other statistical data. Measures which can be taken to considerably improve the effectiveness of treatment are discussed. The importance of a complex of diagnostic procedures to be employed in therapy planning is shown. Preoperative HBO-mediated gammatherapy and mean fractionation of radiation were used to improve combined treatment. The following function - saving procedures were suggested for radical removal of stage 3 laryngeal malignancies: and endoprosthetic procedure, improved modifications of horizontal resection, and lower larynx resection. A randomized study suggested that prophylactic surgery be performed on the lymphatics of the neck for cancer (T4) of the vestibular area involving the laryngopharynx. The report discusses the good functional and oncological results saving operations carried out after preoperative gammatherapy conducted as a component of combined treatment. The study also established a high effectiveness of traheoesophageal shunting as a postlaryngoectomy voice rehabilitation device

  13. Antimitotic drugs in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Rustelle Janse; Visagie, Michelle H; Theron, Anne E; Joubert, Annie M

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is a complex disease since it is adaptive in such a way that it can promote proliferation and invasion by means of an overactive cell cycle and in turn cellular division which is targeted by antimitotic drugs that are highly validated chemotherapy agents. However, antimitotic drug cytotoxicity to non-tumorigenic cells and multiple cancer resistance developed in response to drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids are obstacles faced in both the clinical and basic research field to date. In this review, the classes of antimitotic compounds, their mechanisms of action and cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and other limitations of current antimitotic compounds are highlighted, as well as the potential of novel 17-β estradiol analogs as cancer treatment. PMID:26563258

  14. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C; Anand, Atul; Cederkvist, Luise; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Nylandsted, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Friis, Søren; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27333030

  15. Late deaths after treatment for childhood cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, M M; Kingston, J. E.; Kinnier Wilson, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of 749 deaths occurring among 4082 patients surviving at least five years after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in Britain before 1971 has been undertaken. Of the 738 with sufficient information the numbers of deaths attributable to the following causes were: recurrent tumour, 550 (74%), a second primary tumour, 61 (8%), a medical condition related to treatment of the tumour, 49 (7%), an traumatic death unrelated to the tumour or its treatment, 34 (5%), finally, any other c...

  16. Cancer-associated thrombosis: prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, K.M.J.; Lee, A.Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk to develop venous thromboembolism, and they are also more likely to develop complications from anticoagulant treatment. Because little research has focused on the oncology population to date, the optimal methods of prophylaxis and treatment remain uncertain in some clinical situations. Currently, low molecular weight heparin and warfarin are the most frequently used pharmacologic agents; however, they have their limitations. Other therapeutic options, suc...

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  20. Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist Before Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer Treatment Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer ... protection for their growing teeth and facial bones. 3 - Fight cancer Serious side effects in the mouth ...

  1. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for liver cancer What`s new in liver cancer research and treatment? Because there are only a few ... or treat hepatitis infections before they cause liver cancers. Research into developing a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C ...

  2. Treatment of locally advanced prostatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A locally advanced prostate cancer is defined as a malignant process spreading beyond the prostate capsule or in seminal vesicles but without distant metastasis or regional lymph nodes invasion. Clinical classification, prediction and treatment of prostate cancer. An exact staging of clinical T3 stadium is usually difficult because of the frequent over and under staging. The risk prognostic stratification is performed through nomograms and ANN (artificial neural networks. The options for treatment are: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, hormonal therapy by androgen blockade. Radical prostatectomy is considered in patients with T3 stage but extensive dissection of lymph nodes, dissection of neurovascular bundle (on tumor side, total removal of seminal vesicle and sometimes resection of bladder neck are obligatory. Postoperative radiotherapy is performed in patients with invasion of seminal vesicles and capsular penetration or with prostate specific antigen value over 0.1 ng/ml, one month after the surgical treatment. Definitive radiotherapy could be used as the best treatment option considering clinical stage, Gleason score, age, starting prostate specific antigen (PSA value, concomitant diseases, life expectancy, quality of life, through multidisciplinary approach (combined with androgen deprivation. Hormonal therapy in intended for patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Conclusion. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer is still controversial and studies for better diagnosis and new treatment modalities are ongoing.

  3. Intense neutron sources for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of small, solid-target, pulsed neutron sources for nuclear weapons applications. The feasibility of using this type of neutron source for cancer treatment is discussed. Plans for fabrication and testing of such a source is briefly described

  4. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  6. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  7. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELS, JOHANNES M.A.; Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchosc...

  8. Gene delivery for the treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men. Whilst treatments for early-stage disease are largely effective, current therapies for metastatic prostate cancer, particularly for bone metastasis, offer only a few months increased lifespan at best. Hence new treatments are urgently required. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer where it can ‘silence’ specific cancer-related genes. However the clinical application of siRNA...

  9. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  10. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies,ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States.Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure,but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation.Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes "standard"adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer.This controversy derives from several studies,each fraught with its own limitations.Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy,for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe.Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy,the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers,identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients.In this review,authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients.

  11. Particle beam. Cancer treatment in next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feature article summarizes the present and future aspects of particle therapy of cancers in Japan. It contains the Interview article for carbon particle therapy by HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba); Facilities for the therapy-present and future for diffusion; History of the carbon beam treatment in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba); Plans for a facility unit for proton beam therapy of cancer in Fukui Pref. for the regional diffusion; a Center of Excellence program in Gunma University for forefront cancer therapy; and Technology of equipments supporting the particle beam therapy in manufacturers of Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Toshiba Japan, Hitachi, and Mitsubishi Electric Corp. There are 6 facilities in total for the particle beam therapy of cancer in Japan. Although the diffusion of radiation therapy in Japan is as low as less than 30% in the whole cancer treatments, the particle beam therapy, an advanced form of radiotherapy, is on the top of the world. (T.I.)

  12. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEE A LIST » What’s new in prostate cancer research? Previous Topic Second cancers after prostate cancer Next Topic Additional resources for prostate cancer What’s new in prostate cancer research? Research into the causes , prevention , detection , and treatment ...

  13. Treatment Modification in Young Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharl, Anton; Salterberg, Annette; Untch, Michael; Liedtke, Cornelia; Stickeler, Elmar; Papathemelis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients not older than 40 years are referred to as young patients. These women benefit from chemo-, endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy to a similar degree as older women. Surgery and radiation therapy also follow the same recommendations. This manuscript deals with the following topics that need special consideration in young women: endocrine therapy and ovarian suppression; fertility protection and family planning; and genetic counselling. There is an on-going debate on whether tamoxifen is sufficient as an endocrine treatment in young patients with endocrine-responsive tumours or whether suppression of ovarian function in combination with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor should be preferred. Recent data suggest a benefit from ovarian suppression plus exemestane in women of 35 years or younger with high-risk breast cancer. However, increased side effects bear the risk of lesser compliance, which eventually results in higher mortality. Child bearing is nowadays frequently postponed to the 4th decade of life, thereby increasing the number of women who have not yet finished their reproductive desires when diagnosed with breast cancer. These patients are in urgent need of counselling for fertility protection. Breast cancer diagnosis at young age is an indication for a possible mutation in breast cancer susceptibility genes. This has an impact on the cancer risk of the whole family, especially the offspring. Drugs that are specifically targeted to cancer cells with genetic alterations that impair DNA repair are already entering the arsenal of oncologists. PMID:27031253

  14. Nutrition for the Person with Cancer during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is an important part of cancer treatment. Eating ...

  15. Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159214.html Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients 3 in 4 get aggressive therapies with ... quarters of young or middle-aged Americans with terminal cancer receive aggressive treatment during the last month of ...

  16. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  17. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well

  18. Contemporary methods of treatment of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kozłowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequently diagnosed worldwide malignant cancer in males, and the second in females, with more than 1,200,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths, annually. Screening tests in oncology allow the detection of cancerous disease at an early, asymptomatic stage. The procedures most frequently performed in the case of colorectal cancer include: low anterior resection by the Dixon method (manual suture or staplers; abdominoperineal resection of the rectum by the Miles method; surgical procedure by the Hartmann method; local resection. Various techniques of preoperative radiotherapy are applied, aimed at tumour mass reduction (scheme I and/or obtaining local sterilisation (schemes I and II, which results in the reduction of local metastases (by approximately 50%, as well as an improvement with respect to long-term survival (by approximately 10%. At present, the following drugs for treatment of various forms of colorectal cancer have been registered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA: fluorouracil capecitabine irinotecan, oxaliplatin, cetuximab, and bevacizumab. The combination of complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS, the goal of which is the removal of all visible (macroscopically cancer foci, with a simultaneous intraperitoneal chemotherapy in hyperthermia – HIPEC, destroying microscopic remains of the disease, allows the curing of some patients with peritoneal cancer. The effect of the action of monoclonal antibodies – cetuximab and panitumumab – is the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells, intensification of their apoptosis, as well as reduction of synthesis and secretion of pro-angiogenic factors, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, antibodies targeted against EGFR impair the repair of DNA damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the cells of the malignant tumour.

  19. Early Prostate Cancer: Hedonic Prices Model of Provider-Patient Interactions and Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the relative influence of treatment features and treatment availabilities on final treatment decisions in early prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We describe and apply a model, based on hedonic prices, to understand provider-patient interactions in prostate cancer. This model included four treatments (observation, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and prostatectomy) and five treatment features (one efficacy and four treatment complication features). We performed a literature search to estimate (1) the intersections of the 'bid' functions and 'offer' functions with the price function along different treatment feature axes, and (2) the treatments actually rendered in different patient subgroups based on age. We performed regressions to determine the relative weight of each feature in the overall interaction and the relative availability of each treatment modality to explain differences between observed vs. predicted use of different modalities in different patient subpopulations. Results: Treatment efficacy and potency preservation are the major factors influencing decisions for young patients, whereas preservation of urinary and rectal function is much more important for very elderly patients. Referral patterns seem to be responsible for most of the deviations of observed use of different treatments from those predicted by idealized provider-patient interactions. Specifically, prostatectomy is used far more commonly in young patients and radiotherapy and observation used far more commonly in elderly patients than predicted by a uniform referral pattern. Conclusions: The hedonic prices approach facilitated identifying the relative importance of treatment features and quantification of the impact of the prevailing referral pattern on prostate cancer treatment decisions

  20. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... only way to confirm a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment Prostate cancer treatment depends on how serious the cancer ...

  1. Intestinal obstructions following the cervical cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-six intestinal obstructions occured among 2149 patients of cervical cancer treated during period 1961 - 1975. They are divided into four groups, that is, 1.29 cases living with no signs of recurrence after the treatment for obstructions, 2.7 cases that died of obstructions or of complications from its treatment, 3.6 cases that once cured from the obstructions but died from the cancer more than one year after the treatment, 4.24 cases that died from the cancer within one year after the treatment for obstructions. With significantly high incidence, intestinal obstructions are observed with the post-operatory irradiation over 5,000 rads to the whole pelvis or post operatory irradiation using combined telecobalt and small sources. The common sites of obstructions are small intestine to the operated group and sigmoid colon or rectum to the radiotherapy group. Twenty-nine of the patients were treated conservatively and of them 15 are living, intestinal resections and end to end anastomoses were performed to 8 patients, 5 of them are living, but 7 of them suffered from wound disruptions, so the indication for this operation should be carefully decided. (auth.)

  2. Deciphering The Complex Biological Interactions Of Nitric Oxide In Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perwez Hussain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NO• is a free radical and is involved in a number of critical physiological processes including vasodilation, neurotransmission, immune regulation and inflammation. There are convincing evidence suggesting a role of NO• in the development and progression of different cancer types. However, the role of NO• in tumorigenesis is highly complex and both pro- and anti-neoplastic functions have been reported, which largely depends on the amount of NO•, cell types, cellular microenvironment, its interaction with other reactive species and presence of metals. An interesting interaction occurs between NO• and p53 tumor suppressor, in which NO•-induced DNA damage causes the stabilization and accumulation of p53, which in turn, transrepresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 in a negative feedback loop. In chronic inflammatory diseases, for example ulcerative colitis, NO• induces p53 stabilization and the initiation of DNA-damage response pathway, and also generation of p53 mutation and subsequent clonal selection of p53 mutant cells. Genetic deletion of NOS2 in p53-deficient mice can either suppress or enhance lymphomagenesis depending on the inflammatory microenvironment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the complex biological interaction of NO• in the context of the molecular makeup of each individual cancer to design NO•-targeted treatment strategies.

  3. Immunohormonal interactions in patients with vulvar cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nerodo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A parallel study of some parameters of the endocrine and immune systems was conducted in 120 patients with vulvar cancer prior to treatment.Most patients were found to have impaired immunogenesis: the reduced count and function of T and B lymphocytes, decreased natu- ral killer cells, suppressed macrophageal transformation of monocytes, higher percentage of immunocomplexes, insufficient production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG, which was induced by the elevated level of cortisol in its slower metabolism at the periphery, reduced function of the pituitary-thyroid system, the balance of sex steroids shifted towards testosterone, a predominance of luteiniz- ing hormone over follicle-stimulating hormone, and inhibited growth hormone production.

  4. Active home-based cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaro S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Bordonaro Fabio Raiti, Annamaria Di Mari, Calogera Lopiano, Fabrizio Romano, Vitalinda Pumo, Sebastiano Rametta Giuliano, Margherita Iacono, Eleonora Lanteri, Elena Puzzo, Sebastiano Spada, Paolo TralongoUOC Medical Oncology, RAO, ASP 8 Siracusa, ItalyBackground: Active home-based treatment represents a new model of health care. Chronic treatment requires continuous access to facilities that provide cancer care, with considerable effort, particularly economic, on the part of patients and caregivers. Oral chemotherapy could be limited as a consequence of poor compliance and adherence, especially by elderly patients.Methods: We selected 30 cancer patients referred to our department and treated with oral therapy (capecitabine, vinorelbine, imatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, temozolomide, ibandronate. This pilot study of oral therapy in the patient’s home was undertaken by a doctor and two nurses with experience in clinical oncology. The instruments used were clinical diaries recording home visits, hospital visits, need for caregiver support, and a questionnaire specially developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC, known as the QLQ-C30 version 2.0, concerning the acceptability of oral treatment from the patient’s perspective.Results: This program decreased the need to access cancer facilities by 98.1%, promoted better quality of life for patients, as reflected in increased EORTC QLQ-C30 scores over time, allowing for greater adherence to oral treatment as a result of control of drug administration outside the hospital. This model has allowed treatment of patients with difficult access to care (elderly, disabled or otherwise needed caregivers that in the project represent the majority (78% of these.Conclusions: This model of active home care improves quality of life and adherence with oral therapy, reduces the need to visit the hospital, and consequently decreases the number of lost hours of work on

  5. Theophylline in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanseli Efeoğlu Gönlügür

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is a drug used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. It inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase, thereby preventing the intracellular break-down of cyclic AMP. Potentially beneficial therapeutic effects of theophylline include bronchial smooth-muscle relaxation, enhanced mucociliary transport, decrease in pulmonary hypertension, improved diaphragmatic contractility, and central stimulation of ventilation. On the other hand, theophylline evokes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in human breast cancer cells. Theophylline-treated melanoma cells exhibit low adhesion to laminin/collagen type IV. Consequently, theophylline possesses the capacity to inhibit not only cell proliferation, but also the metastatic behaviour of melanoma cells. This drug prevents neovascularization of the tumor by blocking endothelial cell proliferation. The combination of theophylline with cytotoxic drugs may permit a reduction in the effective dose needed in chemotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients. It has also a prophylactic effect on the nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin. However, this drug may inhibit small cell lung cancer cells but stimulate pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. It is necessary to perform large, prospective studies for the exact role of theophylline on each type of lung cancer.

  6. Cooperative study in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of surgical treatment of early breast cancers are discussed. Radical mastectomy for stage 1 tumor and a modified mastectomy after Patey - for stage 2 were shown to be feasible. A cooperative randomized study on therapy of localized stage 2b and 3b breast tumors made the case for application of polychemotherapy and radio-therapy as a components of combined and multimodulity therapy

  7. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varkey, Prashanth; Liu, Yi-Tien; Tan, Ngian Chye

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. Multimodality treatment is often the only way to achieve improved function, quality of life, and survival, calling for a multidisciplinary team approach, particularly in view of the rapid advances being made in various fields. The roles of the head and neck surgeon and reconstructive surgeon are discussed, together with the input afforded by specialists in areas such as diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, medical onco...

  8. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Chi; Ritsuko Komaki

    2010-01-01

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will com...

  9. Cancer Cachexia: Classification, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Tora Skeidsvoll

    2014-01-01

    Cachexia is a very common condition in patients with cancer and it has detrimental effects on both mortality and morbidity. Cachexia is characterized by progressive unintentional loss of muscle mass, with or without loss of fat mass.When the work on this thesis started there was neither any efficient treatment available against cachexia nor a consensus on how to define or classify the condition. The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to the improvement of classification and treatmen...

  10. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D; Mehra, Rohit; Kenneth J Pienta

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer pre...

  11. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rebecca SY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.

  12. Cardiotoxicity of oncologic treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac affectation by neoplastic diseases may be due to the heart invasion produced by itself tumor, compression of the heart and / or great vessels by noncardiac neoplasms, most commonly embolization and therapeutic purposes antitumor. Cancer treatment has experienced significant progress in recent decades by the great expansion of chemotherapeutic agents and the refinement of radiotherapy techniques; however, many of the most effective drugs antineoplastic and thoracic irradiation cause both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Thus, the long-term monitoring of patients receiving anthracycline drugs Crucial in the therapy of many neoplasms, demonstrates clinical heart failure in 4.5 to 7% of patients, increasing the incidence of defects in the cardiac function over time. Its pathogenesis is likely included in the formation of free radicals, alterations calcium transport, dysfunction or adrenergic amines glass release active. Dex razoxane is the only clinically used cardio protective marketed for selected group of patients with breast cancer, it is necessary development of new agents that protect the cardiotoxicity of this group of drugs and reduce morbidity and secondary mortality to them. In this work, the tracking shows 4 patients with breast cancer who had received treatment with anthracyclines and the cardiotoxic manifestation suffered, resulting in changes in their treatment, and in one of the patients was used cardio protective medication

  13. Cryosurgery for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, H B

    1980-08-01

    Cryosurgery is that branch of cryobiology and surgery which deals with the therapeutic application of cold at profoundly low temperatures (those below 0 degrees C) for the purpose of destroying tissues in selected target sites. The freezing process induces coagulation necrosis and is confined to the tissues within the region of the probe application and the ice ball. The degree and extent of tissue destruction depend largely on the size of the ice ball and the temperatures within it. Various types of equipment and probes are commercially available for cryosurgery, but it was only after the development of reliable, versatile cryosurgical systems cooled by liquid nitrogen that numerous applications for cryosurgery were proposed, including therapy for cancer. In the treatment of cancer, clinical success with cryosurgery has led to the more wide-spread application of this modality in selected patients. Cryosurgery has been used for readily accessible lesions in specific anatomic areas, most frequently the skin and oral cavity. It is an attractive alternative to extirpative surgery, particularly in the head and neck, where removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla are often required to control cancer. Therefore, it is not surprising that many of the pioneering efforts in the treatment of cancer have been conducted by otorhinolaryngologists. The full theoretic potential of cryotherapy was somewhat slow to be realized because many early endeavors were directed toward palliation, especially of accessible tumors of the skin and oral cavity, after failure of tumor control by radiation or surgery or both. This limited application during the early period of evaluation reflected a naturally timorous course that was taken by those who introduced the new modality into clinical practice. This period paralleled the development of new apparatus, early clinical trials, and the assessment of the clinical potential of cryosurgery in patients with incurable cancer

  14. HIFU for Palliative Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies, with only a 6 % 5-year survival rate and over 50 % of patients being diagnosed at the advanced stage. Current therapies are ineffective, and the treatment of patients with advanced disease is palliative. In the past decade, HIFU ablation has emerged as a modality for palliative treatment of pancreatic tumors. Multiple preclinical and non-randomized clinical trials have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Substantial tumor-related pain reduction was achieved in most cases after HIFU treatment and few significant side effects were observed. In addition, some studies indicate that combination of HIFU ablation with chemotherapy may provide a survival benefit. This chapter summarizes the pre-clinical and clinical experience obtained to date in HIFU treatment of pancreatic tumors and discusses the challenges, limitations and new approaches in this modality. PMID:26486333

  15. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Crauciuc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  16. [Advancement in the treatment against prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Abe, Takashige; Maruyama, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of basic science and medical technology, the treatment against prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically changed. Although the introduction of robotic radical prostatectomy and particle therapies in patients with early stage PC is of much note, the issues on the over-treatment and treatment cost should be heeded. From these points, active surveillance has been an important strategy in these patients. In patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PC, especially high volume metastases, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with docetaxel has been reported to prolong overall survival compared with ADT alone. Lastly, several novel therapeutic agents have been investigated and shown to be favorable outcomes in patients with castration resistant PC. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the treatment against PCs. PMID:26793875

  17. Treatment of primary cancer of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of treatment of 252 cases of cancer of the penis were evaluated. Indications for available methods of treatment with regard to patient's age, stage and size of primary tumor were worked out. Conservative treatment should be given to cases of T1 and T2 tumors, combined treatmemt-T3, and palliative therapy-T4 neoplasms. An experience with cryodestruction of tumor in combination with chemotherapy is discussed. More advantage seems to be offered by application of radiation treatment in such cases. Three- and five-year survival rates for stage 1 tumors were 98.6 and 97.5%, stage 2-84.5 and 83.3% stage 3-26.2 and 24.9% irrespective of the procedure. Not a single patient with stage 4 tumor survived over one year

  18. Investigation of treatment strategy for advanced cancer according to treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Kecheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of pancreatic cancer diagnoses are made at the advanced stage and when metastasis has already occurred, and the 1- and 5-year survival rates are extremely low. Cemcitabine remains the most frequently applied treatment option, yet the most effective chemotherapeutic agents and combinations with multiple agents and/or radiotherapy only marginally improve patient survival and may even establish an environment conducive to cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics. An alternative treatment modality, cryoablation, is available and has been applied at our institute to patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer since 2001. In this article, we present our collective experience with patient outcome using cryoablation, alone or combined with other treatment modalities such as brachytherapy (125iodine seed implantation. The overall outcomes have been encouraging, suggesting that comprehensive therapy including cryoablation may prolong the survival of patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, and we are achieving particular success with a novel combination of percutaneous cryoablation, cancer microvascular intervention with 125iodine seed implantation, and combined immunotherapy (3C applied using an individualized patient strategy (P. The 1- through 10-year survival rates of 145 patients treated with the so-called “3C+P model” are presented in support of this new strategy as a promising new treatment for advanced and metastatic cancer

  19. The Impact of Cancer Treatment on the Diets and Food Preferences of Patients Receiving Outpatient Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Coa, Kisha I.; Epstein, Joel B; Ettinger, David; Jatoi, Aminah; McManus, Kathy; Platek, Mary E.; Price, Wendy; Stewart, Meghan; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing cancer treatment experience a multitude of symptoms that can influence their ability to complete treatment as well as their quality of life during and after treatment. This cross-sectional study sought to describe the dietary changes experienced by cancer patients and to identify associations between these changes and common treatment symptoms. A convenience sample of 1199 cancer patients aged 18 yr and older undergoing active treatment were recruited from 7 cancer centers...

  20. Tumor Microenvironment: A New Treatment Target for Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ju Tsai; Wei-An Chang; Ming-Shyan Huang; Po-Lin Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer therapy encounter a bottleneck. Relapsing/recurrent disease almost always developed eventually with resistance to the initially effective drugs. Tumor microenvironment has been gradually recognized as a key contributor for cancer progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the cancer cells, angiogenesis, cancer metastasis, and development of drug resistance, while dysregulated immune responses and interactions between various components in the microenvironment ...

  1. Real-time interactive treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient’s treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ∼2–20 ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. ‘drag’ a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ∼1–5 min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. (paper)

  2. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Barroetavena Maria; Yavari Parvin; Hislop T Greg; Bajdik Chris D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumou...

  3. Identifying functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Nafiseh; Fathy, Mahmood; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaie, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged between 15 and 35 and more than 90% of testicular neoplasms are originated at germ cells. Recent research has shown the impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) in different types of cancer, including testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which affect the development and progression of cancer cells by binding to mRNAs and regulating their expressions. The identification of functional miRNA-mRNA interactions in cancers, i.e. those that alter the expression of genes in cancer cells, can help delineate post-regulatory mechanisms and may lead to new treatments to control the progression of cancer. A number of sequence-based methods have been developed to predict miRNA-mRNA interactions based on the complementarity of sequences. While necessary, sequence complementarity is, however, not sufficient for presence of functional interactions. Alternative methods have thus been developed to refine the sequence-based interactions using concurrent expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs. This study aims to find functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in TGCT. To this end, the sequence-based predicted interactions are first refined using an ensemble learning method, based on two well-known methods of learning miRNA-mRNA interactions, namely, TaLasso and GenMiR++. Additional functional analyses were then used to identify a subset of interactions to be most likely functional and specific to TGCT. The final list of 13 miRNA-mRNA interactions can be potential targets for identifying TGCT-specific interactions and future laboratory experiments to develop new therapies. PMID:27235586

  4. Activation of PDGFr-β Signaling Pathway after Imatinib and Radioimmunotherapy Treatment in Experimental Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Mack; Michio Abe; Zbigniew P. Kortylewicz; Enke, Charles A.; Janina Baranowska-Kortylewicz

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer does not respond to a single-agent imatinib therapy. Consequently, multimodality treatments are contemplated. Published data indicate that in colorectal cancer, imatinib and radioimmunotherapy synergize to delay tumor growth. In pancreatic cancer, the tumor response is additive. This disparity of outcomes merited further studies because interactions between these modalities depend on the imatinib-induced reduction of the tumor interstitial fluid pressure. The examination of ...

  5. Personalised Treatment in Gastric Cancer: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Noelia; Gambardella, Valentina; Huerta, Marisol; Roselló, Susana; Cervantes, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    Despite recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the survival of patients with gastric cancer is still poor. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and chemotherapy represents the only possible therapeutic approach. However, chemotherapy seems to have reached an efficacy plateau in this setting. Gastric cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease because it emerges from multiple interactions of genetic, environmental and host factors. A better understanding of its molecular characteristics may lead to an improvement of outcomes. The recent molecular classification by The Cancer Genome Atlas project divides gastric cancer into four subtypes that could be taken into consideration in future clinical trials with targeted agents. So far trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody addressing the HER2 receptor, is the only targeted agent approved in the first-line setting, but only in patients overexpressing HER2. Negative data have been obtained in first-line therapy when antiangiogenics, anti-EGFR or anti-MET monoclonal antibodies have been studied in randomised controlled trials. Ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody binding to VEGFR2, is the only antiangiogenic agent currently recommended in patients progressing after first-line treatment. In this review, we discuss whether personalised therapy may have a role in gastric cancer. PMID:27215435

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  7. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  8. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  9. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  10. Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, G; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males. In most cases, no curative treatment options are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer as these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted drug delivery, usin

  11. What's New in Pancreatic Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEE A LIST » What’s new in pancreatic cancer research? Previous Topic Living as a pancreatic cancer survivor Next Topic Additional resources for pancreatic cancer What’s new in pancreatic cancer research? Research into the causes , diagnosis , and treatment of ...

  12. What's New in Esophageal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download Printable Version [PDF] » What`s New in Esophagus Cancer Research? TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What’s ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Esophagus Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  13. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Marques,1 José MF Ferreira,1 Ecaterina Andronescu,2 Denisa Ficai,2 Maria Sonmez,3 Anton Ficai21Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 3National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, RomaniaAbstract: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multifunctionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative, cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin, and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl. The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies.Keywords: bone graft, cancer, collagen, magnetite, cytostatics, silver

  14. Toremifene in the treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Mika VJ; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Although more widespread screening and routine adjuvant therapy has improved the outcome for breast cancer patients in recent years, there remains considerable scope for improving the efficacy, safety and tolerability of adjuvant therapy in the early stage disease and the treatment of advanced disease. Toremifene is a selective estrogen receptor modifier (SERM) that has been widely used for decades in hormone receptor positive breast cancer both in early and late stage disease. Its efficacy has been well established in nine prospective randomized phase III trials compared to tamoxifen involving more than 5500 patients, as well as in several large uncontrolled and non-randomized studies. Although most studies show therapeutic equivalence between the two SERMs, some show an advantage for toremifene. Several meta-analyses have also confirmed that the efficacy of toremifene is at least as good as that of tamoxifen. In terms of safety and tolerability toremifene is broadly similar to tamoxifen although there is some evidence that toremifene is less likely to cause uterine neoplasms, serious vascular events and it has a more positive effect on serum lipids than does tamoxifen. Toremifene is therefore effective and safe in the treatment of breast cancer. It provides not only a useful therapeutic alternative to tamoxifen, but may bring specific benefits. PMID:25114854

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the outline of the present diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer essentially based on its therapeutic guideline by the Japan Breast Cancer Society (2005) and on authors' experiences. The diagnosis item contains the medical interview of patients, observatory and palpating examinations, mammography (for this, Japan-Breast Imaging Recording and Data System), ultrasonography (guideline for sonographic diagnosis of mammary gland, 2004), fine needle aspiration (FNA) or aspiration biopsy cytology, bases of triple test (palpation, mammography and FNA) for the cancer diagnosis, core needle biopsy, and mammotome biopsy of non-palpable calcified lesion. The treatment item contains the surgery involving conservation, sentinel lymph node biopsy (for this, lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-phytate is illustrated), radiofrequency ablation, adjuvant chemotherapy essentially using anthracycline and taxane, endocrinological therapy using tamoxifen, LH-RH analogues and aromatase inhibitors, and molecular target therapy with HER2 monoclonal antibody like trastuzumab. Recent progress of systemic therapy with medicals is remarkable, and the educational promotion of experts and medicare circumstances are concluded to be important. (R.T.)

  16. Theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Lee

    The main focus of this research was to evaluate the ability of a novel multifunctional nanoparticle to mediate drug delivery and enable a non-invasive approach to measure drug release kinetics in situ for the treatment of cancer. These goals were approached by developing a nanoparticle consisting of an inorganic core (i.e. gadolinium sulfoxide doped with europium ions or carbon nanotubes). This was coated with an external amphiphilic polymer shell comprised of a biodegradable polyester (i.e. poly(lactide) or poly(glycolide)), and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer. In this system, the inorganic core mediates the imaging aspect, the relatively hydrophobic polyester encapsulates hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, and poly(ethylene glycol) stabilizes the nanoparticle in an aqueous environment. The synthesis of this nanoparticle drug delivery system utilized a simple one-pot room temperature ring-opening polymerization that neglected the use of potentially toxic catalysts and reduced the number of washing steps. This functionalization approach could be applied across a number of inorganic nanoparticle platforms. Coating inorganic nanoparticles with biodegradable polymer was shown to decrease in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Nanoparticles could be further coated with multiple polymer layers to better control drug release characteristics. Finally, loading polymer coated radioluminescent nanoparticles with photoactive drugs enabled a mechanism for measuring drug concentration in situ. The work presented here represents a step forward to developing theranostic nanoparticles that can improve the treatment of cancer.

  17. S100P interacts with integrin α7 and increases cancer cell migration and invasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Hung, Jen-Yu; Liang, Yung-Yu; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Lu, Chi-Yu; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2015-10-01

    S100P, a Ca2+ binding protein, has been shown to be overexpressed in various cancers. However, its functional character in lung cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that S100P increases cancer migration, invasion and metastasis in lung cancer cells. Ectopic expression of S100P increases migration, invasion and EMT in less invasive CL1-0 lung cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of S100P suppressed migration and invasion, and caused a reversion of EMT in highly invasive lung cancer cells. These effects were transduced by increasing the interaction of S100P with integrin α7, which activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT. Blocking FAK significantly decreased S100P-induced migration by decreasing Src and AKT activation, whereas inhibiting AKT reduced S100P upregulation on ZEB1 expression. Further study has indicated that S100P knockdown prevents the spread of highly metastatic human lung cancer in animal models. This study therefore suggests that S100P represents a critical activator of lung cancer metastasis. Detection and targeted treatment of S100P-expressing cancer is an attractive therapeutic strategy in treating lung cancer. PMID:26320193

  18. Psychological Implications of Cancer Treatment in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia OPRIŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article involves some theoretical aspects of a very difficult topic. Emergence and treatment of cancer in pregnancy is a challenging task for specialists who are supposed to offer treatment, care and support therapy. Psychotherapy also has some distinct features due to the specific characteristics of a pregnant woman. Given these cases are rare, the importance of promoting this subject in the psychologist’s and physician’s world is very important. The idea of progress is based on this kind of work, related to very difficult and specific cases, which implies a collaboration in pluridisciplinary teams. General psychological aspects, the announcement of diagnosis, psychological phases in regaining balance during therapy, psychological effects during treatment, mobilization of the fighting spirit and a reduction in depression and anxiety are only some of the important aspects we propose here.

  19. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  20. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  1. [Integration of nutritional care into cancer treatment: need for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Caroline; Jacqueline-Ravel, Nathalie; Pugliesi-Rinaldi, Angela; Bigler-Perrotin, Lucienne; Chikhi, Marinette; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Dulguerov, Pavel; Miralbell, Raymond; Picard-Kossovsky, Michel; Seium, Yodit; Thériault, Michel; Pichard, Claude

    2011-11-16

    Progresses in cancer treatment transformed cancer into a chronic disease associated with growing nutritional problems. Poor nutritional status of cancer patients worsens morbidity, mortality, overall cost of care and decreases patients' quality of life, oncologic treatments tolerance and efficacy. These adverse effects lead to treatment modifications or interruptions, reducing the chances to control or cure cancer. Implementation of an interdisciplinary and longitudinal integration of nutritional care and nutritional information into cancer treatment (The OncoNut Program) could prevent or treat poor nutritional status and its adversely side effects. PMID:22400355

  2. Regional differences in recommended cancer treatment for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Vivian; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Hui ZHAO; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about regional variation in cancer treatment and its determinants. We compare rates of adherence to treatment guidelines for elderly patients across Texas and whether local specialist supply is an important determinant of treatment variation. Methods Previous literature reviewed indicated 7 recommended courses of treatment for colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. We analyzed Texas Cancer Registry data linked with Medicare claims for the years 2004 to 2007 to...

  3. Clinically-relevant chemotherapy interactions with complementary and alternative medicines in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; See, Cheng Shang; Chan, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), in particular herbal medicines, are commonly used by cancer patients in conjunction with chemotherapy treatment for their anticancer properties and supportive care. However, the effects of many of these herbs are not well-documented due to limited studies done on them. Severe herb-drug interactions (HDIs) have been recorded in some cases, and failure to recognize these harmful HDIs can lead to dire consequences in cancer patients. This study discusses clinically-relevant interactions between anticancer drugs (ACDs) and herbs classified into 7 categories: cancer treatment and prevention, immune-system-related, alopecia, nausea and vomiting, peripheral neuropathy and pain, inflammation, and fatigue. Some promising patents which contain these herbs and thus may manifest these interactions are also presented in this article. Pharmacokinetic interactions involved mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoprotein, while pharmacodynamic interactions were related to increased risks of central nervous system-related effects, hepatotoxicity and bleeding, among others. Clinicians should be vigilant when treating cancer patients who take CAMs with concurrent chemotherapy since they face a high risk of HDIs. These HDIs can be minimized or avoided by selecting herb-drug pairs which are less likely to interact. Furthermore, close monitoring of pharmacological effects and plasma drug levels should be carried out to avoid toxicity and ensure adequate chemotherapeutic coverage in patients with cancer. PMID:20653549

  4. Adjusting to life after treatment: distress and quality of life following treatment for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Costanzo, E S; Lutgendorf, S.K.; Mattes, M L; Trehan, S; Robinson, C B; Tewfik, F; Roman, S L

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and anecdotal findings suggest that the completion of cancer treatment may be marked by heightened distress and disrupted adjustment. The present study examined psychological adjustment during the 3 months following treatment among 89 women with stages 0–III breast cancer. Participants completed measures of depression, cancer-related anxiety, cancer concerns, and quality of life at three time points: during treatment, 3 weeks following the end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatmen...

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel ... number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, ...

  6. [Coproductive teamwork in surgical cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshiro; Harihara, Yasushi; Furushima, Kaoru

    2013-04-01

    With regard to surgical treatment of cancer, there is a strong demand for safe treatment with few errors: treatment must be based on transparency, understandability, and rationality. There is also demand for treatment which is quick, efficient and not wasteful. Rather than maintaining our current pyramidal system which has doctors standing as authorities at the top, there is a need for a flat, non-authoritarian system at every level and section of the hospital. As we change methodology, electronic medical records and clinical pathways will be important tools. Among the surgical department's treatment team in our hospital, there are many branches at work on peri-operative management aside from operations; There are teams for infection control (ICT), nutrition support (NST), decubitus and stoma management, rehabilitaion, and chemotherapy, and team cooperation after discharge from hospital. In addition, the collaborative and coproductive team focusing on pain releif and palliative care in terminal phase (PCT) is important. Having introduced each of the parts of team treatment within the setting of the surgical department, the need now for strong leadership from young and brightful surgeons is also emphasized. PMID:23848009

  7. Cancer Drug Development: New Targets for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt

    1996-01-01

    There is often a considerable lapse of time between the definition of what causes a disease in the laboratory and the development of successful therapy. However, the history of medicine teaches us that the need to understand the scientific basis of disease before the discovery of new treatments is both essential and inevitable. During the middle of the 19th century, the work of the great German pathologist, Rudolf Virchow, defined disease as having an anatomic or histologic basis. In the clinic, this scientific perspective would lead to increasingly effective and, often, increasingly aggressive surgical approaches to disease. Later in the 19th century, Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus (a discovery Virchow disbelieved and publication of which he thwarted, since he hypothesized that cancer, not microbes, caused consumption!), would define a microbiological basis for disease. With bacteria defined as a major cause of human suffering, the stage was set for the development of the discovery of effective antibiotics. In the early 20th century, the pioneering work of Banting, Best and others would show that disease can also have an endocrine or metabolic basis. This new body of scientific knowledge would lead not only to the specific discovery of insulin as an effective treatment for diabetes but also to a more general understanding of the role of hormones, vitamins and co-factors in human health and disease. Basic medical research and its successful translation into effective treatments has fundamentally altered the cause of human death. In the developed world, where access to the benefit of this work is available, infectious disease is not the problem it was in the days of Pasteur, Metchnikoff and Ehrlich. As we approach the millennium, science is now teaching us that diseases, particularly cancer, can have a molecular or genetic basis. Can successful application of this new knowledge be far behind? We are already seeing the application of this new knowledge in

  8. Treatment Considerations for Cancer Pain: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Gharibo, Christopher; Ho, Kok-Yuen

    2015-11-01

    Cancer pain is prevalent, undertreated, and feared by patients with cancer. In April 2013, a panel of pain experts convened in Singapore to address the treatment of cancer pain. They discussed the various types of cancer pain, including breakthrough pain, which is sometimes clinically confused with analgesic gaps. Reasons for undertreating cancer pain include attitudes of patients, clinicians, and factors associated with healthcare systems. The consequences of not treating cancer pain may include reduced quality of life for patients with cancer (who now live longer than ever), functional decline, and increased psychological stress. Early analgesic intervention for cancer pain may reduce the risk of central sensitization and chronification of pain. To manage pain in oncology patients, clinicians should assess pain during regular follow-up visits using validated pain measurement tools and follow prescribing guidelines, if necessary referring patients with cancer to pain specialists. Many patients with cancer require opioids for pain relief. Pain associated with cancer may also relate to cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Many patients with cancer are what might be considered "special populations," in that they may be elderly, frail, comorbid, or have end-stage organ failure. Specific pain therapy guidelines for those populations are reviewed. Patients with cancer with a history of or active substance abuse disorder deserve pain control but may require close medical supervision. While much "treatment inertia" exists in cancer pain control, cancer pain can be safely and effectively managed and should be carried out to alleviate suffering and improve outcomes. PMID:25469726

  9. Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158339.html Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment: ... therapy for rectal cancer in the United States, only slightly more than half of patients receive it, ...

  10. Lung cancer: district active treatment rates affect survival

    OpenAIRE

    CARTMAN, M.; Hatfield, A; Muers, M; Peake, M; Haward, R; Forman, D

    2002-01-01

    Design: A retrospective study of population based data held by the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), comparing active treatment rates for lung cancer with survival by districts.

  11. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  12. Cancer risk after cyclophosphamide treatment in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.A. van den; Dijk, P.R. van; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide treatment improves renal survival in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, use of cyclophosphamide is associated with cancer. The incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy was evaluated, and the cancer

  13. Elderly with Advanced Colon Cancer Often Get Costly, Dubious Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157714.html Elderly With Advanced Colon Cancer Often Get Costly, Dubious Treatments: Study Drugs come ... far more often to elderly patients with advanced colon cancer, but they offer almost no benefit, a new ...

  14. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  16. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  17. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  18. Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  19. Hybrid Theranostic Platforms for Cancer Nanomedical Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Julfakyan, Khachatur

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is a leading case of mortality worldwide. Governments spent multibillion expenses on treatment and palliative care of diseased people. Despite these generous funding and intensive research with aim to find a cure or efficient treatment for cancer, until now there is a lack in selective cancer management strategies. Conventional treatment strategies for cancer, such as surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy don’t have selectivity toward cancer – the property of discrimination of healthy organs and tissues from the diseased site. Chemotherapy is very challenging as the difference between effective and lethal doses is very minuscule in most cases. Moreover, devastating side effects dramatically changes the quality of life for cancer patients. To address these issues two main strategies are intensively utilized in chemistry: (I) the design and synthesis of novel anticancer organic compounds with higher selectivity and low toxicity profiles and the second, design and preparation of biocompatible nanocarriers for imaging and anticancer compound selective delivery nanomedicine. The following dissertation combines the above two strategies as bellows: First project is related to the design and synthetic route development toward novel nature-inspired group of heterocyclic compounds – iso-Phidianidines. The second project focused on design, preparation and evaluation of hybrid theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic in a single entity). Chapter 1 is a general background review of the major topics that will be discussed in this dissertation. The first efficient and high-yielding synthetic route toward iso-phidianidines, containing regioisomeric form of 1,2,4-oxadiazole linked to the indole via methylene bridge is reported in Chapter 2. In vitro test of the synthesized library of iso-phidianidines revealed micromolar range of cytotoxicity toward human cervical cancer cell line. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of

  20. Potential drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions among ambulatory cancer patients: a prevalence study using an advanced screening method

    OpenAIRE

    Schuitenmaker Martin S; Boom Frits A; Swart Eleonora L; van Leeuwen Roelof WF; Hugtenburg Jacqueline G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The pharmacotherapeutic treatment of patients with cancer is generally associated with multiple side-effects. Drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions between anti-cancer drugs or interactions with medication to treat comorbidity can reinforce or intensify side-effects. The aim of the present study is to gain more insight into the prevalence of drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions among patients being treated in the outpatient day care departments for oncolog...

  1. Stem cell technology and engineering for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sinh Truong Nguyen; Phuc Van Pham

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are not only widely used for regenerative medicine, but are also considered as a useful tool for cancer treatment. For a long time, stem cells have been utilized to renew the immune system for radiation or chemotherapy treated patients. Recently, stem cells are being engineered to carry therapeutic reagents to target tumor sites. Cancer vaccines based on the knowledge of cancer stem cells have been studied and applied for cancer treatment. Induced pluripotent stem cells have been u...

  2. Molecular markers′ progress of breast cancer treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Jingwei Xu; Guang Shi; Guanghao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a famous malignant tumor which is caused by varieties of mutation in multiple genes. In order to detect breast cancer in an earlier time and take appropriate treatment which includes  predicting treatment efficacy, we need a more accurate method of discovering the occurrence of breast cancer. With the development of molecular biology and biological detection technologies continue to emerge, molecular markers of breast cancer have gaining more and more widespread attention, an...

  3. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Olof Jannasch; Andrej Udelnow; Stefanie Wolff; Hans Lippert; Pawel Mroczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010....

  4. Upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)

  5. Treatment of colorectal cancer - distance results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances about carcinogenesis and natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC,particularly the establishment of filiations polyp-cancer, are important objectives for a new approach to diagnosis of this disease. Decade 1990-2000 was the decade of CRC detection and prevention, but the decade 2000-2010 is the period of application of new diagnostic and therapeutic concepts. The aim of this study was to highlight the epidemiological,clinical,therapeutic, evolution and prognosis aspects of this cancer at five years after treatment. The research was based on examination of the computerized system of C.E.U.H. of Craiova, observation sheets, operation protocols and anatomic-pathological results, from which we identified from January 2003 until December 2005 a number of 134 patients with CRC investigated, treated and followed completely. At study end (01.07.2010 we noted that 51 of 134 resected patients (38.05% were alive. The median survival time to the entire group of 134 caseswas 44.35 + / -29.94 months. Factors that contribute to a favorable prognosis in CRC are female gender, urban environement origin, ounger than 50 years, the absence of disease or complications associated with neoplasia, colic locations, elective surgery, vegetant and papillary forms, G1 and G2 grading and the disease diagnosed in TMN stages I and II.

  6. Managing Health Care After Cancer Treatment: A Wellness Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Moye, Jennifer; Langdon, Maura; Jones, Janice M.; Haggstrom, David; Naik, Aanand D.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients and health care providers lack awareness of both the existence of, and treatments for, lingering distress and disability after treatment. A cancer survivorship wellness plan can help ensure that any referral needs for psychosocial and other restorative care after cancer treatment are identified.

  7. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Agnes Y Y

    2014-12-01

    Robust evidence remains scarce in guiding best practice in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients living with cancer. Recommendations from major consensus guidelines are largely based on extrapolated data from trials performed mostly in noncancer patients, observational studies and registries, studies using surrogate outcomes, and underpowered randomized controlled trials. Nonetheless, a personalized approach based on individual risk assessment is uniformly recommended for inpatient and outpatient thromboprophylaxis and there is consensus that anticoagulant prophylaxis is warranted in selected patients with a high risk of thrombosis. Prediction tools for estimating the risk of thrombosis in the hospital setting have not been validated, but the use of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting in those with a high Khorana score is under active investigation. Symptomatic and incidental thrombosis should be treated with anticoagulant therapy, but little is known about the optimal duration. Pharmacologic options for prophylaxis and treatment are still restricted to unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, and vitamin K antagonists because there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of target-specific, non-vitamin K-antagonist oral anticoagulants. Although these agents offer practical advantages over traditional anticoagulants, potential drug interaction with chemotherapeutic agents, gastrointestinal problems, hepatic and renal impairment, and the lack of rapid reversal agents are important limitations that may reduce the efficacy and safety of these drugs in patients with active cancer. Clinicians and patients are encouraged to participate in clinical trials to advance the care of patients with cancer-associated thrombosis. PMID:25696871

  8. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  9. Irradiation techniques for the breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotherapy is a cancer treatment way based on the radiation employment. It acts on the tumor, destroying the wicked cells and impeding that this it grows and reproduce. With the radiotherapy the probability of cure of some types of cancer; among them the one of breast, it increases. The investigations in oncology have allowed to develop new technologies with which is possible, for example, to locate the tumors accurately and to adapt the irradiation fields to their form. This has allowed to improve the treatments since it can destroy the tumor applying an intense radiation dose without producing irreversible damages to other organs and healthy tissues of the body. In the underdeveloped countries or in development as Mexico, and almost all those of Latin America, it is not still possible to have several of these technologies in the main oncological centers of the country by their high cost. It is expected that their cost go lowering and that its going to develop technologies more cheap so that they can be applied in more general way to the population that suffers of this suffering. (Author)

  10. Natural compounds for pediatric cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Veronica; Boffa, Iolanda; De Masi, Gina; Zollo, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    There is a tremendous need in clinics to impair cancer progression through noninvasive therapeutic approaches. The use of natural compounds to achieve this is of importance to improve the quality of life of young patients during their treatments. This review will address the "status of the art" related to the potential of natural compounds that are undergoing investigation in combination with standard therapeutic protocols in preclinical and clinical studies and their importance for pediatric cancer treatment. The early studies of drug discovery of these natural compounds discussed here include the main targets, the cellular signaling pathways involved, and the potential modes of action. We also focus on some promising natural compounds that have shown excellent results in vitro and in vivo: Chebulagic acid, Apigenin, Norcantharidin, Saffron/Crocin, Parthenolide, Longikaurin E, Lupeol, Spongistatin 1, and Deoxy-variolin B. Additionally, we introduce the effects of several compounds from nutraceutical and functional foods, to underline their potential use as adjuvant therapies to improve therapeutic benefits. For this purpose, we have selected several compounds: Agaritine, Ganoderma and GL6 peptide, Diallyl trisulfide and Ajoene from garlic, Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea, Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Quercetin. PMID:26650503

  11. The CANSURVIVOR Project : meeting post-treatment cancer survivors’ needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ivers, Mary E.; Dooley, Barbara A.; Bates, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Cancer survivor numbers in Ireland are increasing due to the success of modern treatments. Although most survivors have a good quality of life not all survivors return to 'normal' after treatment. The HSE funded CANSURVIVOR research project has found that many survivors have difficulties and need help to recover and adjust after cancer treatment. Over a number of exploratory studies using interviews, focus groups and a survey of 262 breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer survivors, the ...

  12. Oncologic treatment of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To perform a retrospective descriptive study on breast cancer in patients treated in our hospital to assess the biological profile and treatment heating in these patients. Material and methods: We collect information from medical records for the period 2006 to 2010 included. Basic statistical analyzes were performed with the sample obtained using the Epi data. Results: From a total of 720 patients, showed that 31% are under 50 and 69% are older than 50 years. The 95 % of the total, surgery was performed. The 94 % is to Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. I stages were 17%, 39% Stages II, III Stages Stages IV 29% and 15%. 79% had one or two positive hormone receptors. At 86 % Radiation was performed either in the breast or chest wall treatments regional nodal areas when directed. In the vast majority gave a dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast and nodal areas when corresponded with overprinting in the surgical bed of 16Gy. In cases of treatment of wall thoracic, was given a dose of 50 Gy. The number of relapses in irradiated territories was 5 patients. The average treatment time was 45 heating days for patients who underwent conservative surgery and 38 days for patients who underwent mastectomy. Conclusions: The parameters analyzed in this study are comparable to those work results in other centers. The local recurrence rate in patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy is extremely low

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2009, lung cancer is really the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It ... that, you know, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality. And unfortunately, it’s normally detected in ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas. Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, and, in fact, ... and try and get a biopsy of the lesion. There are other ways to approach the lesion, ...

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... really the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, ... is still less than the total number of deaths from lung cancer in general. I hope that ...

  17. Interactions between epigenetics and metabolism in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JihyeYun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is accompanied by widespread transcriptional changes and metabolic alterations. Although it is widely accepted that the origin of cancer can be traced to the mutations that accumulate over time, relatively recent evidence favors a similarly fundamental role for alterations in the epigenome during tumorigenesis. Changes in epigenetics that arise from post-translational modifications of histones and DNA, are exploited by cancer cells to upregulate and/or downregulate the expression levels of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, respectively. Although the mechanisms behind these modifications, in particular how they lead to gene silencing and activation, are still being understood, many enzymes that carry out post-translational modifications that alter epigenetics require metabolites as substrates or cofactors. As a result, their activities can be influenced by the metabolic state of the cell. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of cancer epigenetics and metabolism and provide examples of where they converge.

  18. Second Primary Cancer after Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Won, Young-Joo; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Lee, Eun Sook; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and survival outcomes of second primary cancers after the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were reviewed and analyzed. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of second primary cancers among women with cervical cancer were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for cervical cancer patients with or without a second primary cancer. Results Among 72,805 women with cervical cancer, 2,678 (3.68%) developed a second primary cancer within a mean follow-up period of 7.34 years. The overall SIR for a second cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.12). The most frequent sites of second primary cancers were the vagina, bone and joints, vulva, anus, bladder, lung and bronchus, corpus uteri, and esophagus. However, the incidence rates of four second primary cancers (breast, rectum, liver, and brain) were decreased. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 78.3% and 72.7% in all women with cervical cancer, and for women with a second primary cancer, these rates were 83.2% and 65.5% from the onset of cervical cancer and 54.9% and 46.7% from the onset of the second primary cancer, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of second primary cancers were increased in women with cervical cancer compared to the general population, with the exception of four decreasing cancers. The 10-year overall survival rates were decreased in cervical cancer patients with a second primary cancer. PMID:26194366

  19. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  20. Breast cancer treatment in mutation carriers: surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; D'Alonzo, Marta; Sgro, Luca G; Tomasi Cont, Nicoletta; Bounous, Valentina; Robba, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    The surgical option which should be reserved for patients with BRCA1/2 mutation and breast cancer diagnosis is still debated. Several aspects should be considered before the surgical decision-making: the risk of ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), the potential survival benefit of prophylactic mastectomy, and the possible risk factors that could either increase or decrease the risk for IBR or CBC. Breast conservative treatment (BCT) does not increase the risk for IBR in BRCA mutation carriers compared to non-carriers in short term follow-up; however, an increased risk for IBR in carriers was observed in studies with long follow-up. In spite of the increased risk for IBR in patients who underwent BCT than patients with mastectomy, no significant difference in breast-cancer specific or overall survival was observed by local treatment type at 15 years. Patients with BRCA mutation had a higher risk for CBC compared with non-carriers and BRCA1-mutation carriers had an increased risk for CBC compared to BRCA2-mutation carriers. Bilateral mastectomy is intended to prevent CBC in BRCA mutation carriers, however, no difference in survival was found if a contralateral prophylactic mastectomy was performed or not. For higher-risk groups of BRCA mutated patients, a more-aggressive surgical approach may be preferable, but there are some aspects that should be considered in the surgical decision-making process. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy and performing oophorectomy are associated with a decreased risk for IBR. When considering the risk for CBC, three risk factors were associated with significantly decreased risk: the use of adjuvant tamoxifen, performing oophorectomy and older age at first breast cancer diagnosis. As a result, we could identify a group of patients that might benefit from a more aggressive surgical approach (unilateral mastectomy or unilateral therapeutic mastectomy with concomitant contralateral prophylactic

  1. Conservative treatment of premature rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The largest radical resections in rectal cancer with significant morbidity and mortality (Urinary dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, permanent colostomy, etc.), on certain occasions and with high selectivity, they can be avoided with the implementation of local resections. Our intention is to assess the results of conservative treatment of rectal cancer early. Material and Methods: Between 01.01.89 and 31.12.09 14 consecutive patients were treated carriers rectal adenocarcinoma who had never received prior cancer treatment and a second simultaneous showed no neoplasia. The age of the patients presented a range between 44 and 72 years with a mean of 60.4 years; sex similarly partitioned and according to ECOG performance status was 0≤2. All patients were operated through a anal resection of which 4 were performed a submucosal tumor excision (T1) and 10 excision was entire rectal wall and tumor invaded the muscularis propria (T2). For this one type of surgery patients were selected the following criteria: tumor ≤6 cm. the anal verge, size ≤3 cm., GH I-II, vegetative, mobile, and T1-2, N0 by EER. After intervention, the pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed that 4 patients GH III, lymphovascular invasion and / or peri neural, or close surgical margins (+) (≤3 mm.) And T3, so underwent Miles operation (March 1 T1 and T2). Subsequently the rest of the patients (10) underwent concomitant radio chemotherapy. Radiation therapy was similar all using megavoltage photons (CO-60, 18mV) to the entire pelvic volume in a normofraccionamiento to complete 50.40 Gy (1.8 Gy / 28) using multiple fields (box technique). Chemotherapy was prepared 5FU + LV in the first patient (4), in following (4) was used 5FU continuous infusion (1st and 5th week) and the remaining (2) Capecitabine. Follow up was complete. Results: In our sample we extract local failure was 4 (29%), distant failure 3 (20%) and two local and distant failures (14%) so it follows that

  2. Interaction between Capecitabine and Gemcitabine with Warfarin in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Gemcitabine is the only chemotherapeutic agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer [1]. It is also indicated for use in non-small-cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, and is commonly used in other gastrointestinal malignancies. Patients with cancer, specifically pancreatic carcinoma, are at increased risk for thrombosis requiring anticoagulation. In addition, due to aging and common risk factors, cardiac ailments such as atrial fibrillation are also common in this group. In such cases, warfarin is generally the agent of choice In 1999, a potential interaction between gemcitabine and warfarin was reported [2]. In 2002, the manufacturer of gemcitabine, Eli Lilly, reported four similar cases, indicating an incidence of 0.04% suspected drug interaction between gemcitabine and an anticoagulant [3]. They also reported that overall 5.4% of patients undergoing gemcitabine therapy received concomitant anticoagulants [3] Moreover, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Roche have added a "Black Box" warning and strengthened the "Precautions" section on the label of capecitabine, which is indicated for the treatment of colorectal and breast cancer [4, 5]. We present the seventh case of a patient with pancreatic cancer complicated by an elevated INR following treatment with concomitant gemcitabine-capecitabinewarfarin first and then gemcitabine-warfarin later.

  3. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. There has been a renewed interest in hepatic irradiation because of two significant advances in cancer treatment: three dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning and bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation. RILD resulting from liver radiation can usually be distinguished clinically from that resulting from the preparative regime associated with bone marrow transplantation. However, both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion: veno-occlusive disease. Recent evidence suggests that elevated transforming growth factor β levels may play a role in the development of veno-occlusive disease. Three dimensional treatment planning offers the potential to determine the radiation dose and volume dependence of RILD, permitting the safe delivery of high doses of radiation to parts of the liver. The chief therapy for RILD is diuretics, although some advocate steroids for severe cases. The characteristics of RILD permit the development of a grading system modeled after the NCI Acute Common Toxicity Criteria, which incorporates standard criteria of hepatic dysfunction

  4. A Landscape of Pharmacogenomic Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Francesco; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Vis, Daniel J; Bignell, Graham R; Menden, Michael P; Schubert, Michael; Aben, Nanne; Gonçalves, Emanuel; Barthorpe, Syd; Lightfoot, Howard; Cokelaer, Thomas; Greninger, Patricia; van Dyk, Ewald; Chang, Han; de Silva, Heshani; Heyn, Holger; Deng, Xianming; Egan, Regina K; Liu, Qingsong; Mironenko, Tatiana; Mitropoulos, Xeni; Richardson, Laura; Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Tinghu; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Soleimani, Maryam; Tamborero, David; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Esteller, Manel; Gray, Nathanael S; Haber, Daniel A; Stratton, Michael R; Benes, Cyril H; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; McDermott, Ultan; Garnett, Mathew J

    2016-07-28

    Systematic studies of cancer genomes have provided unprecedented insights into the molecular nature of cancer. Using this information to guide the development and application of therapies in the clinic is challenging. Here, we report how cancer-driven alterations identified in 11,289 tumors from 29 tissues (integrating somatic mutations, copy number alterations, DNA methylation, and gene expression) can be mapped onto 1,001 molecularly annotated human cancer cell lines and correlated with sensitivity to 265 drugs. We find that cell lines faithfully recapitulate oncogenic alterations identified in tumors, find that many of these associate with drug sensitivity/resistance, and highlight the importance of tissue lineage in mediating drug response. Logic-based modeling uncovers combinations of alterations that sensitize to drugs, while machine learning demonstrates the relative importance of different data types in predicting drug response. Our analysis and datasets are rich resources to link genotypes with cellular phenotypes and to identify therapeutic options for selected cancer sub-populations. PMID:27397505

  5. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wanxia; Lin Miao; Lü Ye; Yang Biao; Yao Cong; Liu Juan; Wang Wenru

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite,feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the patients. The frequently reported symptoms by those on chemotherapy were nausea, feeling sluggish, weight loss, vomiting, and taste change. The frequently reported symptoms by those on radiotherapy were feeling sluggish, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficult sleeping, and changing taste. The symptoms of loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, hair loss, and nausea were both frequently reported by those on radiotherapy and those on chemotherapy. Conclusion Symptom monitoring may be facilitated by TRSC, based on the severity and frequency of reported symptoms, more patients and caregivers could know which symptoms should be preferential interventions.

  6. Laparoscopic staging and surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengadam Muniraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the tenth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Surgery remains a cornerstone in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Unfortunately, the percentage of patients presenting at the resectable stage is minimal. Although computed tomography (CT scan remains the best modality to stage the tumor for resectability, laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasound offers its own advantages. Extended lymphadenectomy, portal vein resection, and arterial reconstruction have also been explored in multiple studies to enhance staging. The traditional pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple′s procedure with regional lymphadenectomy is still the standard of care in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment:friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Montgomery; Heather H Cheng; James Drechsler; Elahe A Mostaghel

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo-and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of deifning their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer.

  8. Conservation irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques of treatment and cosmetic results of 130 patients with breast cancer are presented. All patients received conservative treatment, with lumpectomy and radiotherapy at Centro de Oncologia Campinas. (M.A.C.)

  9. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these interfere with how well the cancer treatment works? What proactive measures, like sperm banking or egg preservation, are possible for my child? Are any experimental options available? After treatment, how will we know ...

  10. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  11. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance with the...... postoperative infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...

  12. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  13. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  14. Functional MR imaging for response prediction in rectal cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Intven, M.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision. In recent years, organ-sparing treatments, instead of standard total mesorectal excision, are gradually introduced in the treatment of rectal cancer for patients with good response after neoadjuvant therapy. However, patient selection for organ-sparing treatments is still challenging as no optimal restaging modality is available after neoadjuvant chemoradiatio...

  15. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser; Françoise Meunier

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an impor...

  16. Novel Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer in London UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Black

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An intensive and in-depth two-day conference providing an advanced level updateKEY TOPICS TO BE COVERED:New paradigms for targeted therapiesNew anti-cancer agents ~ industry viewpointNovel approaches to the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancerDrug development and precision radiotherapyEuropean drug development initiativesMarket access to novel cancer drugsRegulatory issues in marketing authorisation of anti-cancer productsGene and cell therapies and trial endpointsDeveloping cancer vaccinesCLICK HERE for more information 

  17. Analysis of the efficiency of cryogenic treatment for oropharyngeal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Tabolinovskaya; I. N. Pustynskiy

    2016-01-01

    The material for the study was the medical records of 40 patients with oropharyngeal cancer who had undergone cryogenic treatment at the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center in the period 1975 to 2009. Analysis of the long-term results of cryogenic treatment for primary cancer, recurrences, and traditional therapy-untreated tumor showed its efficacy in 60 % of the patients. Cancer recurrence occurred in 31 (25.8 %) patients who had completed the treatment: in 25.0 % of the primary pati...

  18. The treatment of locally advanced colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The results of therapy for 103 patients with locally advanced colon cancer who received radiotherapy were analyzed to determine the outcome and tolerance of therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 1994, 103 patients received radiotherapy and maximal resection of locally advanced colon cancers. Following resection, 50 patients had no residual disease, 18 patients had microscopic residual disease, and 35 patients had gross residual disease. External beam radiotherapy was initiated 1 to 4 months following resection except in two patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Treatment was delivered to the tumor bed and adjacent lymph nodes using 4 to 18 MV X-rays with doses ranging from 16.2 to 60 Gy. Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) was also administered to 11 of the patients with doses ranging from 10 to 20 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered to 77 patients. Follow-up in survivors ranged from 0.5 to 17 years (median: 5.8 years). Results: The 5-year actuarial local failure rate was 10% for patients with no residual disease, 54% for patients with microscopic residual disease, and 79% for patients with gross residual disease (p < 0.0001). For patients with residual disease, local failure occurred in 11% of patients receiving IOERT compared with 82% of patients receiving only external beam therapy (p 0.02). The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 66% for patients with no residual disease, 47% for patients with microscopic residual disease, and 23% for patients with gross residual disease (p = 0.0009). The 5-year survival rate in patients with residual disease was 76% for patients receiving IOERT and 26% for patients receiving external beam therapy alone (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Patients with locally advanced colon cancer who have had a complete resection have a high probability of local control after external beam irradiation ± 5 fluorouracil (5FU)-based systemic therapy. The toxicity of therapy can be minimized with attention to treatment

  19. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ehab M; Elbaz M

    2016-01-01

    Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecula...

  20. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the mole...

  1. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and va...

  2. Tailored tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer patients : A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G L; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p

  3. Tailored Tamoxifen Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients : A Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G. L.; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p

  4. Preoperative distress predicts persistent pain after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment (PPBCT) affects 25% to 60% of breast cancer survivors and is recognized as a clinical problem, with 10% to 15% reporting moderate to severe pain several years after treatment. Psychological comorbidity is known to influence pain perception, and...

  5. Persistent pain and sensory disturbances after treatment for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Gärtner, Rune;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain.......To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain....

  6. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOVER, LESLIE R.; Marleen van der Kaaij; Eleonora van Dorst; Carien Creutzberg; Eric Huyghe; Kiserud, Cecilie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted...

  7. Pharmacoeconomics of Available Treatment Options for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliadt, Steven B.; Penson, David F.

    2007-01-01

    The resources devoted to managing metastatic prostate cancer are enormous, yet little attention has been given to directly measuring the economic consequences of treatment alternatives. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of available treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, including hormone-sensitive disease, androgen-independent prostate cancer and locally advanced/progressive disease. We identified 58 articles addressing economic issues related to metastati...

  8. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biologi...

  9. Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...

  10. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis: Implication for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is a disease of genomic instability, evasion of immune cells, and adaptation of the tumor cells to the changing environment. Genetic heterogeneity caused by tumors and tumor microenvironmental factors forms the basis of aggressive behavior of some cancer cell populations. CONTENT: Cancers arise in self-renewing cell populations and that the resulting cancers, like their normal organ counterparts, are composed of hierarchically organized cell populations. Self–renewing “...

  11. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  12. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOSEg software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  13. Nanoparticle Based Combination Treatments for Targeting Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, D; Kyriacopulos, P; Yassini, B; Wright, A; Burkhart, E; Jacek, S; Pratt, M; Peterson, CR; Rai, P

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of cancer remains one of the most challenging tasks facing the healthcare system. Cancer affects the lives of millions of people and is often fatal. Current treatment methods include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapies or some combinations of these. However, recurrence is a major problem. These treatments can be invasive with severe side effects. Inefficacies in treatments are a result of the complex and variable biology of cancerous cells. Malignant tumor cells and normal functioning cells share many of the same biological characteristics but the main difference is that in cancer cells there is in an overuse and over expression of these biological characteristics. These pertinent characteristics can be grouped into eight hallmarks, as illustrated by Hanahan and Weinberg. These characteristics include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, activating invasion and metastasis, reprogramming energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction. In order to provide a noninvasive, effective treatment, delivery methods must be explored in order to transport cytotoxic agents used for targeting the hallmarks of cancer in a safer and more effective fashion. The use of nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers provides an effective method in which multiple cytotoxic agents can be safely delivered to cancer tissue to simultaneously target multiple hallmarks. By targeting multiple hallmarks of cancer at once, the efficacy of cancer treatments could be improved drastically. This review explores the uses and efficacy of combination therapies using nanoparticles that can simultaneously target multiple hallmarks of cancer. PMID:27547592

  14. Patient-recognition data-mining model for BCG-plus interferon immunotherapy bladder cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shital C; Kusiak, Andrew; O'Donnell, Michael A

    2006-06-01

    Bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignant disease in the United States with an annual incidence of around 63,210 new cases and 13,180 deaths. The cost for providing care for patients with bladder cancer disease is high. Bladder cancer treatment options such as immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, transurethral resection, and cystectomy, are used with varying success rates. In this research, data from a nationwide bacillus Calmette-Gue rin (BCG) plus interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) immunotherapy clinical trial was considered. Data mining algorithms were used to analyze the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment and to understand the prominent parameters and their interactions. The extracted knowledge was used to build a patient recognition model for prediction of treatment outcomes. The data was analyzed to understand the impact of various parameters on the treatment outcome. A list of significant parameters such as cumulative tumor size, presence of residual disease, stages of prior bladder cancer, current state of bladder cancer, and the presence of current bladder cancer (T1) is provided. The decision-making approach outlined in the paper supplemented with additional knowledge bases will lead to a comprehensive analytical road map of the BCG/IFN-alpha immunotherapy treatment. It will provide individualized guidelines for each stage of the treatment as well as measure the success of the treatment. PMID:15978568

  15. Cancer patients with cardiac pacemakers needing radiation treatment: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Jai Prakash Agarwal; Kailash Chander Pandey

    2013-01-01

    With improving average life expectancy of individuals in most countries, there has been increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Radiation oncologists therefore are likely to encounter an increasing number of cancer patients with in situ cardiac pacemaker devices needing radiation treatments. Pacemaker technology has advanced rapidly in recent years. As a result, the potential interactions of these devices with radiation therapy have changed since American Association...

  16. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Hladik, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[SAP AG, Berlin (Germany); Ostapchenko, S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees

    1999-11-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author) 19 refs.

  17. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie R. Schover

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.

  18. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  19. SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuanyuan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer predisposition genes identified to date (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for less than 5% of all breast cancer cases. Many studies have shown that the cancer risks associated with individual commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are incremental. However, polygenic models suggest that multiple commonly occurring low to modestly penetrant SNPs of cancer related genes might have a greater effect on a disease when considered in combination. Methods In an attempt to identify the breast cancer risk conferred by SNP interactions, we have studied 19 SNPs from genes involved in major cancer related pathways. All SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan 5'nuclease assay. The association between the case-control status and each individual SNP, measured by the odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval, was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. At the second stage, two-way interactions were investigated using multivariate logistic models. The robustness of the interactions, which were observed among SNPs with stronger functional evidence, was assessed using a bootstrap approach, and correction for multiple testing based on the false discovery rate (FDR principle. Results None of these SNPs contributed to breast cancer risk individually. However, we have demonstrated evidence for gene-gene (SNP-SNP interaction among these SNPs, which were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our study suggests cross talk between the SNPs of the DNA repair and immune system (XPD-[Lys751Gln] and IL10-[G(-1082A], cell cycle and estrogen metabolism (CCND1-[Pro241Pro] and COMT-[Met108/158Val], cell cycle and DNA repair (BARD1-[Pro24Ser] and XPD-[Lys751Gln], and within carcinogen metabolism (GSTP1-[Ile105Val] and COMT-[Met108/158Val] pathways. Conclusion The importance of these pathways and their communication in breast cancer predisposition has been emphasized previously, but their

  20. SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer predisposition genes identified to date (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2) are responsible for less than 5% of all breast cancer cases. Many studies have shown that the cancer risks associated with individual commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are incremental. However, polygenic models suggest that multiple commonly occurring low to modestly penetrant SNPs of cancer related genes might have a greater effect on a disease when considered in combination. In an attempt to identify the breast cancer risk conferred by SNP interactions, we have studied 19 SNPs from genes involved in major cancer related pathways. All SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan 5'nuclease assay. The association between the case-control status and each individual SNP, measured by the odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval, was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. At the second stage, two-way interactions were investigated using multivariate logistic models. The robustness of the interactions, which were observed among SNPs with stronger functional evidence, was assessed using a bootstrap approach, and correction for multiple testing based on the false discovery rate (FDR) principle. None of these SNPs contributed to breast cancer risk individually. However, we have demonstrated evidence for gene-gene (SNP-SNP) interaction among these SNPs, which were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our study suggests cross talk between the SNPs of the DNA repair and immune system (XPD-[Lys751Gln] and IL10-[G(-1082)A]), cell cycle and estrogen metabolism (CCND1-[Pro241Pro] and COMT-[Met108/158Val]), cell cycle and DNA repair (BARD1-[Pro24Ser] and XPD-[Lys751Gln]), and within carcinogen metabolism (GSTP1-[Ile105Val] and COMT-[Met108/158Val]) pathways. The importance of these pathways and their communication in breast cancer predisposition has been emphasized previously, but their biological interactions through SNPs have not been described

  1. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy for bladder cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung

    2016-06-01

    Bladder cancer remains the most immunogenic and expensive malignant tumor in the United States today. As the 4th leading cause of death from cancer in United States, Immunotherapy blocking immune checkpoints have been recently been applied to many aggressive cancers and changed interventions of urological cancers including advanced bladder cancer. The applied inhibition of PD-1-PD-L1 interactions can restore antitumor T-cell activity and enhance the cellular immune attack on antigens. The overall goals of this short review article are to introduce current cancer immunotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and to provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms that block immune checkpoints in tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, this review will address the preclinical and clinical trials to determine whether bladder cancer patients could benefit from this new cancer therapy in near future. PMID:27326412

  2. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is still less than the total number of deaths from lung cancer in general. I hope that our discussion today will be informative to you and help us to help you understand lung cancer as it ...

  3. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to try and determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary lesion itself, you know. And ... Okay. And with most cancers, you know, they spread first by going through what we call the “ ...

  4. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or ... reserved. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  5. Anal Cancer: What Happens After Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or ... reserved. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  6. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... through. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  8. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an oropharyngeal cancer, the cancer of the upper airway here in the throat. And during the workup ... room and performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy because we wanted to minimize the effects of surgery, major lung ...

  10. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and prostate cancer, and, in fact, if you add up the mortalities from those three cancers alone, ... for this patient or in other cases a combined approach of radiation, with or without chemotherapy, in ...

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center in New York City. During the program, it’s easy for you to make referrals, make appointments ... to try to tackle the lung cancer as it stands in 2009. In 2009, lung cancer is ...

  12. Esophageal cancer: comparative effectiveness of treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Xu C.; Lin SH

    2016-01-01

    Cai Xu,1 Steven H Lin2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Esophageal cancer is a lethal disease. Multimodal therapy has improved the survival and local control for locally advanced esophageal cancer compared to surgery alone. Neoadjuvant chemo...

  13. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Wirth; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy...

  14. Contemporary methods of treatment of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Kozłowska; Stanisław Głuszek

    2016-01-01

    Today, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed worldwide malignant cancer in males, and the second in females, with more than 1,200,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths, annually. Screening tests in oncology allow the detection of cancerous disease at an early, asymptomatic stage. The procedures most frequently performed in the case of colorectal cancer include: low anterior resection by the Dixon method (manual suture or staplers); abdominoperineal resection of t...

  15. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. PMID:25097749

  16. USE OF PREDICTORS TO CHOOSE TREATMENT POLICY FOR THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of treatment in patients with papillary thyroid cancer, by applying a great deal of clinical material. Different prognostic factors have been studied for their influence on the survival of the patients after surgical treatment. The most optimal treatment policy is proposed to be defined for patients with this form of cancer on the basis of the association between the above factors.

  17. The role of nanotechnology in cancer treatment and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Vanessa Micaela dos Santos; Silva, Ana Catarina; Lopes, Carla Martins

    2010-01-01

    Cancer treatment is one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Several attempts have been made, in order to find more successful treatments. Nanotechnology can be applied to target drugs to the surface or to the interior of specific cells. In addition, it can also be used in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Therefore, nanotechnology opened a new vast exploiting area for cancer treatment. The studies must go on to obtain tailor-made therapies, with low adverse side effe...

  18. Space-time interactions in childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, V

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to examine a cohort of cases of childhood cancer occurring in a defined geographical area to try to identify clustering and possible causative factors. DESIGN--Data were analysed using the close pair method developed by Knox for signs of clustering in relation to date and place of onset or date and place of birth. SETTING--Cases were those occurring in the 8 year period between 1953 and 1960 in four old counties of the Midlands of England (Worcestersh...

  19. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment with Particle Beam Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Zargarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this century, cancer incidence has become one of the most significant problems concerning human. Conventional radiotherapy damage healthy tissue and in some cases may cause new primary cancers. This problem can be partially solved by hadron therapy which would be more effective and less harmful compared to other forms of radiotherapies used to treat some cancers. Although carbon ion and proton therapy both are effective treatments, they have serious differences which are mentioned in this paper and compared between the two methods. Furthermore, various treatments have been performed on head and neck cancer with hadrons so far will be discussed.

  20. Low-dose capecitabine (Xeloda) for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Miger, Jasmine; Holmqvist, Annica; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Albertsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The prodrug capecitabine (Xeloda) has been an important drug for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer (GI-cancer). This study explores the efficacy of continuous metronomic Xeloda, as well as tolerability and best response during treatment. Patients (n = 35) with stage IV GI-cancer were included in the study and were divided into two groups; upper (n = 13) and lower (n = 22) GI-cancer. All patients were given continuous metronomic Xeloda (500 mg × 2). Best response was measured by radiologic...

  1. Smoking Cessation: An Integral Part of Lung Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Dubey, Sarita; Prochaska, Jodi J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the US. About 50% of lung cancer patients are current smokers at the time of diagnosis and up to 83% continue to smoke after diagnosis. A recent study suggests that people who continue to smoke after a diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer almost double their risk of dying. Despite a growing body of evidence that continued smoking by patients after a lung cancer diagnosis is linked with less effective treatment and a poorer prognosis, the bel...

  2. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  3. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish cancer patients generally have a poorer survival than Swedish cancer patients. The difference is most pronounced for certain tumour types, e.g. common types such as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The reasons are not clear. The present article examines...... are diagnosed in Sweden than in Denmark. The total capacity for oncologic treatment, both in terms of trained personnel and equipment, seen in relation to the size of the population, is considerably larger in Southern Sweden than in Eastern Denmark. DISCUSSION: The data for some of the common cancer types seem...... if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...

  4. The pathogenesis and treatment of cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate T

    2016-02-15

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with significant functional impairment. In addition to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience cardiac atrophy, remodeling, and dysfunction, which in the field of cancer cachexia is described as cardiac cachexia. The cardiac alterations may be due to underlying heart disease, the cancer itself, or problems initiated by the cancer treatment and, unfortunately, remains largely underappreciated by clinicians and basic scientists. Despite recent major advances in the treatment of cancer, little progress has been made in the treatment of cardiac cachexia in cancer, and much of this is due to lack of information regarding the mechanisms. This review focuses on the cardiac atrophy associated with cancer cachexia, describing some of the known mechanisms and discussing the current and future therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. Above all else, improved awareness of the condition and an increased focus on identification of mechanisms and therapeutic targets will facilitate the eventual development of an effective treatment for cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia. PMID:26718971

  5. Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas to Cancerous Cell Treatment and Tooth Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Koo; Kim, Myoung Soo; Byun, June Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Park, Gan Young

    2011-08-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have attracted great interests and they have been widely applied to biomedical applications to interact with living tissues, cells, and bacteria due to their non-thermal property. This paper reviews the biomedical applications of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas to cancerous cell treatment and tooth bleaching. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with cancer-specific antibodies have been introduced to cancerous cells to enhance selective killing of cells, and the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by plasma has been investigated. Tooth exposed to helium plasma jet with hydrogen peroxide has become brighter and the productions of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide have been enhanced by plasma exposure.

  6. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  7. Cancer Stem Cells: A Novel Paradigm for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, D; Ramalingam, S; Houchen, C.W.; Anant, S

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause for mortality in US only after heart disease and lacks a good or effective therapeutic paradigm. Despite the emergence of new, targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations, none of the treatment options available is curative in patients with advanced cancer. A growing body of evidence is supporting the idea that human cancers can be considered as a stem cell disease. Malignancies are believed to originate from a fraction of cancer cells th...

  8. An observational study of cancer treatment-induced dental abnormalities in paediatric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kaberi Das; Munlima Hazarika; Manigreeva Krishnatreya; Amal Chandra Kataki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric cancer patients who receive radiation and chemotherapy (CT) suffer from various risks of oral complications and odontogenesis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at a regional cancer centre of North East India from 2010 to 2013. The impact of cancer treatment by CT and radiation on orodental health was studied on a total of 100 paediatric cancer patients. Results: The common dental abnormalities were microdontia, hypodontia, root abnormalities, abnorm...

  9. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  10. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; Alho, I.; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be relate...

  11. Biophysics of selectin-ligand interactions in inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu-Lun Cheung, Luthur; Raman, Phrabha S.; Balzer, Eric M.; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-02-01

    Selectins (l-, e- and p-selectin) are calcium-dependent transmembrane glycoproteins that are expressed on the surface of circulating leukocytes, activated platelets, and inflamed endothelial cells. Selectins bind predominantly to sialofucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids (e-selectin only) present on the surface of apposing cells, and mediate transient adhesive interactions pertinent to inflammation and cancer metastasis. The rapid turnover of selectin-ligand bonds, due to their fast on- and off-rates along with their remarkably high tensile strengths, enables them to mediate cell tethering and rolling in shear flow. This paper presents the current body of knowledge regarding the role of selectins in inflammation and cancer metastasis, and discusses experimental methodologies and mathematical models used to resolve the biophysics of selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Understanding the biochemistry and biomechanics of selectin-ligand interactions pertinent to inflammatory disorders and cancer metastasis may provide insights for developing promising therapies and/or diagnostic tools to combat these disorders.

  12. Prediction of cancer drugs by chemical-chemical interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    Full Text Available Cancer, which is a leading cause of death worldwide, places a big burden on health-care system. In this study, an order-prediction model was built to predict a series of cancer drug indications based on chemical-chemical interactions. According to the confidence scores of their interactions, the order from the most likely cancer to the least one was obtained for each query drug. The 1(st order prediction accuracy of the training dataset was 55.93%, evaluated by Jackknife test, while it was 55.56% and 59.09% on a validation test dataset and an independent test dataset, respectively. The proposed method outperformed a popular method based on molecular descriptors. Moreover, it was verified that some drugs were effective to the 'wrong' predicted indications, indicating that some 'wrong' drug indications were actually correct indications. Encouraged by the promising results, the method may become a useful tool to the prediction of drugs indications.

  13. Surgical and Adjuvant Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smeenk, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPancreatic cancer, including ampullary, distal bile duct and pancreatic head cancer, is one of the most lethal human cancers and still is a major unsolved health problem at the start of the 21st century. It has been estimated that this disease causes 30.000 deaths per year in the USA with an incidence of 9-10 cases per 100.000 and slightly increased male: female and black: white ratios. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in the Netherlands is approximately 8.4 per 100.000 patients...

  14. [Drug-drug interactions in antirheumatic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, K

    2012-04-01

    Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions contribute considerably to potentially dangerous drug side-effects and are frequently the reason for hospitalization. Nevertheless they are often overlooked in daily practice. For most antirheumatic drugs a vast number of interactions have been described but only a minority with clinical relevance. Several potentially important drug interactions exist for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate-mofetil and especially for cyclosporin A. Most importantly co-medication with methotrexate and sulfmethoxazole trimethoprim as well as azathioprine and allopurinol carries the risk of severe, sometimes life-threatening consequences. Nevertheless, besides these well-known high-risk combinations in each case of polypharmacy with antirheumatic drugs it is necessary to bear in mind the possibility of drug interactions. As polypharmacy is a common therapeutic practice in older patients with rheumatic diseases, they are at special risk. PMID:22527215

  15. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy

  16. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer: treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estimate...

  17. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  18. Cancer Treatment Using Peptides: Current Therapies and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Thundimadathil

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy) is evolving as an alternate strategy to convent...

  19. The place of radiotherapy in the treatment of vulva cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the therapeutic aspects of the treatment of vulva cancers. This analytic retrospective study is based on a set of 15 patients who have been treated between 1996 and 2010, for an epidermoid cancer for 14 of them. Eleven of them have been irradiated. This rare cancer has a negative prognosis, mainly because of early ganglionary metastases. Radiotherapy (external or interstitial curie-therapy) is a prevailing therapeutic tool. Chemotherapy is emerging, notably concomitantly with radiotherapy. Short communication

  20. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chawaboon Dechsukum; Pranee Ratanasuwan; Niwat Keawpradub; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Arunporn Itharat; Athima Saetung

    2005-01-01

    Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23) and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3) and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS). SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts) procedures used were similar to tho...

  1. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millsop, Jillian W.; Sivamani, Raja K; Nasim Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other su...

  2. Exploring targeted pulmonary delivery for treatment of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Amit; BABOOTA, SANJULA; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most malignant cancer today. The treatment of lung cancer continues to be a challenge for oncologists. The direct delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the lungs could represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with pulmonary metastases. The large alveolar surface area, the low thickness of the epithelial barrier, and an extensive vascularization make the pulmonary route an ideal route for administration of oncolytics. This paper reviews the research performed ove...

  3. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  4. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  5. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  6. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy . Mohs microsurgery . A clinical trial of laser therapy . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical ... nodes in the groin ). External or internal radiation therapy followed by ... clinical trial of laser surgery . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer ...

  8. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... me reiterate what Sam was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so closely together so often. My role, after Sam assists in diagnosing cancers, is to ...

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... me reiterate what Sam was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so closely together so often. My role, after Sam assists in diagnosing cancers, is to ...

  10. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wirth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy, anti-angiogenic gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, gene therapy-based immune modulation, correction/compensation of gene defects, genetic manipulation of apoptotic and tumor invasion pathways, antisense, and RNAi strategies. Cancer types, which have been targeted with gene therapy, include brain, lung, breast, pancreatic, liver, colorectal, prostate, bladder, head and neck, skin, ovarian, and renal cancer. Currently, two cancer gene therapy products have received market approval, both of which are in China. In addition, the stimulation of the host’s immune system, using gene therapeutic approaches, has gained vast interest. The intention of this review is to point out the most commonly viral and non-viral vectors and methods used in cancer gene therapy, as well as highlight some key results achieved in clinical trials.

  11. Multimodality Treatment in Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Morak (Marjolein)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Pancreatic cancer is the eight most common form of cancer in Europe with 96.000 new cases yearly. This incidence closely matches the mortality rate, thus revealing the aggressive behaviour of this tumour. Five-year survival after diagnosis is only 5% with a median overa

  12. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to get the immune system to target cancer. Experimental adoptive cell transfer therapies involve removing immune cells from a patient’s body, reengineering them to learn to attack cancer, and then re-infusing them into the patient’s ...

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glucose into the patient’s body and the cancer cells, you know, take up glucose more than the regular cells in the body, and it will give us ... high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with minimal damage overall to the normal surrounding ...

  14. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and consecu

  15. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  16. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  17. Current and emerging treatments for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regine, W F; John, W J; Mohiuddin, M

    1997-10-01

    The worldwide annual pancreatic cancer death rate equals its estimated annual incidence. Surgery has been considered the only curative modality for this disease, but only 5 to 15% of patients are candidates for potentially curative resection. Evidence that postoperative adjuvant treatment improves outcome has been limited to a single randomised trial of a well tolerated split-course chemoradiation regimen. More intensive regimens have since been developed and are associated with, at best, a modest improvement in patient outcome. The potentially significant morbidity associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy, which can compromise the delivery of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation, has led to the development of preoperative adjuvant ('neoadjuvant') chemoradiation in these patients. Although experience suggests that such an approach is feasible, its ultimate impact awaits further evaluation. Combined modality therapy has produced the most promising results in patients with unresectable or locally advanced disease. However, only modest improvements in median survival and minimal increases in long term survival have so far been achieved. This observation has encouraged many investigators to devise innovative methods of delivering therapy, including radioisotope implantation and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Combined modality therapy with radioisotope implantation appears to have the greatest potential for improving local control and survival in these patients. IORT may be associated with lower morbidity than radioisotope implantation, but its impact may be limited by the radiobiological disadvantage associated with single dose boost therapy. Although new radiosensitising drugs are being tested, the problem of distant metastasis remains significant. New chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine appear to have the potential to produce better results than those achieved over the last 35 years with fluorouracil. Investigations into the optimal integration of

  18. The effect of cancer treatment on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Arash; Myers, Jamie S

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an increasingly recognized complication of cancer and its treatment. Most research in this arena has found that a subset of patients appear to be vulnerable to this complication even after treatment has ended, and often have difficulties with multitasking, short-term memory, word-finding, attention, or concentration. The mechanisms underlying these cognitive changes are not fully elucidated but may include direct neurotoxic effects of therapy, oxidative damage, and genetic predisposition. Compelling evidence has accumulated for the role of immune dysregulation and neurotoxicity from inflammatory cytokines. A gold standard for subjective or objective assessment of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes has yet to be established. Current options to assess cognitive function include neuropsychological testing, functional neuroimaging, and subjective assessments. Pharmacologic treatment options for this clinical problem are modest and limited. Nonpharmacologic treatments, including cognitive rehabilitation programs, are an emerging area of research for the management of cancer treatment-related cognitive changes. PMID:26353040

  19. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when your body suddenly feels ... In some cases, hot flashes can make you sweat. Night sweats are hot flashes with sweating at ...

  20. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra ... to a second round of chemotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) would offer any survival benefit. Unfortunately, the addition of the ...

  1. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... new in ovarian cancer research and treatment? Risk factors and causes Scientists continue to study the genes responsible for familial ...

  2. Many Patients with Cancer Need Better Treatments for Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  3. HIV Patients Less Likely to Get Treatment for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158881.html HIV Patients Less Likely to Get Treatment for Cancer: ... TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While powerful HIV medications are granting longer lives to many people ...

  4. Pharmacological treatment of depression in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    escitalopram and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, significantly improved depression and QOL compared with baseline values. In conclusion, depression is a clinical problem in patients with breast cancer. Pharmacological treatment with antidepressants may improve depression and QOL. However...

  5. For Some Breast Cancers, New Drug May Be Treatment Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from an international clinical trial suggest that women with metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responding to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) may soon have a new treatment option.

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Treatment Among Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C.; Krontiras, Helen; Pisu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer treatment among Medicare beneficiaries have been documented. This study aimed to determine whether racial disparities exist among white and black female Medicare beneficiaries in Alabama, an economically disadvantaged U.S. state.

  7. Novel Brain Cancer Treatment Taps into Sound Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Novel Brain Cancer Treatment Taps Into Sound Waves Experimental device seems to help more chemotherapy reach ... When the so-called SonoCloud was activated, sound waves opened the blood-brain barrier, letting in more ...

  8. Brain Cancer Treatment Shows Promise in Early Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental viral treatment may extend the lives of patients with a hard-to-treat brain cancer, researchers say. For the phase 1 study, patients ...

  9. Intermediate Megavoltage Photon Beams for Improved Lung Cancer Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Feng, Yuanming; Ahmad, Munir; Ming, Xin; Zhou, Li; Deng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of intermediate megavoltage (3-MV) photon beams on SBRT lung cancer treatments. To start with, a 3-MV virtual beam was commissioned on a commercial treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo simulations. Three optimized plans (6-MV, 3-MV and dual energy of 3- and 6-MV) were generated for 31 lung cancer patients with identical beam configuration and optimization constraints for each patient. Dosimetric metrics were evaluated and compared am...

  10. Taxanes in the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Woog Kang; Oh-Kyoung Kwon; Ho Young Chung; Wansik Yu; Jong Gwang Kim

    2016-01-01

    Although rapid advances in treatment options have improved the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC), it remains a major public health problem and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) are microtubule stabilizing agents that inhibit the process of cell division, and have shown antitumor activity in the treatment of AGC as a single or combination chemotherapy. Accordingly, this review focuses on the efficacy and tolerability of ...

  11. Gene Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Deanna; Burmester, James K.

    2006-01-01

    The broad field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments that are likely to become important in preventing deaths from cancer. In this review, we discuss the history, highlights and future of three different gene therapy treatment approaches: immunotherapy, oncolytic virotherapy and gene transfer. Immunotherapy uses genetically modified cells and viral particles to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Recent clinical trials of second and third generation vacc...

  12. Inflammation and cancer-related fatigue: mechanisms, contributing factors, and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E; Lamkin, Donald M

    2013-03-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Guided by basic research on neuro-immune interactions, a growing body of research has examined the hypothesis that cancer-related fatigue is driven by activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine network. In this review, we examine the current state of the evidence linking inflammation and cancer-related fatigue, drawing from recent human research and from experimental animal models probing effects of cancer and cancer treatment on inflammation and fatigue. In addition, we consider two key questions that are currently driving research in this area: what are the neural mechanisms of fatigue, and what are the biological and psychological factors that influence the onset and/or persistence of inflammation and fatigue in cancer patients and survivors? Identification of the mechanisms driving cancer-related fatigue and associated risk factors will facilitate the development of targeted interventions for vulnerable patients. PMID:22776268

  13. Concerns on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shen-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Breast cancer is one of the neoplasms that have greatest negative psychological impact on the sufferers. Although China is among the low morbidity country of breast cancer, its yearly increasing rate in China is 1%-2% higher than the average rate of the word.1 Due to its largest population in the word, China tops the world in its breast cancer cases but general medical care for the patients still lags behind the developed countries. These issues are related to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China.

  14. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  15. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  16. Interaction of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 2D6 poor metabolizers with cytochrome P450 2C9 and 2C19 genotypes modify the susceptibility to head and neck cancer and treatment response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Sunishtha S.; Ruwali, Munindra [Developmental Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Council CSIR, P.O. Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Pant, Mohan C.; Shukla, Pragya [Department of Radiotherapy, C.S.M. Medical University, Shahmina Road, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Singh, Ram L. [Department of Biochemistry, Dr. R.M.L. Awadh University, Faizabad 224 001, U.P. (India); Parmar, Devendra, E-mail: parmar_devendra@hotmail.com [Developmental Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Council CSIR, P.O. Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2010-02-03

    The present case-control study attempted to investigate the association of poor metabolizer (PM) genotypes of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*10) with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC) and treatment response in patients receiving chemotherapy or combination of chemo- and radiotherapy. Cases with the PM genotypes of CYP2D6 displayed a significantly increased risk for HNSCC as compared to wild type genotypes. The risk was found to further increase in cases (up to 4.8) carrying combination of PM genotypes of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*2) or CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2), suggesting that synergism amongst the PM genotypes of drug metabolizing CYPs leads to impairment in the detoxification of the tobacco carcinogens. A small increase in the risk in tobacco (chewers or smokers) or alcohol users in cases with CYP2D6*4 allele while no change or even a small decrease in risk in cases with CYP2D6*10 allele when compared to non-tobacco or alcohol users have suggested that CYP2D6 genotypes alone do not appear to interact significantly with environmental risk factors in modifying the susceptibility to HNSCC. Furthermore, most of the cases carrying PM genotypes of CYP2D6 did not respond to the treatment. Moreover, higher prevalence of non-responders among cases carrying combination of CYP2D6*4 or CYP2D6*4, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C19*2 have demonstrated that interaction of PM genotypes may not only significantly modify the susceptibility to HNSCC but also the treatment response.

  17. Early Gastric Cancer: Current Advances of Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linlin; Qin, Jinyu; Wang, Jin; Guo, Tianjiao; Wang, Zijing; Yang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopy is a major method for early gastric cancer screening because of its high detection rate, but its diagnostic accuracy depends heavily on the availability of endoscopic instruments. Many novel endoscopic techniques have been shown to increase the diagnostic yield of early gastric cancer. With the improved detection rate of EGC, the endoscopic treatment has become widespread due to advances in the instruments available and endoscopist's experience. The aim of this review is to summarize frequently-used endoscopic diagnosis and treatment in early gastric cancer (EGC). PMID:26884753

  18. Early Gastric Cancer: Current Advances of Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopy is a major method for early gastric cancer screening because of its high detection rate, but its diagnostic accuracy depends heavily on the availability of endoscopic instruments. Many novel endoscopic techniques have been shown to increase the diagnostic yield of early gastric cancer. With the improved detection rate of EGC, the endoscopic treatment has become widespread due to advances in the instruments available and endoscopist’s experience. The aim of this review is to summarize frequently-used endoscopic diagnosis and treatment in early gastric cancer (EGC.

  19. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  20. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... she actually could have gone home on the second day after surgery, but we were a little ... ve got to fight it. This was my second bout with cancer, so I’ve had experience ...

  1. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fact that, you know, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality. And unfortunately, it’s normally detected ... CAT scan with you, Angelo. And the main question we have at that point is whether or ...

  2. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chief of thoracic surgery in their Brooklyn division. We would like to talk to you today about out multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer, how we help to support the patients, how we help ...

  3. 'Precision' Cancer Treatment May Extend Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. "To me, these results are not at all surprising," Hyman said. "If you put a patient with the right mutation on the right drug, they do better ...

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lung cancer, how we help to support the patients, how we help to treat them both before, ... and how they apply their expertise to our patients. Sam, why don’t you start. Thanks, Dr. ...

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any further adieu, I’d like to maybe introduce you to Sister Sullivan, and let’s listen to some of her words. Larynx cancer. PET scan and CAT was ordered. And from that PET ...

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before ... gov Accessibility Digital Government Strategy Open Government Federal Trade Commission Headquarters: 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC ...

  8. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to try and determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary lesion itself, you know. ... As Dr. Reyes mentioned, you know, traditionally staging has been done by surgical mean, which means doing ...

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the physicians, the nurse practitioners and the nursing staff, but we’re also very rigorous in maintaining ... both cancers, my case was taken before the staff board and I was discussed at the staff ...

  10. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormality is due to cancer or do to something else. Okay. Once we’ve done that, you ... half centimeters in greatest diameter, and that’s about something about like this, maybe the size of a ...

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unit and the director of the endobronchial ultrasound service on the pulmonary division of Beth Israel. Our ... the lung cancer division of the radiation oncology service. Good morning, Walter? Good morning. How are you? ...

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical conditions and are also relatively advanced in age. Here you can see me just trying to ... function tests and preoperative evaluation and her young age that we would address the lung cancer -- the ...

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sedition and sleeping. We’ll go through your mouth and go through your main windpipe and go ... Sullivan, and let’s listen to some of her words. Larynx cancer. PET scan and CAT was ordered. ...

  14. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like each of them to tell you some words about what they do and how they apply ... Sullivan, and let’s listen to some of her words. Larynx cancer. PET scan and CAT was ordered. ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... she turned out to be a very happy person. Now she had two cancers, which makes her ... recommend Dr. Reyes, and I would tell the person, make an appointment as soon as possible, get ...

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in between the ribs. We divide just the soft tissue of the thorax, the chest wall. And, ... therapy is is the use of high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with minimal damage ...

  17. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... presented in a multidisciplinary fashion to our tumor board, and we discussed her case, as we do ... cancers, my case was taken before the staff board and I was discussed at the staff meeting. ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  20. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Dose Vitamin C Hydrazine Sulfate Laetrile/Amygdalin Milk Thistle Mistletoe Extracts Newcastle Disease Virus PC-SPES Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup ...

  2. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... history, as well as her very, very excellent pulmonary function tests and preoperative evaluation and her young age that we would address the lung cancer -- the lung mass first, and that’s essentially all ...

  3. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have ... a preoperative evaluation of the extent of the disease that you’re dealing with, especially when you ...

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need for their cancer. I’d like to stress to everyone that what we do here at ... is really on target. You know it’s pretty anxiety provoking for a patient to be sitting in ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Hypopharyngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and x-rays ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. Certain factors ...

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. When the esophagus and ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy ...

  8. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rigid instruments that are applicable in an earlier generation of thoracic and thoracoscopic devices and definitely better ... therapy is is the use of high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with minimal ...

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer surgery was done. It’s really an elaborate video game, and I would like to show you ... a whole lobe, you know, by doing the video-assisted thorascopic surgery alone? Absolutely. And you know ...

  10. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statute, Rules and Formal Interpretations Form and Instructions Informal Interpretations Early Termination Notices Current Thresholds Filing Fee ... treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before ...

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is really the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast ... we approach everything really with thoracoscopic surgery in mind because it’s a way to minimize postoperative pain, ...

  12. The Role of Methylation in Breast Cancer Susceptibility and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Marie-Christine; Labrie, Yvan; Diorio, Caroline; Durocher, Francine

    2015-09-01

    DNA methylation is a critical mechanism of epigenetic modification involved in gene expression programming, that can promote the development of several cancers, including breast cancer. The methylation of CpG islands by DNA methyltransferases is reversible and has been shown to modify the transcriptional activity of key proliferation genes or transcription factors involved in suppression or promotion of cell growth. Indeed, aberrant methylation found in gene promoters is a hallmark of cancer that could be used as non-intrusive biomarker in body fluids such as blood and plasma for early detection of breast cancer. Many biomarker genes have been evaluated for breast cancer detection. However, in the absence of a unique biomarker having the sufficient specificity and sensitivity, a panel of multiple genes should be used. Treatments targeting aberrant methylation by DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, which trigger re-expression of silenced genes, are now available and allow for better treatment efficiency. PMID:26254344

  13. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... who undergo curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  14. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Zaragoza O; Bermúdez-Morales VH; Pérez-Plasencia C; Salazar-León J; Gómez-Cerón C; Madrid-Marina V

    2012-01-01

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztac...

  15. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dieli-Conwright CM; Orozco BZ

    2015-01-01

    Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offs...

  16. Identification of new candidate drugs for lung cancer using chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions and a K-means clustering algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Yi; Kong, Xiangyin; Zheng, Mingyue; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissue, is the leading cause of global cancer deaths. Until now, effective treatment of this disease is limited. Many synthetic compounds have emerged with the advancement of combinatorial chemistry. Identification of effective lung cancer candidate drug compounds among them is a great challenge. Thus, it is necessary to build effective computational methods that can assist us in selecting for potential lung cancer drug compounds. In this study, a computational method was proposed to tackle this problem. The chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-protein interactions were utilized to select candidate drug compounds that have close associations with approved lung cancer drugs and lung cancer-related genes. A permutation test and K-means clustering algorithm were employed to exclude candidate drugs with low possibilities to treat lung cancer. The final analysis suggests that the remaining drug compounds have potential anti-lung cancer activities and most of them have structural dissimilarity with approved drugs for lung cancer. PMID:26849843

  17. An alternative approach for treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, D E; Retsky, M W; Wardwell, R H; Bame, P D

    1994-01-01

    Since adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy generally extend disease free survival in breast cancer rather than provide a cure, we have examined the current breast cancer paradigm. Heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of breast cancer tissue and a well recognized aspect of the disease. There are variations in natural history, histopathology, biochemistry and endocrinology, and molecular biology of cancer tissues and cells within the tissues. A variety of data indicate that growth kinetics are also variable, not only from tumor to tumor, but also during the natural history of an individual's tumor. To better understand kinetic heterogeneity, a stochastic numeric computer model of the natural history of breast cancer has been developed. To be consistent with inter- and intratumor kinetic heterogeneity and with late relapse, the model predicts that tumors grow in an irregular fashion with alternating periods of growth and periods of dormancy rather than the generally accepted modified exponential, or Gompertzian fasion. The prediction of irregular growth has been compared to data relevant to growth characteristics of human breast cancer. Much data support the concept of irregular kinetics and temporary dormancy rather than steady, Gompertzian growth of human breast cancer. Thus, in addition to drug resistance, kinetic heterogeneity may help explain the limited impact that traditional chemotherpeutic treatment has had on mortality from breast cancer. Although the mechanisms underlying irregular growth need to be better understood, non-Gompertzian growth kinetics indicates that there may be alternative approaches for breast cancer treatment. PMID:7865858

  18. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  19. Critical appraisal of bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Yoshida, Akira Yabuno, Keiichi FujiwaraDepartment of Gynecologic Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Bevacizumab is the first molecular-targeted agent to be used for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor. Two randomized Phase III trials evaluated the combination of bevacizumab plus standard cytotoxic chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Additional Phase III trials evaluated bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy in platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. All these trials reported a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival but not in overall survival. Furthermore, bevacizumab effectively improved the quality of life with regard to abdominal symptoms in recurrent ovarian cancer patients. Bevacizumab is associated with adverse events not commonly observed with cytotoxic agents used to treat gynecological cancers, such as hypertension, bleeding, thromboembolism, proteinuria, delayed wound healing, and gastrointestinal events. However, most of these events can be adequately managed by gynecologists. The clinical trial results with bevacizumab have supported its recent approval in Europe and the United States as a treatment for ovarian cancer. This review presents the latest evidence for bevacizumab therapy of ovarian cancer and describes selection of patients for personalized treatment.Keywords: anti-angiogenesis, chemotherapy, biomarkers

  20. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  1. Receptor-interacting protein-1 promotes the growth and invasion in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangwei; Ye, Jianxin; Huang, Yongjian; Zheng, Wei; Hua, Jin; Yang, Shugang; Zhuang, Jinfu; Wang, Jinzhou

    2016-06-01

    The receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP-1) is an important molecular in inflammation signaling pathways, but the role of RIP-1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we tested the expression of RIP-1 in gastric cancer samples and analyzed the effects of expression of RIP-1 on the prognosis in gastric cancer patients. We analyzed the role of the RIP-1 in gastric cancer cells and addressed the functional role of RIP-1 using a xenograft mouse model. A lentivirus-based effective RIP-1 siRNA vector was infected into HGC and AGS cells. The effect of RIP-1 siRNA on HGC and AGS cells were investigated by cell proliferation assay and invasion assay. Furthermore, we examined the role of RIP-1-siRNA on HGC cells in the mice with subcutaneous xenograft tumor, and preliminarily analyzed the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that the expression of RIP-1 in the gastric cancer tissues was significantly higher than the expression in the normal gastric tissues. Additionally, RIP-1 immunoreactivity was positive at the site of invasion, but little or no immunoreactivity was detected at the gastric cancer parts of interstitial substance. Gastric cancer patients with high expression of RIP-1 had a poor survival rate. RIP-1 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines were general. HGC-R-1-RNAi-LV inhibited HGC and AGS cell proliferation and invasion ability in vitro. RIP-NF-κB/AP-1-VEGF-C signaling pathways have a crucial role in the regulate the biological functions of HGC cells. HGC-R-1-RNAi-LV suppressed tumor growth in the HGC cell subcutaneous xenograft model. In conclusion, our data indicate that RIP-1 promote the growth and invasion of gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo, additionally providing evidence that targeting RIP-1 may be useful in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27035122

  2. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies. PMID:26799758

  3. Control of Apoptosis in Treatment and Biology of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shrey; Kir, Devika; Banerjee, Sulagna; Saluja, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in the United States in 2014 and yet this malignancy is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Late detection and resistance to therapy are the major causes for its dismal prognosis. Apoptosis is an actively orchestrated cell death mechanism that serves to maintain tissue homoeostasis. Cancer develops from normal cells by accruing significant changes through one or more mechanisms, leading to DNA damage and mutations, which in a normal cell would induce this programmed cell death pathway. As a result, evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. PDAC is notoriously resistant to apoptosis, thereby explaining its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. The current review is focus on understanding different intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in pancreatic cancer that may affect apoptosis in this disease. PMID:26206252

  4. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehab, Moataz; Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2− locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the

  5. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika, Giordani; Federica, Zoratto; Martina, Strudel; Anselmo, Papa; Luigi, Rossi; Marina, Minozzi; Davide, Caruso; Eleonora, Zaccarelli; Monica, Verrico; Silverio, Tomao

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting. PMID:26278713

  6. Factors Associated with Men's Assessment of Prostate Cancer Treatment Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Louie E; Howard, Daniel L; Bowie, Janice V; Thorpe, Roland J; Kinlock, Ballington L; Burt, Carol; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors among a group of African American and White men in North Carolina and their assessment of prostate cancer treatment choice or belief that treatment chosen was best. A sample of men (N = 877) with a history of prostate cancer diagnosis was recruited from the North Carolina Cancer Registry during 2007-2008 and asked to participate in a telephone interview covering several measures about their initial prostate cancer treatment. Logistic regression was used to assess demographic, psychosocial, and clinical factors on whether they felt that they had chosen the best treatment for the disease. Respondents were majority White (52.7 %), married (75.9 %), and had surgery (67.9 %) as their initial treatment. At the bivariate level, factors associated with the belief that the treatment chosen was best were as follows: White race/ethnicity, higher levels of education, a more recent treatment date, having health insurance coverage, type of treatment received, higher levels of bother from side effects, greater contentment with their quality of life, and doctor discussions of the various treatment options. Similarly, the multivariate analysis showed increased odds of belief that the treatment chosen was the best among demographic (i.e., race/ethnicity, level of education, and health insurance coverage) as well as psychosocial and clinical variables (i.e., greater bother from side effects, greater contentment with their quality of life, and initial treatment received). Results suggest that demographic, psychosocial, and clinical factors play an important role for men in assessing their treatment choices for prostate cancer. PMID:25893926

  7. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts. In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose. In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific glycoproteins that may constitute exosome markers. This work contributes to

  8. Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevogt Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. Methods SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts. Results In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose. Conclusions In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific

  9. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  10. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the choice of tactics of treatment of the patient with prostate cancer (PCa) requires to take into account the degree of differentiation and stage of tumor, age of the patient and his somatic diseases, the risk of complications, as well as the patient's desire and physician's experience. Due to the progressive development of medical technology, interest in minimally invasive treatments for prostate cancer, such as cryoablation, interstitial brachytherapy and HIFU-therapy, has grown. Cryoablation of the prostate gland is a tissue ablation by local effects of very low temperatures and is minimally invasive, highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that can be used as the primary treatment, and in the case of tumor recurrence after radiotherapy. Focal cryoablation of the prostate allows to selectively destroy the known tumor with preservation of organ function and without reducing the quality of life of the patient. Focal therapy for prostate cancer is an alternative to radical treatment and active surveillance, occupying an intermediate position between them. Due to the lack of long-term results, focal cryoablation is an experimental type of treatment. First cryoablation of the prostate using modern equipment was carried out in Russia in March 2010, at the Department of Urology MSMSU. Since that time, we performed this procedure in 122 patients with prostate cancer; cryoablation was primary treatment in 110 patients and was used as salvage treatment in 12 patients. In most cases, the operation was performed under epidural or spinal anesthesia. According to the protocol, all the patients underwent 2 cycles of freezing and thawing under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A significant improvement of equipment for cryosurgery, the use of cryoneedles with smaller diameter, and the use of temperature sensors and catheters to warm the urethral mucosa have allowed to minimize the number of complications in comparison with other methods of treatment of

  11. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-01-01

    of who were followed closely over an extended time period. Results. Through thematic analysis fi ve key concepts emerged about the social dynamics of hospital environments: practices of self; creating personal space; social recognition; negotiating space; and ambiguity of space and care. Through...... these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a fl ow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients ’ sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital...... space to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Discussion. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition of...

  12. Micropatterned Surfaces to Study Hyaluronic Acid Interactions with Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Laura E.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Cancer invasion and progression involves a motile cell phenotype, which is under complex regulation by growth factors/cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components within the tumor microenvironment. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is one stromal ECM component that is known to facilitate tumor progression by enhancing invasion, growth, and angiogenesis1. Interaction of HA with its cell surface receptor CD44 induces signaling events that promote tumor cell growth, survival, and migration, thereby in...

  13. Hyaluronan-CD44 Interactions in Cancer: Paradoxes and Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Toole, Bryan P.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan is a prominent component of the micro-environment in most malignant tumors and can be prognostic for tumor progression. Extensive experimental evidence in animal models implicates hyaluronan interactions in tumor growth and metastasis, but it is also evident that a balance of synthesis and turnover by hyaluronidases is critical. CD44, a major hyaluronan receptor, is commonly but not uniformly associated with malignancy, and is frequently used as a marker for cancer stem cells in hu...

  14. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  15. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  16. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the outset, we would not be able to offer the appropriate treatment for that patient. So without ... discuss it also a team, you know, and offer the patient different treatment options. Part of the ...

  17. Ovarian cancer treatment: The end of empiricism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, Stephanie; Karakasis, Katherine; Kohn, Elise C; Oza, Amit M

    2015-09-15

    The diagnosis, investigation, and management of ovarian cancer are in a state of flux-balancing ever rapid advances in our understanding of its biology with 3 decades of clinical trials. Clinical trials that started with empirically driven selections have evolved in an evidence-informed manner to gradually improve outcome. Has this improved understanding of the biology and associated calls to action led to appropriate changes in therapy? In this review, the authors discuss incorporating emerging data on biology, combinations, dose, and scheduling of new and existing agents with patient preferences in the management of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26096019

  18. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts predict behavioral symptoms following breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, A; Bower, JE; Stanton, AL; Ganz, PA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral symptoms are common in breast cancer survivors, including disturbances in energy, sleep, and mood, though few risk factors for these negative outcomes have been identified. Our study examined intrusive thoughts as a predictor of lingering symptoms in breast cancer survivors in the year following treatment. Method: Data come from the Moving Beyond Cancer psychoeducational intervention trial, aimed at easing the transition from patient to survivor. Women (n = 558) complete...

  19. Potential applications of synchrotron radiation to the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional radiotherapy remains to be one of the most useful treatments for cancer, it is not the best strategy to maximize the effects on the tumors and minimize the damage to the surrounding tissues due to its physical and biological characteristics. Synchrotron radiation (SR) with uniquely physical and biological advantages may represent an innovative approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, SR-based photon activation therapy, stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and micro-beam radiation treatment have been developed, and the results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are very promising. It is necessary to understand the physical and radiobiological principle of those novel strategies before the approach is applied to the clinic. In this paper, we summarize the advances of SR in terms of physical, radiobiological advantages and its potential clinical applications. With the successful operation of shanghai synchrotron radiation, good opportunities in China have been provided for investigations on the treatment of cancer with synchrotron radiation. (authors)

  20. CT evaluation of complications of cryoablation treatment in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the complications of percutaneous targeted Argon-Helium cryoablation treatment in patients with lung cancer on CT. Methods: Ten patients with unresectable lung cancer were treated by cryotherapy under CT guidance with Argon-Helium cryoablation system. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT was performed to assess changes before and after treatment, complications and treatment response. Results: Ice ball coverage immediately after surgery was satisfactory in all patients. There were a few complications including worsening hoarseness (1), small pneumothorax (1), and small amount of bleeding at the site of probe puncture (1). Conclusion: Percutaneous targeted Argon-Helium cryoablation guided by CT is an effective treatment for lung cancer without severe complications. (authors)

  1. Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12-851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000–¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden

  2. Outpatient treatment costs and their potential impact on cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Cancer creates a tremendous financial burden. Cancer-related costs are categorized into direct, indirect, and psychosocial costs. Although there have been many reports on medical care costs, which are direct, those on other costs are extremely scarce. We estimated travel time and costs required for cancer patients to receive outpatient treatment. We studied 521 cancer patients receiving anti-cancer treatment between February 2009 and December 2012 at the Outpatient Chemotherapy Center of Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center. Address data were extracted from Data Warehouse electronic medical records, and travel distance and time required for outpatient treatment were calculated via MapInfo and ACT Distance Calculator Package. Transportation costs were estimated on the basis of ¥274 (=$3.00) per kilometer. The study design was approved by an ethics review board of Teikyo University (12-851). Average round-trip travel distance, time, and cost for all patients were 26.7 km, 72.5 min, and ¥7,303 ($79.99), respectively. Cancer patients incurred a travel cost of ¥4000-¥9000 ($40.00 to $100.00) for each outpatient treatment. With population aging, seniors living alone and senior households are increasing, and outpatient visits are becoming a common burden. PMID:25060622

  3. Interactions between CagA and smoking in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Hong Yan; Paul D Terry; Jian-Sheng Wang; Li Cheng; Wen-An Wu; Sen-Ke Hu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the interactions between cytotoxinassociated gene (CagA ) positive Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking in non-cardiac gastric cancer. METHODS: A case-control study (257 cases and 514 frequency-matched controls) was conducted from September 2008 to July 2010 in Xi'an, China. Cases were newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed non-cardiac cancer. Controls were randomly selected from similar communities to the cases and were further matched by sex and age (± 5 years). A face-to-face interview was performed by the investigators for each participant. Data were obtained using a standardized questionnaire that included questions regarding known or suspected lifestyle and environmental risk factors of gastric cancer. A 5 mL sample of fasting venous blood was taken. CagA infection was serologically detected by enzymelinked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Smoking and CagA infection were statistically significant risk factors of non-cardiac cancer. CagA was categorized in tertiles, and the odds ratio (OR) was 12.4 (95% CI: 6.1-20.3, P = 0.003) for CagA after being adjusted for confounding factors when the highexposure category was compared with the low-exposure category. Smokers had an OR of 5.4 compared with subjects who never smoked (95% CI: 2.3-9.0, P = 0.002). The OR of non-cardiac cancer was 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8-5.3) for non-smokers with CagA infection, 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-5.1) for smokers without CagA infection, and 8.7 (95% CI: 5.1-11.9) for smokers with CagA infection compared with subjects without these risk factors. After adjusting for confounding factors, the corresponding ORs of non-cardiac cancer were 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.8), 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-4.9) and 19.5 (95% CI: 10.3-42.2), respectively. There was a multiplicative interaction between smoking and CagA , with a synergistic factor of 2.257 (Z = 2.315, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: These findings support a meaningful interaction between CagA and smoking for the risk of gastric cancer which may have

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blade come across there. See how nice and clean the staple line is? Yeah. There’s just a ... radiation therapy is is the use of high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with ...

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer surgery was done. It’s really an elaborate video game, and I would like to show you some of the images from some of our operations. Right here you’re looking at ... thorascopic surgery alone? Absolutely. And you know ...

  6. Biophysical insights into cancer transformation and treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Foletti, A.; Kobilková, J.; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.; Nedbalová, M.; Čoček, A.; Danani, A.; Tuszynski, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 195028 (2013). ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : fatty acid * mitochondrial membrane * cancer cell Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2013

  7. Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens regulate growth and development through the action of two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, which mediate proliferation and differentiation of cells. For decades, ER alpha mediated estrogen signaling has been therapeutically targeted to treat breast cancer, most nota

  8. Telomerase targeting in cancer treatment : new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, MN; de Jong, S; de Vries, EGE; van der Zee, AGJ

    1999-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein expressed in 85% of advanced cancers but not in most somatic cells, compensates for telomeric DNA erosion and as such stabilizes cell immortality. Telomerase inhibition might restore mortality in tumor cells. Recent progress is illustrated in studies on telomerase and

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today is Dr. Walter Choi who is the director of the lung cancer division of the radiation oncology service. Good morning, Walter? Good morning. How are you? Morning Sam, thank you for coming. I really appreciate that you took time out of your day to come. As an ...

  10. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical doctor, you know, with an abnormal chest X-ray. As you know, the suspicion of lung cancer, ... to reach a diagnosis. Once you have abnormal X-ray, I think the next thing to do would ...

  11. Identification of treatments targeting PMLexpressing breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Insausti Urkia, Naroa

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to find a suitable ATO concentration to combine with already approved chemotherapeutic agents to find that synergistic effect in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB 231 cell line, as a new strategy to treat the disease.

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer, how we help to support the patients, how we help to treat them both before, during, and after ... you to some members of our team and help you understand some of the things that we ...

  13. Do cancer and treatment type affect distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J. M.; Reyners, A. K. L.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined differences in distress levels and Distress Thermometer (DT) cutoff scores between different cancer types. The effect of socio-demographic and illness-related variables on distress was also examined. Methods One thousand three hundred fifty patients (response=51%) completed que

  14. Blood magnesium, and the interaction with calcium, on the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ionized calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg compete as essential messengers to regulate cell proliferation and inflammation. We hypothesized that inadequate Mg levels, perhaps relative to Ca levels (e.g. a high Ca/Mg ratio are associated with greater prostate cancer risk. STUDY DESIGN: In this biomarker sub-study of the Nashville Men's Health Study (NMHS, we included 494 NMHS participants, consisting of 98 high-grade (Gleason≥7 and 100 low-grade cancer cases, 133 prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN cases, and 163 controls without cancer or PIN at biopsy. Linear and logistic regression were used to determine associations between blood Ca, Mg, and the Ca/Mg ratio across controls and case groups while adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Serum Mg levels were significantly lower, while the Ca/Mg ratio was significantly higher, among high-grade cases vs. controls (p = 0.04, p = 0.01, respectively. Elevated Mg was significantly associated with a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 0.26 (0.09, 0.85. An elevated Ca/Mg ratio was also associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 2.81 (1.24, 6.36 adjusted for serum Ca and Mg. In contrast, blood Ca levels were not significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN.Mg, Ca, or Ca/Mg levels were not associated with low-grade cancer, PIN, PSA levels, prostate volume, or BPH treatment. CONCLUSION: Low blood Mg levels and a high Ca/Mg ratio were significantly associated with high-grade prostate cancer. These findings suggest Mg affects prostate cancer risk perhaps through interacting with Ca.

  15. Breast cancer recurrence: follow up after treatment for primary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramanek, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer will affect one in 12 Australian women in their lifetime. After potentially curative treatment, it is usual for patients to be followed up for many years. However, controversies surround follow up, and its value is uncertain.

  16. CURRENT TREATMENTS FOR UROTHELIAL CANCER OF THE UPPER URINARY TRACT

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Afonin; M. I. Volkova; V. B. Matveev

    2014-01-01

    TNephroureterectomy is by right considered to be the gold standard for treatment in patients with urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract. Nevertheless, various surgical treatments are now being intensively developed and introduced into clinical practice and a possibility of using adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also being studied. The review summarizes data on various methods of treatment, its efficiency, long-term results and prognosis.

  17. Recent Progress in Cancer-Related Lymphedema Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shaitelman, Simona F; Cromwell, Kate D.; Rasmussen, John C.; Stout, Nicole L; Armer, Jane M.; Lasinski, Bonnie B.; Cormier, Janice N

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. Lymphedema incidence by tumor site is evaluated. Measurement techniques and trends in patient education and treatment are also summarized to include current trends in therapeutic and surgical treatment options as well as longer-term management. Finally, an overview of the policies related to insurance coverage and reimbursement will give the clinician an overv...

  18. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  19. Treatment of advanced rectal cancer after renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yi Liu; Xiao-Bo Liang; Yao-Ping Li; Yi Feng; Dong-Bo Liu; Wen-Da Wang

    2011-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a standard procedure for end-stage renal disease today. Due to immunosuppressive drugs and increasing survival time after renal trans-plantation, patients with transplanted kidneys carry an increased risk of developing malignant tumors. In this case report, 3 patients with advanced rectal can-cer after renal transplantation for renal failure were treated with anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection plus total mesorectal excision, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient eventually died of metastasized cancer 31 mo after therapy, although his organ grafts functioned well until his death. The other 2 patients were well during the 8 and 21 mo follow-up periods after rectal resection. We therefore strongly argue that patients with advanced rectal cancer should receive standard oncology treatment, including opera-tion and adjuvant treatment after renal transplantation. Colorectal cancer screening in such patients appears justified.

  20. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2011-01-01

    from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in...... treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms......Abstract Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data...