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Sample records for cancer treatment differs

  1. Regional differences in recommended cancer treatment for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Vivian; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Hui ZHAO; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about regional variation in cancer treatment and its determinants. We compare rates of adherence to treatment guidelines for elderly patients across Texas and whether local specialist supply is an important determinant of treatment variation. Methods Previous literature reviewed indicated 7 recommended courses of treatment for colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. We analyzed Texas Cancer Registry data linked with Medicare claims for the years 2004 to 2007 to...

  2. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish cancer patients generally have a poorer survival than Swedish cancer patients. The difference is most pronounced for certain tumour types, e.g. common types such as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The reasons are not clear. The present article examines...... are diagnosed in Sweden than in Denmark. The total capacity for oncologic treatment, both in terms of trained personnel and equipment, seen in relation to the size of the population, is considerably larger in Southern Sweden than in Eastern Denmark. DISCUSSION: The data for some of the common cancer types seem...... if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...

  3. Incidence and risk factors for infection in oral cancer patients undergoing different treatments protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Panghal Manju; Kaushal Vivek; Kadayan Sangeeta; Yadav Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatments have been counterbalanced by a rising number of immunosuppressed patients with a multitude of new risk factors for infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine risk factors, infectious pathogens in blood and oral cavity of oral cancer patients undergoing different treatment procedures. Methods The present prospective cohort analysis was conducted on the patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of...

  4. Pain in the cancer patient: different pain characteristics CHANGE pharmacological treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Kress, Hans-Georg; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Morlion, Bart; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schäfer, Michael; Sichère, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate. After outlining current concepts of carcinogenesis in some detail, this paper describes different methods of classifying and diagnosing cancer pain and the extent of current under-treatment. Key points are made regarding cancer pain management. Firstly, the pain may be caused by multiple different mechanisms and therapy should reflect those underlying mechanisms - rather than being simply based on pain intensity as recommended by the WHO three-step ladder. Secondly, a multidisciplinary approach is required which combines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, such as psychotherapy, exercise therapy and electrostimulation. The choice of analgesic agent and its route of administration are considered, along with various interventional procedures and the requirements of palliative care. Special attention is paid to the treatment of breakthrough pain (particularly with fast-acting fentanyl formulations, which have pharmacokinetic profiles that closely match those of breakthrough pain episodes) and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, which affects around one third of patients who receive chemotherapy. Finally, the point is made that medical education should place a greater emphasis on pain therapy, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:24841174

  5. Treatment results for hypopharyngeal cancer by different treatment strategies and its secondary primary- an experience in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment results in our hypopharyngeal cancer patients. A total of three hundred and ninety five hypopharyngeal cancer patients received radical treatment at our hospital; 96% were male. The majority were habitual smokers (88%), alcohol drinkers (73%) and/or betel quid chewers (51%). All patients received a CT scan or MRI for tumor staging before treatment. The stage distribution was stage I: 2 (0.5%); stage II: 22 (5.6%); stage III: 57 (14.4%) and stage IV: 314 (79.5%). Radical surgery was used first in 81 patients (20.5%), and the remaining patients (79.5%) received organ preservation-intended treatment (OPIT). In the OPIT group, 46 patients received radiotherapy alone, 156 patients received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (CT/RT) and 112 patients received concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT). The five-year overall survival rates for stages I/II, III and IV were 49.5%, 47.4% and 18.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall and disease-specific survival rates between patients who received radical surgery first and those who received OPIT. In the OPIT group, CCRT tended to preserve the larynx better (p = 0.088), with three-year larynx preservation rates of 44.8% for CCRT and 27.2% for CT/RT. Thirty-seven patients developed a second malignancy, with an annual incidence of 4.6%. There was no survival difference between OPIT and radical surgery in hypopharyngeal cancer patients at our hospital. CCRT may offer better laryngeal preservation than RT alone or CT/RT. However, prospective studies are still needed to confirm this finding. Additionally, second primary cancers are another important issue for hypopharyngeal cancer management

  6. Do stage of disease, comorbidity or access to treatment explain socioeconomic differences in survival after ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Høgdall, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer can be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, treatment or lifestyle factors. METHODS: In the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database we identified 2873 cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2010. From this data...... models. RESULTS: Educational level was weakly associated with cancer stage. Short education, lower income and living without a partner were related to poorer survival after ovarian cancer. Among women with early cancer stage, HR (95% CI) for death was 1.75 (1.20-2.54) in shorter compared to longer...... educated women. After adjustment for comorbid conditions, cancer stage, tumour histology, operation status and lifestyle factors, socioeconomic differences in survival persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer were to some extent, but not fully explained by...

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  8. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  9. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  10. Treatment results of different radiotherapy for 763 patients with advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of different radiotherapy protocols in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. Methods: From 1976 to 2006, 763 patients with stage III cervical cancer (722 with squamous cell carcinoma and 41 with adenocarcinoma) were treated by radiotherapy in our hospital. 113 patients were treated by two-field whole pelvic irradiation in conventional fractionation plus brachytherapy (CF group), 44 by four-field whole pelvic irradiation in accelerated hyperfractionation plus brachytherapy (AHF group), and 606 by concomitant four-field unconventional fractionation radiotherapy and brachytherapy( FRT group). Sixty-one patients were treated by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Among 350 patients who had complete data, the shore-term efficacy and toxicities were compared. Results: For patients in CF, AHF and FRT groups, the 3-year overall survival rates (OS) were 65.7%, 66.8% and 44.3%, respectively (P=0.000), and the 5-year OS were 65.7%, 66.8% and 36.3%, respectively (P=0.000). The 10-year OS were 43.3% and 31.9% in CF and FRT groups(P=0.200). For squamous cell carcinoma,the OS was higher of patients with chemotherapy than those without. In 350 patients who had complete data, the local control rates of CF, AHF and FRT groups were 83.0%, 93.2% and 86.1%, respectively (χ2=2.70, P =0.259); AHF group had the lowest side effect rate, especially skin reaction (9.1%, χ2=20.25, P= 0.002); CF group had the lowest acute bone marrow suppression rate (χ2=25.95, P=0.000); for squamous cell carcinoma, the OS was higher in patients with chemotherapy than those without; the acute bone marrow and intestinal toxicities were more in patients with chemotherapy than those without. Conclusions: CF and AHF groups have similar 5-year OS of patients with advanced cervical cancer. AHF group has less toxicities, shorter treatment course and a trend of better local control. Concurrent chemoradiation could improve survival and local control of the patients with

  11. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  12. A comparison of different three-dimensional treatment planning techniques for localized radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Four different three-dimensional planning techniques for localized radiotherapy of prostate cancer were compared with regard to dose homogeneity within the target volume and dose to organs at risk, dependent upon tumor stage. Patients and Methods: Six patients with stage T1, 7 patients with stage T2 and 4 patients with stage T3 were included in this study. Four different 3D treatment plans (rotation, 4-field, 5-field and 6-field technique) were calculated for each patient. Dose was calculated with the reference point at the isocenter (100%). The planning target volume was encompassed within the 95% isodose surface. All the techniques used different shaped portal for each beam. Dose volume histograms were created and compared for the planning target volume and the organs at risk (33%, 50%, 66% volume level) in all techniques. Results: The 4 different three-dimensional planning techniques revealed no differences concerning dose homogeneity within the planning target volume. The dose volume distribution at organs at risk show differences between the calculated techniques. In our study the best protection for bladder and rectum in stage T1 and T2 was achieved by the 6-field technique. A significant difference was achieved between 6-field and 4-field technique only in the 50% volume of the bladder (p=0.034), between the 6-field and rotation technique (all volume levels) and between 5-field and rotation technique (all volume levels). In stage T1, T2 6-field and 4-field technique in 50% (p-0.033) and 66% (p=0.011) of the rectum volume. In stage T3 a significant difference was not observed between the 4 techniques. The best protection of head of the femur was achieved by the rotation technique. Conclusion: In the localized radiotherapy of prostate cancer in stage T1 or T2 the best protection for bladder and rectum was achieved by a 3D-planned conformal 6-field technique. If the seminal vesicles have been included in the target volume and in the case of large

  13. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen ML

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence

  15. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  16. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Cancer Terms: After Treatment Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/2015 Cure: To fully restore health. This term is sometimes ... five years after treatment. However, the concept of “cure” is difficult to apply to cancer because undetected cancer cells can sometimes remain in ...

  17. Comparison of two different treatment regimens for cancer of uterine cervix as practised in our institute: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the early days of radiotherapy practice till today, cancer of female uterine cervix is the most common malignant disease in India. A number of treatment modalities are being used for the treatment of this disease. Earlier, Wertheim's hysterectomy was the primary line of treatment. But due to poor cosmetic results and other complications, nowadays radiotherapy is the most preferred modality for the radical treatment of this commonest malignancy. Due to the lack of any universally accepted radiotherapy treatment regime, different oncology therapists within the same institute are practising different regimens derived from their own clinical practice experience. Majority of the patients are treated with two parallel opposed (AP-PA) portals up to 40 Gy, then 10 Gy dose is delivered using central shield to avoid overdose to bladder and rectum and to get dose uniformity caused by I/C application. External irradiation was delivered by a 60Co photon beam

  18. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Schenberg, Eduardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of canc...

  19. Are there biologic differences between male and female breast cancer explaining inferior outcome of men despite equal stage and treatment?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.C.; Gani, C.; Rehm, H.M.E.; Eckert, F.; Bamberg, M.; Weinmann, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Hehr, T. [Marienhospital Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-09-15

    Background: Reasons for inferior outcome of male compared to female breast cancer are still under debate. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed male breast cancer cases to figure out possible treatment- and gender-related differences. Patients and methods: A total of 40 men (median age 62 years) were curatively treated with mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy from 1982-2007. They presented predominantly in stages II and IIIb. Postoperative radiotherapy was applied with doses of 1.8-2.5 Gy to a median of 50 Gy including regional lymphatics in 22 patients. Adjuvant systemic treatment consisted of chemotherapy (22.5%) and antihormonal treatment (55%). For reasons of comparison, we estimated outcome of a virtual female matched cohort for no/equal to men/optimal adjuvant treatment with the Adjuvant.Online {sup registered} 8.0 algorithm. Results: After a median follow-up of 47 months, the estimated 5-year local control rate was 97%, disease-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates reached 79% and 82%, respectively. With update of survival data by tumor registry, mean overall survival reached 120 months with 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of 66% and 43%, respectively. Predominant prognostic factor was T-stage for overall survival (T1/2 vs. T4: > 80% vs. 30%). The generated virtual matched cohorts of women with equal characteristics reached superior 10-year-overall survival for no/equal to men/optimal adjuvant treatment with 55/59/68%. Conclusion: Compared to historical and virtual matched cohorts of women, male breast cancer patients had inferior outcome despite of equal stage and treatment which indicates that biological differences (of tumor or population) may contribute to worse prognosis. (orig.)

  20. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health Insurance? Cancer ... Talk to Your Doctor First. Tagged with: health , miracle claims , scam September 2008 You Might Also Like ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Anal Cancer ... factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  4. Treatment of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; MABILIA, ANDREA; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically...

  5. Intracavitary γ-therapy in combined treatment of cervical cancer with different dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooperative study of comparative assessment of the efficacy of 3 dose fractionation regimes in intracavitary γ-therapy used in combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer is presented (5 Gy, 10 fractions, 2-3 times a week; 7 Gy, 7 fractions, once in 5 days; 10 Gy, 4 fractions, once a week). Over the period of 1979-1983 1193 patients were treated by uniform methods of intracavitary and distant irradiation. The groups were identical with relation to the number of patients, stage of disease, histological characterization and growth type. By the end of therapy the cure rate among 1183 patients was 90-3%. In 2-3 months the cure rate in the same group was 97.5%. Delayed regression was most noticeable in stages I and III. The 5-year survival rates in 3 groups were: for stage I - 95.3±2.6%; for stage II - 83.1±2.5%; for stage III - 73.3±4.7%. In stage I and II tumors the 5-year survival rates in different regiments were similar whereas in stage III better results were obtained with a fractional dose of 5 Gy. The frequency and degree of severity of late radiation complications of the rectum, bladder,vaginal mucous membrane grew with an increase in a fractional dose

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  7. Diagnostic indices and results of different methods of treatment for cancer of paranasal sinuses in 2001-2010 in Ivano-Frankivsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data about the incidence of cancer of paranasal sinuses in Ivano-Frankivsk region within the period of 2001-2010 are analyzed. Comparative characteristics of different methods of treatment is given.

  8. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with comorbiditie

  9. Immunohistochemical profile of laryngeal cancers with different clinical course and efficiency of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Shponka I.S.; Gritsenko P.A.; Kovtunenko A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The cancer of larynx is one of the most significant medical problems because of its high prevalence, high mortality and low survival rate. The retrospective analysis of specimens of 187 patients suffering from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma of stage III-IV was performed. The purpose of our study was to substantiate the appropriateness of assessment of immunomorphological profile in estimation of biological behaviour of laryngeal cancer for prediction its clinical course and choice of opt...

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen ML; Young JM; Solomon MJ

    2013-01-01

    Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive gu...

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients’ treatment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen,Mikaela; Young, Jane; Solomon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive gu...

  12. Treatment of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  13. Application of different types of mandible resection in combined treatment of oral cancer patient (pt.): results and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery is the main part of combined treatment of advanced oral cancer. Three types of mandible resection were applied in our center. Rim mandibulectomy leads to satisfactory cosmetic and functional results, in case of segmental mandibulectomy different methods of mandible restoration are applied. Middle mandibulotomy creates the optimum access to the operation field in patients with a large primary tumor of mobile tongue and a tumor thai is posteriorly located. Aims of the study: analyse of material to estimate the results and complications in cases of application of different types of mandible resection. Conclusions: Segmental mandibulectomy should be performed if erosion of alveolar ridge is detected. Rim manidibulectomy and segmental mandibylectomy with reconstructive surgery lead to good cosmetic and functional results. Usage of mini plates in reconstruction of mandibular arch decrease the number of postoperative complications even in patients after radiation therapy. Previous radiotherapy significantly increase the risk of the postoperative osteomyelitis of mandible

  14. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gmeiner, William H.; Ghosh, Supratim

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to increase the selectivity and potency of chemical, physical, and biological approaches for eliciting cancer cell death while minimizing collateral toxicity to nonmalignant cells. Materials on the nanoscale are increasingly being targeted to cancer cells with great specificity through both active and passive targeting. In this review, we summarize recent literature that has broken new ground in the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment with an emphasis o...

  15. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grains, and a moderate amount of low-fat meat and dairy products. Limit the fat and sugar in your diet. A healthy diet will help your body get better after cancer treatment. It's also important for you to get ...

  16. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used in cancer treatment? What are the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of ... the drugs used in PDT. What are the advantages of laser therapy? Lasers are more precise than ...

  17. A randomized assessment of three quality of life (QOL) questionnaires for prostate cancer patients undergoing different radiation treatment modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The goal of this prospective, randomized study was to assess and compare compliance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer to completing three different validated QOL instruments pre-treatment and six months later. Materials and Methods: Between April 2000 and April 2001, 124 patients were asked to fill out only one of three randomly selected QOL questionnaires (version A, B, C). Each addressed urinary and sexual function. One also addressed patients' physical, social, family, emotional, and functional well being. Study patients received External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) or Brachytherapy (BRACHY), according to departmental policy. Exclusion criteria included current/previous hormone therapy and prostatectomy. Patients were asked to return the questionnaire at their first treatment visit. The three tools were: A The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Prostate Patients (FACT-P), The Sexual Adjustments Questionnaire (SAQ), and The American Urological Association (AUA) Questionnaire. The Fact-P questionnaire elicits information about physical, social, family, emotional, and functional well being as they relate to prostate cancer. SAQ focuses on sexual function; the AUA on urinary symptoms. B SAQ and AUA only; identical to Version A, but does not address physical, social, family, emotional, and functional well-being. C The International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) Questionnaire, which addresses urinary symptoms and Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, which focuses on erectile function. Additionally, patients were asked to respond yes/no to four variables designed to evaluate these questionnaires: 1) ease of understanding, 2) too personal, 3)addresses concerns regarding urinary function and sexual potency and 4) willingness to complete questionnaire in six months. These variables were examined for any trends that may exist between the different questionnaires. Results: Fifteen (12%) of the 124 patients returned incomplete questionnaires

  18. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  19. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  20. Dosimetric comparison of different multileaf collimator leaves in treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths (standard MLC [sMLC] width of 10 mm and micro-MLC [mMLC] width of 4 mm) on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. Between January 2010 and August 2010, a retrospective analysis was conducted on 12 patients with cervical cancer. The treatment plans for all patients were generated with the same machine setup parameters and optimization methods in a treatment planning system (TPS) based on 2 commercial Elekta MLC devices. The dose distribution for the planning tumor volume (PTV), the dose sparing for organs at risk (OARs), the monitor units (MUs), and the number of IMRT segments were evaluated. For the delivery efficiency, the MUs were significantly higher in the sMLC-IMRT plan than in the mMLC-IMRT plan (802 ± 56.9 vs 702 ± 56.7; p 0.05). For the planning quality, the conformity index (CI) between the 2 paired IMRT plans with the mMLC and the sMLC did not differ significantly (average: 0.817 ± 0.024 vs 0.810 ± 0.028; p > 0.05). The differences of the homogeneity index (HI) between the 2 paired plans were statistically significant (average: 1.122 ± 0.010 vs 1.132 ± 0.014; p 10, V20, V30, and V40, percentage of contoured OAR volumes receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy, respectively, and the mean dose (Dmean) received. The IMRT plans with the mMLC protected the OARs better than the plans with the sMLC. There were significant differences (p 30 and V40 of the rectum and V10, V20, V40, and Dmean of the bladder. IMRT plans with the mMLC showed advantages over the plans with the sMLC in dose homogeneity for targets, dose sparing of OARs, and fewer MUs in cervical cancer

  1. Gender difference in treatment outcomes in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify any gender differences in the outcomes of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A comparative retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes between female and male NSCLC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Of a total of 204 patients, 44 (22%) were females and 160 (78%) were males. There was no difference in age, body weight loss, performance status or disease stage between the sexes, whereas never-smokers and adenocarcinoma were more common in female patients (55% vs. 3%, P80% of the patients, respectively, of both sexes. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in 64% of the female patients and 63% of the male patients. Severe esophagitis was encountered in <10% of the patients, irrespective of the sex. The response rate was higher in the female than in the male patients (93% vs. 79%, P=0.028), but the median progression-free survival did not differ between the sexes. The median survival time in the female and male patients was 22.3 and 24.3 months, respectively (P=0.64). This study failed to show any gender differences in the survival or toxicity among patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. These results contrast with the better survival in female patients undergoing surgery for localized disease or chemotherapy for metastatic disease. (author)

  2. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Age and family history can affect the risk of rectal cancer. Anything ... to flow from the body to a collection bag. After the cancer is removed, the surgeon will ...

  5. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses.Methods: All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT{sub remove}) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT{sub cut}). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated.Results: Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT{sub cut} significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT{sub remove}. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V{sub 60Gy} reduced by 17.5%{+-} 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p= 0.036) and rectum D{sub mean} by 9.4%{+-} 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p= 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V{sub 60Gy} by another 4.6%{+-} 4.9% (p= 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT{sub cut} plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V{sub 60Gy} was 37.3%{+-} 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p= 0.012) for 15 directions.Conclusions: iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRT{sub cut} strategy) significantly improved

  6. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  7. Treatment Success in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  8. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  9. Safety, Tolerability & Potential Anti-cancer Activity of Increasing Doses of AZD5363 in Different Treatment Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Advanced Solid Malignancy; Safety and Tolerability; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics; Tumour Response; Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; PIK3CA; AKT1; PTEN; ER+; HER2+

  10. Intense pulsed light vs. long-pulsed dye laser treatment of telangiectasia after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomized split-lesion trial of two different treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, P.; Hedelund, L.; Hædersdal, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic radiodermatitis is a common sequela of treatment for breast cancer and potentially a psychologically distressing factor for the affected women. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of treatments with a long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) vs. intense pulsed light (IPL...... because of hypo-pigmentation of the IPL treated areas, which slowly repigmented within 1 year. Conclusions This study was based on two specific laser and IPL devices, and found the LPDL treatment to be advantageous compared with IPL due to superior vessel clearance and less pain Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6...

  11. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triage of patients with ovarian cancer to primary debulking surgery (PDS) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is challenging. In Denmark, the use of NACT has increased, but substantial differences in the use of NACT or PDS exist among centers. We aimed to characterize the differences...... and 4% never had debulking surgery. Of the 288 patients (53%) referred to NACT, 44% were never debulked. Fourteen patients (3%) were referred to palliative treatment. The use of different imaging modalities, diagnostic laparoscopy, and laparotomy varied significantly among the centers. Diagnostic......-line treatments as well as in the diagnostic process and use of NACT, calling for further discussion on diagnostic strategy and therapeutically approach for patients with advanced ovarian cancer....

  12. Treatment of tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed 52 tongue cancer patients who received definitive treatment at Shiga University Hospital between January 1993 and August 2004. In cases of T1 and early T2 (early T2: ≤3 cm), partial glossectomy was performed. Radical operation followed by reconstructive surgery was performed after pre-operative chemotherapy in cases of advanced T2 (advanced T2: >3 cm), T3 and T4. Post-operative radiation was performed in some cases to prevent local and cervical recurrence. The 5-year survival rates by the Kaplan-Meier method were 92% in stage I, 88% in stage II, 73% in stage III, 55% in stage IV, and 72% overall, respectively. The 5-year survival rates by the size in T2 cases were 90% in early T2 and 46% in advanced T2. Twelve cases were relapsed. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5 cases at the primary site, 6 in the neck), and distant metastasis in 4 patients. Long-term survivors after secondary treatment were 3 of 11 cases with recurrence at the primary site. The results of salvage treatment for recurrent cases were discouraging. Adjuvant chemotherapy and post-operative radiotherapy are recommended for advanced tongue cancer. (author)

  13. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000827.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with pain To use the sharing features on this page, ... health care provider about your options. What Causes Pain The pain from cancer can have a few ...

  14. Treatment Options by Stage (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Anal Cancer ... factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  16. Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer, if detected early, has greater than 90% 5-year survival. However, survival has been shown to vary across racial/ethnic groups in the United States, despite the availability of early detection methods. This study evaluated the joint effects of sociodemographic factors, tumor characteristics, census-based socioeconomic status (SES), treatment, and comorbidities on survival after colorectal cancer among and within racial/ethnic groups, using the SEER-Medicare database for patients diagnosed in 1992–1996, and followed through 1999. Unadjusted colorectal cancer-specific mortality rates were higher among Blacks and Hispanic males than whites (relative rates (95% confidence intervals) = 1.34 (1.26–1.42) and 1.16 (1.04–1.29), respectively), and lower among Japanese (0.78 (0.70–0.88)). These patterns were evident for all-cause mortality, although the magnitude of the disparity was larger for colorectal cancer mortality. Adjustment for stage accounted for the higher rate among Hispanic males and most of the lower rate among Japanese. Among Blacks, stage and SES accounted for about half of the higher rate relative to Whites, and within stage III colon and stages II/III rectal cancer, SES completely accounted for the small differentials in survival between Blacks and Whites. Comorbidity did not appear to explain the Black-White differentials in colorectal-specific nor all-cause mortality, beyond stage, and treatment (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) explained a very small proportion of the Black-White difference. The fully-adjusted relative mortality rates comparing Blacks to Whites was 1.14 (1.09–1.20) for all-cause mortality and 1.21 (1.14–1.29) for colorectal cancer specific mortality. The sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics also had different impacts on mortality within racial/ethnic groups. In this comprehensive analysis, race/ethnic-specific models revealed differential effects of covariates on survival after colorectal

  17. Differences in treatment patterns among patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated by oncologists versus urologists in a US managed care population

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu,

    2011-01-01

    Nicole M Engel-Nitz1, Berhanu Alemayehu2, David Parry3, Faith Nathan21Innovus, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; 2AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, USA; 3AstraZeneca UK, London, UKObjective: Differences in treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs between patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated by oncologists and those treated by urologists were examined.Methods: Patients aged ≥40 with CRPC were identified using claims from a large US managed health care...

  18. Brachytherapy in treatment of vaginal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Kaprin; V. N. Galkin; S. A. Ivanov; V. A. Solodkiy; V. A. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of different types of primary vaginal cancer are highlighted, the role and place of brachytherapy as independent method or combined treatment modality for this pathology is shown in the review. Epidemiological data on incidence of vaginal cancer in Russia are represented, presumptive mechanisms for development of the disease, risk factors, histological types, features of the course, clinical presentation, diagnostic algorithm are described. Treatment...

  19. Efficacy of different types of treatment in FIGO stage IB2 cervical cancer in Korea: results of a multicenter retrospective Korean study (KGOG-1005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, H-S; Kang, S B; Kim, K-T; Chang, K-H; Kim, J W; Kim, J-H

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review FIGO stage IB2 cervical cancers in Korea for the past 10 years, and evaluate the most frequently employed and appropriate management strategy, and also assess the survival benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). This is a retrospective chart review of 727 FIGO stage IB2 patients from 1995 to 2005. Six hundred ninety-two patients were enrolled, and all dates on which the patients died were double checked through the "National Registry of Death Statistics" of the Korea National Statistical Office. Management strategies were divided into five groups according to the primary treatment modality. The most frequently employed primary treatment modality for stage IB2 cervical cancer in Korea during the past 10 years was radical hysterectomy (RH). The next was NAC, followed by radiotherapy (RT) and/or extrafascial hysterectomy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and/or extrafascial hysterectomy, in descending order. The surgery group showed the best results, with an 89% 5-year disease-free survival rate. However, there was no statistical difference between the surgery, NAC, and CCRT groups. For FIGO stage IB2 cervical cancer during the past 10 years in Korea, RH and adjuvant RT or CCRT was the most frequently employed treatment strategy. As a primary modality, RH, NAC, and CCRT showed similar survival rates. However, RH demonstrated the best survival rate among the above treatment strategies. PMID:17291243

  20. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use ... children with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some ...

  1. Adjuvant Treatment for Ampullary Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Kim; John Chabot; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2011-01-01

    Ampullary cancer is an uncommon tumor and tends to have a better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. However, one half of patients will die from recurrent disease suggesting the need for effective adjuvant therapy. Currently, there is lack of randomized trials to guide the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the largest trial (Abstract #4006) evaluating adjuvant treatment of ampullary cancer was presented.

  2. Adjuvant Treatment for Ampullary Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ampullary cancer is an uncommon tumor and tends to have a better prognosis than pancreatic cancer. However, one half of patients will die from recurrent disease suggesting the need for effective adjuvant therapy. Currently, there is lack of randomized trials to guide the use of adjuvant therapy in ampullary cancer. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting, the largest trial (Abstract #4006 evaluating adjuvant treatment of ampullary cancer was presented.

  3. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lessening (palliation) of symptoms associated with an incurable cancer. If cure is unlikely, then potential risks associated with treatment ... plan is modified. However, if the likelihood of cure is significantly greater than the risk ... To detect recurrent cancer and possibly try further treatment, such as an ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  5. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  6. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  7. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  8. What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Liver Cancer » Detailed Guide » Living as a liver cancer ... Lifestyle changes after liver cancer Living as a liver cancer survivor Completing treatment can be both stressful and ...

  9. Olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, E; Jimeno, A

    2016-01-01

    Olaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, is the first FDA-approved drug in its class for patients with ovarian cancer, specifically in a subset of patients with BRCA mutations and prior chemotherapy treatments. PARP inhibitors have had other implications in different solid tumor types including breast, gastric and pancreatic malignancies. In light of the recent FDA approval of olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer, this article aims to outline the mechanisms and implications of the drug. With a favorable adverse event profile and improved outcomes, including progression-free survival, olaparib has demonstrated augmentation to therapeutic options in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26937492

  10. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  11. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during radiotherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer - treatment response assessment using different segmentation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and the derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value has potential for monitoring tumor response to radiotherapy (RT). Method used for segmentation of volumes with reduced diffusion will influence both volume size and observed...... volumes changed significantly during treatment (p < 0.01). There was a significant difference in JSI among segmentation methods at time of PRERT (p < 0.016) with region growing having the lowest JSIGTV (mean± sd: 0.35 ± 0.1), followed by the SD4 method (mean± sd: 0.50 ± 0.1) and clustering (mean± sd: 0.......52 ± 0.3). There was no significant difference in mean ADC value compared at same treatment time. Mean tumor ADC value increased significantly (p < 0.01) for all methods across treatment time. CONCLUSION: Among the three semi-automatic segmentations of hyper-intense intensities on DW-MR images...

  12. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  13. Breast conserving treatment for breast cancer: dosimetric comparison of different non-invasive techniques for additional boost delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today it is unclear which technique for delivery of an additional boost after whole breast radiotherapy for breast conserved patients should be state of the art. We present a dosimetric comparison of different non-invasive treatment techniques for additional boost delivery. For 10 different tumor bed localizations, 7 different non-invasive treatment plans were made. Dosimetric comparison of PTV-coverage and dose to organs at risk was performed. The Vero system achieved an excellent PTV-coverage and at the same time could minimize the dose to the organs at risk with an average near-maximum-dose (D2) to the heart of 0.9 Gy and the average volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 5 Gy (V5) of 1.5%. The TomoTherapy modalities delivered an average D2 to the heart of 0.9 Gy for the rotational and of 2.3 Gy for the static modality and an average V5 to the ipsilateral lung of 7.3% and 2.9% respectively. A rotational technique offers an adequate conformity at the cost of more low dose spread and a larger build-up area. In most cases a 2-field technique showed acceptable PTV-coverage, but a bad conformity. Electrons often delivered a worse PTV-coverage than photons, with the planning requirements achieved only in 2 patients and with an average D2 to the heart of 2.8 Gy and an average V5 to the ipsilateral lung of 5.8%. We present advices which can be used as guidelines for the selection of the best individualized treatment

  14. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  15. Pre-treatment differences and early response monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients using magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevos, R.; Wildberger, J.E. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Smidt, M.L. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Goethem, M. van [University Hospital of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Beets-Tan, R.G.; Lobbes, M.B.I. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    To assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify pre-treatment differences or monitor early response in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PubMed, Cochrane library, Medline and Embase databases were searched for publications until January 1, 2012. After primary selection, studies were selected based on predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers assessed study contents using an extraction form. In 15 studies, which were mainly underpowered and of heterogeneous study design, 31 different parameters were studied. Most frequently studied parameters were tumour diameter or volume, K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, V{sub e}, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Other parameters were analysed in only two or less studies. Tumour diameter, volume, and kinetic parameters did not show any pre-treatment differences between responders and non-responders. In two studies, pre-treatment differences in ADC were observed between study groups. At early response monitoring significant and non-significant changes for all parameters were observed for most of the imaging parameters. Evidence on distinguishing responders and non-responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using pre-treatment MRI, as well as using MRI for early response monitoring, is weak and based on underpowered study results and heterogeneous study design. Thus, the value of breast MRI for response evaluation has not yet been established. (orig.)

  16. Plasma for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  17. Safe eating during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pasteurized on the container. DO NOT eat raw honey. Eat only heat-treated honey. Avoid sweets that have creamy fillings. Cook Foods ... 2016. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/appetite-loss/nutrition-hp-pdq . Accessed March 20, ...

  18. Computer model challenges breast cancer treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, M W; Swartzendruber, D E; Bame, P D; Wardwell, R H

    1994-01-01

    The breast cancer treatment failure rate remains unacceptably high. The current breast cancer treatment paradigm, based primarily on Gompertzian kinetics and animal models, advocates short-course, intensive chemotherapy subsequent to tumor debulking, citing drug resistance and host toxicity as the primary reasons for treatment failure. To better understand treatment failure, we have studied breast cancer from the perspective of computer modeling. Our results demonstrate breast cancers grow in an irregular fashion; this differs from the Gompertzian mode of animal models and thus challenges the validity of the current paradigm. Clinical and laboratory data support the concept of irregular growth rather than the common claim that human tumors grow in a Gompertzian fashion. Treatment failure mechanisms for breast cancer appear to differ from those for animal models, and thus treatments optimize on animal models may not be optimal for breast cancer. A failure mechanism consistent with our results involves temporarily dormant tumor cells in anatomical or pharmacological sanctuary, which eventually result in aggressive metastatic disease. PMID:7994590

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  1. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick ...

  2. Consensus and controversy on the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma; Consensus et controverse au sujet du traitement des cancers thyroidiens differencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellabarba, D.; Langlois, M.F.; Carpentier, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas are the most common endocrine neoplasia. Because of their rather benign evolution, the treatment varies widely from minimal to aggressive interventions. Therefore there are considerable controversies as to the best therapeutic choice. In this article we review the literature on the subject and we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the different treatments. Furthermore we present a consensus on the subject recently adopted by ``l`Association des endocrinologues du Quebec``. We propose an ipsilateral lobectomy for small papillary cancers of less than 1.5 cm without metastasis, in patients less than 40 year-old. In all the other tumors we recommend a total thyroidectomy followed by a dose of 131 I for complete ablation of the thyroid tissue. (authors). 12 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, ... enough information to give patients good advice as far as what sort of treatments they need for ...

  5. Eribulin in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang Swami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Halichondrin B is a complex, natural, polyether macrolide derived from marine sponges. Eribulin is a structurally-simplified, synthetic, macrocyclic ketone analogue of Halichondrin B. Eribulin was approved by United States Food and Drug Administration in 2010 as a third-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer patients who have previously been treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. It has a unique microtubule dynamics inhibitory action. Phase III studies have either been completed or are currently ongoing in breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Phase I and II studies in multiple cancers and various combinations are currently ongoing. This article reviews the available information on eribulin with respect to its clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, metabolism, preclinical studies, and with special focus on clinical trials.

  6. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods and ... toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , wires, or catheters ...

  7. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and x-rays ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. Certain factors ...

  8. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  10. Differences in cell cycle regulation after platinum derivatives treatment in sensitive and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Viktor; Souček, Karel; Šindlerová, Lenka; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Sova, Petr; Kozubík, Alois

    Quebec City, 2006. s. 133-133. [ISAC XXIII International Congress. 20.05.2006-24.05.2006, Québec City] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA MPO(CZ) PZ-Z2/29 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : cell cycle * ovarian cancer * cisplatin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  12. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around it. Sometimes lymph nodes , half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the cancer, and muscles, tissues , and a nerve in the neck are also removed. Tumor debulking : A surgical procedure in which as much ...

  13. Antimatter cancer treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "The idea that antimatter beams could treat cancer might seem ridiculous. But researchers working at Cerns particle accelerator laboratory in Geneva don't think so. They have just reported a successful first experiment into the biological effects of antiprotons radiation on living cells."

  14. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  15. Differences in cell cycle regulation after platinum derivatives treatment in sensitive and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Viktor; Souček, Karel; Šindlerová, Lenka; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Sova, P.; Kozubík, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2006), s. 383-384. ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /6./. 14.06.2006-17.06.2006, Milovy] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA MPO(CZ) PZ-Z2/29 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : ovarian cancer * cell cycle * cisplatin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  16. Differences in cell cycle regulation after platinum derivatives treatment in sensitive and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Viktor; Souček, Karel; Šindlerová, Lenka; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Sova, Petr; Kozubík, Alois

    Bratislava : Institute of Molecular Physiology and Genetics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2006 - (Boháčová, V.; Breier, A.; Zbyňovská, D.; Zliechovec, J.). s. 69-69 ISBN 80-969532-6-5. [Biochemický zjazd /20./. 12.09.2006-16.09.2006, Piešťany] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507; GA MPO(CZ) PZ-Z2/29 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : ovarian cancer * cisplatin * resistance Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  18. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Allum, William H; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the ...

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that ... not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos ...

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  2. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. Gender-associated Differences of Lung Cancer and Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    XING, XIN; Liao, Yongde; Hexiao TANG; Chen, Guang; Ju, Sheng; You, Liangkun

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer has been viewed as the most common malignant cancer with high incidence, mortality and poor survival all over the world. A lot of investigations indicated there are significant gender-associated differences in lung cancer in several characteristics such as epidemiology, pathology, clinical outcome and prognosis. The insight into these differences may help to clarify the gender-associated characteristics of lung cancer, and to drawn out new approach for treatment and prevent of lun...

  4. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  6. Unproven methods in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, S P

    1993-07-01

    The nature-based and nontoxic image makes application of unproven methods in oncology attractive in contrast to application of a mechanized scientific medicine. The application frequency of these treatments ranges from 10% to greater than 60%. Increasingly, the promoters try to create a scientific impression through a pseudologic cancer theory, a harmless diagnostic test, and a holistic treatment of every cancer. Of the big variety of unproven methods, which are summarized in 11 groups in this review, the following are discussed: anthroposophic and other mistletoe preparations; homeopathy; Maharishi Ayur-Veda; unproven anticancer diets; orthomolecular medicine, including ascorbic acid; and methods supposedly stimulating unspecific and specific defense mechanisms. In conclusion, physicians should beware of and have knowledge of currently used unproven cancer treatments for epidemiologic, social, economic, and scientific reasons. PMID:8364081

  7. Physical treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trend of physical treatment and its outcome of lung cancer are described together with authors' experience. In locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCC) at stages IIIA and B, radiotherapy, chemotherapy (CT) and their combined therapy (RCT) have been major mainly in US since 1980s. After phase I/II trials of RCT by Okayama Lung Cancer Study Group where 5-year survival with nondisease is shown to be 31% (2003), phase III trial has been performed with results to be reported in 2008. A similar study by West Japan Oncology Group is now in summary. The secondary carcinogenesis not by radiation post RCT has become a problem: 10 years after, reportedly 61% incidence. Concerning the choice and regimen of CT medicals, there are many discussions. In recurrent/advanced NSCC, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) (gefitinib and recently, erlotinib) will be further useful, and molecular target medicals like an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody (bevacizumab) and other novel RTK inhibitors will be also promising. In small cell lung cancer (SCC), efficacy 50% of amrubicin has been reported in a phase II trial recently. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in the extensive cases has been recognized effective also recently. CT studies with a large dose of anti-cancer drugs of SCC are still under progress. Along with the introduction of many molecular target drugs, physical treatment of lung cancer is to be bright in future. (R.T.)

  8. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment. PMID:8066398

  9. SU-E-P-48: Evaluation of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) with Three Different Commercial Planning Systems for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D; Chi, Z; Yang, H; Miao, M; Jing, Z [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the performances of three commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) optimization regarding cervical cancer. Methods: For twenty cervical cancer patients, three IMRT plans were retrospectively re-planned: one with Pinnacle TPS,one with Oncentra TPS and on with Eclipse TPS. The total prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy delivered for PTV and 58.8 Gy for PTVnd by simultaneous integrated boost technique. The treatments were delivered using the Varian 23EX accelerator. All optimization schemes generated clinically acceptable plans. They were evaluated based on target coverage, homogeneity (HI) and conformity (CI). The organs at risk (OARs) were analyzed according to the percent volume under some doses and the maximum doses. The statistical method of the collected data of variance analysis was used to compare the difference among the quality of plans. Results: IMRT with Eclipse provided significant better HI, CI and all the parameters of PTV. However, the trend was not extension to the PTVnd, it was still significant better at mean dose, D50% and D98%, but plans with Oncentra showed significant better in the hight dosage volume, such as maximum dose and D2%. For the bladder wall, there were not notable difference among three groups, although Pinnacle and Oncentra systems provided a little lower dose sparing at V50Gy of bladder and rectal wall and V40Gy of bladder wall, respectively. V40Gy of rectal wall (p=0.037), small intestine (p=0.001 for V30Gy, p=0.010 for maximum dose) and V50Gy of right-femoral head (p=0.019) from Eclipse plans showed significant better than other groups. Conclusion: All SIB-IMRT plans were clinically acceptable which were generated by three commercial TPSs. The plans with Eclipse system showed advantages over the plans with Oncentra and Pinnacle system in the overwhelming majority of the dose coverage for targets and dose sparing of OARs in cervical cancer.

  10. Differences in treatment patterns among patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated by oncologists versus urologists in a US managed care population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs between patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated by oncologists and those treated by urologists were examined. Patients aged ≥40 with CRPC were identified using claims from a large US managed health care plan between July 2001 and December 2007. A 6-month baseline period was used to assess patient characteristics. Patients with visits to an urologist, without visits to an oncologist, were assigned to the urology cohort, and patients with visits to an oncologist, with or without visits to an urologist, were assigned to the oncology cohort. Treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs during a variable follow-up period were compared between cohorts using descriptive statistics and Lin’s regression. The urology cohort had fewer comorbid illnesses (P < 0.001) and patients were less likely to have other cancers during baseline (P < 0.001) or to die during follow-up (P = 0.004) compared with the oncology cohort. The oncology cohort patients were significantly more likely to have a claim for hormones (74.5% vs 61.1%; P < 0.001), chemotherapy (46.9% vs 10.2%, P < 0.001), and radiation (22.3% vs 3.7%, P < 0.0001) over follow-up. Mean unadjusted health care costs were higher in the oncology vs the urology cohort (US$31,896 vs US$15,318, respectively; P < 0.001). At 6 years follow-up, cumulative adjusted CRPC-specific costs were significantly higher among patients treated by oncologists with chemotherapy than among patients treated by urologists. CRPC patients treated by oncologists had greater use of hormones, chemotherapy, and radiation; higher percentages of patients with inpatient stays, emergency room, and ambulatory visits; and higher health care costs, than patients treated by urologists

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, and, in fact, ... when detected, you know, and when patients get treatment. Okay. So it’s very important, you know, to ...

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Age and family history can affect the risk of rectal cancer. Anything ... to flow from the body to a collection bag. After the cancer is removed, the surgeon will ...

  13. Analysis of carotid artery deformation in different head and neck positions for maxillofacial catheter navigation in advanced oral cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Takashi; Iwai Toshinori; Luan Kuan; Kato Takashi; Liao Hongen; Kobayashi Etsuko; Mitsudo Kenji; Fuwa Nobukazu; Kohno Ryuji; Sakuma Ichiro; Tohnai Iwai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To improve the accuracy of catheter navigation, it is important to develop a method to predict shifts of carotid artery (CA) bifurcations caused by intraoperative deformation. An important factor affecting the accuracy of electromagnetic maxillofacial catheter navigation systems is CA deformations. We aimed to assess CA deformation in different head and neck positions. Methods Using two sets of computed tomography angiography (CTA) images of six patients, displacements of ...

  14. Discovery – Methotrexate: Chemotherapy Treatment for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 1950s, treatment for the majority of cancers was limited to either surgery or the use of radiation. The discovery of the use of methotrexate in curing a rare cancer marked the first time a cancer had been cured. This led to the development of many of today’s common cancer treatments.

  15. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  16. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile duct cancer is an uncommon ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  17. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research into testicular cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Testicular Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  18. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for anal cancer What’s new in anal cancer research and treatment? Important research into anal cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Anal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  19. What's New in Endometrial Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for endometrial cancer What`s new in endometrial cancer research and treatment? Molecular pathology of endometrial cancer For ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Endometrial Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  20. Analysis of carotid artery deformation in different head and neck positions for maxillofacial catheter navigation in advanced oral cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve the accuracy of catheter navigation, it is important to develop a method to predict shifts of carotid artery (CA bifurcations caused by intraoperative deformation. An important factor affecting the accuracy of electromagnetic maxillofacial catheter navigation systems is CA deformations. We aimed to assess CA deformation in different head and neck positions. Methods Using two sets of computed tomography angiography (CTA images of six patients, displacements of the skull (maxillofacial segments, C1–C4 cervical vertebrae, mandible (mandibular segment, and CA along with its branches were analyzed. Segmented rigid bones around CA were considered the main causes of CA deformation. After superimposition of maxillofacial segments, C1–C4 and mandible segments were superimposed separately for displacement measurements. Five bifurcation points (vA–vE were assessed after extracting the CA centerline. A new standardized coordinate system, regardless of patient-specific scanning positions, was employed. It was created using the principal axes of inertia of the maxillofacial bone segments of patients. Position and orientation parameters were transferred to this coordinate system. CA deformation in different head and neck positions was assessed. Results Absolute shifts in the center of gravity in the bone models for different segments were C1, 1.02 ± 0.9; C2, 2.18 ± 1.81; C3, 4.25 ± 3.85; C4, 5.90 ± 5.14; and mandible, 1.75 ± 2.76 mm. Shifts of CA bifurcations were vA, 5.52 ± 4.12; vB, 4.02 ± 3.27; vC, 4.39 ± 2.42; vD, 4.48 ± 1.88; and vE, 2.47 ± 1.32. Displacements, position changes, and orientation changes of C1–C4 segments as well as the displacements of all CA bifurcation points were similar in individual patients. Conclusions CA deformation was objectively proven as an important factor contributing to errors in maxillofacial navigation. Our study results suggest that

  1. Differences in treatment patterns among patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated by oncologists versus urologists in a US managed care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel-Nitz NM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Engel-Nitz1, Berhanu Alemayehu2, David Parry3, Faith Nathan21Innovus, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; 2AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE, USA; 3AstraZeneca UK, London, UKObjective: Differences in treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs between patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC treated by oncologists and those treated by urologists were examined.Methods: Patients aged ≥40 with CRPC were identified using claims from a large US managed health care plan between July 2001 and December 2007. A 6-month baseline period was used to assess patient characteristics. Patients with visits to an urologist, without visits to an oncologist, were assigned to the urology cohort, and patients with visits to an oncologist, with or without visits to an urologist, were assigned to the oncology cohort. Treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs during a variable follow-up period were compared between cohorts using descriptive statistics and Lin's regression.Results: The urology cohort had fewer comorbid illnesses (P < 0.001 and patients were less likely to have other cancers during baseline (P < 0.001 or to die during follow-up (P = 0.004 compared with the oncology cohort. The oncology cohort patients were significantly more likely to have a claim for hormones (74.5% vs 61.1%; P < 0.001, chemotherapy (46.9% vs 10.2%, P < 0.001, and radiation (22.3% vs 3.7%, P < 0.0001 over follow-up. Mean unadjusted health care costs were higher in the oncology vs the urology cohort (US$31,896 vs US$15,318, respectively; P < 0.001. At 6 years follow-up, cumulative adjusted CRPC-specific costs were significantly higher among patients treated by oncologists with chemotherapy than among patients treated by urologists.Conclusion: CRPC patients treated by oncologists had greater use of hormones, chemotherapy, and radiation; higher percentages of patients with inpatient stays, emergency room, and ambulatory visits; and higher

  2. Neoadjuvant Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulM.Schneider; HuanXi; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger

    2004-01-01

    Because the conflicting data currently available from the performed randomized trials it is very difficult to provide strict guidelines for the treatment of patients with locoregional advanced esophageal cancers. Surgery however, remains the standard of care for potentially resectable disease. Preoperative chemotherapy is still controversial with two large randomized trials resulting in two different conclusions regarding the survival benefit. Preoperative chemoradiation is also controversial since only one randomized trial showed a clear survival benefit however, the patients treated with surgery alone in this trial had an unusually poor outcome. And the study by Urba et al was not powered enough to show a clear survival benefit for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The results of three metaanalysis of these randomized studies show lower rate of resection, higher rate of R0-resection, more often postoperative mortality and better prognosis for patients with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. As a consequence one may consider offering neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to patients with locallyadvanced disease under the premise that patients have a good performance status and understand the controversies about this therapeutic option. Larger trials with sufficient power to clearly detect survival benefits for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy are necessary before this therapeutic option will be the standard of care.

  3. State of pituitary-gonadal system and morphofunctional indices of sperm in males with thyroid cancer at different stages of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have followed up 21 patients with thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine. The data obtained suggested the development of transient dysfunctions of pituitary-gonadal system in males with thyroid cancer in part of patients, with signs of subclinical androgen deficiency. An examination to patients having received a first course of radioiodine therapy showed different variants of abnormalities of morphofunctional indices of the sperm. Further investigations on a larger contingent of patients are necessary to clarify the impact of radioiodine therapy on the morphofunctional state of pituitary-gonadal system and reproductive function in males with thyroid cancer

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  5. Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...

  6. Electrochemical treatment of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y.L.; Xue, F.Z.; Ge, B.S.; Zhao, F.R.; Shi, B.; Zhang, W. [China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery

    1997-03-01

    A pilot study of electrochemical treatment (ECT) as a therapy for 386 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer was undertaken. There were 103 stage 2 cases, 89 stage 3a cases, 122 stage 3b cases, and 72 stage 4 cases. Two ECT methods were used. For peripherally located lung cancer, platinum electrodes were inserted transcutaneously into the tumor under x-ray or CT guidance. For central type lung cancer or for those inoperable during thoracotomy, electrodes were inserted intraoperatively directly into the cancer. Voltage was 6--8 V, current was 40--100 mA, and electric charge was 100 coulombs per cm of tumor diameter. The number of electrodes was determined from the size of cancer mass, because the diameter of effective area around each electrode is approximately 3 cm. The short-term (6 months after ECT) results of the 386 lung cancer cases were: complete response (CR), 25.6% (99/386); partial response (PR), 46.4% (179/386); no change (NC), 15.3% (59/386); and progressive disease (PD), 12.7% (49/386). The total effective rate (CR + PR) was 72% (278/386). The 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival rates were 86.3% (333/386), 58.8% (227/386), and 29.5% (114/386), respectively. The main complication was traumatic pneumothorax, with an incidence rate of 14.8% (57/386). These clinical results show that ECT is simple, safe, effective, and minimally traumatic. ECT provides an alternative method for treating lung cancers that are conventionally inoperable, that are not responsive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or that cannot be resected after thoracotomy. Long-term survival rates suggest that ECT warrants further investigation.

  7. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  8. Cancer treatment-related bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sue A.; Guise, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone health may be impaired in many patients being treated for cancer. Primary tumors that reside in or form metastases to bone can result in compromised skeletal integrity. It has also been increasingly recognized that patients undergoing therapies for treatment of cancer are at higher risk of bone loss. These include androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer among others. Hypogonadism induced by many of these cancer treatments results...

  9. Communicative skills in treatmenting cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of--and need for-further diagnostic tests, unclear about the management plan and uncertain about the true therapeutic intent of treatment. Additionally, communication difficulties may impede the recruitment of patients to clinical trials, delaying the introduction of efficacious new treatments into clinics

  10. Curative effects, prognostic factors, and adverse reactions of different treatment modalities of chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the curative effects,prognostic factors,and adverse reactions of different treatment modalities of chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 151 NSCLC patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups to undergo concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n=43), sequential chemo-radiotherapy (n=49), or pure chemotherapy (n=59). The clinical data were analyzed. Results: The short-term effective rates of the concurrent and sequential chemo-radiotherapy groups were 81.4% and 73.5% respectively with no significantly difference between them, but both significantly higher than that of the pure chemotherapy group (39.0%, both P<0.05). The mortality of the concurrent chemo-radiation group was 53.5%, significantly lower than those of the sequential chemo-radiotherapy and pure chemotherapy groups (67.3% and 67.8% respectively, both P<0.05). The median survival time of the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy group was 26 months,significantly longer than those of the sequential chemo-radiotherapy and pure chemotherapy groups (12 and 11 months respectively, both P<0.05). The l-year survival rates of the 3 groups were 80.2%, 47.1%, and 45.6%. The 2-year survival rates were 58.2%, 38.5%, and 24.4%, and the 3-year survival rates were 32.7%, 27.5%, and 0, respectively. The white blood cell decrease rates of the grades Ⅲ∼Ⅳ of the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy group were significantly higher than those of the other 2 groups (both P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the rates of radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis between the concurrent and sequential chemo-radiotherapy groups. Age, performance status score, clinical staging, and treatment modality were the 4 influencing factors in the prognosis of NSCLC (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Relatively safe with tolerable adverse reactions, concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is superior to sequential chemo-radiotherapy, particularly to pure chemotherapy, in increase of median survival time

  11. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies,ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States.Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure,but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation.Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes "standard"adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer.This controversy derives from several studies,each fraught with its own limitations.Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy,for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe.Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy,the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers,identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients.In this review,authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients.

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Copies of Important Medical Records . Help with nutrition and pain Pancreatic cancer often causes weight loss and weakness from poor ... tips for during and after cancer treatment, see Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment: A Guide for Patients and Families . ...

  14. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kidney Cancer (Adult) - Renal Cell Carcinoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What happens after treatment for kidney cancer? Can I get another cancer after having kidney ...

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... June 24, 2016 The first-person story of a retired educator’s Medicare scam experience – and the FTC ...

  16. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  17. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ehab M; Elbaz M

    2016-01-01

    Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecula...

  18. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the mole...

  19. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Chi; Ritsuko Komaki

    2010-01-01

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will com...

  20. What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for nasopharyngeal cancer What`s new in nasopharyngeal cancer research and treatment? Research into the causes, prevention, and ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  1. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for gallbladder cancer What’s new in gallbladder cancer research and treatment? Research into the causes, diagnosis, and ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  2. What's New in Vulvar Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for vulvar cancer What`s new in vulvar cancer research and treatment? Research is being done to find ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Vulvar Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  3. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for eye cancer What’s new in eye cancer research and treatment? Many medical centers around the world ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Eye Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  4. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical centers throughout the world are ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  5. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well

  6. Facing Forward Series: Life After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  7. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  8. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  9. Treatment concepts of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredell, M; Rordorf, T; Studer, G

    2012-11-01

    The mortality of oral cancer (OC) has shown only moderate improvement over recent decades. Treatment of OC remains mainly surgical with increasing contributions from radio- and chemotherapy. Early diagnosis and adequate management improves patient prognosis whilst lymphatic spread worsens the prognosis significantly. Copious extirpation of the tumour achieving tumour-free margins, as well as the effective removal of affected or suspect lymph nodes are vital steps to ensure long-term survival. Reconstructive ablities have improved to such an extent that many patients can be fully integrated in society after treatment. New modalities such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) ensures selective radiation and significantly contributes to improved quality of life. Photodynamic therapy and other targeted therapy options will play an increasingly important role in the future. PMID:23957099

  10. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  11. Differences between pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons and radiation oncologists in deciding on the treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer: A binary choice experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Surgery is the standard of care in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is increasingly used to treat patients at high-risk for surgical complications. We studied which patient- and clinician-related characteristics influenced treatment recommendations. Material and methods: A binary choice experiment with hypothetical cases was conducted. Cases varied on five patient-related characteristics: patient age, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD GOLD) score, Charlson co-morbidity index, World Health Organization performance status (WHO-PS) and patient treatment preference (surgery/SABR). Clinician characteristics were recorded. Responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Results: 126 clinicians completed the survey. All patient-related characteristics, the clinician speciality, and whether clinicians considered outcomes of surgery comparable to SABR, significantly influenced treatment recommendations. Pulmonologists were most influenced by WHO-PS and comorbidity, whereas comorbidity and age had greatest influence on radiation oncologists and surgeons. Clinicians were less influenced by stated patient preference and COPD GOLD score. Limited consistency was observed in treatment recommendations. Conclusions: This study suggests that more efforts are needed to develop uniform approaches for making treatment recommendations, and also to incorporate patient preferences when making treatment decisions for stage I NSCLC

  12. Depression Treatment Patterns among Elderly with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Findley; Chan Shen; Usha Sambamoorthi

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about cancer treatment patterns among the elderly as depression and cancer in this older population have not been well explored. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature by using data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from years 2000–2005 to examine depression treatment patterns among elderly diagnosed with both cancer and depression. Depression treatments examined include antidepressants with and without psychotherapy. We found that of those with both cance...

  13. Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sundaram Viswanath; Abhishek Pathak; Amul Kapoor; Anvesh Rathore; Bhupendra Nath Kapur

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic proifle of lung cancer has changed greatly over the years; however, methods for diagnosing, screening, and managing lung cancer patients have improved. This is due to our growing understanding of the biology of lung cancer. It is now possible to further deifne lung cancer types beyond small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, new histology-based therapeutic modalities have been developed, and more new lung cancer biomarkers have been uncovered. Therefore, more detailed histological characterization of lung cancer samples is warranted in order to determine the best course of treatment for speciifc patients. This review article describes how these new molecular technologies are shaping the way lung cancer can be treated in future.

  14. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  15. USE OF PREDICTORS TO CHOOSE TREATMENT POLICY FOR THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of treatment in patients with papillary thyroid cancer, by applying a great deal of clinical material. Different prognostic factors have been studied for their influence on the survival of the patients after surgical treatment. The most optimal treatment policy is proposed to be defined for patients with this form of cancer on the basis of the association between the above factors.

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  17. Metastatic renal cell cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, C N

    2003-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma has been considered to be resistant to chemotherapy, with responses observed in only limited numbers of patients. For this reason, therapeutic options have ranged from no treatment, to immunotherapy with cytokines such as IL-2 and interferon-alpha, chemotherapy alone or in combination with cytokines, and to a variety of new investigational approaches. Interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have led to long-term survival in selected patients. Immunotherapy with cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, new agents, dendritic cell therapy, and allotransplantation offer promise. Novel therapeutic strategies include combining cytokines, and antiangiogenic approaches such as thalidomide and antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Pathologic, cytogenic and molecular studies have proven that renal cell carcinoma is not a single tumor entity. Efforts to improve results also include the identification of prognostic factors, which allow treatment to be better directed towards those patients most likely to benefit. Increasing understanding of cancer biology is beginning to allow for a more targeted approach to the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Adequate positioning of known treatments is essential and many trials of new targeted therapies are underway. PMID:14988745

  18. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  19. Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alemany

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of viruses against cancer has been revived during the last two decades. Oncolytic viruses replicate and spread inside tumors, amplifying their cytotoxicity and simultaneously reversing the tumor immune suppression. Among different viruses, recombinant adenoviruses designed to replicate selectively in tumor cells have been clinically tested by intratumoral or systemic administration. Limited efficacy has been associated to poor tumor targeting, intratumoral spread, and virocentric immune responses. A deeper understanding of these three barriers will be required to design more effective oncolytic adenoviruses that, alone or combined with chemotherapy or immunotherapy, may become tools for oncologists.

  20. Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyoshi Aoyagi; Krista P Terracina; Ali Raza; Hisahiro Matsubara; Kazuaki Takabe

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that half of all patients with cancereventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexiaand a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletalmuscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemicinflammation, negative protein and energy balance, andan involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidioussyndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patientquality of life, but also is associated with poor responsesto chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia isstill largely an underestimated and untreated condition,despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported tobe involved in its development, with a number of cytokinespostulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistentcatabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, includingorexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation ofsymptoms and reduction of the distress of patients andfamilies rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapiesfor the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinaryapproach. Combination therapy with diet modificationand/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceuticalagents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone,ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agentsare reported to have improved survival rates as well asquality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emergingunderstanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia,the current treatment options including multidisciplinarycombination therapies, as well an update on new andongoing clinical trials.

  1. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchardy Magnin, Christine; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gérald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival.

  2. Nanoparticle Based Combination Treatments for Targeting Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, D; Kyriacopulos, P; Yassini, B; Wright, A; Burkhart, E; Jacek, S; Pratt, M; Peterson, CR; Rai, P

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of cancer remains one of the most challenging tasks facing the healthcare system. Cancer affects the lives of millions of people and is often fatal. Current treatment methods include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapies or some combinations of these. However, recurrence is a major problem. These treatments can be invasive with severe side effects. Inefficacies in treatments are a result of the complex and variable biology of cancerous cells. Malignant tumor cells and normal functioning cells share many of the same biological characteristics but the main difference is that in cancer cells there is in an overuse and over expression of these biological characteristics. These pertinent characteristics can be grouped into eight hallmarks, as illustrated by Hanahan and Weinberg. These characteristics include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, activating invasion and metastasis, reprogramming energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction. In order to provide a noninvasive, effective treatment, delivery methods must be explored in order to transport cytotoxic agents used for targeting the hallmarks of cancer in a safer and more effective fashion. The use of nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers provides an effective method in which multiple cytotoxic agents can be safely delivered to cancer tissue to simultaneously target multiple hallmarks. By targeting multiple hallmarks of cancer at once, the efficacy of cancer treatments could be improved drastically. This review explores the uses and efficacy of combination therapies using nanoparticles that can simultaneously target multiple hallmarks of cancer. PMID:27547592

  3. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment with Particle Beam Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Zargarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this century, cancer incidence has become one of the most significant problems concerning human. Conventional radiotherapy damage healthy tissue and in some cases may cause new primary cancers. This problem can be partially solved by hadron therapy which would be more effective and less harmful compared to other forms of radiotherapies used to treat some cancers. Although carbon ion and proton therapy both are effective treatments, they have serious differences which are mentioned in this paper and compared between the two methods. Furthermore, various treatments have been performed on head and neck cancer with hadrons so far will be discussed.

  4. Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.

  5. Radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer: treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der

    2006-01-01

    The exact value of radiotherapy in the treatment of muscle-invasive       bladder cancer is difficult to establish, as most studies exploring this       issue are retrospective with different procedures for selecting patients       for treatment, as well as varying treatment strategies. An estimate...

  6. Advances in Multidisciplinary Treatment of Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Changlin; Hongqin SUN; Yang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    To summarize the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of rectal cancer and to analyze the existing problems and development prospects. The full text database retrieval system of MEDLINE and the periodicals of CHKD were searched. The words “rectal cancer, diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, analysis” were used as key words for retrieval of literature concerning the values and clinical significance of rectal cancer multidisciplinary treatment from January, 2...

  7. Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville F. Hacker

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent ovarian cancer is a common clinical problem and the management of eachpatient must be individualized. Diagnosis is usually based on a progressively rising CA-125titre, and a CT scan of the pelvis and abdomen, together with a chest X-ray should be performed.Although there is no study to support immediate treatment in the asymptomaticpatient, our approach is to commence such patients on Tamoxifen. Chemotherapy isreserved for asymptomatic patients or those who progress on Tamoxifen. The longer thetreatment-free interval of 18-24 months. The choice of non-platinum second or subsequentline chemotherapy is based on many factors including likelihood of benefit, potential toxicity,schedule and convenience to the patient, as well as organ function and residual toxicityfrom prior treatment. Aggressive secondary cytoreductive surgery can significantly prolongsurvival in those with a disease-free interval of 24 months or more and in those in whom allmacroscopic disease can be removed. Radiation therapy to the tumour bed following resectionof localized disease may be beneficial in selected patients. Quality of life issues are particularlyimportant for this group of patients and have not been adequately studies.Communication regarding the objectives of therapy is important, and the multidisciplinaryapproach should include palliative care and psycho-social support, in addition to the moretraditional medical options.

  8. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  9. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  10. Cancer Treatment Using Peptides: Current Therapies and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Thundimadathil

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy) is evolving as an alternate strategy to convent...

  11. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan

    2016-01-01

    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  12. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  14. What makes cancer stem cell markers different?

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Since the cancer stem cell concept has been widely accepted, several strategies have been proposed to attack cancer stem cells (CSC). Accordingly, stem cell markers are now preferred therapeutic targets. However, the problem of tumor specificity has not disappeared but shifted to another question: how can cancer stem cells be distinguished from normal stem cells, or more specifically, how do CSC markers differ from normal stem cell markers? A hypothesis is proposed which might help to solve t...

  15. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  16. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed fr...

  17. Gene Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Deanna; Burmester, James K.

    2006-01-01

    The broad field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments that are likely to become important in preventing deaths from cancer. In this review, we discuss the history, highlights and future of three different gene therapy treatment approaches: immunotherapy, oncolytic virotherapy and gene transfer. Immunotherapy uses genetically modified cells and viral particles to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Recent clinical trials of second and third generation vacc...

  18. Neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Semiglazov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available linical trials have shown that the status of the women achieving complete pathomorphological repression (CPR of a tumor is characterized by significantly improved survival as compared to that of those who have not to an equal degree. The achievement of CPR as an intermediate marker for improved survival is chiefly observed in women with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (BC: triple-negative and HER-2-positive. In patients with the latter subtype, addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy doubles the rate of CPR and correlates with higher survival rates. The performed clinical trials have established that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is the most suitable treatment for patients with steroid hormone receptor overexpression. Whether it may be used in combination with targeted (anti-HER-2 therapy for estrogen and HER-2 coexpression is being investigated. Neoadjuvant therapy for suitable BC stages can accelerate the assessment of novel medications through identification of predictive biological markers for response (CPR in particular. Although standard neoadjuvant therapy gives an obvious benefit to patients with CPR, other patients with the so-called residual disease are at high recurrence risk.

  19. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  20. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  1. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  2. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  3. Interventional Treatments of Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Jill E; Brogan, Shane E

    2016-06-01

    Pain is a significant burden for patients with cancer and is particularly prevalent among those with advanced cancer. Appropriate interventional cancer pain therapies complement conventional pain management by reducing the need for systemic opioid therapy and its associated toxicity; however, these therapies are often underutilized. This article reviews techniques, indications, complications, and outcomes of the most common interventional approaches for the management of cancer-related pain. These approaches include intrathecal drug delivery, vertebral augmentation, neurolysis of the celiac, superior hypogastric and ganglion impar plexus', image-guided tumor ablation, and other less commonly performed but potentially beneficial interventions. PMID:27208713

  4. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Wirth; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy...

  5. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  6. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  7. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Ravaioli; Alessandra Affatato; Cinzia Castellani; Fabrizio Drudi; Lorenzo Gianni; Carlotta Santelmo; Manuela Fantini; Mario Nicolini

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteri...

  8. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Salazar-León, Jonathan; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development. PMID:23144564

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy . Mohs microsurgery . A clinical trial of laser therapy . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical ... nodes in the groin ). External or internal radiation therapy followed by ... clinical trial of laser surgery . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer ...

  10. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the subject

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New ... can have. My role is to deliver radiation therapy in these lung cancer patients. And what radiation therapy is is the ...

  12. Focal adhesion signaling in breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of survival and migratory pathways in cancer cells is essential to better comprehending cancer progression, metastasis formation and drug resistance, thereby benefiting the development of novel anticancer treatments. The overall goal of the work is to better un

  13. Correlation of dose computed using different algorithms with local control following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR)-based treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively compute dose distributions for lung cancer patients treated with SABR, and to correlate dose distributions with outcome using a tumor control probability (TCP) model. Methods: Treatment plans for 133 NSCLC patients treated using 12 Gy/fxn × 4 (BED = 106 Gy), and planned using a pencil-beam (1D-equivalent-path-length, EPL-1D) algorithm were retrospectively re-calculated using model-based algorithms (including convolution/superposition, Monte Carlo). 4D imaging was performed to manage motion. TCP was computed using the Marsden model and associations between dose and outcome were inferred. Results: Mean D95 reductions of 20% (max. = 33%) were noted with model-based algorithms (relative to EPL-1D) for the smallest tumors (PTV 3), corresponding to actual delivered D95 BEDs of ∼60–85 Gy. For larger tumors (PTV > 100 cm3), D95 reductions were ∼10% (BED > 100 Gy). Mean lung doses (MLDs) were 15% lower for model-based algorithms for PTVs 3. No correlation between tumor size and 2-year local control rate was observed clinically, consistent with TCP calculations, both of which were ∼90% across all PTV bins. Conclusion: Results suggest that similar control rates might be achieved for smaller tumors using lower BEDs relative to larger tumors. However, more studies with larger patient cohorts are necessary to confirm this possible finding

  14. Clinical introduction of Monte Carlo treatment planning: A different prescription dose for non-small cell lung cancer according to tumor location and size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a prescription dose for Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer according to tumor size and location. Methods: Fifty-three stereotactic radiotherapy plans designed using the equivalent path-length (EPL) algorithm were re-calculated using MC. Plans were compared by the minimum dose to 95% of the PTV (D95), the heterogeneity index (HI) and the mean dose to organs at risk (OARs). Based on changes in D95, the prescription dose was converted from EPL to MC. Based on changes in HI, we examined the feasibility of MC prescription to plans re-calculated but not re-optimized with MC. Results: The MC fraction dose for peripheral tumors is 16-18 Gy depending on tumor size. For central tumors the MC dose was reduced less than for peripheral tumors. The HI decreased on average by 4-9% in peripheral tumors and 3-5% in central tumors. The mean dose to OARs was lower for MC than EPL, and correlated strongly (R2 = 0.98-0.99). Conclusion: For the conversion from EPL to MC we recommend a separate prescription dose according to tumor size. MC optimization is not required if a HI ≥ 70% is accepted. Dose constraints to OARs can be easily converted due to the high EPL-MC correlation.

  15. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. During ...

  16. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: ...

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According ... to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their conventional ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  19. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  20. What's New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for bone cancer What’s new in bone cancer research and treatment? Research on bone cancer is now ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bone Cancer Research? AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer ...

  1. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  2. Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Rachel A; Anders, Carey K.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 15% of women with metastatic breast cancer will develop brain metastases. Treatment options for these women remain limited, particularly at the time of central nervous system (CNS) relapse following completion of initial CNS-directed therapy. Historically, prior studies have broadly examined systemic treatments for breast cancer brain metastases with mixed, but overall disappointing, results. More recently, studies have increasingly selected patients based on breast cance...

  3. High dose-rate brachytherapy boost for intermediate risk prostate cancer: Long-term outcomes of two different treatment schedules and early biochemical predictors of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To report long-term cancer control rates following high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for intermediate risk prostate cancer and explore early biochemical predictors of success. Material and methods: Results of two sequential phase II trials are updated and compared: (1) Single 15 Gy HDR-boost followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) 37.5 Gy/15fractions, (2) Two HDR fractions of 10 Gy followed by EBRT 45 Gy/25fractions. Patients were followed prospectively for clinical and biochemical outcomes. Nadir PSA (nPSA) and PSA at 3-years were analyzed as continuous variables, and ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal cutoff values. Kaplan–Meier bDFS curves were generated and the log-rank test used to compare different groups Results: 183 patients were accrued; 123 to the single fraction trial and 60 to the standard fractionation trial, with a median follow-up of 74 months and 99 months, respectively. The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival was 97.4% and 92.7%, respectively (p = 0.995). Median nPSA was 0.08 ng/ml. Failure to achieve a nPSA <0.4 ng/ml was associated with a significantly higher rate of biochemical relapse (5-year bDFS: 100% vs. 72%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: HDR boost with single fraction 15 Gy provides durable long-term biochemical disease-free survival. PSA nadir <0.4 ng/ml is associated with very low risk of biochemical failure

  4. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  5. Cancer Drug Development: New Targets for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt

    1996-01-01

    There is often a considerable lapse of time between the definition of what causes a disease in the laboratory and the development of successful therapy. However, the history of medicine teaches us that the need to understand the scientific basis of disease before the discovery of new treatments is both essential and inevitable. During the middle of the 19th century, the work of the great German pathologist, Rudolf Virchow, defined disease as having an anatomic or histologic basis. In the clinic, this scientific perspective would lead to increasingly effective and, often, increasingly aggressive surgical approaches to disease. Later in the 19th century, Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus (a discovery Virchow disbelieved and publication of which he thwarted, since he hypothesized that cancer, not microbes, caused consumption!), would define a microbiological basis for disease. With bacteria defined as a major cause of human suffering, the stage was set for the development of the discovery of effective antibiotics. In the early 20th century, the pioneering work of Banting, Best and others would show that disease can also have an endocrine or metabolic basis. This new body of scientific knowledge would lead not only to the specific discovery of insulin as an effective treatment for diabetes but also to a more general understanding of the role of hormones, vitamins and co-factors in human health and disease. Basic medical research and its successful translation into effective treatments has fundamentally altered the cause of human death. In the developed world, where access to the benefit of this work is available, infectious disease is not the problem it was in the days of Pasteur, Metchnikoff and Ehrlich. As we approach the millennium, science is now teaching us that diseases, particularly cancer, can have a molecular or genetic basis. Can successful application of this new knowledge be far behind? We are already seeing the application of this new knowledge in

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  7. Hybrid Theranostic Platforms for Cancer Nanomedical Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Julfakyan, Khachatur

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is a leading case of mortality worldwide. Governments spent multibillion expenses on treatment and palliative care of diseased people. Despite these generous funding and intensive research with aim to find a cure or efficient treatment for cancer, until now there is a lack in selective cancer management strategies. Conventional treatment strategies for cancer, such as surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy don’t have selectivity toward cancer – the property of discrimination of healthy organs and tissues from the diseased site. Chemotherapy is very challenging as the difference between effective and lethal doses is very minuscule in most cases. Moreover, devastating side effects dramatically changes the quality of life for cancer patients. To address these issues two main strategies are intensively utilized in chemistry: (I) the design and synthesis of novel anticancer organic compounds with higher selectivity and low toxicity profiles and the second, design and preparation of biocompatible nanocarriers for imaging and anticancer compound selective delivery nanomedicine. The following dissertation combines the above two strategies as bellows: First project is related to the design and synthetic route development toward novel nature-inspired group of heterocyclic compounds – iso-Phidianidines. The second project focused on design, preparation and evaluation of hybrid theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic in a single entity). Chapter 1 is a general background review of the major topics that will be discussed in this dissertation. The first efficient and high-yielding synthetic route toward iso-phidianidines, containing regioisomeric form of 1,2,4-oxadiazole linked to the indole via methylene bridge is reported in Chapter 2. In vitro test of the synthesized library of iso-phidianidines revealed micromolar range of cytotoxicity toward human cervical cancer cell line. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of

  8. Treatment Individualization in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, Robin M J M; Beijnen, Jos H; Bernards, René; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been characterized as a genetically heterogeneous disease, with a large diversity in molecular pathogenesis resulting in differential responses to therapy. However, the currently available validated biomarkers KRAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability do not sufficiently cover

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Gallbladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the outer layers as it grows. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk factor does not mean that ...

  10. Treatment Options for Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the outer layers as it grows. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk factor does not mean that ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. When the esophagus and ...

  13. [Novel treatment for prostate cancer targeting prostaglandins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Naoki; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    PGE2 is highly expressed in the prostate, associating with prostate cancer progression. Targeting downstream signaling pathways of PGE2 may represent an attractive new strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. We have established a novel prostate cancer xenograft model, KUCaP-2. The expression of EP4, one of PGE2 receptors, was significantly up-regulated during the development of castration resistance. A specific EP4 antagonist, ONO-AE3-208, decelerated castration-resistant growth of KUCaP-2 tumors in vivo. Moreover, ONO-AE3-208 could in vitro inhibit the cell invasion and in vivo suppress the bone metastasis of prostate cancer cells. These results indicated that EP4 is a novel target for the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. PMID:25518348

  14. Antimetabolite Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Malyn May Asuncion; Neidigh, Jonathan W.; Wall, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly and aggressive disease. Less than 1% of diagnosed patients survive 5 years with an average survival time of only 4–8 months. The only option for metastatic pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy where only the antimetabolites gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil are used clinically. Unfortunately, efforts to improve chemotherapy regimens by combining, 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine with other drugs, such as cisplatin or oxaliplatin, have not increased cell killing or improve...

  15. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  16. Rectal Dose-Volume Differences Using Proton Radiotherapy and a Rectal Balloon or Water Alone for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe dose-volume values with the use of water alone vs. a rectal balloon (RB) for the treatment of prostate cancer with proton therapy. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 30 proton plans for 15 patients who underwent CT and MRI scans with an RB or water alone. Simulation was performed with a modified MRI endorectal coil and an RB with 100 mL of water or water alone. Doses of 78-82 gray equivalents were prescribed to the planning target volume. The two groups were compared for three structures: rectum, rectal wall (RW), and rectal wall 7 cm (RW7) at the level of the planning target volume. Results: Rectum and RW volumes radiated to low, intermediate, and high doses were small: rectum V10, 33.7%; V50, 17.3%; and V70, 10.2%; RW V10, 32.4%; V50, 20.4%; and V70, 14.6%. The RB effectively increased the rectal volume for all cases (139.8 ± 44.9 mL vs. 217.7 ± 32.2 mL (p 5% was seen for the RB in 5 of 15 cases, for a benefit of 9.2% ± 2.3% compared with 2.4% ± 1.3% for the remaining 10 cases (p < 0.001). Similar benefit was seen for the rectal wall. No benefit was seen for doses ≥70 gray equivalents for the rectum, RW, or RW7. No benefit of ≤1% was seen with an RB in 46% for the rectum V70 and in 40% for the rectal wall V70. Conclusions: Rectum and rectal wall doses with proton radiation were low whether using water or an RB. Selected patients will have a small but significant advantage with an RB; however, water alone was well tolerated and will be an alternative for most patients

  17. The Comparative Study of Different Surgical Approaches in Treatment of Bladder Cancer%不同手术方法治疗膀胱癌的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渊武

    2015-01-01

    Objective The different surgery approaches in treatment of bladder cancer is to be analyzed. Methods Chose 39 bladder cancer patients who were treated in hospital from September 2013 to January 2015 and separated them into study group(laparoscopic treatment)and control group(open operation treatment)according to different treatment approaches; and then observed and compared the surgical treatment efficacy of the two groups. Results Compared to control group,the amount of bleeding,surgery time and hospitalization days of patients in study group were less,and in addition,urethral dilation times and complication incidence were less in study group; there is a treatment differential between the two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic treatment is of efficiency in treatment of bladder cancer with advantages of minimal wound,less bleeding and rapid recovery.%目的:研究不同手术方法治疗膀胱癌的临床效果。方法搜集2013年9月~2015年1月我院接收的膀胱癌39例患者,根据不同手术方法分为实验组(腹腔镜手术)、对照组(开放性手术)。观察实验组、对照组的治疗效果,并对比疗效。结果与对照组相比,实验组术中出血量较少,手术时间较短,住院时间较短,术后并发症较少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论腹腔镜手术治疗膀胱癌的临床效果较好,与开放性手术相比,具有微创、出血少、恢复快等优点。

  18. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  19. Opening doors to treatment. Exploring the impact of lung cancer specialist nurses on access to anti-cancer treatment: an exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tod, Angela; McDonnell, Ann; Redman, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how different Lung Cancer Nurse Specialists (LCNS) worked within their Multi-disciplinary Teams (MDT) to have a positive impact on patient access to anti-cancer treatment. The study used a mix of qualitative methods including individual and group interviews, observation and documentary analysis. The project was developed in response to the finding from the National Lung Cancer Audit (2010) that 64% of patients who saw a LCNS received anti-cancer treatment, ...

  20. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies. PMID:26799758

  1. Control of Apoptosis in Treatment and Biology of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shrey; Kir, Devika; Banerjee, Sulagna; Saluja, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in the United States in 2014 and yet this malignancy is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Late detection and resistance to therapy are the major causes for its dismal prognosis. Apoptosis is an actively orchestrated cell death mechanism that serves to maintain tissue homoeostasis. Cancer develops from normal cells by accruing significant changes through one or more mechanisms, leading to DNA damage and mutations, which in a normal cell would induce this programmed cell death pathway. As a result, evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. PDAC is notoriously resistant to apoptosis, thereby explaining its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. The current review is focus on understanding different intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in pancreatic cancer that may affect apoptosis in this disease. PMID:26206252

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  3. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.)

  4. A broad scope knowledge based model for optimization of VMAT in esophageal cancer: validation and assessment of plan quality among different treatment centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the performance of a broad scope model-based optimisation process for volumetric modulated arc therapy applied to esophageal cancer. A set of 70 previously treated patients in two different institutions, were selected to train a model for the prediction of dose-volume constraints. The model was built with a broad-scope purpose, aiming to be effective for different dose prescriptions and tumour localisations. It was validated on three groups of patients from the same institution and from another clinic not providing patients for the training phase. Comparison of the automated plans was done against reference cases given by the clinically accepted plans. Quantitative improvements (statistically significant for the majority of the analysed dose-volume parameters) were observed between the benchmark and the test plans. Of 624 dose-volume objectives assessed for plan evaluation, in 21 cases (3.3 %) the reference plans failed to respect the constraints while the model-based plans succeeded. Only in 3 cases (<0.5 %) the reference plans passed the criteria while the model-based failed. In 5.3 % of the cases both groups of plans failed and in the remaining cases both passed the tests. Plans were optimised using a broad scope knowledge-based model to determine the dose-volume constraints. The results showed dosimetric improvements when compared to the benchmark data. Particularly the plans optimised for patients from the third centre, not participating to the training, resulted in superior quality. The data suggests that the new engine is reliable and could encourage its application to clinical practice. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0530-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical ... when detected, you know, and when patients get treatment. Okay. So it’s very important, you know, to ...

  6. Anal cancer: current and future treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin JY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Y Chin, Theodore S Hong, Jennifer Y WoDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Anal cancer is a relatively rare malignancy, accounting for approximately 2% of gastrointestinal cancers. Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin remains the standard of care for the treatment of anal cancer. There is currently no proven role for platinum-based induction or adjuvant chemotherapy in anal cancer, even in cases of bulky disease. Multiple trials have shown that radiosensitization with concurrent chemotherapy is beneficial over radiation alone, and in particular, efforts to remove or substitute mitomycin from the chemoradiation regimen have been unsuccessful. Because local-regional control remains a challenge in the management of anal cancer, future studies will need to focus on radiation dose-escalation and/or addition of further chemotherapy or targeted agents. Patient selection, eg, with PET-CT or with biomarkers including HPV status, may be necessary to define patients who need more aggressive local treatment, ie, for patients with bulky disease, or to de-escalate treatment in others, ie, patients with early-stage, localized cancer.Keywords: anal cancer, chemoradiation, IMRT

  7. Treatments for esophageal cancer. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common form of cancer worldwide. The treatments for esophageal cancer depend on its etiology. For mucosal cancer, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection are standard, while for locally advanced cancer, esophagectomy remains the mainstay. The three most common techniques for thoracic esophagectomy are the transhiatal approach, the Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (right thoracotomy and laparotomy), and the McKeown technique (right thoracotomy followed by laparotomy and neck incision with cervical anastomosis). Surgery for carcinoma of the cervical esophagus requires an extensive procedure with laryngectomy in many cases. When the tumor is more advanced, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is added. The theoretical advantages of adding chemotherapy to the treatment of esophageal cancer are potential tumor down-staging prior to surgery, as well as targeting micrometastases and, thus, decreasing the risk of distant metastasis. Cisplatin- and 5-fluorouracil-based regimes are used worldwide. Chemoradiotherapy is the standard for unresectable esophageal cancer and could also be considered as an option for resectable tumors. For patients who are medically or technically inoperable, concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be the standard of care. Although neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery or salvage surgery after definitive chemoradiotherapy is a practical treatment; judicious patient selection is crucial. It is important to have a thorough understanding of these therapeutic modalities to assist in this endeavor. (author)

  8. Targeting BET bromodomains for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Marie; Gelato, Kathy A; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury; Siegel, Stephan; Haendler, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) subfamily of bromodomain-containing proteins has emerged in the last few years as an exciting, novel target group. BRD4, the best studied BET protein, is implicated in a number of hematological and solid tumors. This is linked to its role in modulating transcription elongation of essential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis such as c-Myc and BCL2. Potent BET inhibitors with promising antitumor efficacy in a number of preclinical cancer models have been identified in recent years. This led to clinical studies focusing mostly on the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma, and first encouraging signs of efficacy have already been reported. Here we discuss the biology of BRD4, its known interaction partners and implication in different tumor types. Further, we summarize the current knowledge on BET bromodomain inhibitors. PMID:26077433

  9. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26543382

  10. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; Alho, I.; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be relate...

  11. Impact of cancer and cancer treatment on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Dimou, Petros; Anagnostou, Ioannis; Zeginiadou, Theodosia

    2015-01-01

    While cancer, and especially testicular cancer and Hodgkin's disease, affects male fertility in many ways, the current increase of survival of male cancer patients of reproductive age or earlier has emerged as a new challenge to their subsequent ability to father children. Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can have a transitory as well as a permanent detrimental impact on male fertility. Gonadotoxic effects and the length of time for sperm recovery after radiotherapy depends not only on initial semen quality, but also on gonadal dosage and the delivery method after chemotherapy, on the type of regimens and dosages and on the spermatogenesis phase that each drug impacts. Combination treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will induce more gonadotoxicity than either modality alone. Although efforts to prevent gonadal toxicity in cancer treatment are routinely applied, sperm cryopreservation remains the gold standard to maintain male fertility after cancer survival. Fertility preservation for prepubertal boys presents the greatest problem due to the absence of mature sperm in their gonads. In this area, research efforts are concentrated on cryopreservation of immature gametes and, in particular, techniques for their maturation and proliferation after thawing. PMID:26732148

  12. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The surgeon may use part of the small intestine to make a tube that passes urine through an opening ( stoma ). This is called an ostomy or urostomy . If ... surgeon may also use part of the small intestine to make a new storage pouch ( continent ... the urine through a stoma. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Urethral Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The surgeon may use part of the small intestine to make a tube that passes urine through an opening ( stoma ). This is called an ostomy or urostomy . If ... surgeon may also use part of the small intestine to make a new storage pouch ( continent ... the urine through a stoma. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around it. Sometimes lymph nodes , half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the cancer, and muscles, tissues , and a nerve in the neck are also removed. Tumor debulking : A surgical procedure in which as much ...

  15. Interleukin 12 in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2. ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : interleukin 12 * cancer therapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.151, year: 2011

  16. Targeting mitochondria for cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Cifra, Michal; Jandová, Anna; Kučera, Ondřej; Šrobár, Fedor; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J.; Kobilková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2012), s. 23-36. ISSN 1128-6598 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649; GA ČR GAP102/10/0120 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic fields * Cellular biophysics * Cancer Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2012

  17. Breast cancer treatment in mutation carriers: surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; D'Alonzo, Marta; Sgro, Luca G; Tomasi Cont, Nicoletta; Bounous, Valentina; Robba, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    The surgical option which should be reserved for patients with BRCA1/2 mutation and breast cancer diagnosis is still debated. Several aspects should be considered before the surgical decision-making: the risk of ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), the potential survival benefit of prophylactic mastectomy, and the possible risk factors that could either increase or decrease the risk for IBR or CBC. Breast conservative treatment (BCT) does not increase the risk for IBR in BRCA mutation carriers compared to non-carriers in short term follow-up; however, an increased risk for IBR in carriers was observed in studies with long follow-up. In spite of the increased risk for IBR in patients who underwent BCT than patients with mastectomy, no significant difference in breast-cancer specific or overall survival was observed by local treatment type at 15 years. Patients with BRCA mutation had a higher risk for CBC compared with non-carriers and BRCA1-mutation carriers had an increased risk for CBC compared to BRCA2-mutation carriers. Bilateral mastectomy is intended to prevent CBC in BRCA mutation carriers, however, no difference in survival was found if a contralateral prophylactic mastectomy was performed or not. For higher-risk groups of BRCA mutated patients, a more-aggressive surgical approach may be preferable, but there are some aspects that should be considered in the surgical decision-making process. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy and performing oophorectomy are associated with a decreased risk for IBR. When considering the risk for CBC, three risk factors were associated with significantly decreased risk: the use of adjuvant tamoxifen, performing oophorectomy and older age at first breast cancer diagnosis. As a result, we could identify a group of patients that might benefit from a more aggressive surgical approach (unilateral mastectomy or unilateral therapeutic mastectomy with concomitant contralateral prophylactic

  18. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wanxia; Lin Miao; Lü Ye; Yang Biao; Yao Cong; Liu Juan; Wang Wenru

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite,feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the patients. The frequently reported symptoms by those on chemotherapy were nausea, feeling sluggish, weight loss, vomiting, and taste change. The frequently reported symptoms by those on radiotherapy were feeling sluggish, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficult sleeping, and changing taste. The symptoms of loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, hair loss, and nausea were both frequently reported by those on radiotherapy and those on chemotherapy. Conclusion Symptom monitoring may be facilitated by TRSC, based on the severity and frequency of reported symptoms, more patients and caregivers could know which symptoms should be preferential interventions.

  19. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehab, Moataz; Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2− locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the

  20. Neurologic Complications of Cancer and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Giglio, Pierre; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) are very susceptible to cancer and its treatment. The most direct involvement of the nervous system manifests in the development of primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Many cancers exhibit a propensity toward spread to the CNS, and brain metastases are common problems seen in malignancies such as lung, breast, and melanoma. Such spread may involve the brain or spine parenchyma or the subarachnoid space. In the ...

  1. Thulium laser treatment for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Haitao Liu; Shujie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovations in thulium laser techniques have allowed application in the treatment of bladder cancer. Laser en bloc resection of bladder cancer is a transurethral procedure that may offer an alternative to the conventional transurethral resection procedure. We conducted a review of basic thulium laser physics and laser en bloc resection procedures and summarized the current clinical literature with a focus on complications and outcomes. Literature evidence suggests that thulium laser te...

  2. Targeting folate receptor alpha for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Anthony; Bax, Heather J.; Josephs, Debra H; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Pellizzari, Giulia; Fittall, Matthew; Grigoriadis, Anita; Figini, Mariangela; Canevari, Silvana; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2016-01-01

    Promising targeted treatments and immunotherapy strategies in oncology and advancements in our understanding of molecular pathways that underpin cancer development have reignited interest in the tumor-associated antigen Folate Receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein. Its overexpression in tumors such as ovarian, breast and lung cancers, low and restricted distribution in normal tissues, alongside emerging insights into tumor-promoting functi...

  3. Diabetes, diabetes treatment and breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Virnig, Beth; Hendryx, Michael; Wen, Sijin; Chelebowski, Rowan; Chen, Chu; Rohan, Tomas; Tinker, Lesley; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Lessin, Lawrence; Margolis, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of pre-existing diabetes and diabetes treatment on breast cancer prognosis. 8,108 women with centrally confirmed invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 were followed through the date of death or September 20, 2013. Information on diabetes and diabetes therapy were obtained via self-report and face-to-face review of current medication containers, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressi...

  4. Keeping Your Sex Life Going Despite Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can affect fertility How cancer treatment can affect sexual desire and response How cancer treatments can affect sexuality and fertility Dealing with sexual problems What treatments are available to help with ...

  5. [Clonidine in the treatment of cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bøje; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Clonidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist with analgetic properties. Due to its side-effects, the drug is administered via the epidural or spinal route. A literature search yielded nine controlled studies on clonidine as a supplemental drug in the epidural or spinal treatment of cancer pain. These...... studies were systematically reviewed to evaluate the evidence of efficacy in patients with cancer pain. CONCLUSION: Despite weak evidence, clonidine may be a useful adjunct in epidural or spinal morphine therapy of cancer pain Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/3...

  6. Sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer - Comparison of treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JonkerPool, G; vanBasten, JP; Hoekstra, HJ; vanDriel, MF; Sleijfer, DT; vandeWiel, HBM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This retrospective study evaluates changes in sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer and investigates whether there is a relationship with different treatment modalities. METHODS. A self-reported questionnaire was sent to 337 men who had been treated for testicular canc

  7. Rectal cancer treatment: Improving the picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for rectal cancer treatment is currently well defined. Nevertheless, new and promising advances are enriching the portrait. Since the US NIH Consensus in the early 90's some new characters have been added. A bird's-eye view along the last decade shows the main milestones in the development of rectal cancer treatment protocols. New drugs, in combination with radiotherapy are being tested to increase response and tumor control outcomes. However, therapeutic intensity is often associated with toxicity. Thus, innovative strategies are needed to create a better-balanced therapeutic ratio. Molecular targeted therapies and improved technology for delivering radiotherapy respond to the need for accuracy and precision in rectal cancer treatment.

  8. Cancer Treatment-Induced Neurotoxicity: A Focus on Newer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jacqueline B.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity from traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is widely recognized. The adverse effects of newer therapeutics such as biological and immunotherapeutic agents are less familiar and they are also associated with significant neurotoxicity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This review addresses the main toxicities of cancer treatment by symptom with a focus on the newer therapeutics. Recognition of these patterns of toxicity is important as drug discontinuation or dose adjustment may prevent further neurologic injury. Also, knowledge of these toxicities helps to differentiate treatment-related symptoms from progression of cancer or its involvement of the nervous system. PMID:26391778

  9. Treatment outcome of maxillary sinus cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyoung Kang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment in the early stage of maxillary sinus cancer is surgical resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy. However, for locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer, a multimodality treatment approach is strongly recommended to improve the survival rate and quality of life of the patient. We determined the treatment outcomes of induction chemotherapy, concurrent chemoradiation therapy, and surgical resection for locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer. Forty-four patients with locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer, who had been treated between January 1990 and April 2008 at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The objective response rates were 70%, 53%, and 57% in the intra-arterial induction chemotherapy, intravenous induction chemotherapy, and concurrent chemoradiation therapy groups, respectively. The orbital preservation rates were 83%, 100%, and 75% in the intra-arterial induction chemotherapy, intravenous induction chemotherapy, and surgical resection groups, respectively. In seven of nine patients in whom the orbit could be preserved after induction chemotherapy, the primary tumors were removed completely. However, although the orbits were preserved in three patients who underwent surgical resection as a primary treatment, all three cases were confirmed to be incomplete resections. We found that active induction chemotherapy for locally advanced cancer of the maxillary sinus increased the possibility of complete resection with orbital preservation as well as tumor down-staging.

  10. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours.

  11. Time intervals from first symptom to treatment of cancer: a cohort study of 2,212 newly diagnosed cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke P; Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Søndergaard, Jens; Olesen, Frede

    Delay in diagnosis of cancer may worsen prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore patient-, general practitioner (GP)- and system-related delay in the interval from first cancer symptom to diagnosis and treatment, and to analyse the extent to which delays differ by cancer type....

  12. Assessing racial/ethnic disparities in chemotherapy treatment among breast cancer patients in context of changing treatment guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Abigail; Rauscher, Garth H.; Hoskins, Kent; Rao, Ruta; Ferrans, Carol Estwing

    2013-01-01

    Conflicting study results with regards to racial/ethnic disparities in chemotherapy use among breast cancer patients may be due to the different sample populations, treatment data sources, and treatment eligibility definitions used. This study examined chemotherapy disparity in the context of changing treatment guidelines and explored factors that may help explain treatment differences observed.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Laryngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may work better in patients who have stopped smoking before beginning treatment. External radiation therapy to the thyroid or the pituitary gland may change the way the thyroid gland works. The doctor may test the thyroid gland before and after ...

  14. Myeloid Toxicity of Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtin, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Myelotoxicity is one of the most common treatment-related adverse events for patients receiving systemic antineoplastic therapy or radiotherapy to bone marrow–producing regions. Myeloid cytopenias, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia, are the most common manifestations of treatment-related myelotoxicity and one of the most common reasons for dose modifications, dose delays, or discontinuation of therapy, potentially limiting therapeutic benefit. Risk factors for myelotoxicity ...

  15. Radiotherapic treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients under treatment exclusively by radiations are studied when a linear accelerator is used as a source, and 6.000 rad are supplied into the tumour area. The survival of the patients is observed during 12 months, using local control criteria, metastases evaluations as well as patients' tolerance to this kind of treatment. The results are consider good is compared with those found in the specialized literature

  16. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Kilian; Specht, Hanno; Kampfer, Severin; Duma, Marciana Nona [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Petrucci, Alessia [University of Florence, Department of Radiation Oncology, Florence (Italy); Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Linz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Tibor [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie bestand darin, den Einfluss verschiedener Herangehensweisen bei der Einstellung einer

  17. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monica; Millan; Sandra; Merino; Aleidis; Caro; Francesc; Feliu; Jordi; Escuder; Tani; Francesch

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approxi-mately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients(> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are underrepresented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population.

  18. Measuring somatic symptoms with the CES-D to assess depression in cancer patients after treatment: Comparison among patients with oral/oropharyngeal, gynecological, colorectal, and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Stewart, R. E.; Ranchor, A.V.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    2006-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of depression after cancer treatment. In the literature, several authors have raised questions about assessing somatic symptoms to explore depression after cancer treatment. These somatic sequelae are a consequence of cancer treatment and should cause higher depression rates in cancer patients. In this study, the Somatic domain on a depression questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) was analyzed in different cancer patients after...

  19. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  20. 不同药物治疗肺癌合并低钠血症的对比研究%The Comparative Analysis of Different Medical Approaches in Treatment of Lung Cancer With Hyponatremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄树峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective The comparative analysis of different medical approaches efficacy in treatment of lung cancer with hyponatremia is to be investigated.Methods Chose 91 patients of lung cancer with hyponatremia who were treated in hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 and separated them into study group and control group. On the basis of radiotherapy,patients in control group were given additional Vinorelbine treatment; while patients in study group were given additional Docetaxel treatment. And then observed and compared treatment efficacy and side effects of two groups. Results The treatment efficacy in study group(65.96%)was much higher than its counterparts in control group(36.36%)with less side effects,and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Docetaxel treatment combined with radiotherapy is conducive to improving clinical treatment efficacy without increasing side-effect incidence,such a treatment approach is quite safe and efficient.%目的:对比研究不同药物治疗肺癌合并低钠血症的临床效果。方法选取2013年10月~2014年10月间我院收治的肺癌合并低钠血症患者91例,分为两组。在实施放疗措施的基础上,对照组应用长春瑞滨治疗,观察组应用多西紫杉醇治疗,对比两组临床疗效与不良反应。结果观察组总有效率(65.96%)相较于对照组(36.36%)明显较高,不良反应差异较小,两组临床疗效差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肺癌合并低钠血症应用多西紫杉醇与放疗联合治疗能够显著提高临床疗效,而且不会增加不良反应,安全有效。

  1. Molecular targeted photoimmunotherapy for HER2-positive human gastric cancer in combination with chemotherapy results in improved treatment outcomes through different cytotoxic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Kimihiro; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Arihiro, Seiji; Saruta, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Mika; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Tajiri, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Background Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a novel type of molecular optical imaging-guided cancer phototherapy based on a monoclonal antibody conjugated to a photosensitizer, IR700, in combination with near-infrared (NIR) light. PIT rapidly causes target-specific cell death by inducing cell membrane damages and appears to be highly effective; however, we have previously demonstrated that tumor recurrences were eventually seen in PIT-treated mice, likely owing to inhomogeneous mAb-IR700 conjugate...

  2. Contemporary state of laryngeal cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of laryngeal cancer treatment is outlined on the basis of an analysis of morbidity and other statistical data. Measures which can be taken to considerably improve the effectiveness of treatment are discussed. The importance of a complex of diagnostic procedures to be employed in therapy planning is shown. Preoperative HBO-mediated gammatherapy and mean fractionation of radiation were used to improve combined treatment. The following function - saving procedures were suggested for radical removal of stage 3 laryngeal malignancies: and endoprosthetic procedure, improved modifications of horizontal resection, and lower larynx resection. A randomized study suggested that prophylactic surgery be performed on the lymphatics of the neck for cancer (T4) of the vestibular area involving the laryngopharynx. The report discusses the good functional and oncological results saving operations carried out after preoperative gammatherapy conducted as a component of combined treatment. The study also established a high effectiveness of traheoesophageal shunting as a postlaryngoectomy voice rehabilitation device

  3. Antimitotic drugs in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Rustelle Janse; Visagie, Michelle H; Theron, Anne E; Joubert, Annie M

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is a complex disease since it is adaptive in such a way that it can promote proliferation and invasion by means of an overactive cell cycle and in turn cellular division which is targeted by antimitotic drugs that are highly validated chemotherapy agents. However, antimitotic drug cytotoxicity to non-tumorigenic cells and multiple cancer resistance developed in response to drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids are obstacles faced in both the clinical and basic research field to date. In this review, the classes of antimitotic compounds, their mechanisms of action and cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and other limitations of current antimitotic compounds are highlighted, as well as the potential of novel 17-β estradiol analogs as cancer treatment. PMID:26563258

  4. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C; Anand, Atul; Cederkvist, Luise; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Nylandsted, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Friis, Søren; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27333030

  5. Late deaths after treatment for childhood cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, M M; Kingston, J. E.; Kinnier Wilson, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of 749 deaths occurring among 4082 patients surviving at least five years after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in Britain before 1971 has been undertaken. Of the 738 with sufficient information the numbers of deaths attributable to the following causes were: recurrent tumour, 550 (74%), a second primary tumour, 61 (8%), a medical condition related to treatment of the tumour, 49 (7%), an traumatic death unrelated to the tumour or its treatment, 34 (5%), finally, any other c...

  6. Cancer-associated thrombosis: prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, K.M.J.; Lee, A.Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk to develop venous thromboembolism, and they are also more likely to develop complications from anticoagulant treatment. Because little research has focused on the oncology population to date, the optimal methods of prophylaxis and treatment remain uncertain in some clinical situations. Currently, low molecular weight heparin and warfarin are the most frequently used pharmacologic agents; however, they have their limitations. Other therapeutic options, suc...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  9. Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist Before Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer Treatment Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer ... protection for their growing teeth and facial bones. 3 - Fight cancer Serious side effects in the mouth ...

  10. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for liver cancer What`s new in liver cancer research and treatment? Because there are only a few ... or treat hepatitis infections before they cause liver cancers. Research into developing a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C ...

  11. Comparative treatment planning study on sequential vs. simultaneous integrated boost in head and neck cancer patients. Differences in dose distributions and potential implications for clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberger, Carmen; Ghadjar, Pirus; Marnitz, Simone; Thieme, Alexander Henry; Jahn, Ulrich; Karaj-Rossbacher, Evis; Budach, Volker [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, Berlin (Germany); Raguse, Jan D. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Boettcher, Arne [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Communal Hospital Frankfurt Oder, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to compare sequential (SeqB) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy plans delivered with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCC). SeqB and SIB plans using VMAT for 10 HNSCC patients given definitive chemoradiation were generated and analysed for differences in dose distribution, coverage, conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volumes (PTV) 1-3 and sparing of organs at risk (OAR). The mean delineated volumes ± standard deviations were 137.7 ± 44.8, 351.3 ± 83.9 and 895.6 ± 120.5 cm{sup 3} for PTV1-3. The mean volumes encompassed by the corresponding 95 % isodoses were 281 (+ 110 %) ± 73.4, 712.2 (+ 115 %) ± 146.4 and 1381.1 (+ 54 %) ± 217.3 cm{sup 3} with SeqB and 138.2 (+ 7 %) ± 40.1, 380.4 (+ 11 %) ± 91.9 and 1057.3 (+ 21 %) ± 161.4 cm{sup 3} with SIB for PTV1-3, respectively. Both strategies achieved excellent PTV coverage. SeqB provided significantly better coverage of PTV1 and 3, worse conformity for PTV1-3 and a higher mean dose than prescribed (111-115 %) to PTV2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.007). Both strategies provided satisfactory OAR sparing. This study showed significant dosimetric differences with potential clinical relevance between two VMAT boost strategies regarding coverage, conformity and dose to the PTVs. SIB might cause less toxicity. A clinical phase III/IV trial endorsed by the German Head and Neck Clinical Trials Group (IAG-KHT) will evaluate differences in acute/late toxicity as well as in locoregional recurrences between the two boost techniques. (orig.) [German] Vergleich von sequentiellem (SeqB) und simultan-integriertem Boost (SIB) mit moderner volumetrischer Arc-Therapie (VMAT) fuer Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region. Fuer 10 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region und definitiver Radiochemotherapie erfolgte eine VMAT-Planung als SeqB und SIB fuer die

  12. Treatment of locally advanced prostatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A locally advanced prostate cancer is defined as a malignant process spreading beyond the prostate capsule or in seminal vesicles but without distant metastasis or regional lymph nodes invasion. Clinical classification, prediction and treatment of prostate cancer. An exact staging of clinical T3 stadium is usually difficult because of the frequent over and under staging. The risk prognostic stratification is performed through nomograms and ANN (artificial neural networks. The options for treatment are: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, hormonal therapy by androgen blockade. Radical prostatectomy is considered in patients with T3 stage but extensive dissection of lymph nodes, dissection of neurovascular bundle (on tumor side, total removal of seminal vesicle and sometimes resection of bladder neck are obligatory. Postoperative radiotherapy is performed in patients with invasion of seminal vesicles and capsular penetration or with prostate specific antigen value over 0.1 ng/ml, one month after the surgical treatment. Definitive radiotherapy could be used as the best treatment option considering clinical stage, Gleason score, age, starting prostate specific antigen (PSA value, concomitant diseases, life expectancy, quality of life, through multidisciplinary approach (combined with androgen deprivation. Hormonal therapy in intended for patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Conclusion. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer is still controversial and studies for better diagnosis and new treatment modalities are ongoing.

  13. Intense neutron sources for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of small, solid-target, pulsed neutron sources for nuclear weapons applications. The feasibility of using this type of neutron source for cancer treatment is discussed. Plans for fabrication and testing of such a source is briefly described

  14. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  16. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wirth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy, anti-angiogenic gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, gene therapy-based immune modulation, correction/compensation of gene defects, genetic manipulation of apoptotic and tumor invasion pathways, antisense, and RNAi strategies. Cancer types, which have been targeted with gene therapy, include brain, lung, breast, pancreatic, liver, colorectal, prostate, bladder, head and neck, skin, ovarian, and renal cancer. Currently, two cancer gene therapy products have received market approval, both of which are in China. In addition, the stimulation of the host’s immune system, using gene therapeutic approaches, has gained vast interest. The intention of this review is to point out the most commonly viral and non-viral vectors and methods used in cancer gene therapy, as well as highlight some key results achieved in clinical trials.

  17. Economics of Treatments for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christos Chouaid; Kukovi Atsou; Gilles Hejblum; Alain Vergnenegre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the economics of treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We systematically analysed the cost effectiveness of treatments for the different stages of NSCLC, with particular emphasis on more recently approved agents. Numerous economic analyses in NSCLC have been conducted, with a variety of methods and in a number of countries. In patients with localized disease, adjuvant chemotherapy appears to have greater cost effectiveness than observation...

  18. Results of combination treatment for triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Sekundova; V.I. Borisov; A. M. Sdvizhkov

    2014-01-01

    The authors give the results of treatment in 128 patients with operable triple-negative breast cancer (BC). All the patients underwent surgical intervention, the volume of which depended on the stage of the disease. The efficiency of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as well as pre- and postoperative radiotherapy was evaluated. The side effects of different treatment options were analyzed. Five-year relapse-free and overall survival rates were traced in this patient group. It is conclude...

  19. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  20. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases. PMID:27171673

  1. Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)

  2. Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalhofer, Jardel L.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Junior, Juraci R.P., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: samandacristine@uezo.rj.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Edmilson M., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Centro Universitario da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Colegiado de Comutacao e Matematica; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: delano@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)

  3. The treatment landscape in thyroid cancer: a focus on cabozantinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitzman SP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Weitzman, Maria E Cabanillas Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Although patients with thyroid cancer generally fare well, there is a subset for which this is not necessarily true. Progress in understanding the molecular aberrations in thyroid cancer has led to a change in the management of these cases. Since 2011, four multikinase inhibitors (MKIs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for thyroid cancer – cabozantinib and vandetanib for medullary thyroid cancer and sorafenib and lenvatinib for differentiated thyroid cancer. This change in the treatment landscape has raised challenges for practitioners who may not be familiar with the use of MKIs or with the treatment and natural history of advanced thyroid cancer in general. This article reviews the epidemiology, molecular drivers, and initial treatment of patients with thyroid cancer and offers practical guidance to assist with the determination of when to appropriately start an MKI. As an example, cabozantinib and its efficacy are discussed in detail. Close monitoring is required for all patients on targeted agents to assess for adverse effects and response to therapy. An approach to managing drug-related adverse events is detailed. Since these drugs are not curative and have not yet proven to prolong overall survival, it is critical to weigh the risks and benefits of treatment at every visit. The potential value of changing to a different agent following failure of an MKI is also addressed. Keywords: chemotherapy, adverse event, targeted therapy, kinase inhibitor, VEGF, RET

  4. THE DIRECT EFFICIENCY OF THE DIFFERENT MODES OF SCHEME “PACLITAXEL +CAELYX ” IN THE TREATMENT OF THE PATIENTS HAVING INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURIYA YESSENTAYEVA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC with a poor prognosis occurs in 15% of patients with breast cancer. Combination of Paclitaxel and Caelyx were applied for 42 patients with IBC with the use of 2 regimens. Paclitaxel 135 mg/m² 1 day, Caelyx 40 mg/m² 1day within a cycle of 3 weeks (21 sick women; the weekly regimen has a scheme: 60 mg/m² on 1st, 8th and15th days and Caelyx 25 mg/m² on 1st, 8th days within a cycle of 4 weeks (21 sick women. The final analysis of the effectiveness of 2 chemotherapy regimens showed that an objective impact was reached in 85.7% (18/21 in the group of weekly insertion of the drugs by the end of the research; and in the group of routine chemotherapy it was 52.4% (11/21. Though general results are satisfactory in both 2 regimens of the chemotherapy, the weekly insertion of the drugs let to decrease a hematologic toxicity of 34 degree in 2.53 times and a frequency of LPS in 10 times.

  5. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELS, JOHANNES M.A.; Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchosc...

  6. Gene delivery for the treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men. Whilst treatments for early-stage disease are largely effective, current therapies for metastatic prostate cancer, particularly for bone metastasis, offer only a few months increased lifespan at best. Hence new treatments are urgently required. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer where it can ‘silence’ specific cancer-related genes. However the clinical application of siRNA...

  7. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  8. Fertility preservation outcomes may differ by cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Pavone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Cancer survival has improved significantly and maintaining fertility is both a major concern and an important factor for the quality of life in cancer patients. Aims : To explore differences in oocyte stimulation for fertility preservation (FP patients based on cancer diagnosis. Settings and Deign : Between 2005 and 2011, 109 patients elected to pursue FP at a single institution. Materials and Method : In vitro fertilization (IVF outcome variables between four cancer diagnostic groups (breast, gynecologic, lymphoma/leukemia and other and age-matched male factor or tubal factor infertility IVF control group were compared. Statistical Analysis : ANOVA and Chi-square analyses were employed to compare variables between the groups that were normally distributed. Kruskal-Wallis with subsequent Mann-Whitney U-test were used for data that were not normally distributed. Results : Women with gynecologic malignancies were significantly older than the women in the other three groups, but tended to have a better ovarian response. Women with hematologic malignancies were most likely to have been exposed to chemotherapy and had the longest stimulations with a similar number of oocytes retrieved. The age-matched IVF controls had higher peak estradiol levels, number of oocytes obtained, and fertilization rates when compared to cancer patients with or without a history of prior chemotherapy. Conclusions : Factors including age, type of cancer and chemotherapy exposure, can influence response to ovarian stimulation. Discussing these findings with patients presenting for FP may aid in setting realistic treatment expectations.

  9. Particle beam. Cancer treatment in next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feature article summarizes the present and future aspects of particle therapy of cancers in Japan. It contains the Interview article for carbon particle therapy by HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba); Facilities for the therapy-present and future for diffusion; History of the carbon beam treatment in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba); Plans for a facility unit for proton beam therapy of cancer in Fukui Pref. for the regional diffusion; a Center of Excellence program in Gunma University for forefront cancer therapy; and Technology of equipments supporting the particle beam therapy in manufacturers of Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Toshiba Japan, Hitachi, and Mitsubishi Electric Corp. There are 6 facilities in total for the particle beam therapy of cancer in Japan. Although the diffusion of radiation therapy in Japan is as low as less than 30% in the whole cancer treatments, the particle beam therapy, an advanced form of radiotherapy, is on the top of the world. (T.I.)

  10. Assessment of different methods for the treatment of patients with breast cancer of stages 1-2 A (T1-2N0M0) in cases with the median localization of the tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacies of variants of combined treatment (surgical, radio- and drug therapy) in patients with stages 1-2 A breast cancer with median localization of the tumor. A total of 702 patients were followed up. The table present ten-year results of the treatment in all the three groups. A conclusion ids made that radiotherapy, but not drug therapy, should be preferred as an additional method of local treatment in patients with the initial stages of breast cancer in cases with the median localization of the tumor

  11. Distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Diagnosis by 131 iodine and treatment; Metastases a distance des cancers thyroidiens differencies. Diagnostic par l`iode 131 (I 131) et traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, A.F. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    Distant metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer involve mainly lung and bone. Lung metastases were found in 5% of papillary forms and 10% of follicular forms respectively. I 131 uptake was found in 55% of the cases irrespective of histology. Bone metastases were found in 20% of follicular and 3.5% of papillary forms, respectively. Ablation of post-operative thyroid remnants is obtained by administering 3.7 GBq I 131; I 131 (.2 to .4 GBq) is then used to localize distant metastases and a further 3.7 to 7.4 GBq is administered for therapy. Results are good in lung metastases, with a survival of 72% at 5 years. Bone metastases cannot be cured with I 131 alone. Surgery is indicated as a first line therapy if possible. In order to reduce the vascularization of the metastases a pre-operative embolization should be attempted. After bone surgery a therapeutic dose of I 131 is given if a post-operative I 131 uptake is found. Others treatments of bone metastases are palliative surgery, external radiotherapy, cementing of the metastases. (author). 6 refs.

  12. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEE A LIST » What’s new in prostate cancer research? Previous Topic Second cancers after prostate cancer Next Topic Additional resources for prostate cancer What’s new in prostate cancer research? Research into the causes , prevention , detection , and treatment ...

  13. Treatment Modification in Young Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharl, Anton; Salterberg, Annette; Untch, Michael; Liedtke, Cornelia; Stickeler, Elmar; Papathemelis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients not older than 40 years are referred to as young patients. These women benefit from chemo-, endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy to a similar degree as older women. Surgery and radiation therapy also follow the same recommendations. This manuscript deals with the following topics that need special consideration in young women: endocrine therapy and ovarian suppression; fertility protection and family planning; and genetic counselling. There is an on-going debate on whether tamoxifen is sufficient as an endocrine treatment in young patients with endocrine-responsive tumours or whether suppression of ovarian function in combination with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor should be preferred. Recent data suggest a benefit from ovarian suppression plus exemestane in women of 35 years or younger with high-risk breast cancer. However, increased side effects bear the risk of lesser compliance, which eventually results in higher mortality. Child bearing is nowadays frequently postponed to the 4th decade of life, thereby increasing the number of women who have not yet finished their reproductive desires when diagnosed with breast cancer. These patients are in urgent need of counselling for fertility protection. Breast cancer diagnosis at young age is an indication for a possible mutation in breast cancer susceptibility genes. This has an impact on the cancer risk of the whole family, especially the offspring. Drugs that are specifically targeted to cancer cells with genetic alterations that impair DNA repair are already entering the arsenal of oncologists. PMID:27031253

  14. Nutrition for the Person with Cancer during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is an important part of cancer treatment. Eating ...

  15. Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159214.html Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients 3 in 4 get aggressive therapies with ... quarters of young or middle-aged Americans with terminal cancer receive aggressive treatment during the last month of ...

  16. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  17. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  18. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic

  19. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the outset, we would not be able to offer the appropriate treatment for that patient. So without ... discuss it also a team, you know, and offer the patient different treatment options. Part of the ...

  20. Contemporary methods of treatment of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kozłowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequently diagnosed worldwide malignant cancer in males, and the second in females, with more than 1,200,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths, annually. Screening tests in oncology allow the detection of cancerous disease at an early, asymptomatic stage. The procedures most frequently performed in the case of colorectal cancer include: low anterior resection by the Dixon method (manual suture or staplers; abdominoperineal resection of the rectum by the Miles method; surgical procedure by the Hartmann method; local resection. Various techniques of preoperative radiotherapy are applied, aimed at tumour mass reduction (scheme I and/or obtaining local sterilisation (schemes I and II, which results in the reduction of local metastases (by approximately 50%, as well as an improvement with respect to long-term survival (by approximately 10%. At present, the following drugs for treatment of various forms of colorectal cancer have been registered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA: fluorouracil capecitabine irinotecan, oxaliplatin, cetuximab, and bevacizumab. The combination of complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS, the goal of which is the removal of all visible (macroscopically cancer foci, with a simultaneous intraperitoneal chemotherapy in hyperthermia – HIPEC, destroying microscopic remains of the disease, allows the curing of some patients with peritoneal cancer. The effect of the action of monoclonal antibodies – cetuximab and panitumumab – is the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells, intensification of their apoptosis, as well as reduction of synthesis and secretion of pro-angiogenic factors, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, antibodies targeted against EGFR impair the repair of DNA damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the cells of the malignant tumour.

  1. Do cancer and treatment type affect distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J. M.; Reyners, A. K. L.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined differences in distress levels and Distress Thermometer (DT) cutoff scores between different cancer types. The effect of socio-demographic and illness-related variables on distress was also examined. Methods One thousand three hundred fifty patients (response=51%) completed que

  2. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  3. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Medizinische Physik in der Strahlentherapie; Schneider, Uwe [Triemli Hospital and Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine; Poppe, Bjoern [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Medizinische Strahlenphysik

    2009-07-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  4. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... only way to confirm a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment Prostate cancer treatment depends on how serious the cancer ...

  5. Intestinal obstructions following the cervical cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-six intestinal obstructions occured among 2149 patients of cervical cancer treated during period 1961 - 1975. They are divided into four groups, that is, 1.29 cases living with no signs of recurrence after the treatment for obstructions, 2.7 cases that died of obstructions or of complications from its treatment, 3.6 cases that once cured from the obstructions but died from the cancer more than one year after the treatment, 4.24 cases that died from the cancer within one year after the treatment for obstructions. With significantly high incidence, intestinal obstructions are observed with the post-operatory irradiation over 5,000 rads to the whole pelvis or post operatory irradiation using combined telecobalt and small sources. The common sites of obstructions are small intestine to the operated group and sigmoid colon or rectum to the radiotherapy group. Twenty-nine of the patients were treated conservatively and of them 15 are living, intestinal resections and end to end anastomoses were performed to 8 patients, 5 of them are living, but 7 of them suffered from wound disruptions, so the indication for this operation should be carefully decided. (auth.)

  6. Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Riis, Jens Østergaard; Engebjerg, Malene Cramer;

    2010-01-01

    start of adjuvant treatment and after 6 months by neuropsychological tests and questionnaires to evaluate cognitive function, quality of life and psychological distress. Neuropsychological tests did not reveal any differences in cognitive function between breast cancer patients after chemotherapy and......The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive function in patients with early breast cancer before and after adjuvant chemotherapy or 6 months of tamoxifen. We performed a population-based study in the county of North Jutland, Denmark, including 120 women aged <60 years who received adjuvant...... chemotherapy with seven cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluoruracil or adjuvant tamoxifen for 6 months for early breast cancer from 2004 to 2006. They were compared with an aged-matched group of 208 women without previous cancer selected randomly from the same population. Data were collected before...

  7. Breast cancer under age 40: a different approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnikar, D; Ribeiro, J M; Pinto, D; Sousa, B; Pinto, A C; Gomes, E; Moser, E C; Cardoso, M J; Cardoso, F

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) under age 40 is a complex disease to manage due to the additionally fertility-related factors to be taken in consideration. More than 90% of young patients with BC are symptomatic. Womendrugs in managing patients with breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA)-1- or BRCA-2-associated BC. Specific age-related side effects of systemic treatment (e.g., menopausal symptoms, change in body image, bone morbidity, cognitive function impairment, fertility damage, sexual dysfunction) and the social impact of diagnosis and treatment (job discrimination, taking care for children) should also be carefully addressed when planning systemic long-lasting therapy, such as endocrine therapy. Survivorship concerns for young women are different compared to older women, including issues of fertility, preservation, and pregnancy. PMID:25796377

  8. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  9. Cancer treatment: the combination of vaccination with other therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.H.; Sorensen, R.B.; Schrama, D.;

    2008-01-01

    approach to fight cancer, the combination with additional therapy could create a number of synergistic effects. Herein we discuss the possibilities and prospects of vaccination when combined with other treatments. In this regard, cell death upon drug exposure may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic depending...... their escape from cytotoxic therapies represent prime vaccination candidates. The characterization of a high number of tumor antigens allow the concurrent or serial immunological targeting of different proteins associated with such cancer traits. Moreover, while vaccination in itself is a promising new...... tumor cells and endothelial cells. The efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against cancer will over the next few years be studied in settings taking advantage of strategies in which vaccination is combined with other treatment modalities. These combinations should be based on current knowledge not only...

  10. DNA Nanobots as Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek, Stephanie N. A; Laubacher, Alvine K. S; Løbner, Camilla J.; Gjermandsen, Niels-Henrik L.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of nanotechnology, there have been different ideas, on how the technology could enter the field of medicine. In this search, the DNA nanobot is the most promising. The DNA nanobot is complex in reality, but simple and elegant in thought. The concept consists of a drug delivery system, designed by DNA origami, where you fold DNA strands into a desirable shape in 3D, and thereafter place the drug inside. For the DNA nanobot to release the drug, the “locks” have to be activated, and...

  11. Active home-based cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaro S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Bordonaro Fabio Raiti, Annamaria Di Mari, Calogera Lopiano, Fabrizio Romano, Vitalinda Pumo, Sebastiano Rametta Giuliano, Margherita Iacono, Eleonora Lanteri, Elena Puzzo, Sebastiano Spada, Paolo TralongoUOC Medical Oncology, RAO, ASP 8 Siracusa, ItalyBackground: Active home-based treatment represents a new model of health care. Chronic treatment requires continuous access to facilities that provide cancer care, with considerable effort, particularly economic, on the part of patients and caregivers. Oral chemotherapy could be limited as a consequence of poor compliance and adherence, especially by elderly patients.Methods: We selected 30 cancer patients referred to our department and treated with oral therapy (capecitabine, vinorelbine, imatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, temozolomide, ibandronate. This pilot study of oral therapy in the patient’s home was undertaken by a doctor and two nurses with experience in clinical oncology. The instruments used were clinical diaries recording home visits, hospital visits, need for caregiver support, and a questionnaire specially developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC, known as the QLQ-C30 version 2.0, concerning the acceptability of oral treatment from the patient’s perspective.Results: This program decreased the need to access cancer facilities by 98.1%, promoted better quality of life for patients, as reflected in increased EORTC QLQ-C30 scores over time, allowing for greater adherence to oral treatment as a result of control of drug administration outside the hospital. This model has allowed treatment of patients with difficult access to care (elderly, disabled or otherwise needed caregivers that in the project represent the majority (78% of these.Conclusions: This model of active home care improves quality of life and adherence with oral therapy, reduces the need to visit the hospital, and consequently decreases the number of lost hours of work on

  12. Plasma Onco-Immunotherapy: Novel Approach to Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Presentation is reviewing the newest results obtained by researchers of A.J. Drexel Plasma Institute on direct application of non-thermal plasma for direct treatment of different types of cancer by means of specific stimulation of immune system in the frameworks of the so-called onco-immunotherapy. Especial attention is paid to analysis of depth of penetration of different plasma-medical effects, from ROS, RNS, and ions to special biological signaling and immune system related processes. General aspects of the plasma-stimulation of immune system are discussed, pointing out specific medical applications. Most of experiments have been carried out using nanosecond pulsed DBD at low power and relatively low level of treatment doses, guaranteeing non-damage no-toxicity treatment regime. The nanosecond pulsed DBD physics is discussed mostly regarding its space uniformity and control of plasma parameters relevant to plasma medical treatment, and especially relevant to depth of penetration of different plasma medical effects. Detailed mechanism of the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy has been suggested based upon preliminary in-vitro experiments with DBD treatment of different cancer cells. Sub-elements of this mechanism related to activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, specific stressing of cancer cells and the immunogenic cell death (ICD) are to be discussed based on results of corresponding in-vitro experiments. In-vivo experiments focused on the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy were carried out in collaboration with medical doctors from Jefferson University hospital of Philadelphia. Todays achievements and nearest future prospective of clinical test focused on plasma-controlled cancer treatment are discussed in conclusion.

  13. An Overview: Treatment of Lung Cancer on Researcher Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Javeria Amin

    2015-01-01

    Cancers is defined as the uncontrolled cell divisions. Cell does not grow maturely and destined to uncontrolled cell growth. When these cells of lungs grow uncontrolled it is called lung cancer. Nowadays mortality rate due to lung cancer is increasing day by day. Many treatment and diagnoses are now a day’s available to deal with lung cancer. Here we disused different method for diagnosis the common types of lung cancer Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cancer, Small Cell Lung Cance...

  14. Clinicopathological classification and individualized treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LIU Yin-hua; XU Ling; ZHAO Jian-xin; DUAN Xue-ning; YE Jing-ming; LI Ting

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinicopathological classification was proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.We conducted a retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,tumor-nodal-metastatic (TNM) staging,and histopathological grade to investigate the value of these parameters in the treatment strategies of invasive breast cancer.Methods A retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,TNM staging,and histopathological grading of 213 cases has been performed by the methods recommended in the St.Gallen International Expert Consensus Report 2011.The estrogen receptor (ER),progesterone receptor (PR),human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2),and Ki-67 of 213 tumor samples have been investigated by immunohistochemistry according to methods for classifying breast cancer subtypes proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.Results The luminal A subtype was found in 53 patients (24.9%),the luminal B subtype was found in 112 patients (52.6%),the HER2-positive subtype was found in 22 patients (10.3%),and the triple-negative subtype was found in 26 patients (12%).Histopathological grade and TNM staging differed significantly among the four subtypes of breast cancer (P<0.001).Conclusion It is important to consider TNM staging and histopathological grading in the treatment strategies of breast cancer based on the current clinicopathological classification methods.

  15. Theophylline in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanseli Efeoğlu Gönlügür

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is a drug used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. It inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase, thereby preventing the intracellular break-down of cyclic AMP. Potentially beneficial therapeutic effects of theophylline include bronchial smooth-muscle relaxation, enhanced mucociliary transport, decrease in pulmonary hypertension, improved diaphragmatic contractility, and central stimulation of ventilation. On the other hand, theophylline evokes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in human breast cancer cells. Theophylline-treated melanoma cells exhibit low adhesion to laminin/collagen type IV. Consequently, theophylline possesses the capacity to inhibit not only cell proliferation, but also the metastatic behaviour of melanoma cells. This drug prevents neovascularization of the tumor by blocking endothelial cell proliferation. The combination of theophylline with cytotoxic drugs may permit a reduction in the effective dose needed in chemotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients. It has also a prophylactic effect on the nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin. However, this drug may inhibit small cell lung cancer cells but stimulate pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. It is necessary to perform large, prospective studies for the exact role of theophylline on each type of lung cancer.

  16. When You and Your Family Differ on Treatment Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up independence and the effect on lifestyle and finances Fatigue or exhaustion from current treatment Denial or ... Find a Cancer Doctor ASCO Conquer Cancer Foundation Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Oncology Practice ASCO ...

  17. Cooperative study in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of surgical treatment of early breast cancers are discussed. Radical mastectomy for stage 1 tumor and a modified mastectomy after Patey - for stage 2 were shown to be feasible. A cooperative randomized study on therapy of localized stage 2b and 3b breast tumors made the case for application of polychemotherapy and radio-therapy as a components of combined and multimodulity therapy

  18. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varkey, Prashanth; Liu, Yi-Tien; Tan, Ngian Chye

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. Multimodality treatment is often the only way to achieve improved function, quality of life, and survival, calling for a multidisciplinary team approach, particularly in view of the rapid advances being made in various fields. The roles of the head and neck surgeon and reconstructive surgeon are discussed, together with the input afforded by specialists in areas such as diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, medical onco...

  19. Cancer Cachexia: Classification, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Tora Skeidsvoll

    2014-01-01

    Cachexia is a very common condition in patients with cancer and it has detrimental effects on both mortality and morbidity. Cachexia is characterized by progressive unintentional loss of muscle mass, with or without loss of fat mass.When the work on this thesis started there was neither any efficient treatment available against cachexia nor a consensus on how to define or classify the condition. The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to the improvement of classification and treatmen...

  20. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D; Mehra, Rohit; Kenneth J Pienta

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer pre...

  1. Cancer treatment-related cardiac toxicity: prevention, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Ibrahim; Dillon, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Cancer therapies, especially anthracyclines and monoclonal antibodies, have been linked with increased rates of cardiotoxicity. The development of some cardiac side effects happens over several months, and changes in ejection fraction can be detected long before permanent damage or disability occurs. Advanced heart failure could be averted with better and earlier detection. Methodologies for early detection of cardiac changes include stress echocardiograms, cardiac velocity measurements, radionuclide imaging, cardiac MRI and several potential biomarkers. Many agents have been described for prophylaxis of cardiac events precipitated by cancer therapy. Prophylactic use of beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors may be considered for use with trastuzumab in breast cancer as tolerated. Recovery of cardiac function is possible early after the injury from a cancer therapy. Late complications for coronary artery disease, hypertension and arrhythmia are underappreciated. Treatments for severe cancer therapy-related cardiac complications follow the existing paradigms for congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease, although outcomes for cancer patients differ from outcomes for non-cancer patients. PMID:27372782

  2. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rebecca SY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.

  3. Cardiotoxicity of oncologic treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac affectation by neoplastic diseases may be due to the heart invasion produced by itself tumor, compression of the heart and / or great vessels by noncardiac neoplasms, most commonly embolization and therapeutic purposes antitumor. Cancer treatment has experienced significant progress in recent decades by the great expansion of chemotherapeutic agents and the refinement of radiotherapy techniques; however, many of the most effective drugs antineoplastic and thoracic irradiation cause both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Thus, the long-term monitoring of patients receiving anthracycline drugs Crucial in the therapy of many neoplasms, demonstrates clinical heart failure in 4.5 to 7% of patients, increasing the incidence of defects in the cardiac function over time. Its pathogenesis is likely included in the formation of free radicals, alterations calcium transport, dysfunction or adrenergic amines glass release active. Dex razoxane is the only clinically used cardio protective marketed for selected group of patients with breast cancer, it is necessary development of new agents that protect the cardiotoxicity of this group of drugs and reduce morbidity and secondary mortality to them. In this work, the tracking shows 4 patients with breast cancer who had received treatment with anthracyclines and the cardiotoxic manifestation suffered, resulting in changes in their treatment, and in one of the patients was used cardio protective medication

  4. Cryosurgery for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, H B

    1980-08-01

    Cryosurgery is that branch of cryobiology and surgery which deals with the therapeutic application of cold at profoundly low temperatures (those below 0 degrees C) for the purpose of destroying tissues in selected target sites. The freezing process induces coagulation necrosis and is confined to the tissues within the region of the probe application and the ice ball. The degree and extent of tissue destruction depend largely on the size of the ice ball and the temperatures within it. Various types of equipment and probes are commercially available for cryosurgery, but it was only after the development of reliable, versatile cryosurgical systems cooled by liquid nitrogen that numerous applications for cryosurgery were proposed, including therapy for cancer. In the treatment of cancer, clinical success with cryosurgery has led to the more wide-spread application of this modality in selected patients. Cryosurgery has been used for readily accessible lesions in specific anatomic areas, most frequently the skin and oral cavity. It is an attractive alternative to extirpative surgery, particularly in the head and neck, where removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla are often required to control cancer. Therefore, it is not surprising that many of the pioneering efforts in the treatment of cancer have been conducted by otorhinolaryngologists. The full theoretic potential of cryotherapy was somewhat slow to be realized because many early endeavors were directed toward palliation, especially of accessible tumors of the skin and oral cavity, after failure of tumor control by radiation or surgery or both. This limited application during the early period of evaluation reflected a naturally timorous course that was taken by those who introduced the new modality into clinical practice. This period paralleled the development of new apparatus, early clinical trials, and the assessment of the clinical potential of cryosurgery in patients with incurable cancer

  5. Advances in immunotherapy for treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different approaches for treating lung cancer have been developed over time, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies against activating mutations. Lately, better understanding of the role of the immunological system in tumor control has opened multiple doors to implement different strategies to enhance immune response against cancer cells. It is known that tumor cells elude immune response by several mechanisms. The development of monoclonal antibodies against the checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), on T cells, has led to high activity in cancer patients with long lasting responses. Nivolumab, an anti PD-1 inhibitor, has been recently approved for the treatment of squamous cell lung cancer patients, given the survival advantage demonstrated in a phase III trial. Pembrolizumab, another anti PD-1 antibody, has received FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), supported by data from a phase I trial. Clinical trials with anti PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in NSCLC have demonstrated very good tolerability and activity, with response rates around 20% and a median duration of response of 18 months

  6. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Jannasch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. We compared cohorts treated in certified and noncertified hospitals regarding preoperative variables and perioperative outcomes. Outcomes were verified by matched-pair analysis. Results. Patients of noncertified hospitals had higher ASA-scores, higher prevalence of risk factors, more distant metastases, lower tumour localization, lower frequency of pelvic MRI, and higher frequencies of missing values and undetermined TNM classifications (significant differences only. Outcome analysis revealed more general complications in certified hospitals (20.3% versus 17.4%, p=0.03. Both cohorts did not differ significantly in percentage of R0-resections, intraoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, in-hospital death, and abdominal wall dehiscence. Conclusions. The concept of BCC is a step towards improving the structural and procedural quality. This is a good basis for improving outcome quality but cannot replace it. For a primary surgical disease like rectal cancer a specific, surgery-targeted program is still needed.

  7. Advances in immunotherapy for treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean G Bustamante Alvarez; Mara Gonzlez-Cao; Niki Karachaliou; Mariacarmela Santarpia; Santiago Viteri; Cristina Teixid; Rafael Rosell

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches for treating lung cancer have been developed over time, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies against activating mutations. Lately, better understanding of the role of the immunological system in tumor control has opened multiple doors to implement different strategies to enhance immune response against cancer cells. It is known that tumor cells elude immune response by several mechanisms. The development of monoclonal antibodies against the checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), on T cells, has led to high activity in cancer patients with long lasting responses. Nivolumab, an anti PD-1 inhibitor, has been recently approved for the treatment of squamous cell lung cancer patients, given the survival advantage demonstrated in a phase III trial. Pembrolizumab, another anti PD-1 antibody, has received FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), supported by data from a phase I trial. Clinical trials with anti PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in NSCLC have demonstrated very good tolerability and activity, with response rates around 20% and a median duration of response of 18 months.

  8. HIFU for Palliative Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies, with only a 6 % 5-year survival rate and over 50 % of patients being diagnosed at the advanced stage. Current therapies are ineffective, and the treatment of patients with advanced disease is palliative. In the past decade, HIFU ablation has emerged as a modality for palliative treatment of pancreatic tumors. Multiple preclinical and non-randomized clinical trials have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Substantial tumor-related pain reduction was achieved in most cases after HIFU treatment and few significant side effects were observed. In addition, some studies indicate that combination of HIFU ablation with chemotherapy may provide a survival benefit. This chapter summarizes the pre-clinical and clinical experience obtained to date in HIFU treatment of pancreatic tumors and discusses the challenges, limitations and new approaches in this modality. PMID:26486333

  9. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Crauciuc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  10. [Advancement in the treatment against prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Abe, Takashige; Maruyama, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of basic science and medical technology, the treatment against prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically changed. Although the introduction of robotic radical prostatectomy and particle therapies in patients with early stage PC is of much note, the issues on the over-treatment and treatment cost should be heeded. From these points, active surveillance has been an important strategy in these patients. In patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PC, especially high volume metastases, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with docetaxel has been reported to prolong overall survival compared with ADT alone. Lastly, several novel therapeutic agents have been investigated and shown to be favorable outcomes in patients with castration resistant PC. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the treatment against PCs. PMID:26793875

  11. Treatment of primary cancer of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of treatment of 252 cases of cancer of the penis were evaluated. Indications for available methods of treatment with regard to patient's age, stage and size of primary tumor were worked out. Conservative treatment should be given to cases of T1 and T2 tumors, combined treatmemt-T3, and palliative therapy-T4 neoplasms. An experience with cryodestruction of tumor in combination with chemotherapy is discussed. More advantage seems to be offered by application of radiation treatment in such cases. Three- and five-year survival rates for stage 1 tumors were 98.6 and 97.5%, stage 2-84.5 and 83.3% stage 3-26.2 and 24.9% irrespective of the procedure. Not a single patient with stage 4 tumor survived over one year

  12. Investigation of treatment strategy for advanced cancer according to treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Kecheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of pancreatic cancer diagnoses are made at the advanced stage and when metastasis has already occurred, and the 1- and 5-year survival rates are extremely low. Cemcitabine remains the most frequently applied treatment option, yet the most effective chemotherapeutic agents and combinations with multiple agents and/or radiotherapy only marginally improve patient survival and may even establish an environment conducive to cancer cells with stem cell-like characteristics. An alternative treatment modality, cryoablation, is available and has been applied at our institute to patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer since 2001. In this article, we present our collective experience with patient outcome using cryoablation, alone or combined with other treatment modalities such as brachytherapy (125iodine seed implantation. The overall outcomes have been encouraging, suggesting that comprehensive therapy including cryoablation may prolong the survival of patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, and we are achieving particular success with a novel combination of percutaneous cryoablation, cancer microvascular intervention with 125iodine seed implantation, and combined immunotherapy (3C applied using an individualized patient strategy (P. The 1- through 10-year survival rates of 145 patients treated with the so-called “3C+P model” are presented in support of this new strategy as a promising new treatment for advanced and metastatic cancer

  13. The Impact of Cancer Treatment on the Diets and Food Preferences of Patients Receiving Outpatient Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Coa, Kisha I.; Epstein, Joel B; Ettinger, David; Jatoi, Aminah; McManus, Kathy; Platek, Mary E.; Price, Wendy; Stewart, Meghan; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing cancer treatment experience a multitude of symptoms that can influence their ability to complete treatment as well as their quality of life during and after treatment. This cross-sectional study sought to describe the dietary changes experienced by cancer patients and to identify associations between these changes and common treatment symptoms. A convenience sample of 1199 cancer patients aged 18 yr and older undergoing active treatment were recruited from 7 cancer centers...

  14. Influence of platelet-activating factor, lyso-platelet-activating factor and edelfosine on Langmuir monolayers imitating plasma membranes of cell lines differing in susceptibility to anti-cancer treatment: the effect of plasmalogen level

    OpenAIRE

    Flasiński, Michał; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Wydro, Paweł; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Three structurally related but differing in biological activities single-chained ether phospholipids (PAF (platelet-activating factor) and lyso-PAF) and an anti-cancer drug (edelfosine (ED)) were investigated in Langmuir monolayers imitating natural membranes. The aim of the undertaken experiments was to study the influence of these lipids on monolayers mimicking plasma membranes of cell lines differing in susceptibility to the anti-cancer activity of ED, i.e. promyelocytic leukaemia cells (H...

  15. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients, the importance of the quality of life (QOL is increasingly recognized. This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment. We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36 to collect QOL information. Based on SF-36, we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011. A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions, 93 with early cancer, and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey. Average physical component summary (PCS scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05. Average mental component summary (MCS scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05. Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions. However, they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1 and 6 months after treatment. Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer. Additionally, patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions. Thus, early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  16. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  17. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Barroetavena Maria; Yavari Parvin; Hislop T Greg; Bajdik Chris D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumou...

  18. Cosmetic evaluation of breast conserving treatment for mammary cancer. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on surgical treatment techniques, radiation doses and fraction sizes on cosmetic outcome were analysed in patients with stage I and II breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery and a wide range of radiotherapy doses. The individual impact of different treatment parameters and patient-related factors was assessed by using both qualitative scoring and quantitative measurements. The validity of the system was tested by correlating the measurements with the subjective scoring, for each of the different factors assessed. (author). 23 refs; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  20. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  1. Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, G; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males. In most cases, no curative treatment options are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer as these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted drug delivery, usin

  2. What's New in Pancreatic Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEE A LIST » What’s new in pancreatic cancer research? Previous Topic Living as a pancreatic cancer survivor Next Topic Additional resources for pancreatic cancer What’s new in pancreatic cancer research? Research into the causes , diagnosis , and treatment of ...

  3. What's New in Esophageal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download Printable Version [PDF] » What`s New in Esophagus Cancer Research? TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What’s ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Esophagus Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  4. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Marques,1 José MF Ferreira,1 Ecaterina Andronescu,2 Denisa Ficai,2 Maria Sonmez,3 Anton Ficai21Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 3National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, RomaniaAbstract: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multifunctionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative, cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin, and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl. The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies.Keywords: bone graft, cancer, collagen, magnetite, cytostatics, silver

  5. Toremifene in the treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Mika VJ; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Although more widespread screening and routine adjuvant therapy has improved the outcome for breast cancer patients in recent years, there remains considerable scope for improving the efficacy, safety and tolerability of adjuvant therapy in the early stage disease and the treatment of advanced disease. Toremifene is a selective estrogen receptor modifier (SERM) that has been widely used for decades in hormone receptor positive breast cancer both in early and late stage disease. Its efficacy has been well established in nine prospective randomized phase III trials compared to tamoxifen involving more than 5500 patients, as well as in several large uncontrolled and non-randomized studies. Although most studies show therapeutic equivalence between the two SERMs, some show an advantage for toremifene. Several meta-analyses have also confirmed that the efficacy of toremifene is at least as good as that of tamoxifen. In terms of safety and tolerability toremifene is broadly similar to tamoxifen although there is some evidence that toremifene is less likely to cause uterine neoplasms, serious vascular events and it has a more positive effect on serum lipids than does tamoxifen. Toremifene is therefore effective and safe in the treatment of breast cancer. It provides not only a useful therapeutic alternative to tamoxifen, but may bring specific benefits. PMID:25114854

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the outline of the present diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer essentially based on its therapeutic guideline by the Japan Breast Cancer Society (2005) and on authors' experiences. The diagnosis item contains the medical interview of patients, observatory and palpating examinations, mammography (for this, Japan-Breast Imaging Recording and Data System), ultrasonography (guideline for sonographic diagnosis of mammary gland, 2004), fine needle aspiration (FNA) or aspiration biopsy cytology, bases of triple test (palpation, mammography and FNA) for the cancer diagnosis, core needle biopsy, and mammotome biopsy of non-palpable calcified lesion. The treatment item contains the surgery involving conservation, sentinel lymph node biopsy (for this, lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-phytate is illustrated), radiofrequency ablation, adjuvant chemotherapy essentially using anthracycline and taxane, endocrinological therapy using tamoxifen, LH-RH analogues and aromatase inhibitors, and molecular target therapy with HER2 monoclonal antibody like trastuzumab. Recent progress of systemic therapy with medicals is remarkable, and the educational promotion of experts and medicare circumstances are concluded to be important. (R.T.)

  7. Theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Lee

    The main focus of this research was to evaluate the ability of a novel multifunctional nanoparticle to mediate drug delivery and enable a non-invasive approach to measure drug release kinetics in situ for the treatment of cancer. These goals were approached by developing a nanoparticle consisting of an inorganic core (i.e. gadolinium sulfoxide doped with europium ions or carbon nanotubes). This was coated with an external amphiphilic polymer shell comprised of a biodegradable polyester (i.e. poly(lactide) or poly(glycolide)), and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer. In this system, the inorganic core mediates the imaging aspect, the relatively hydrophobic polyester encapsulates hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, and poly(ethylene glycol) stabilizes the nanoparticle in an aqueous environment. The synthesis of this nanoparticle drug delivery system utilized a simple one-pot room temperature ring-opening polymerization that neglected the use of potentially toxic catalysts and reduced the number of washing steps. This functionalization approach could be applied across a number of inorganic nanoparticle platforms. Coating inorganic nanoparticles with biodegradable polymer was shown to decrease in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Nanoparticles could be further coated with multiple polymer layers to better control drug release characteristics. Finally, loading polymer coated radioluminescent nanoparticles with photoactive drugs enabled a mechanism for measuring drug concentration in situ. The work presented here represents a step forward to developing theranostic nanoparticles that can improve the treatment of cancer.

  8. Current and emerging treatments for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regine, W F; John, W J; Mohiuddin, M

    1997-10-01

    The worldwide annual pancreatic cancer death rate equals its estimated annual incidence. Surgery has been considered the only curative modality for this disease, but only 5 to 15% of patients are candidates for potentially curative resection. Evidence that postoperative adjuvant treatment improves outcome has been limited to a single randomised trial of a well tolerated split-course chemoradiation regimen. More intensive regimens have since been developed and are associated with, at best, a modest improvement in patient outcome. The potentially significant morbidity associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy, which can compromise the delivery of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation, has led to the development of preoperative adjuvant ('neoadjuvant') chemoradiation in these patients. Although experience suggests that such an approach is feasible, its ultimate impact awaits further evaluation. Combined modality therapy has produced the most promising results in patients with unresectable or locally advanced disease. However, only modest improvements in median survival and minimal increases in long term survival have so far been achieved. This observation has encouraged many investigators to devise innovative methods of delivering therapy, including radioisotope implantation and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Combined modality therapy with radioisotope implantation appears to have the greatest potential for improving local control and survival in these patients. IORT may be associated with lower morbidity than radioisotope implantation, but its impact may be limited by the radiobiological disadvantage associated with single dose boost therapy. Although new radiosensitising drugs are being tested, the problem of distant metastasis remains significant. New chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine appear to have the potential to produce better results than those achieved over the last 35 years with fluorouracil. Investigations into the optimal integration of

  9. Psychological Implications of Cancer Treatment in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia OPRIŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article involves some theoretical aspects of a very difficult topic. Emergence and treatment of cancer in pregnancy is a challenging task for specialists who are supposed to offer treatment, care and support therapy. Psychotherapy also has some distinct features due to the specific characteristics of a pregnant woman. Given these cases are rare, the importance of promoting this subject in the psychologist’s and physician’s world is very important. The idea of progress is based on this kind of work, related to very difficult and specific cases, which implies a collaboration in pluridisciplinary teams. General psychological aspects, the announcement of diagnosis, psychological phases in regaining balance during therapy, psychological effects during treatment, mobilization of the fighting spirit and a reduction in depression and anxiety are only some of the important aspects we propose here.

  10. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  11. [Integration of nutritional care into cancer treatment: need for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Caroline; Jacqueline-Ravel, Nathalie; Pugliesi-Rinaldi, Angela; Bigler-Perrotin, Lucienne; Chikhi, Marinette; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Dulguerov, Pavel; Miralbell, Raymond; Picard-Kossovsky, Michel; Seium, Yodit; Thériault, Michel; Pichard, Claude

    2011-11-16

    Progresses in cancer treatment transformed cancer into a chronic disease associated with growing nutritional problems. Poor nutritional status of cancer patients worsens morbidity, mortality, overall cost of care and decreases patients' quality of life, oncologic treatments tolerance and efficacy. These adverse effects lead to treatment modifications or interruptions, reducing the chances to control or cure cancer. Implementation of an interdisciplinary and longitudinal integration of nutritional care and nutritional information into cancer treatment (The OncoNut Program) could prevent or treat poor nutritional status and its adversely side effects. PMID:22400355

  12. The Clinical Efficacy of Domestic Biliary Metallic Stents in the Management of Bile Duct Cancer Combined with Different Anti-cancer Treatments%国产胆道金属支架联合抗肿瘤治疗胆管癌的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腾飞; 李臻; 韩新巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of domestic biliary metallic stents in the management of bile duct cancer combined with different anti-cancer treatments. Materials and Methods Clinic data of 35 bile duct cancer patients that taken both stenting and anti-cancer treatment and 38 patients that only taken single stenting were analyzed and compared to see if there were difference in clinical efficacy between the two groups. Results There was significant difference in survival rate and stent patency rate between the group of combined with different anti-cancer treatments and group of simple stenting( x2 = 12. 141, P = 0. 000 < O. 05; x2 = 12. 792, P = O. 000 < O. 05 ). 17 patients received three-dimensional radiation therapy, 15 patients received chemotherapy and 3 patients were combined with both three-dimensional radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Comparing with the single stenting group, each of the three groups had significant difference in survival rate and stent patency rate ( P < O. 05 ). But there were no significant differences in survival rate and stent patency rate during the three groups(x2 =l.092,P=0.579>O. 05;x2 =0.517,P=0.772 >0.05). Conclusion The domestic biliary metallic stent insertion combined with different anti-cancer treatments can increase survival rate and stent patency rate in the patients with bile duct cancer, it is a safe and effective therapy method.%目的 探讨国产胆道金属支架联合抗肿瘤治疗胆管癌的疗效.资料与方法 回顾性分析35例因胆管癌行国产胆道金属支架置入并联合抗肿瘤治疗的患者临床资料(治疗组)并与38例仅单纯行金属支架治疗者(对照组)行随机对照研究,观察其疗效.结果 在生存时间和支架的通畅时间方面联合抗肿瘤组较对照组均明显延长,差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.141,P=0.0000.05;χ2=0.517,P=0.772>0.05).结论 国产胆道金属支架联合抗肿瘤治疗能显著延长患者生存时间和支架通畅

  13. Adjusting to life after treatment: distress and quality of life following treatment for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Costanzo, E S; Lutgendorf, S.K.; Mattes, M L; Trehan, S; Robinson, C B; Tewfik, F; Roman, S L

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and anecdotal findings suggest that the completion of cancer treatment may be marked by heightened distress and disrupted adjustment. The present study examined psychological adjustment during the 3 months following treatment among 89 women with stages 0–III breast cancer. Participants completed measures of depression, cancer-related anxiety, cancer concerns, and quality of life at three time points: during treatment, 3 weeks following the end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatmen...

  14. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel ... number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, ...

  15. The treatment gap of depression in persons with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levav, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of depression showed that the rates are high. For example, the World Mental Health Survey, an epidemiologic community study conducted in 28 countries, found a life-time prevalence rate that ranged from 3.3 % in Nigeria to 21.4% % in the US. With regard to persons with cancer, 12.5% of a sample of over 17,000 respondents over the age of 50 of a US survey of community-dwelling adults found that people that reported they had cancer had higher risk of fatigue (OR =1.5 95% CI 1.3-1.6); depression (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4) and pain (OR =1.2, 95% CI 1.03-1.3.).The rate of depression seems to be differently associated with cancer site. For example: It is higher in pancreatic cancer (33%-50%) and lung (11%-44%), and it is lower in lymphoma (8%-19%) and colon (13% and 25%). For breast cancer--likely the most studied cancer site- the prevalence ranges from 1.5% to 46%. Ciaramelli and Poli (2001) found that depressed persons had more pain and metastasis than the non-depressed but no more lifetime depression that the non-depressed. In terminally patients, studies have found that the higher the level of disability the higher the rates of depression. Interestingly, while almost all studies of depression in the community found higher rates in women than in men--this is far from the rule among persons with cancer. Despite the marked burden and the existence of effective treatment, a very large proportion of the persons with depression remain untreated. The causes to be imputed for the treatment gap are of different nature. Some of these causes are related to the suffering person, to the social context and to the health system. Often, the treating physicians fail to identify depression and to treat it properly. For example, in one evaluation of 456 outpatients with solid tumors a minority (14%) of the depressed were identified as such. Why is it important to assess depression in persons with cancer? Untreated depression both enhances the risks to life and it lowers

  16. The Multifaceted Role of Curcumin in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu K. Shanmugam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in treatment modalities over the last decade, neither the incidence of the disease nor the mortality due to cancer has altered in the last thirty years. Available anti-cancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy, associated with severe side effects, and are also expensive. Thus identification of pharmacological agents that do not have these disadvantages is required. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcumin longa, is one such agent that has been extensively studied over the last three to four decades for its potential anti-inflammatory and/or anti-cancer effects. Curcumin has been found to suppress initiation, progression, and metastasis of a variety of tumors. These anti-cancer effects are predominantly mediated through its negative regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other oncogenic molecules. It also abrogates proliferation of cancer cells by arresting them at different phases of the cell cycle and/or by inducing their apoptosis. The current review focuses on the diverse molecular targets modulated by curcumin that contribute to its efficacy against various human cancers.

  17. The multifaceted role of curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Muthu K; Rane, Grishma; Kanchi, Madhu Mathi; Arfuso, Frank; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Tan, Benny K H; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment modalities over the last decade, neither the incidence of the disease nor the mortality due to cancer has altered in the last thirty years. Available anti-cancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy, associated with severe side effects, and are also expensive. Thus identification of pharmacological agents that do not have these disadvantages is required. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcumin longa), is one such agent that has been extensively studied over the last three to four decades for its potential anti-inflammatory and/or anti-cancer effects. Curcumin has been found to suppress initiation, progression, and metastasis of a variety of tumors. These anti-cancer effects are predominantly mediated through its negative regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other oncogenic molecules. It also abrogates proliferation of cancer cells by arresting them at different phases of the cell cycle and/or by inducing their apoptosis. The current review focuses on the diverse molecular targets modulated by curcumin that contribute to its efficacy against various human cancers. PMID:25665066

  18. [Coproductive teamwork in surgical cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshiro; Harihara, Yasushi; Furushima, Kaoru

    2013-04-01

    With regard to surgical treatment of cancer, there is a strong demand for safe treatment with few errors: treatment must be based on transparency, understandability, and rationality. There is also demand for treatment which is quick, efficient and not wasteful. Rather than maintaining our current pyramidal system which has doctors standing as authorities at the top, there is a need for a flat, non-authoritarian system at every level and section of the hospital. As we change methodology, electronic medical records and clinical pathways will be important tools. Among the surgical department's treatment team in our hospital, there are many branches at work on peri-operative management aside from operations; There are teams for infection control (ICT), nutrition support (NST), decubitus and stoma management, rehabilitaion, and chemotherapy, and team cooperation after discharge from hospital. In addition, the collaborative and coproductive team focusing on pain releif and palliative care in terminal phase (PCT) is important. Having introduced each of the parts of team treatment within the setting of the surgical department, the need now for strong leadership from young and brightful surgeons is also emphasized. PMID:23848009

  19. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelec, K.

    1997-07-01

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer.

  20. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer

  1. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers...

  2. [Development of Precision Medicine in the Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fengwei; Li, Ning; Gao, Shugeng; He, Jie

    2016-06-20

    Precision medicine is to developing the most appropriate individualized treatment for each patient based on the macro to the micro level of individual differences. Genomic, proteomics, metabolomics data, and other big data analysis methods are the essence of precision medicine. Precision medicine brings the hope to overcome cancer. Among all kinds of tumors, lung cancer is the biggest threat to human. This paper reviewed the development of precision medicine in the surgical treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27335287

  3. Vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-Chun Chiang; Tai C Chen

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is ranked fifth among cancer-related deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Currently, surgery is the only effective therapy. However, most patients are diagnosed in the late stage and are not suitable for receiving curative surgery. Moreover, pancreatic cancer doesn't respond well to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy,leaving little effective treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer cases. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], the biologically active form of vitamin D3, was originally identified during studies of calcium and bone metabolism, though it is now recognized that it exerts biological effects in almost every tissue in the body. Abundant evidence has shown that 1α,25(OH)2D3 has antiproliferative, apoptotic, pro-differentiation and antiangiogensis effects in many types of cancer cells invivoand in vitro, including breast, prostate, and colon.Similarly, the antitumor growth effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 on pancreatic cells has been demonstrated. The clinical use of 1α,25(OH)2D3 is impeded by the lethal side effects of hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. Therefore,1α,25(OH)2D3 analogs, which are either equipotent or more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting tumor cell growth but with fewer hypercalcemic and hypercalciuric side effects, have been developed for the treatment of different cancers. Recently, a preclinical study demonstrated that a less calcemic analog of 1α,25(OH)2D3, 19-nor-1α,25(OH)2D2 (Paricalcitol),is effective in inhibiting tumor growth invitroand invivo, viaupregulation of p21 and p27 tumor suppressor genes. Studies on the anti-tumor effects of a more potent analog of Paricalcitol are underway.1α,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs are potentially attractive novel therapies for pancreatic cancer.(c) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment Considerations for Cancer Pain: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Gharibo, Christopher; Ho, Kok-Yuen

    2015-11-01

    Cancer pain is prevalent, undertreated, and feared by patients with cancer. In April 2013, a panel of pain experts convened in Singapore to address the treatment of cancer pain. They discussed the various types of cancer pain, including breakthrough pain, which is sometimes clinically confused with analgesic gaps. Reasons for undertreating cancer pain include attitudes of patients, clinicians, and factors associated with healthcare systems. The consequences of not treating cancer pain may include reduced quality of life for patients with cancer (who now live longer than ever), functional decline, and increased psychological stress. Early analgesic intervention for cancer pain may reduce the risk of central sensitization and chronification of pain. To manage pain in oncology patients, clinicians should assess pain during regular follow-up visits using validated pain measurement tools and follow prescribing guidelines, if necessary referring patients with cancer to pain specialists. Many patients with cancer require opioids for pain relief. Pain associated with cancer may also relate to cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Many patients with cancer are what might be considered "special populations," in that they may be elderly, frail, comorbid, or have end-stage organ failure. Specific pain therapy guidelines for those populations are reviewed. Patients with cancer with a history of or active substance abuse disorder deserve pain control but may require close medical supervision. While much "treatment inertia" exists in cancer pain control, cancer pain can be safely and effectively managed and should be carried out to alleviate suffering and improve outcomes. PMID:25469726

  5. Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158339.html Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment: ... therapy for rectal cancer in the United States, only slightly more than half of patients receive it, ...

  6. Lung cancer: district active treatment rates affect survival

    OpenAIRE

    CARTMAN, M.; Hatfield, A; Muers, M; Peake, M; Haward, R; Forman, D

    2002-01-01

    Design: A retrospective study of population based data held by the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), comparing active treatment rates for lung cancer with survival by districts.

  7. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  8. Cancer risk after cyclophosphamide treatment in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.A. van den; Dijk, P.R. van; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide treatment improves renal survival in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, use of cyclophosphamide is associated with cancer. The incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy was evaluated, and the cancer

  9. Elderly with Advanced Colon Cancer Often Get Costly, Dubious Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157714.html Elderly With Advanced Colon Cancer Often Get Costly, Dubious Treatments: Study Drugs come ... far more often to elderly patients with advanced colon cancer, but they offer almost no benefit, a new ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  12. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  13. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  14. Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  15. Thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer: does it make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is a disease with varied rates of growth and prognosis. A number of factors, including adequacy of follow-up after surgery, impact on the overall morbidity and mortality. Thyroglobulin (Tg) as tumor marker has been used in the surveillance of thyroid cancer particularly the differentiated type. It has a distinctive role in influencing decision-making whether to monitor thyroid medical suppression periodically or to implement further therapeutic interventions in the face of recurrent disease. We have made an anlysis of 60 thyroid cancer cases where Tg was used to discriminate between those likely to have recurrence or not. A Tg value of 10 ng/ml showed recurrences (83.3%) (p<0.001). On this basis, a practical guide in the form of an algorithm was formulated to help physicians in resolving contentious issues in post-operative management. In summary, Tg makes a lot of difference in the approach to diagnosis and further treatment of recurrent thyroid cancer and offers itself as a cost-effective and efficient determinant for long-term optimal outcome. (author)

  16. The effect of fasting on the important molecular mechanisms related to cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Keyvani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fasting does have remarkable benefits in the treatment of cancer and another diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and a multitude of other chronic diseases. It has been determined that fasting could play an important role during cancer treatment and progression via the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 as well as other growth factors. Also, it has been shown that fasting would enhance the chemotherapy effect in cancer patients, selectively protects normal cells and organisms from chemotherapy toxicity, while simultaneously sensitizing tumors. In this article, we discuss the benefits of fasting in the treatment of cancer through several different molecular pathways.

  17. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient different treatment options. Part of the assessment of whether they can be surgical candidates, you ... pulmonary function test, you know, to get an assessment of their lung function, and then make a ...

  18. Stem cell technology and engineering for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sinh Truong Nguyen; Phuc Van Pham

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are not only widely used for regenerative medicine, but are also considered as a useful tool for cancer treatment. For a long time, stem cells have been utilized to renew the immune system for radiation or chemotherapy treated patients. Recently, stem cells are being engineered to carry therapeutic reagents to target tumor sites. Cancer vaccines based on the knowledge of cancer stem cells have been studied and applied for cancer treatment. Induced pluripotent stem cells have been u...

  19. Molecular markers′ progress of breast cancer treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Jingwei Xu; Guang Shi; Guanghao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a famous malignant tumor which is caused by varieties of mutation in multiple genes. In order to detect breast cancer in an earlier time and take appropriate treatment which includes  predicting treatment efficacy, we need a more accurate method of discovering the occurrence of breast cancer. With the development of molecular biology and biological detection technologies continue to emerge, molecular markers of breast cancer have gaining more and more widespread attention, an...

  20. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Olof Jannasch; Andrej Udelnow; Stefanie Wolff; Hans Lippert; Pawel Mroczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010....

  1. Determining true difference between treatment groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien J. Cardinal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author reviews the P value and how it is used to determine true difference of outcome in treatment groups. P value, standard deviation, standard error of the mean, bias, and confidence interval are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and with clinical examples.

  2. Upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)

  3. Treatment of colorectal cancer - distance results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances about carcinogenesis and natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC,particularly the establishment of filiations polyp-cancer, are important objectives for a new approach to diagnosis of this disease. Decade 1990-2000 was the decade of CRC detection and prevention, but the decade 2000-2010 is the period of application of new diagnostic and therapeutic concepts. The aim of this study was to highlight the epidemiological,clinical,therapeutic, evolution and prognosis aspects of this cancer at five years after treatment. The research was based on examination of the computerized system of C.E.U.H. of Craiova, observation sheets, operation protocols and anatomic-pathological results, from which we identified from January 2003 until December 2005 a number of 134 patients with CRC investigated, treated and followed completely. At study end (01.07.2010 we noted that 51 of 134 resected patients (38.05% were alive. The median survival time to the entire group of 134 caseswas 44.35 + / -29.94 months. Factors that contribute to a favorable prognosis in CRC are female gender, urban environement origin, ounger than 50 years, the absence of disease or complications associated with neoplasia, colic locations, elective surgery, vegetant and papillary forms, G1 and G2 grading and the disease diagnosed in TMN stages I and II.

  4. Managing Health Care After Cancer Treatment: A Wellness Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Moye, Jennifer; Langdon, Maura; Jones, Janice M.; Haggstrom, David; Naik, Aanand D.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients and health care providers lack awareness of both the existence of, and treatments for, lingering distress and disability after treatment. A cancer survivorship wellness plan can help ensure that any referral needs for psychosocial and other restorative care after cancer treatment are identified.

  5. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of male cancer deaths. However, the routine diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. Although the outcome of surgical and radiotherapeutical approaches has frequently been reported to be comparable, the profile of side effects is different. This could offer the basis for selecting the treatment of choice in individual cases. During the last decade the radiotherapeutical technique has markedly improved, in part due to the achievements in the field of computer assisted tomography planning and conformal technique; the outcome of side-effects has decreased with concurrent increase in the rate of local control. The prescribing, recording and reporting of irradiation have also recently developed, as well as the staging of the disease. Therefore we consider it timely to review progress in this subject and to emphasize the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer. (orig.)

  6. Irradiation techniques for the breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotherapy is a cancer treatment way based on the radiation employment. It acts on the tumor, destroying the wicked cells and impeding that this it grows and reproduce. With the radiotherapy the probability of cure of some types of cancer; among them the one of breast, it increases. The investigations in oncology have allowed to develop new technologies with which is possible, for example, to locate the tumors accurately and to adapt the irradiation fields to their form. This has allowed to improve the treatments since it can destroy the tumor applying an intense radiation dose without producing irreversible damages to other organs and healthy tissues of the body. In the underdeveloped countries or in development as Mexico, and almost all those of Latin America, it is not still possible to have several of these technologies in the main oncological centers of the country by their high cost. It is expected that their cost go lowering and that its going to develop technologies more cheap so that they can be applied in more general way to the population that suffers of this suffering. (Author)

  7. Natural compounds for pediatric cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Veronica; Boffa, Iolanda; De Masi, Gina; Zollo, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    There is a tremendous need in clinics to impair cancer progression through noninvasive therapeutic approaches. The use of natural compounds to achieve this is of importance to improve the quality of life of young patients during their treatments. This review will address the "status of the art" related to the potential of natural compounds that are undergoing investigation in combination with standard therapeutic protocols in preclinical and clinical studies and their importance for pediatric cancer treatment. The early studies of drug discovery of these natural compounds discussed here include the main targets, the cellular signaling pathways involved, and the potential modes of action. We also focus on some promising natural compounds that have shown excellent results in vitro and in vivo: Chebulagic acid, Apigenin, Norcantharidin, Saffron/Crocin, Parthenolide, Longikaurin E, Lupeol, Spongistatin 1, and Deoxy-variolin B. Additionally, we introduce the effects of several compounds from nutraceutical and functional foods, to underline their potential use as adjuvant therapies to improve therapeutic benefits. For this purpose, we have selected several compounds: Agaritine, Ganoderma and GL6 peptide, Diallyl trisulfide and Ajoene from garlic, Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea, Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Quercetin. PMID:26650503

  8. The CANSURVIVOR Project : meeting post-treatment cancer survivors’ needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ivers, Mary E.; Dooley, Barbara A.; Bates, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Cancer survivor numbers in Ireland are increasing due to the success of modern treatments. Although most survivors have a good quality of life not all survivors return to 'normal' after treatment. The HSE funded CANSURVIVOR research project has found that many survivors have difficulties and need help to recover and adjust after cancer treatment. Over a number of exploratory studies using interviews, focus groups and a survey of 262 breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer survivors, the ...

  9. Oncologic treatment of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To perform a retrospective descriptive study on breast cancer in patients treated in our hospital to assess the biological profile and treatment heating in these patients. Material and methods: We collect information from medical records for the period 2006 to 2010 included. Basic statistical analyzes were performed with the sample obtained using the Epi data. Results: From a total of 720 patients, showed that 31% are under 50 and 69% are older than 50 years. The 95 % of the total, surgery was performed. The 94 % is to Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. I stages were 17%, 39% Stages II, III Stages Stages IV 29% and 15%. 79% had one or two positive hormone receptors. At 86 % Radiation was performed either in the breast or chest wall treatments regional nodal areas when directed. In the vast majority gave a dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast and nodal areas when corresponded with overprinting in the surgical bed of 16Gy. In cases of treatment of wall thoracic, was given a dose of 50 Gy. The number of relapses in irradiated territories was 5 patients. The average treatment time was 45 heating days for patients who underwent conservative surgery and 38 days for patients who underwent mastectomy. Conclusions: The parameters analyzed in this study are comparable to those work results in other centers. The local recurrence rate in patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy is extremely low

  10. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2009, lung cancer is really the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It ... that, you know, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality. And unfortunately, it’s normally detected in ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas. Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by ...

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, and, in fact, ... and try and get a biopsy of the lesion. There are other ways to approach the lesion, ...

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... really the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, ... is still less than the total number of deaths from lung cancer in general. I hope that ...

  14. TRPM8: a potential target for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoguo; Wu, Hongyan; Wei, Zhonghong; Wang, Xu; Shen, Peiliang; Wang, Siliang; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily plays critical roles in variety of processes, including temperature perception, pain transduction, vasorelaxation, male fertility, and tumorigenesis. One of seven families within the TRP superfamily of ion channels, the melastatin, or TRPM family comprises a group of eight structurally and functionally diverse channels. Of all the members of TRPM subfamily, TRPM8 is the most notable one. A lot of literatures have demonstrated that transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) could perform a myriad of functions in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. In addition to its well-known function in cold sensation, TRPM8 has an emerging role in a variety of biological systems, including thermoregulation, cancer, bladder function, and asthma. Recent studies have shown that TRPM8 is necessary to the initiation and progression of tumors, and the aberrant expression of TRPM8 was found in varieties of tumors, such as prostate tumor, melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and colorectal cancer, making it a novel molecular target potentially useful in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This review outlines our current understanding on the role of TRPM8 in occurrence and development of different kinds of tumor and also includes discussion about the regulation of TRPM8 during carcinogenesis as well as therapeutic potential of targeting TRPM8 in tumor, which may be utilized for a potential pharmacological use as a target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26803314

  15. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  16. Second Primary Cancer after Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Won, Young-Joo; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Lee, Eun Sook; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and survival outcomes of second primary cancers after the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were reviewed and analyzed. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of second primary cancers among women with cervical cancer were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for cervical cancer patients with or without a second primary cancer. Results Among 72,805 women with cervical cancer, 2,678 (3.68%) developed a second primary cancer within a mean follow-up period of 7.34 years. The overall SIR for a second cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.12). The most frequent sites of second primary cancers were the vagina, bone and joints, vulva, anus, bladder, lung and bronchus, corpus uteri, and esophagus. However, the incidence rates of four second primary cancers (breast, rectum, liver, and brain) were decreased. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 78.3% and 72.7% in all women with cervical cancer, and for women with a second primary cancer, these rates were 83.2% and 65.5% from the onset of cervical cancer and 54.9% and 46.7% from the onset of the second primary cancer, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of second primary cancers were increased in women with cervical cancer compared to the general population, with the exception of four decreasing cancers. The 10-year overall survival rates were decreased in cervical cancer patients with a second primary cancer. PMID:26194366

  17. A 4D treatment planning tool for the evaluation of motion effects on lung cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a 4D treatment planning tool using an analytical model accounting for breathing motion is investigated to evaluate the motion effect on delivered dose for lung cancer treatments with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The Monte Carlo EGS4/MCDOSE user code is used in the treatment planning dose calculation, and the patient CT data are converted into respective patient geometry files for Monte Carlo dose calculation. The model interpolates CT images at different phases of the breathing cycle from patient CT scans taken at end inspiration and end expiration phases and the chest wall position. Correlation between the voxels in a reference CT dataset and the voxels in the interpolated CT datasets at any breathing phases is established so that the dose to a voxel can be accumulated through the entire breathing cycle. Simulated lung tumors at different locations are used to demonstrate our model in 3DCRT for lung cancer treatments. We demonstrated the use of a 4D treatment planning tool in evaluating the breathing motion effect on delivered dose for different planning margins. Further studies are being conducted to use this tool to study the lung motion effect through large-scale analysis and to implement this useful tool for treatment planning dose calculation and plan evaluation for 4D radiotherapy

  18. Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Women with and without Lymphedema following Breast Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Following breast cancer (BC) treatment, many women develop impairments that may impact cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate CR fitness in women following BC treatment, 2) evaluate differences in CR fitness in those with and without breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) and compare these to age-matched norms, and 3) evaluate the contribution of predictor variables to CR fitness. 136 women post-BC treatment completed testing: 67 with BCRL, and 69 without....

  19. Determining true difference between treatment groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinal, Lucien J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the P value and how it is used to determine true difference of outcome in treatment groups. P value, standard deviation, standard error of the mean, bias, and confidence interval are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and with clinical examples.Keywords: P value; standard error of the mean; central limits theorem; standard deviation; normal distribution; statistics; parametric statistics; bias; randomization(Published: 17 February 2016)C...

  20. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara, E-mail: mondello@igm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Genetics, CNR, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-03-04

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs.

  1. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs

  2. Different treatments for different mechanisms in vasovagal syncope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan FANG; Kangan CHENG; Hua DENG; Ning WU

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of vasovagal syncope has been by far unsatisfactory. Beta-blockers may prevent vasovagal syncope, but they exacerbates heart asystole. Cardiac pacing prevents syncope but notpresyncope. The frequent, serious vasovagal syncope attacks of a 63- year-old woman patient were completely prevented by administration of 100 mg metoprolol (b.i.d) for 3 months until the patient experienced a complete heart block. A DDD pacemaker implantation abolished syncope but not the presyncope, which was eventually prevented in a follow-up period of 24 months by adding 75 mg atenalol twice a day. This case suggests a different mechanism involved in vasovagal syncope.

  3. International preoperative rectal cancer management: staging, neoadjuvant treatment, and impact of multidisciplinary teams.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Augestad, Knut M

    2010-11-01

    Little is known regarding variations in preoperative treatment and practice for rectal cancer (RC) on an international level, yet practice variation may result in differences in recurrence and survival rates.

  4. Conservative treatment of premature rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The largest radical resections in rectal cancer with significant morbidity and mortality (Urinary dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, permanent colostomy, etc.), on certain occasions and with high selectivity, they can be avoided with the implementation of local resections. Our intention is to assess the results of conservative treatment of rectal cancer early. Material and Methods: Between 01.01.89 and 31.12.09 14 consecutive patients were treated carriers rectal adenocarcinoma who had never received prior cancer treatment and a second simultaneous showed no neoplasia. The age of the patients presented a range between 44 and 72 years with a mean of 60.4 years; sex similarly partitioned and according to ECOG performance status was 0≤2. All patients were operated through a anal resection of which 4 were performed a submucosal tumor excision (T1) and 10 excision was entire rectal wall and tumor invaded the muscularis propria (T2). For this one type of surgery patients were selected the following criteria: tumor ≤6 cm. the anal verge, size ≤3 cm., GH I-II, vegetative, mobile, and T1-2, N0 by EER. After intervention, the pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed that 4 patients GH III, lymphovascular invasion and / or peri neural, or close surgical margins (+) (≤3 mm.) And T3, so underwent Miles operation (March 1 T1 and T2). Subsequently the rest of the patients (10) underwent concomitant radio chemotherapy. Radiation therapy was similar all using megavoltage photons (CO-60, 18mV) to the entire pelvic volume in a normofraccionamiento to complete 50.40 Gy (1.8 Gy / 28) using multiple fields (box technique). Chemotherapy was prepared 5FU + LV in the first patient (4), in following (4) was used 5FU continuous infusion (1st and 5th week) and the remaining (2) Capecitabine. Follow up was complete. Results: In our sample we extract local failure was 4 (29%), distant failure 3 (20%) and two local and distant failures (14%) so it follows that

  5. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. There has been a renewed interest in hepatic irradiation because of two significant advances in cancer treatment: three dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning and bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation. RILD resulting from liver radiation can usually be distinguished clinically from that resulting from the preparative regime associated with bone marrow transplantation. However, both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion: veno-occlusive disease. Recent evidence suggests that elevated transforming growth factor β levels may play a role in the development of veno-occlusive disease. Three dimensional treatment planning offers the potential to determine the radiation dose and volume dependence of RILD, permitting the safe delivery of high doses of radiation to parts of the liver. The chief therapy for RILD is diuretics, although some advocate steroids for severe cases. The characteristics of RILD permit the development of a grading system modeled after the NCI Acute Common Toxicity Criteria, which incorporates standard criteria of hepatic dysfunction

  6. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  7. Laparoscopic staging and surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengadam Muniraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the tenth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Surgery remains a cornerstone in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Unfortunately, the percentage of patients presenting at the resectable stage is minimal. Although computed tomography (CT scan remains the best modality to stage the tumor for resectability, laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasound offers its own advantages. Extended lymphadenectomy, portal vein resection, and arterial reconstruction have also been explored in multiple studies to enhance staging. The traditional pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple′s procedure with regional lymphadenectomy is still the standard of care in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment:friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Montgomery; Heather H Cheng; James Drechsler; Elahe A Mostaghel

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo-and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of deifning their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer.

  9. Conservation irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques of treatment and cosmetic results of 130 patients with breast cancer are presented. All patients received conservative treatment, with lumpectomy and radiotherapy at Centro de Oncologia Campinas. (M.A.C.)

  10. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these interfere with how well the cancer treatment works? What proactive measures, like sperm banking or egg preservation, are possible for my child? Are any experimental options available? After treatment, how will we know ...

  11. Natural cures for breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Munazza; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2016-05-01

    For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis. PMID:27275107

  12. Natural cures for breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazza Shareef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis.

  13. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  14. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance with the...... postoperative infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...

  15. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  16. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  17. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan; Karlsson, Anna; Borg, Ake; Jönsson, Göran; Nilbert, Mef

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers as a...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  18. Functional MR imaging for response prediction in rectal cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Intven, M.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision. In recent years, organ-sparing treatments, instead of standard total mesorectal excision, are gradually introduced in the treatment of rectal cancer for patients with good response after neoadjuvant therapy. However, patient selection for organ-sparing treatments is still challenging as no optimal restaging modality is available after neoadjuvant chemoradiatio...

  19. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser; Françoise Meunier

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an impor...

  20. Novel Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer in London UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Black

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An intensive and in-depth two-day conference providing an advanced level updateKEY TOPICS TO BE COVERED:New paradigms for targeted therapiesNew anti-cancer agents ~ industry viewpointNovel approaches to the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancerDrug development and precision radiotherapyEuropean drug development initiativesMarket access to novel cancer drugsRegulatory issues in marketing authorisation of anti-cancer productsGene and cell therapies and trial endpointsDeveloping cancer vaccinesCLICK HERE for more information 

  1. Evaluation of the impact on different types of human cancer cell of lichen secondary compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Özenoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, cancer is appearing as a major unsolved health problem. Basicly, surgery, chemotherapy and hormone therapy models are used in the treatment of cancer. Basic procedures and drugs used in the treatment of cancer are thought to be insufficient. These treatments have some side effects and they take a long time. Due to the problems encountered in the treatment of cancer in the recent years, alternative methods of treatment are being researched. For this purpose the effect of herbal, synthetic and fungus organisms against various types of cancer is being investigated. As a result of these investigations, lichens and their secondary metabolites are also proposed to be used as an alternative method in cancer treatment. Lichens are a symbiotic association of a fungus and a photosynthetic partner. These metabolites were identified as fatty acids, lactons, zeorin, pulvic acid, petroleum, depsids, depsidons and antrokinon derivatives. Impact of lichen secondary compound studies on different human cancer types, aims to find a promising drug Candidate molecule.

  2. Analysis of the efficiency of cryogenic treatment for oropharyngeal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Tabolinovskaya; I. N. Pustynskiy

    2016-01-01

    The material for the study was the medical records of 40 patients with oropharyngeal cancer who had undergone cryogenic treatment at the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center in the period 1975 to 2009. Analysis of the long-term results of cryogenic treatment for primary cancer, recurrences, and traditional therapy-untreated tumor showed its efficacy in 60 % of the patients. Cancer recurrence occurred in 31 (25.8 %) patients who had completed the treatment: in 25.0 % of the primary pati...

  3. The treatment of locally advanced colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The results of therapy for 103 patients with locally advanced colon cancer who received radiotherapy were analyzed to determine the outcome and tolerance of therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 1994, 103 patients received radiotherapy and maximal resection of locally advanced colon cancers. Following resection, 50 patients had no residual disease, 18 patients had microscopic residual disease, and 35 patients had gross residual disease. External beam radiotherapy was initiated 1 to 4 months following resection except in two patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Treatment was delivered to the tumor bed and adjacent lymph nodes using 4 to 18 MV X-rays with doses ranging from 16.2 to 60 Gy. Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) was also administered to 11 of the patients with doses ranging from 10 to 20 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered to 77 patients. Follow-up in survivors ranged from 0.5 to 17 years (median: 5.8 years). Results: The 5-year actuarial local failure rate was 10% for patients with no residual disease, 54% for patients with microscopic residual disease, and 79% for patients with gross residual disease (p < 0.0001). For patients with residual disease, local failure occurred in 11% of patients receiving IOERT compared with 82% of patients receiving only external beam therapy (p 0.02). The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 66% for patients with no residual disease, 47% for patients with microscopic residual disease, and 23% for patients with gross residual disease (p = 0.0009). The 5-year survival rate in patients with residual disease was 76% for patients receiving IOERT and 26% for patients receiving external beam therapy alone (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Patients with locally advanced colon cancer who have had a complete resection have a high probability of local control after external beam irradiation ± 5 fluorouracil (5FU)-based systemic therapy. The toxicity of therapy can be minimized with attention to treatment

  4. Partially wedged beams improve radiotherapy treatment of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Partially wedged beams (PWBs) having wedge in one part of the field only, can be shaped using dynamic jaw intensity modulation. The possible clinical benefit of PWBs was tested in treatment plans for muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer. Material and methods: Three-dimensional treatment plans for 25 bladder cancer patients were analyzed. The originally prescribed standard conformal four-field box technique, which includes the use of lateral ordinary wedge beams, was compared to a modified conformal treatment using customized lateral PWBs. In these modified treatment plans, only the anterior parts of the two lateral beams had a wedge. To analyze the potential clinical benefit of treatment with PWBs, treatment plans were scored and compared using both physical parameters and biological dose response models. One tumour control probability model and two normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were applied. Different parameters for normal tissue radiation tolerance presented in the literature were used. Results: By PWBs the dose homogeneity throughout the target volume was improved for all patients, reducing the average relative standard deviation of the target dose distribution from 2.3 to 1.8%. A consistent reduction in the maximum doses to surrounding normal tissue volumes was also found. The most notable improvement was demonstrated in the rectum where the volume receiving more than the prescribed tumour dose was halved. Treatment with PWBs would permit a target dose escalation of 2-6 Gy in several of the patients analyzed, without increasing the overall risk for complications. The number of patients suitable for dose escalation ranged from 3 to 15, depending on whether support from all or only one of the five applied NTCP model/parameter combinations were required in each case to recommend dose escalation. Conclusion: PWBs represent a simple dose conformation tool that may allow radiation dose escalation in the treatment of muscle

  5. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and va...

  6. Tailored tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer patients : A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G L; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p

  7. Tailored Tamoxifen Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients : A Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G. L.; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p

  8. Preoperative distress predicts persistent pain after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment (PPBCT) affects 25% to 60% of breast cancer survivors and is recognized as a clinical problem, with 10% to 15% reporting moderate to severe pain several years after treatment. Psychological comorbidity is known to influence pain perception, and...

  9. Persistent pain and sensory disturbances after treatment for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Gärtner, Rune;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain.......To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain....

  10. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOVER, LESLIE R.; Marleen van der Kaaij; Eleonora van Dorst; Carien Creutzberg; Eric Huyghe; Kiserud, Cecilie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted...

  11. Pharmacoeconomics of Available Treatment Options for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliadt, Steven B.; Penson, David F.

    2007-01-01

    The resources devoted to managing metastatic prostate cancer are enormous, yet little attention has been given to directly measuring the economic consequences of treatment alternatives. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of available treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, including hormone-sensitive disease, androgen-independent prostate cancer and locally advanced/progressive disease. We identified 58 articles addressing economic issues related to metastati...

  12. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biologi...

  13. Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Sak

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are a...

  14. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis: Implication for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is a disease of genomic instability, evasion of immune cells, and adaptation of the tumor cells to the changing environment. Genetic heterogeneity caused by tumors and tumor microenvironmental factors forms the basis of aggressive behavior of some cancer cell populations. CONTENT: Cancers arise in self-renewing cell populations and that the resulting cancers, like their normal organ counterparts, are composed of hierarchically organized cell populations. Self–renewing “...

  15. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  16. Compact and smart laser diode systems for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, Viatcheslav N.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Solovieva, Tatiana I.

    2003-04-01

    To win the cancer is one of the most important mankind task to be decided in III Millenium. New technology of treatment is to recognize and kill cancer cells with the laser light not by surgery operation, but by soft painless therapy. Even though from the beginning of the 80s of the last century this technology, so-called photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received acceptance in America, Europe and Asia it is still considered in the medical circles to be a new method with the little-known approaches of cancer treatment. Recently the next step was done, and the unique method of PDT combined with laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) was developed. Compact and smart diode laser apparatus "Modul-GF" for its realization was designed. In this report the concept of this method, experimental materials on clinical trials and ways of optimization of technical decisions and software of apparatus "Modul-GF", including the autotuning of laser power dependently on tissue temperature measured with thermosensors are discussed. The special instruments such as fiber cables and special sensors are described to permit application of "Modul-GF" for the treatment of the tumors of the different localizations, both surface and deeply located with using of the endoscopy method. The examples of the oncological and nononcological pathologies" treatment by the developed method and apparatus in urology, gynecology, gastroenterology, dermatology, cosmetology, bronchology, pulmonology are observed. The results of clinical approval the developed combination of PDT&LITT realized with "Modul-GF" leads to essentially increasing of the treatment effectiveness.

  17. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fredholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30-40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a registry based cohort of women aged 20-69 (n = 22 017 with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992-2005, women aged 20-34 (n = 471, 35-39 (n = 858 and 40-49 (n = 4789 were compared with women aged 50-69 years (n = 15 899. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20-34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20-34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35-39 and 40-49, respectively. The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20-34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1-10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20-34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying compared to their middle

  18. Effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of cancer-related fatigue : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vulpen, Jonna K.; Peeters, Petra H M; Velthuis, Miranda J.; van der Wall, Elsken; May, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue has a multidimensional nature and complaints typically increase during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Physical exercise might prevent or reduce cancer-related fatigue. So far, no meta-analysis has investigated the effects of physical exercise on different dimensions of

  19. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie R. Schover

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.

  20. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  1. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  2. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis. The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing, whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly, particularly in Western men. Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia, and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, hot beverage drinking, and poor nutrition. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites, and the risk factors include smoking, obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds. However, comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future. Ethnic differences should be taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  3. Current practice of radioiodine treatment in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective, observational study of a cohort of thyroid cancer patients in Germany focusses on the ''real-world'' practice in the management of thyroid cancer patients. This report includes data from 2376 patients with primary differentiated thyroid carcinoma first diagnosed in the year 1996. The study reveals considerable differences in actual practice concerning surgery and radioiodine treatment. The results indicate that consensus is lacking with respect to the multimodality treatment approach for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Our analysis represents the most current and comprehensive national assessment of presenting patient characteristics, diagnostic tests, treatment and complications for thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  4. THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents many years’ international experience in treating medullary thyroid cancer (TC. Two hundred and forty-two patients with different stages of the disease were followed up. The morphological and genetic features of this tumor are given. The results of used treatment options for medullary cancer, such as surgical, radiation, multimodality, and drug therapies, are analyzed. Surgery is a leading treatment option for this disease. The volume of surgery on a primary tumor focus depends on both the shape of a (sporadic or hereditary tumor and its sizes. Removal of pre- and paratracheal fat is indicated for any volume of surgery for TC due to the high risk of its metastases to lymph nodes at this site. For radiotherapy there are three main indications: 1 the dubious, macroscopically and microscopically evaluated efficiency of an operation; 2 inoperable cancer; 3 distant bone metastases for palliative and symptomatic care. The now chemicals available at an oncologist’s disposal exert no significant effect on increased survival in a patient with medullary TC.

  5. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa

  6. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is still less than the total number of deaths from lung cancer in general. I hope that our discussion today will be informative to you and help us to help you understand lung cancer as it ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to try and determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary lesion itself, you know. And ... Okay. And with most cancers, you know, they spread first by going through what we call the “ ...

  8. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or ... reserved. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  9. Anal Cancer: What Happens After Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or ... reserved. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  10. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... through. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  12. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an oropharyngeal cancer, the cancer of the upper airway here in the throat. And during the workup ... room and performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy because we wanted to minimize the effects of surgery, major lung ...

  14. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and prostate cancer, and, in fact, if you add up the mortalities from those three cancers alone, ... for this patient or in other cases a combined approach of radiation, with or without chemotherapy, in ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center in New York City. During the program, it’s easy for you to make referrals, make appointments ... to try to tackle the lung cancer as it stands in 2009. In 2009, lung cancer is ...

  16. Quality assurance in the treatment of colorectal cancer: the EURECCA initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; Boelens, P G; van den Broek, C B M; Cervantes, A; Van Cutsem, E; Schmoll, H J; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Over the past few decades, important advances have been made in screening, staging and treatment of colorectal cancer. However, considerable variation between and within European countries remains, which implies that further improvements are possible. The most important remaining question now is: when are we, health care professionals, delivering the best available care to patients with colon or rectal cancer? Currently, quality assurance is a major issue in colorectal cancer care and quality assurance awareness is developing in almost all disciplines involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Quality assurance has shown to be effective in clinical trials. For example, standardisation and quality control were introduced in the Dutch TME trial and led to marked improvements of local control and survival in rectal cancer patients. Besides, audit structures can also be very effective in monitoring cancer management and national audits showed to further improve outcome in colorectal cancer patients. To reduce the differences between European countries, an international, multidisciplinary, outcome-based quality improvement programme, European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA), has been initiated. In the near future, the EURECCA dataset will perform research on subgroups as elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, which are often excluded from trials. For optimal colorectal cancer care, quality assurance in guideline formation and in multidisciplinary team management is also of great importance. The aim of this review was to create greater awareness and to give an overview of quality assurance in the management of colorectal cancer. PMID:24671742

  17. Esophageal cancer: comparative effectiveness of treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Xu C.; Lin SH

    2016-01-01

    Cai Xu,1 Steven H Lin2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Esophageal cancer is a lethal disease. Multimodal therapy has improved the survival and local control for locally advanced esophageal cancer compared to surgery alone. Neoadjuvant chemo...

  18. Contemporary methods of treatment of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Kozłowska; Stanisław Głuszek

    2016-01-01

    Today, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed worldwide malignant cancer in males, and the second in females, with more than 1,200,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths, annually. Screening tests in oncology allow the detection of cancerous disease at an early, asymptomatic stage. The procedures most frequently performed in the case of colorectal cancer include: low anterior resection by the Dixon method (manual suture or staplers); abdominoperineal resection of t...

  19. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Mónica [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Becerra, Virginia [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Guedea, Ferran [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Suárez, José Francisco [Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Fernandez, Pablo [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Instituto Oncológico de Guipúzcoa, San Sebastián (Spain); Macías, Víctor [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Oncologic del Valles-Hospital General de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Mariño, Alfonso [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Centro Oncológico de Galicia, A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  20. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  1. [Organ preserving strategies for rectal cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrely, V; Denost, Q; Amestoy, F; Célérier, B; Smith, D; Rullier, A; Rullier, É

    2015-10-01

    For rectal cancers, the current standard of care consists of chemoradiation followed by radical surgery with total mesorectal excision. Oncologic results are good, especially regarding local recurrence rates, but at the cost of high morbidity rates and poor anorectal, urinary and sexual function results. Since chemoradiation yields 15 to 25% pathological complete response, the role of radical surgery is questioned for patients presenting with good response after chemoradiation and two organ preservation strategies have been offered: watch and wait strategy and local excision strategy. The aim of this review is to give the results of organ preservation after chemoradiotherapy series and to highlight different questions regarding initial patient's selection, complete clinical response definition, risk of mesorectal nodal involvement, follow-up modalities as well as oncologic and functional results. PMID:26278990

  2. The role of nanotechnology in cancer treatment and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Vanessa Micaela dos Santos; Silva, Ana Catarina; Lopes, Carla Martins

    2010-01-01

    Cancer treatment is one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Several attempts have been made, in order to find more successful treatments. Nanotechnology can be applied to target drugs to the surface or to the interior of specific cells. In addition, it can also be used in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Therefore, nanotechnology opened a new vast exploiting area for cancer treatment. The studies must go on to obtain tailor-made therapies, with low adverse side effe...

  3. Genes overexpressed in different human solid cancers exhibit different tissue-specific expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Lotem, Joseph; Sachs, Leo; Domany, Eytan

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed gene expression in different normal human tissues and different types of solid cancers derived from these tissues. The cancers analyzed include brain (astrocytoma and glioblastoma), breast, colon, endometrium, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, skin, and thyroid cancers. Comparing gene expression in each normal tissue to 12 other normal tissues, we identified 4,917 tissue-selective genes that were selectively expressed in different normal tissues. We also identified 2,929 ...

  4. Low-dose capecitabine (Xeloda) for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Miger, Jasmine; Holmqvist, Annica; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Albertsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The prodrug capecitabine (Xeloda) has been an important drug for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer (GI-cancer). This study explores the efficacy of continuous metronomic Xeloda, as well as tolerability and best response during treatment. Patients (n = 35) with stage IV GI-cancer were included in the study and were divided into two groups; upper (n = 13) and lower (n = 22) GI-cancer. All patients were given continuous metronomic Xeloda (500 mg × 2). Best response was measured by radiologic...

  5. Smoking Cessation: An Integral Part of Lung Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Dubey, Sarita; Prochaska, Jodi J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the US. About 50% of lung cancer patients are current smokers at the time of diagnosis and up to 83% continue to smoke after diagnosis. A recent study suggests that people who continue to smoke after a diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer almost double their risk of dying. Despite a growing body of evidence that continued smoking by patients after a lung cancer diagnosis is linked with less effective treatment and a poorer prognosis, the bel...

  6. Aging and Cancer Mortality: Dynamics of Change and Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ting; Nielsen, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in cancer mortality risk are important for understanding the processes of disease and aging interaction. The extent to which these age changes differ by sex further contributes to this understanding but has not been well studied to date. We conducted a systematic examination of dynamics and heterogeneity of age changes in cancer mortality rates for the top 14 cancer sites using vital statistics from the NCHS and SEER between 1969 and 2007. We assessed patterns of age chang...

  7. Primary breast lymphoma in the right breast during treatment for left breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa Kengo; Kinoshita Tadahiko; Iwashita Yukio; Nishimura Ataru; Nagata Shigeyuki; Tashiro Hideya; Wakasugi Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma is a rare condition, and distinguishing it from breast cancer is important because their treatments differ radically. Moreover, a recent report showed that mastectomy offered no benefit in the treatment of primary breast lymphoma. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation after surgery for left breast cancer. She presented with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast at 20 months after surger...

  8. Variation in treatment modalities, costs and outcomes of rectal cancer patients in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Krzysztof J.; Komorowski, Andrzej L.; Wysocki, Wojciech M.; Tabor, Jacek; Herman, Roman M.; Śliwczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate outcome, costs and treatment differences in rectal cancer patients between various regions in Poland. Material and methods Data from the Polish National Health Fund of all patients with rectal cancer diagnosed and treated between 2005 and 2007 were analyzed. Overall, relative 5-year survival and the percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery were analyzed. The possible influence of cost of treatment per patient and mean number of recta...

  9. PS3-16: The Influence of Travel Time on Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Onega, Tracy; Cook, Andrea; Kirlin, Beth; Buist, Diana; Tuzzio, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Longer travel time to health care services has been shown to be associated with more advanced stage at diagnosis and differences in surgical care for women with breast cancer. The influence of travel time on other disease characteristics at diagnosis and on use of other breast cancer treatments is not known. We examined travel time in relation to stage, nodal involvement, tumor size, primary and adjuvant treatments, and receipt of surveillance mammography to provide a mor...

  10. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...... was established in 1993, where all female nurses aged 45 years and above received a mailed questionnaire (n = 23,178). A total of 19,898 women returned the questionnaire (86%). The questionnaire included information on HRT types and regimens, reproductive history and lifestyle-related factors. Breast cancer cases...

  11. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Pardhanani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299 and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13. Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to

  12. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell

  13. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshal, Karni S.; Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Haider, Jamil; Pardhanani, Pooja; Leung, TinChung, E-mail: tleung@nccu.edu [Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, North Carolina Research Campus, Nutrition Research Center, 500 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081 (United States)

    2011-10-31

    Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell

  14. The pathogenesis and treatment of cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate T

    2016-02-15

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with significant functional impairment. In addition to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience cardiac atrophy, remodeling, and dysfunction, which in the field of cancer cachexia is described as cardiac cachexia. The cardiac alterations may be due to underlying heart disease, the cancer itself, or problems initiated by the cancer treatment and, unfortunately, remains largely underappreciated by clinicians and basic scientists. Despite recent major advances in the treatment of cancer, little progress has been made in the treatment of cardiac cachexia in cancer, and much of this is due to lack of information regarding the mechanisms. This review focuses on the cardiac atrophy associated with cancer cachexia, describing some of the known mechanisms and discussing the current and future therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. Above all else, improved awareness of the condition and an increased focus on identification of mechanisms and therapeutic targets will facilitate the eventual development of an effective treatment for cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia. PMID:26718971

  15. Pregnancy after successful cancer treatment: what needs to be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Barbara; Henes, Melanie; Neunhoeffer, Eva; Fehm, Tanja; Huebner, Stephanie; Kanz, Lothar; Marini, Patricia; Mayer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in oncology led to improved treatment results and increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors. Fulfilling the desire to have children is important for many patients after cancer treatment. Consequently, oncologists, gynecologists and obstetricians are seeing more patients who wish to conceive after treatment. The necessary prerequisites that should be considered when supporting a planned pregnancy after cancer treatment are discussed in this article. The possible consequences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the course of pregnancy and the health of the offspring, as well as the interactions between cancer and pregnancy, are reviewed with the focus on childhood cancer, malignant lymphomas, and breast cancer. Despite chemo- or radiotherapy, neither the teratogenic risk nor the risk of adventitious cancers appears to be increased for the offspring of cancer survivors. However, there is a slightly higher risk of miscarriage after chemotherapy. In case of radiation to the uterus, there is a higher risk of premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and increased perinatal mortality. The effect is more pronounced after prepubertal radiation than for postpubertal radiation. The former cancer patient's desire to conceive can nevertheless be supported, given that pregnancy and birth are closely monitored. PMID:22414979

  16. Racial Differences in Diffusion of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Chen, Ronald C; Overman, Robert; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; O'Brien, Jonathon; Sturmer, Til; Sheets, Nathan C; Goldin, Gregg H; Penn, Dolly C; Godley, Paul A; Carpenter, William R

    2016-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), an innovative treatment option for prostate cancer, has rapidly diffused over the past decade. To inform our understanding of racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes, this study compared diffusion of IMRT in African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer patients during the early years of IMRT diffusion using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. A retrospective cohort of 947 AA and 10,028 CA patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer from 2002 through 2006, who were treated with either IMRT or non-IMRT as primary treatment within 1 year of diagnoses was constructed. Logistic regression was used to examine potential differences in diffusion of IMRT in AA and CA patients, while adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical covariates. A significantly smaller proportion of AA compared with CA patients received IMRT for localized prostate cancer (45% vs. 53%, p significance, as time and factors associated with race (socioeconomic, geographic, and tumor related factors) explained the preponderance of variance in use of IMRT. Further research examining improved access to innovative cancer treatment and technologies is essential to reducing racial disparities in cancer care. PMID:25657192

  17. Late sensorial alterations in different radiotherapy techniques for nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raimondo, Luca; Ravera, Mattia; Moretto, Francesco; Boita, Monica; Potenza, Ilenia; Rampino, Monica; Ricardi, Umberto; Garzaro, Massimiliano

    2015-05-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) allowed a better distribution of the dose to the tumor volume, sparing surrounding structures. Aim of the study is the objective evaluation of olfactory and gustatory impairments in patients who underwent chemo-radiotherapy for NPC. Correlation between smell and taste alterations, xerostomy, and radiation technique was investigated. Thirty healthy subjects and 30 patients treated with chemo-radiation therapy for NPC, with at least a 2-years follow-up period, were evaluated. All subjects underwent symptoms evaluation, endoscopic fiber optic nasal examination, taste strips, Sniffin' sticks tests, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring system. Patients were divided in 2 groups: 2-dimensional radiotherapy/conformal 3-dimensional radiotherapy and IMRT. A higher percentage of rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, xerostomy, hyposmia, hypogeusia, mucosal hyperemia, and presence of nasopharyngeal secretions was found in irradiated subjects (P < 0.05). Concerning olfactory and gustatory scores, we demonstrated a statistically significant difference between healthy subjects and irradiated patients (P < 0.05), with lower gustatory total score in IMRT group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, chemo-radiotherapy for NPC induces long-term smell and taste impairments, which can compromise quality of life. Although based on small samples, it is also important to consider that IMRT can induce higher taste dysfunction compared with traditional techniques. PMID:25800268

  18. Cancer Stem Cells: A Novel Paradigm for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, D; Ramalingam, S; Houchen, C.W.; Anant, S

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause for mortality in US only after heart disease and lacks a good or effective therapeutic paradigm. Despite the emergence of new, targeted agents and the use of various therapeutic combinations, none of the treatment options available is curative in patients with advanced cancer. A growing body of evidence is supporting the idea that human cancers can be considered as a stem cell disease. Malignancies are believed to originate from a fraction of cancer cells th...

  19. An observational study of cancer treatment-induced dental abnormalities in paediatric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kaberi Das; Munlima Hazarika; Manigreeva Krishnatreya; Amal Chandra Kataki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric cancer patients who receive radiation and chemotherapy (CT) suffer from various risks of oral complications and odontogenesis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at a regional cancer centre of North East India from 2010 to 2013. The impact of cancer treatment by CT and radiation on orodental health was studied on a total of 100 paediatric cancer patients. Results: The common dental abnormalities were microdontia, hypodontia, root abnormalities, abnorm...

  20. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  1. Microcomputed tomography analysis of ferrofluids used for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, H; Gomez-Morilla, I; Odenbach, S [TU Dresden, Lehrstuhl fuer Magnetofluiddynamik, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Jurgons, R; Alexiou, Ch [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: Helene.Rahn@tu-dresden.de

    2008-05-21

    In order to reduce the side effects generated by the most common cancer treatment therapies, chemo- and radiotherapy, two new approaches are being investigated. These new approaches are magnetic drug targeting (MDT) and magnetic hyperthermia, and are based on the use of magnetic nanoparticles. In the first one, these magnetic nanoparticles are used as drug carriers and the success of the treatment depends on the correct distribution of the drug within the tumour tissue. Computed tomography analysis has been performed on tumour tissue after MDT in order to find out the distribution of the nanoparticles. The measurements have been carried out in two different laboratories, one based on a synchrotron beamline and another one with a cone x-ray source. First results show that the drug carriers form clusters within the tumour tissue.

  2. Microcomputed tomography analysis of ferrofluids used for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the side effects generated by the most common cancer treatment therapies, chemo- and radiotherapy, two new approaches are being investigated. These new approaches are magnetic drug targeting (MDT) and magnetic hyperthermia, and are based on the use of magnetic nanoparticles. In the first one, these magnetic nanoparticles are used as drug carriers and the success of the treatment depends on the correct distribution of the drug within the tumour tissue. Computed tomography analysis has been performed on tumour tissue after MDT in order to find out the distribution of the nanoparticles. The measurements have been carried out in two different laboratories, one based on a synchrotron beamline and another one with a cone x-ray source. First results show that the drug carriers form clusters within the tumour tissue

  3. Surgical and Adjuvant Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smeenk, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPancreatic cancer, including ampullary, distal bile duct and pancreatic head cancer, is one of the most lethal human cancers and still is a major unsolved health problem at the start of the 21st century. It has been estimated that this disease causes 30.000 deaths per year in the USA with an incidence of 9-10 cases per 100.000 and slightly increased male: female and black: white ratios. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in the Netherlands is approximately 8.4 per 100.000 patients...

  4. Geographic Differences in Gastric Cancer Incidence Can be Explained by Differences between Helicobacter pylori Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Kato, Mototsugu; Asaka, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Certain populations with high incidences of Helicobacter pylori infection, such as those in East Asian countries, have high incidences of gastric cancer, while other highly infected populations, such as those in Africa and South Asia, do not. The various rates of gastric cancer associated with different geographic areas can be explained, at least in part, by the differences in the genotypes of H. pylori cagA and vacA. Populations expressing a high incidence of gastric cancer are mostly identi...

  5. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy

  6. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Meunier, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an important way. Some patients are confronted with societal discrimination due to slower performance, chronic fatigue or partial inability and these things can adversely affect employment, education, insurance or mortgage opportunities. In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30-31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment. PMID:26217161

  7. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  8. The place of radiotherapy in the treatment of vulva cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the therapeutic aspects of the treatment of vulva cancers. This analytic retrospective study is based on a set of 15 patients who have been treated between 1996 and 2010, for an epidermoid cancer for 14 of them. Eleven of them have been irradiated. This rare cancer has a negative prognosis, mainly because of early ganglionary metastases. Radiotherapy (external or interstitial curie-therapy) is a prevailing therapeutic tool. Chemotherapy is emerging, notably concomitantly with radiotherapy. Short communication

  9. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chawaboon Dechsukum; Pranee Ratanasuwan; Niwat Keawpradub; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Arunporn Itharat; Athima Saetung

    2005-01-01

    Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23) and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3) and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS). SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts) procedures used were similar to tho...

  10. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millsop, Jillian W.; Sivamani, Raja K; Nasim Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other su...

  11. Exploring targeted pulmonary delivery for treatment of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Amit; BABOOTA, SANJULA; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most malignant cancer today. The treatment of lung cancer continues to be a challenge for oncologists. The direct delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the lungs could represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with pulmonary metastases. The large alveolar surface area, the low thickness of the epithelial barrier, and an extensive vascularization make the pulmonary route an ideal route for administration of oncolytics. This paper reviews the research performed ove...

  12. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of different IMRT treatment plans for non-small cell lung cancer%非小细胞肺癌不同调强放疗方案的剂量学对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季永领; 许亚萍; 马胜林; 孙晓江; 王健; 狄小云

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨非小细胞肺癌调强放疗计划设计的合理方案.方法 对11例非小细胞肺癌患者分别制定2种放疗计划:PTV60计划的PTV为(GTV+6-8 mm)+呼吸动度+摆位误差,对PTV获得60 Gy处方剂量进行归一;PTV70计划的PTV为GTV+呼吸动度+摆位误差,对PTV获得70 Gy处方剂量进行归一.通过剂量体积直方图分析2种治疗计划的靶区剂量分布和危及器官受量,并进行剂量学的对比研究.结果 PTV70计划接受60 Gy剂量的靶区体积明显高于PTV60计划.两组在靶区剂量均匀性方面相似.PTV70计划的肺V_(20)较PTV60计划平均下降(1.69 4±0.42)%,两组相比差异有统计学意义(t=0.047,P=0.002);肺V_5平均下降(1.29 ±1.09)%,两组相比差异无统计学意义.结论 在非小细胞肺癌调强放疗设计中,PTV70计划优于PTV60计划.%Objective To investigate the optimal treatment planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) .Methods Two types of treatment plans were designed for 11 patients with inoperable NSCLC disease.In the first plan(PTV60 plan) ,60 Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume(PTV) which was created using CTV(GTV +6-8 mm) plus the margin for organ motion and setup uncertainties.In the second plan(PTV70 plan) ,70 Gy was prescribed to the PTV which was created using GTV plus the margin for organ motion and setup uncertainties.The dose-volume histogram,the planning target volume coverage,and other dosimetric parameters of normal structures were compared between the two plans.Results These two plans were not significantly different in the dose heterogeneity,but commpared with the PTV60 plan,the PTV70 plan significantly improved 60 Gy volume with regard to PTV coverage.The values of V_(20) and V_5 of lung were reduced in average by (1.69 ±0.42) % ,and (1.29 ±1.09) % (t = 0.047,0.264,P = 0.002) ,respectively.Conclusions The planning of 70 Gy to the PTV using GTV plus the margin for organ motion

  14. Is it time for a new paradigm for systemic cancer treatment? Lessons from a century of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eCrawford

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available U.S. SEER data for age-adjusted mortality rates for all cancers combined for all races show only a modest overall 13% decline over the past 35 years. Moreover, the greatest contributor to cancer mortality is treatment resistant metastatic disease. The accepted therapeutic paradigm for the past half century for the treatment of advanced cancers has involved the use of systemic chemotherapy drugs cytotoxic for cycling cells (both normal and malignant during DNA synthesis and/or mitosis. The failure of this therapeutic modality to achieve high level, consistent rates of disease free survival for some of the most common cancers, including tumors of the lung, colon breast, brain, melanoma and others is the focus of this paper. A retrospective assessment of critical milestones in cancer chemotherapy indicates that most successful therapeutic regimens use cytotoxic cell cycle inhibitors in combined, maximum tolerated, dose dense acute treatment regimens originally developed to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and some lymphomas. Early clinical successes in this area led to their wholesale application to the treatment of solid tumor malignancies that, unfortunately, has not produced consistent, long-term high cure rates for many common cancers. Important differences in therapeutic sensitivity of leukemias/lymphomas versus solid tumors can be explained by key biological differences that define the treatment resistant solid tumor phenotype. A review of these clinical outcome data in the context of recent developments in our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms characteristic of solid tumors suggests the need for a new paradigm for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancers. In contrast to reductionist approaches, the systemic approach targets both micro-environmental and systemic factors that drive and sustain tumor progression. These systemic factors include dysregulated inflammatory and oxidation pathways shown to be directly implicated in

  15. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  16. Estimating the best laser parameters for skin cancer treatment using finite element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin cancer is an intimidating disease which necessitates the presence of a non-invasive treatment. Laser-induced thermo therapy is one of the recent noninvasive modalities of superficial lesion treatment. Although of its promising effect, this method still needs more effort to be quantized. Many studies are being conducted for this purpose. Modeling and simulating the process of skin lesion treatment by laser can lead to the best quantization of the treatment protocol. In this paper, we provide finite element models for the treatment of skin cancer using laser thermal effect. A comparison between the effects of using different laser parameters of diode laser (800nm) and Nd: Yag laser (1064 nm) revealed that Nd: Yag laser can be used effectively foe skin cancer treatment specially with high intensities of about 106 w/m2.

  17. [Treatment of trophic ulsers of different etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, M S; Slobodianiuk, V V

    2013-01-01

    The research included 40 patients with chronic trophic ulcers of lower extremities of different etiology (arterial insufficiency - 14 patients, venous insufficiency - 20 patients, diabetic foot syndrome - 6 people). According to the data of prime bacteriological inoculation, the main pathogens were: gram-positive coccus (Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus - 75%, Staphylococcus epidermidis - 7,5%) and yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans - 7,5%). Microbial semination in plentiful quantity (more than 106 KOE) was detected at first inoculation in 85% of the patients. The ointment was applied for the patients. After 20 days, the lack of growth and the decrease of contamination level (lower than critical (less than 102 KOE) were noted. A visual analog scale estimated an intensity of pain in patients and it consisted of 39,8% before the treatment, 27,1% - after 10 days, 14,6% - after 20 days. The "Oflomelid" application allowed the reduction of the terms of wound cleansing from nonviable tissues in majority of patients and gained the fast transition from the granulation to epithelization phase. The principle of wound management with the application of ointment "Oflomelid" should be followed in a moist environment. A modern wound dressing must be used after the ointment. This shortened the terms of separate-phase wound repair and decreased the terms of the whole period of trophic ulcers repair in patients with vascular and endocrine pathology. PMID:24640746

  18. Citric waste saccharification under different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Second generation ethanol from lignocellulose materials has been used in applications for food processing wastes. Since Brazil has a leading position in orange juice exports, the influence of acid and alkali pretreatments on liquor saccharification, solubilization of solid fraction and mass yield was evaluated. Time and Cacid or Calkaline at different concentrations of solids (low to moderate, 1 to 9% and high catalyst concentrations were analyzed. A hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted under the same conditions of acid and alkaline treatments to investigate the relative selectivity increase in using the catalysts. The chemical analyses of wastes indicated a 70% total carbohydrate level denoting a promising raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatment caused acid saccharifications between 25 and 65% in total reducing sugars (TRS and mass yields (MY between 30 and 40%. In alkaline pretreatment, these rates ranged between 2 and 22.5% and between 30 and 80, respectively. In hydrothermal pretreatment, solubilized TRS varied between 3 and 37%, whereas MY remained between 45 and 60%, respectively. Cbiomass strongly influenced the three variables; in the same way, time affected MY.

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy . Mohs microsurgery . A clinical trial of laser therapy . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical ... nodes in the groin ). External or internal radiation therapy followed by ... clinical trial of laser surgery . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer ...

  20. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... me reiterate what Sam was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so closely together so often. My role, after Sam assists in diagnosing cancers, is to ...